Hydrostatic Drives with Secondary Control – The Hydraulic Trainer series Volume 6

Hydrostatic Drives with Secondary Control – The Hydraulic Trainer series Volume 6
اسم المؤلف
Dipl -Ing. Rolf Kordak
التاريخ
9 ديسمبر 2021
المشاهدات
598
التقييم
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Hydrostatic Drives with Secondary Control – The Hydraulic Trainer series Volume 6
An introduction into the drive concept and system characteristics
Second edition, completely revised
with 240 illustrations and 7 tables
Dipl -Ing. Rolf Kordak
Edited by Rudi A. Lang
From The Hydraulic Trainer series
Contents 5
Preface to the Second Edition
Terms and Definitions 11
Formulae 13
The Development of Secondary Control at Mannesmann Rexroth 21
Introduction
Patent protection
DtCSLM
Further Development
Axial piston unit*
Analogue standard controller
Digital controller systems
Summary
Basic Principle of Secondary Control 29
introduction ….
ITrivc systems with flow coupling
Drive systems with pressure coupling.
Step 1
Step1.
Step 4
Summary
Axial Piston Units Designed for Use with Secondary Control 37
Swashplatc design A4V5……..
Bent axis design
Radial piston design
ftwayhplatc design type AlOVS
Dynamic Response of Secondary Controlled Drives 43
Comparison ot electric motors and secondary controlled units 43
Electronic Components of a Secondary Controlled Drive System 51
Introduction
Analogue standard controller for series A4V5^
Frequency-voltage converter with additional monitoring electronics
torque control ………..
Pt Jwer control —
Secondary control using master /slave principle
Digital control of second a ry controlled units
MCSdigital control card
Contents 7
Special Characteristics ol Secondary Control 65
‘Self-blocking”
Torque control —,——
Torque control w—ith, electrical machine …. …..*.
Torque control of secondary controlled units
—.
Behavitiur of the drive at creep speeds .
Natural frequency with secondary’ controlled units
Transient response . * .
—……. …….
Frequency’ response method
Bode diagram (frequency response characteristic) –
Amplitude response
Phase respunse
Locus curve.
Examples of secondary drives in industrial and mobile applications 81
The milling head drive tin a machine tool
A drive for a roughing mill
A drive for a large plate rolling mill
A drive for a travelling saw
Mobile deep drilling installation ——
A drive for an offshore crane,. —
Lattice tower crane..
A drive for a mobile harbour crane
A drive for a coke oven feed machine ,
A drive for a mobile manipulator
A drive for a bucket wheel excavator —….
A drive for a mine locomotive.
-.
A transmission for on automated transport system ,
Driverless transport system
Drive for a turntable with energy recovery….
—.
A turntable drive for glass presses
Secondary unit with hydraulic tachometer..
Examples of Applications in Test Stands and in Simulation Technology 115
Introduction _… ……
Test stand for dynamic rotary’ group testing
A drive shaft test stand
Fast response test stand for internal combustion engines
Dynamic engine lest stand
Central oil supply..
Test stand for axle drives — .
1est stand for rear axle drive —
Test stand for an all-wheel drive
Tesl stand for automatic transmissions
Hxperimental dynamic response test stand for identification of drive trains
Rear axle acoustic test stand
Test stand for a tractor
Fla I bed driving simulator
Summary
141Contents 9
Low Loss Controls in a Hydraulic Ring Main System with Impressed Pressure 143
A cylinder drive fur an oil well pump
Energy-saving circuit concepts lor presses
Function of the press cyde
The Speed-Variable Electrical Drive 157
introduction .
The power diode
The thyristor .. ……
Gate controlled tum-uff sw itch (GTD).
Tower transistor
Power capacitor
Inductor ….
Functions 1ltT„.
The rectifying function
Voltage control ..
D.C. chopper converter —
Pulse inverted rectifier
Inverted rectifier
Line commutated power converter
Seif-commutating power convertor
Summary
Information on Project Design of Secondary Controlled Drives 173
Introduction

Type of circuit
Pressure level ……
Static dimensioning
Dynamic dimensioning
Calculation of the reflected moment of inertia
Maximum permissible speeds.
Determination of flow requirement of the secondary unit .„
Determination of pump size …… .
HydfatiHc accumulator dimensioning… ………
—… ….
Approximate calculation of a damping accumulator
Diergy storage . ………
Cakuia tion of accum ulator volume V1

Calculation of accumulator volume for a secondary controlled winch drive
Bibliography 183
Index 165
Epilogue 195Terms and Defirslions 11
Terms and Definitions
ptetolv separate pump and muter
modes.
Mooring operation
1 his it dual-quadrant operation with
nwtor and generator tunchens in tine
direction
Impressed pressure
riiig it a term hAMimcd from dectm*
technology With power converters in
DC intermediate viniiLt- .vt- tjIk ni im
pressed veilage or Impressed current
With hydrostatic drives using closed
loop ptetwinf-contmlh.-d hydraulic
pumps and hydraulic accumulators the
system pressure is dependent urt tht
Loading condition of the itcLurnuliitor. end ^ therefore not constant but “impressed ‘. Hydraulic spring Ibis in thn.’ column ut nil in a pipe ttys Lem between the primary and secondary sides that L> under a v .try mg operating pressLin MOS WMI Oxide S.’mii’imduL’tnr defines Lhc1 sequence of layers iM igate electrode). O (insulating layen. S tsetniLimductur channel), set into integrated circuits as field effect transistors. MOS 15 die general term tor the technology used in the manufacture of illscreel ami inlegralod semiconductor CDmponaits and anv associated oper.itjonal components. Hydraulic isolator Ihis is the i onrwvtktn point of the secondary unit to the hydraulic system, itnd rs analogous to Hie elei.trii.iil plug It is normally In the form of an electricalIv piloted check vILLVL” The hydraulic isolator stops tlio him til hvdraulk energy to the- actuator Impressed flow This Is the flow directed to .in actuator . i, – M rial’ll i lispl.u | . 111| – ul – placement Control) or valves (Valve cuntroll for the generation of .i sptvifn output Runge-Kutta-MerBon integration method ihis |a a numerical method tor solving ditferenbai expiations, it operates w iih uuiomafOc stepped contml lo a pri’ideterminud accuracy limit , taking into consideration am discerntuiuihes th.it may arise. The Runge-KuLLa method and derived variantis of these are of great pr.utllil! signitlkrUhl.’. Hydraulic transformer A hvilrau!if transformer ts a hydnstatk transmission comprising a secondary controlled varubte displacement unii and a lived or variable displacement hydrostatic:unit The hydrostatic units are permancnlK coupled together with ni’ mechanical input or output drive With the hydraulic transtormcr singfe-fleting and synchronous cylinders can be operated on the same nng main with impressed upending pressure withuut throttling losses, and under suitable conditions energy may be fed back into the system Energy utilisation ratio ETA ‘1hetermenergyutilisationratioETAis used when tl is unrealistic to refer to the term etticienev, tor wimple with value.

intrv
ETA is the quotient of the mechanical energy output tu the iti.n-hine to (hat
produced he lheprime mover
Sell-blocking
St’lf-hli’K king i* 11 n umimtiLilled deceleration of B hydraulic motor to a standstill, caused by the swivel angle dropping to within the A’PO range This
definition cannot be applied to secondary controlled units.
GTO thyristor
A (Tale Turn -OfI Thvnstill is a power
semi-conductor that can be twitched ott
with average switching frftjufiicy and
blinking voltage and high specific
state voltage It is used in fflftpitlhcy
eunverters.
nnIGBT
I lii> term stands for ari Insulated Cate
Hipolar TransIsti>r.
In drive technology transistors are used
tit high pulse frequencies, as contruth?-s electronu switchi’s Stribeck curve The btrlbeuh curve represents friction plotted.lyainsl speed or number of revolutions. Displacement Tin – rcvijmmcnded terms ‘Volumetric d.splacemcnl ‘ for hydraulic pumps and Ahstaphtm crtpacitv ” rur hydraulic motors ate replaced hew by iho term Displacement’ as a secondary controlled unit operates, cn rumr quadrant mis’JL Lind it is not possible tn com -12 Terms and Definitions Tandem unit A tandem unit Is the term for two hydrusttie unite coupled together
Translatory analogon
This term & used tu describe the inclusion of hydraulic cylinders into the secondary drive unit with energy recovery.
Total loss
This Is the sum of all leakages, from
within a hydraulic system. It ts made
up oh

  • IVessime losses due to mechanical or
    hydraulic friction and flow losses,
  • Leakage losses and
  • Throttling losses, which usually account for the greatest loss.
    The total loss will always he converted into heat at the position where it
    occurs.
    Four quadrant operation
    This is the term given to the operating
    mode with bi-directional rotation and
    bi-directional torque.
    Efficiency
    This is the ratio of output to input of a
    device, unit or system.
    Time factor of the controlled system
    I his is the factor tor the time response
    of the controlled system tor testing system response to the secondary’ control.
    The time factor of the controlled system (r in seconds characterises both dynamic response of thecontrolled system
    and secondary anilFormulae 13
    Formulae
    | Statutory unit,
    practical unit
    Symbol Meaning
    Aca, piston area arr Mi Amplitude of a control V|ltlc B Magnetic induction , T C Capacity F N £t,i firing constant of a column of nfj m Lust factor with generator nperaUnn Ct Loss factor with motor operation Wave speed tn>s N . N Cy Spring cunstant m mm Diameter m r D Electrical flow density — M l d Diameter to d Damping 1 ft dr.mJie diameter in; mm Jit Amplitude ratio (McwH N : N N m ‘ cm’ turn E Elasticity modulus E Energygeneral \:JSun
    E Hteetriyal field strength V
    m
    E „Original voltage” V
    DC*
    voltage V
    Hydraulic energy Nil
    L__

    Kinetic enefftv
    Elasticity modulus of oil —N A*. 7
    m Cm – s
    c Eccentricity m; cm;mm
    t L’nit charge C14 Formulae
    Symbol Meaning Statutory unit;
    practical unit
    F K”tm? \
    r Amplitude response
    F Amplitude ratio
    t Fmfjui’ivy H/ : ‘
    ft
    /. fixed mama froqUCTH\ H/ r –
    I
    l Stator frequency
    i
    f. \iihual frequency H / : –
    7
    c Weight \
    N
    ,
    X
    0 Shear modulus ; N
    . :
    m cm mm
    m
    Acceleration due to gravity 1
    s A
    fl Magnetic held strength
    m
    h Height m
    l Current, general A
    Armature current A

‘ XN Hose current A

Cotlcetnr current A
/r Imitter current A
HlK Holding current A
Pilot current A
J Moment of inertia hgm-
1, Maw moment of inertia hgm:
Im Vlas? moment of inertia of secimdarv unit kgm’
Lt Reflected mass moment of Inertia kgmJ
lotnl mass moment ot inertia kgm7
Addiliim. I moment of trierHa kgmIT’i I
K Compn>sum modulus N ‘ barFormulae 15
Symbol Meaning Statutory unit
practical unit
K Integration tunnitant
Multiplication factor in control circuit
h Sound pnc^sure hrvirf ilB
1 length D1
M, Idling torque \nt
Acvrteraiion torque
lilifctricai torque in air gap
Mm
Mc _\irt
H Load torque
Mi 1’notional torque NOT
M Torque command value, general Mm
Air tongue, general \m
Drive tulque; torque of primary unit;
torque of hydraulic pump
Mi. Mm
Mh Output torque; torque of secondary unJI;
torque ut hydraulic motor
Nm
Ml5

  • | Maximum torque of secondary unit
    I iorque command value, general
    Nm
    Nm
    M, Maximum torque, general Nm
    Mv Speed-dependent torque eorrectiun value Nm
    Mpt, I Additional loss torque Nm
    m Mass
    ft SfH’t’d rpmA
    A Dhangfe of speed per unit time
    ^ 2_ min>
    acceleration Change rrf speed of secondary per unit time unit of smmdary unit; i ^ «-1

<W Maximum change of speed per unit lirw min

Speed deviating of secondary unit;
Speed change of secondary unit
Jrt rpm / s
I Drive speed of primary unit;
Drive speed of hydraulic pump
11 rpm/s
Speed of secondan unit
Output speed nf hydraulic mrrtiv
rpntfs
Spcixi actual value of secondary unit;
Speed actual value of hydraulic motor
^ , 4.t rpnt/s16 Formulae
Symbol Mining Statutory unit,
practical unit
; iitw Speed actual value of secondary unit (master ) rpm/s Speed actual value of secondary unit (slave) Maximtun speed of secondarv unit,externally set Maximum speed of secondary unit, internally set rpm/s “‘.nMfimr rpm/s rpm/s «» Speed vrftue. general rpm/s
fl.T- Maximum speed rpm /j>
Minimum speed rpm/s
Mean speed rpm/s
UN- Nominal speed rpm /s
‘W* COrnmand.speed, ppneral rpm/s
P Power, general \ —* ; W;kW
J* Effective jwpc W
F, Miiximum power of prfmary unit —S ; W: kW.
Cpmerpower —- , VVj kW
Nm
R

*. Maxinuirn power —: ; W, kW

V Hydraulic power kW
Ppl. Maximum power —- ; W; kW
P
.
Blind power VV
P
. Apparent power factor VV
Additional power — ; W; kW
\
F I’rrssore —* , bar
F No, of pairs of poles
\
High pressure —; ;tw
m ~
JNl*
P m Pressure actual value 1 ]± . bar
m~
N
P r IJWV pressure ; b*rFormulae 17
Symbol Meaning Statutory ^ml
practical unit
\
4r Pressure di r tY-rvn!inI —; ;hitr
m \
V Pressure differential actual value
-. — . bn
Mi
\
-V: – . Pressure tUfjcrirntlfll in piiiH L-iiviiit —, bar
1 ’ I
\
Pi – tVn.it! pvt-sun?
m
Q Ukctncal loading C
t
Q I lott,general IN dm’ L
min mm
Qi i km1 of primary unit;
Row of hydraulic pump m dmj I
H min ‘ min
Qi Mow nt >eLund,iry unit; m ‘ dm “‘ L
Flow nf hydrauMt mdtur min min
Q . Maxi flow ni dm’’ L
Q ,u , Minimum (low B1 dm L

mm
J
mm
m ’ dm’ 1
s * niin ‘ nun
Ciri. jm Mean flow
i- –
mJ
j dpi i
s min ‘ min
Qy Row of hydraulic pump
R Wisifitanct Si
Stator resistance
r
Ri Knlnr resistance It
r IVtdilJr m
m
r lurk
3
X
ra Gtfvtnetrkal radius ut drive fiance m;tm
f* (Joonietrical radiusnicylinder(ftuin m.cm
S Sur&H u m ‘. or “
Slip
T Temperalure K; C1B Formulae
| Symbol Meaning Statutory unit
practical unit
T Length of time s
< Ramp time a# load moment s; ms
i, T!m* factor of control area s
4n*rf Swi\ieJ tlme;cortiul time s: ms
r. i. i . limedelay s;ms
I Time
i, Control thne s
Setting time $
u Range, riraimfcrnsice
Voltage, general
m
U V
u, Stator voltage V
V, Kotor voltage V
Ucr Coflector-cmiUer voltage V
Analogue input vultnge
Correction facinr
Ut V

  1. V
    Mean value of voltage in idle running
    Ui Analogue input voltage.current dependent V
    14, Voltage actual value V
    U„ Analogue input voltage, speed dependent V
    14
    ^ Voltagecommand value V
    N . .. f Pilot voltage V
    ^tn.wr Volume ot oil column m‘\ cm3
    V,
    Displacement, general
    Displacement of primary emit.
    Displacement of hydraulic pump
    m\ cm3
    V nr\ cm3
    ^* ! Displacement of secondary unit;
    Displacement u( hydraulic motor
    Maximum displacement ot secondary unit; nr; cm3
    maximum displacement of hydraulic motor
    p Speed, general m
    9
    V Maximum speed, general *2
  • »
    m mm
    «V» Positioning<|jtinder speed s s
    w Work T;’iniFormulae 19
    Symbol Meaning Statutory- unit;
    practical unit
    X Torque reJatifinsh ip
    Output value
    *W Amplitude of output value
    F. Input value
    *r Amplitude of input value
    y Pnsitiming cylinder distance mm
    Z No.Of p^tCHfr
    l • Impedance ft
    Z Disturb!-? torque Nm
    1 Swivel an|(le, general rad. degrees ; :
    Conwwl angle
    Tiring delay angle
    u rad;degrees
    o rad; degrees; *
    tad _ “
    ti Change p<tf unit time of swivel angle S ’*
    Swivel angle uf primary unit;
    Swivel angle rtf hydraulic pump
    Swivel angle of secondary unit;
    Svrlvd angle of hydraulic motur
    Maximum swivel angle of secondary unit;
    maximum swivel angle uf hydraulic motor
    rad: degrees; r
    «1 rad: degrees; “
    <V rad; ditpoen; 1
    Swivel angle actual value, genera] rad; degrees:
    Swivrtl angle actual value of loud unit tad; degrees;
    Swivel angle actual value of secondary unit degrees, 1
    Swivel angle rnrfoctloFi Far lor rad ; degrees:
    Maximum swivel angle rad;degrees ; “
    Swivel angle command Value rad: degrees; 1
    •V Maximum permissible swivel angle ifigrees,
    5 Degree of uniformin’ %
    F
    E Relative (wnittii itj1
    m
    n liffjdemy, general %
    Total efficiency %
    Meehanicaldwdraulic efficiency %
    tll-H Votumetrir efficiency %
    Adiabatic exponent
    Tube resistance coefficient
    if i
    T
    fc.20 Formulae
    Symbol Meaning bt.itub.inr’ unit;
    pFacttr.il unit
    k Wavelength, electrical m
    H
    t* Permeability
    m
    .
    Magnetic flow Vs
    4» Stator flow Vs

f Angular position rad, :

<P Phase shift rad, ;

T Phase response
V Angularvelocity s’1
<P Angular acceleration s1
Angular position of secondary unU rad.degrees, ‘
z _ Angular velocity o< secondary unit to 1 Yngul.ir velocity, general s’
“h Angular frequency sdj Angular velocity
sJ
Ml Angular velocity of secondary unit l
s
cat Angular position degrees; *

%T«r Cutner frequency

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