Industrial Tribology – The Practical Aspects of Friction, Lubrication and Wear

Industrial Tribology – The Practical Aspects of Friction, Lubrication and Wear
اسم المؤلف
MERVIN H. JONES, DOUGLAS SCOTT
التاريخ
11 ديسمبر 2017
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Industrial Tribology
The Practical Aspects of Friction, Lubrication and Wear
MERVIN H. JONES
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Swansea,
Swansea, U. K.
DOUGLAS SCOTT
Consultant, Editor of “Wear”, Secretary of The Institution of Engineers and
Shipbuilders in Scotland, Glasgow, U. K.
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
FOREWORD
CHAPTER 1. TRIBOLDGY IN PERSPECTIVE, D. SCOTT, CONSULTANT,
EDITOR OF WEAR
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Impact o f Tribology
1.3 Economic aspects o f t r i b o l o g y
1.4 Mechanisms o f wear
1.5 Surface studies
1.6 Lubrication
1.7 Lubricants
1.8 Materials
1.9 Surface treatments
1.10 Computer aided design
1.11 Machinery c o n d i t i o n monitoring
1.12 Conclusions
References
I
CHAPTER 2. WEAR, D. SCOTT, CONSULTANT, EDITOR OF WEAR
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The wear process
2.3 Scuffing
2.4 Abrasive wear
2.5 F r e t t i n g
2.6 F l u i d and c a v i t a t i o n erosion
2.7 R o l l i n g contact f a t i g u e
2.8 Wear detection and assessment
2.9 Conclusions
References
CHAPTER 3. SELECTION OF BEARINGS, M.J. NEALE, MICHAEL NEALE
AND ASSOCIATES LTD.
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Bearing types
3.3 Performance of various types o f bearing
3.3.1 Rubbing bearings
3.3.2 R o l l e r bearings
3.3.3 F l u i d f i l m bearings
3.3.4 F l e x i b l e members
Selection o f a s u i t a b l e bearing
3.4.1 Applications w i t h u n i d i r e c t i o n a l load
and continuous movement
3.4.2 Applications w i t h o s c i l l a t i n g
movernen t
3.4.3 Applications w i t h m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l
load and continuous movement
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF PLAIN BEARINGS, USE OF BEARING DATA
DESIGN CHARTS, F.A. MARTIN AND D.R. GARNER, THE
GLACIER METAL CO. LTD.
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Notation
4.2 Journal bearing design l i m i t s
4.2.1 L i m i t s o f operation
4.2.1.1 Thin o i l f i l m l i m i t
4.2.1.2 High bearing temperature
4.2.1.3 O i l oxidation l i m i t
4.2.1.4 O i l f i l m i n s t a b i l
4.2.2 Region of safe operation
4.3 Calculation and design procedures
4.3.1 Dimensionless data – Stage
4.3.2 Design procedures w i t h hea
– Stage 11
4.3.3 Improvement i n design aids
1
ba 1 ance
– Stage 111
4.4 Design procedure f o r c y l i n d r i c a l bore bearings
4.4.1 Method o f approach
4.4.2 Guidance f o r safe operation
4.4.2.1 O i l f i l m thickness and
temperatures
4.4.2.2 O i l f i l m i n s t a b i l i t y
4.4.3 Performance p r e d i c t i o n
4.4.3.1 Minimum o i l f i l m thickness
4.4.3.2 Misalignment
4.4.3.3 Power loss and o i l f l o w
4.4.3.4 Temperatures
4.5 High speed applications
4.5.1 Non laminar operation
4.5.2 P r o f i l e bore bearings
Example o f use o f design a i d s
4.6.1 Problem
4.6.2 Procedure
4.6
4.6.2.1 Diametral clearance
4.6.2.2 Maximum s p e c i f i c load r a t i n g
4.6.2.3 Region o f safe operation
4.6.2.4 Prediction o f minimum o i l
f i l m thickness
4.6.2.5 Check for laminar operation
4.6.2.6 Prediction o f power loss
4.6.2.7 Prediction o f o i l f l o w
4.6.2.8 Prediction o f maximum bearing
temperature
4.6.2.9 Prediction o f o i l o u t l e t
temperature
Re f e r ence s
CHAPTER 5. THE DIAGNOSIS OF PLAIN BEARING FAILURES, R.W. WILSON
AND E.B. SHONE, SHELL RESEARCH CENTRE.
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Properties required o f bearing m a t e r i a l s
5.2.1 Fatigue resistance
5.2.2 Compressive strength
5.2.3 Conformability
5.2.4 Embeddability
5.2.5 Strength a t elevated temperatures
5.2.6 Compatibility
5.2.7 Corrosion resistance
5.2.8 Cost
CHAPTER 6.
5.3 Type, construction and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a i n
bearing materials
5.3.1 White metals (Babbitts)
5.3.2 Copper lead a l l o y s
5.3.3 Lead bronzes
5.3.4 Aluminium a l loys
5.3.5 Phosphor and s i l i c o n bronzes
5.3.6 S i l v e r
5.3.7 Porous and s e l f l u b r i c a t i n g bearings
5.3.8 Discussion o f m e t a l l i c bearing materials
5.4 Bearing f a i l u r e s
5.4.1 M e t a l l u r g i c a l defects i n new bearings
5.4.1.1 Bad bonding
5.4.1.2 Gas c a v i t i e s
5.4.1.3 Oversize cuboids
5.4.1.4 Excessive lead content i n t i n
based white metals
5.4.1.5 Uneven lead d i s t r i b u t i o n i n
copper- lead and lead-bronze a I Ioys
5.4.2 Failures associated w i t h design, f i t t i n g
o r operating environment
5.4.2.1 Bad f i t t i n g
5.4.2.2 Extraneous p a r t i c l e s
5.4.2.3 Corrosion
5.4.2.4 Cavitation and erosion
5.4.2.5 E l e c t r i c a l d i scha rge damage
5.4.2.6 Wire wool f a i l u r e s
5.4.2.7 Fatigue
6.4.2.8 Thermal c y c l i n g damage
5.4.2.9 A l l o y i n g i n service
5.4.2.10 Inadequate v i s c o s i t y and lack
o f l u b r i c a n t
5.5 Conclusions
Ref e rence s
ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS, D.G. HJERTZEN AND R.A. JARVIS,
SKF (UK) LTD.
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Bearing selection
Bearing types
6.3.1 Single row deep groove b a l l bearing
6.3.2 Self-a1 igning b a l l bearings
6.3.3 Angular contact b a l l bearing
6.3.4 Double row angular contact b a l l bearing
6.3.5 C y l i n d r i c a l r o l l e r bearing
6.3.6 Double row c y l i n d r i c a l r o l l e r bearings
6.3.7 Needle r o l l e r bearings
6.3.8 Taper r o l l e r bearings
6.3.9 Double row spherical r o l l e r bearings
6.3.10 Spherical r o l l e r t h r u s t bearings
6.3.11 B a l l t h r u s t bearings
6.3.12 Bearings w i t h spherical outside surface
and extended inner r i n g width
Fatigue l i f e and load carrying capacity
6.4.1 Hertzian contact
6.4.2 Relationship between load and l i f e
6.4.3 Further development o f the l i f e equation
Boundary dimensions
Usage
Speed l i m i t s
Fr i c t ion
Lubrication
6.9.1 Greases
6.9.1.1 Temperature range
6.9.2 O i l l u b r i c a t i o n
6.10 Seals
6.11 Noise
6.12 A n t i c i p a t i n g bearing damage
6.13 Detection o f bearing damage by shock pulse
mea su remen t
6.14 F i t s ( s h a f t and housing)
6.15 Conditions of r o t a t i o n
6.16 Influence o f load and temperature
6.17 Bearing applications
6.18 Bearing care
6.19 Bearing mounting
6.20 D i m o u n t i n g bearings
6.21 Mounting and dismounting by o i l i n j e c t i o n
6.22 Cleaning o f bearings
6.23 Recognition o f bearing f a i l u r e s
6.23.1 Wear
6.23.2 Incorrect mounting
6.23.3 Cage f a i l u r e s
6.23.4 Smearing
6.23.5 Vibrations
Rust and other types o f corrosion
Passage of e l e c t r i c current through
bearings
CHAPTER 7. PRACTICAL GEAR TRIBOLOGY, T.I. FOWLE, CONSULTANT
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Alignment
7.3 Tooth a c t i o n
7.4 Tooth surface d i s t r e s s
7.4.1 P i t t i n g
7.4.2 Scuffing
7.4.3 Abrasive wear
7.4.4 Other forms o f gear wear
7.5 Problems i n l u b r i c a t i o n systems
References
Gear problems : causes and remedies
CHAPTER 8. MATERIALS FOR TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, 0. SCOTT,
CONSULTANT, EDITOR OF WEAR
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Types of materials
8.3 Materials f o r s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s
8.3.1 P l a i n bearings
8.3.2 Gears
8.3.3 R o l l i n g bearings
8.3.4 Wear r e s i s t a n t materials
8.3.5 Tools
8.3.6 Cutting t o o l s
8.3.7 Piston r i n g s
8.3.8 Cams and tappets
8.3.9 F r i c t i o n materials
8.3.10 P l a s t i c bearings
8.4 Surface treatments and coatings
8.5 Conclusions
References
CHAPTER 9. SELECTION OF LUBRICANTS, A.R. LANSDOWN, SWANSEA
TRIBOLOGY CENTRE
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Selecting the l u b r i c a n t type
9.3 Properties o f mineral o i l s
9.3.1 Viscosity
9.3.2 Viscosity – temperature r e l a t i o n s h i p
9.3.3 V i s c o s i t y – pressure r e l a t i o n s h i p
9.3.4 Anti-wear, extreme pressure and a n t i –
f r i c t i o n properties
9.3.5 S t a b i l i t y
9.3.6 Con tami nan t s
9.4 Choice o f base o i l
9.4.1 L i m i t a t i o n s o f mineral o i l s
9.4.2 High temperatures
9.4.3 Flammability
9.4.4 Compatibil i t y
9.5 Greases
9.6 Sol i d l u b r i c a n t s
9.7 Gas l u b r i c a t i o n
CHAPTER 10. LUBRICANT ADDITIVES, THEIR APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE
AN0 LIMITATIONS, D.M. SOUL, LUBRIZOL INTERNATIONAL
LABORATORIES.
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Basic properties of l u b r i c a n t s
10.3 Lubricant a d d i t i v e s
10.3.1 Detergent and dispersant a d d i t i v e s
10.3.1.1 Detergent types
.1 Sulphonates
.2 Phosphonates and/or
thiophosphonates
.3 Phenates
.4 A l k y l substituted
sal i c y l a t e s
10.3.1.2 Mode o f a c t i o n o f detergent
add i t ives
10.3.1.3 Dispersant additives
. 1 Cop0 1 yme r s
.2 Substituted Succinimides
.3 Amides
.4 Other chemicals
Mode o f a c t i o n o f dispersant
a d d i t i v e s
10.3.1.4
10.3.2 Antioxidants and bearing corrosion
i n h i b i t o r s
10.3.2.1 Dithiophosphates
10.3.2.2 Hindered phenol
10.3.2.3 Nitrogen bases
10.3.2.4 Sulphurised p o l y o l e f i n s
10.3.2.5 Mode o f a c t i o n o f antioxidants
10.3.3 Corrosion i n h i b i t o r s
10.3.3.1 Dithiophosphates
10.3.3.2 Dithicarbamates
10.3.3.3 Sulphur products
10.3.3.4 Phosphorus – Sulphur products
10.3.3.5 Triazoles and chelating agents
10.3.3.6 Dime rcap t o th i ad iozol e
derivatives
10.3.3.7 Mode o f a c t i o n o f corrosion
i n h i b i t o r s
10.3.4 Rust i n h i b i t o r s
10.3.5 Viscosity improvers
10.3.5.1 Mode o f a c t i o n of V.I. improvers
10.3.6 Pour p o i n t depressants
10.3.6.1 Mode of a c t i o n o f pour p o i n t
depressants
10.3.7 Extreme pressure a d d i t i v e s
10.3.7.1 Comrnerical E.P. additives and
t h e i r application
10.3.7.2 Automotive E.P. gear o i l s
10.3.7.3 Antiwear a d d i t i v e s
10.3.7.4 E.P. additives f o r turbine o
10.3.7.5 E.P. additives f o r c u t t i n g o
10.3.7.6 Mode o f a c t i o n of E.P. a d d i t
10.3.8 Emulsifiers
10.3.9 F r i c t i o n m o d i f i e r s
10.4 Conclusions
References
CHAPTER 11. CONSUMPTION AND CONSERVATION OF LUBRICANTS,
A.R. LANSDOWN, SWANSEA TRIBOLOGY CENTRE
11.1 Consumption
11.2 Reducing consumption
11.3 Reclamation and r e – r e f i n i n g
11.4 Economics
CHAPTER 12. HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF LUBRICANTS,
A.R. EYRES, MOBIL EUROPE INC.,
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Composition o f l u b r i c a n t s
12.3 Mineral base o i l f a c t o r s
12.3.1 Acute t o x i c i t y
12.3.2 Dermatitis
12.3.3 O i l m i s t
12.3.4 O i l vapours
12.3.5 Skin cancer
12.3.6 Eye i r r i t a t i o n
12.4 A d d i t i v e f a c t o r s
12.4.1 Lead compounds
12.4.2 Orthophosphates
12.4.3 Chlorinated Naphthalenes
12.4.4 Sodium N i t r i t e and Amines
12.4.5 Sodium Mercaptobenzothiazole
12.4.6 Trichloroethylene
12.5 Bacteria and biocides
12.6 Synthetic l u b r i c a n t s
12.8 Health and safety precautions
Used and reclaimed o r re-refined o i l s
12.8.1 Suppliers r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
12.8.2 Skin p r o t e c t i o n
12.8.3 O i l m i s t and vapour
12.8.4 Skin cancer
12.8.5 Bacteria and biocides
12.9 Conclusions
References
CHAPTER 13. EFFECTIVE CONTAMINATION CONTROL I N FLUID POWER
SYSTEMS, J.B. SPENCER, SPERRY VICKERS
13.1 Introduction
13.1.1 A systematic approach t o f i l t r a t i o n
13.2 D i r t Input – types and sources o f contamination
13.2. I New oi 1
13.2.2 B u i l t i n contamination
13.2.3 Environmental Contamination
13.2.4 Entry points f o r environmental
contamination
13.2.4.1 A i r breathers
13.2.4.2 Power u n i t access p l a t e s
13.2.4.3 Cylinder seals
13.2.5 Generated contamination
13.3 Effects o f types and sizes o f p a r t i c l e s
13.3.1 Catastrophic f a i l u r e
13.3.2 I n t e r m i t t e n t f a i l u r e
13.3.3 Degradation f a i l u r e
13.3.4 Pumps
13.3.5 Motors
13.3.6 Directional valves
13.3.7 Pressure controls
13.3.8 Flow c o n t r o l s
13.3.9 Summary
13.4 Specifying contamination levels
13.5 Selecting the f i l t e r
13.5.1 Nominal r a t i n g
13.5.2 Absolute r a t i n g
13.5.3 The bubble t e s t
13.5.4 Mean f i l t r a t i n g r a t i n g
13.5.5 Multipass f i l t e r t e s t
13.5.6 Beta r a t i o
13.5.7 Practical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i l t e r
performance
13.5.7.1 Pulsating flow
13.5.7.2 Bypass ing
13.5.8 F i l t e r s i z i n g
13.6 Locating the f i l t e r
13.6.1 Pump i n l e t f i l t r a t i o n
13.6.2 Pressure 1 ine f i l t r a t i o n
13.6.3 Return 1 ine f i 1 t r a t ion
13.6.4 O f f l i n e f i l t r a t i o n
13.7 Summary
CHAPTER 14. SEALS FOR FLUID POWER EQUIPMENT, PART ONE,
B.D. HALLIGAN, JAMES WALKER 6 CO. LTD.
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Materials
14.3 Seal designs
14.4 Tribological considerations
14.4.1 Film conditions
14.4.2 Surface f i n i s h
14.4.3 Seal f r i c t i o n
14.4.4 Type of f l u i d
14.4.5 F i l t r a t i o n
14.4.6 A i r entrainment
14.5 Selection
14.6 Storage
14.6.1 Recommendations
14.6.1.1 Temperature
14.6.1.2 Humidity
14.6.1.3 L i g h t
14.6.1.4 Oxygen and ozone
14.6.1.5 Deformation
14.7 Assembly
CHAPTER 15. SEALS FOR FLUID POWER EQUIPMENT, PART TWO, ROTARY
LIP SEALS, B.D. HALLIGAN, JAMES WALKER E CO. LTD.
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Design
15.3 Material
15.4 Seal l u b r i c a t i o n
15.5 Shaft surfaces
15.6 F r i c t i o n
15.7 Speeds
15.9 Pressure
15.10 Care and handling
15.10.1 Storage
15.10.2 Handling
15.10.3 F i t t i n g
15.11 Service problems and t h e i r solutions
15.11.1 Unacceptable leakage
CHAPTER 16. SEALS FOR FLUID POWER EQUIPMENT, PART THREE, COMPRESSION
PACKINGS, B.D. HALLIGAN, JAMES WALKER t CO. LTD.
16.1 The packed gland
16.1.1 Pumps
16.1.2 Valves
16.2 Operating p r i n c i p l e s
16.3 Gland design
16.4 Packing construction and materials
16.4.1 Fibre material
16.4.2 Lubricants
16.4.3 Construct ion
16.4.4 Additional material
16.4.5 Selection
16.4.6 F i t t i n g
16.4.7 Fault f i n d i n g
16.4.8 Standardization
16.4.9 The f u t u r e
Appendix 1 Safety o f asbestos gland packings and gaskets
CHAPTER 17. CENTRALISED LUBRICATION SYSTEMS DESIGN, J.G. MERRETT,
ENGINEERING AN0 GENERAL EQUIPMENT LTD.
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Points of l u b r i c a t i o n
17.3 Selecting the l u b r i c a n t – o i l or grease
17.3.1 O i l o r grease7 when t o use one and when
the other
L u b r i c a t i n g grease – the types and how
t o s e l e c t them
17.3.2
17.3.3 Lubricating o i l s – types and how t o
select them
17.3.3.1 The properties o f the o i l 40 1
17.3.3.2 S p e c i a l i s t l u b r i c a n t s 402
17.3.4 Summarising l u b r i c a n t s e l e c t i o n 402
17.4 Pipe diameter vs f l o w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 402
17.5 L u b r i c a t i o n requirements f o r p l a i n bearings 402
17.6 Selecting the r i g h t type o f l u b r i c a t i o n system 403
17.6.1 Grease l u b r i c a t i o n systems
D i r e c t feeding systems 403
I n d i r e c t o r l i n e systems 405
Comparison o f p a r a l l e l
systems – s i n g l e l i n e and
dual l i n e 412
Selecting grease l u b r i c a t i o n
systems 412
Lubrication o f p l a i n o r sleeve
bearings 41 2
Lubrication o f a n t i f r i c t i o n
( b a l l and r o l l e r ) bearings 412
17.6.2 O i l l u b r i c a t i o n systems
17.6.3 Micro-fog
17.6.4 Check l i s t
17.7 Summary
References
Total loss systems
Systems designed w i t h small
amount o f heat removal
Systems designed f o r l u b r i c a t i o n
cool i ng
l u b r i c a t i o n systems
Working p r i n c i p l e s
O i l q u a l i t y
Compressed a i r
Systems design considerations
Some t y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s
CHAPTER 18. ON CONDITION MAINTENANCE, R.A. COLLACOTT, FAULT
DIAGNOSIS CENTRE
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Background
Management o f cond i t ion mon i t o r i ng
F a i l u r e modes and e f f e c t s analysis
18.5 Monitoring technique selection
18.5.1 Vibration monitoring
18.5.1.1 Proximity probes
18.5.1.2 Seismic v e l o c i t y transducers,
accelerometers, vibration
meters, spectrum analysers
18.5.1.3 Waveform analysis
18.5.2 Inspection, i n t e g r i t y surveillance
18.5.3 Contaminant analysis
18.5.4 Trends analysis
18.6 Deterioration l i m i t s
References
CHAPTER 19. THE TRIBOLOGY OF METAL CUTTING, E.M. TRENT, UNIVERSITY
OF BIRMINGHAM
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Metal c u t t i n g phenomena
19.3 Conditions a t the tool-work interface
19.3.1 Tool forces and stresses
19.3.2 Cutting speed
19.3.3 Heat i n metal c u t t i n g
19.3.4 Seizure o f the tool-work interface
19.3.5 Cutting tool temperatures
19.3.6 SI iding a t the tool-work interface
19.4 Cutting tool wear
19.4.1 Abrasion
19.4.2 Surface shearing
19.4.3 Diffusion and interaction
19.4.4 A t t r i t i o n
19.5 Coolants and lubricants
References
CHAPTER 20. ROLE OF LABORATORY TEST MACHINES, F.T. BARWELL AND
M.H. JONES, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE O F SWANSEA
20.1 Experimental method
20.2 Lubricant type approval testing machines
20.2.1 Engine tests
20.2.2 Gear tests
20.2.3 Simulation o f industrial situations Analysis into system elements o f the basis f o r
selection o f laboratory t e s t s
20.4 Equipment f o r basic research
Ref e r enc e s
GLOSSARY
AUTHOR INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
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