سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 4
How Things Are Made Volume 4
Oldrich Ruzicka , Alexandra Hetmerová
List of Items in this Volume
Acetylene is a colorless, combustible gas with a distinctive odor. When acetylene is liquefied,
compressed, heated, or mixed with air, it becomes highly explosive.
Antibiotics are chemical substances that can inhibit the growth of, and even destroy, harmful
microorganisms. They are derived from special microorganisms or other living systems, and are
produced on an industrial scale using a fermentation process.
Artificial snow is small particles of ice that are used to increase the amount of snow available for
winter sports such as skiing or snow boarding. It is produced by a machine that uses a highpressure pump to spray a mist of water into the cold air.
Asbestos is a general name that applies to several types of fibrous silicate minerals. Historically,
asbestos is best known for its resistance to flame and its ability to be woven into cloth.
The bagel is a dense ring of bread, often rather bland, raised with yeast and containing almost no
fat. In fact, the average bagel is about 4 oz (113.4 g) and 200 calories and contains no cholesterol
(unless it is an egg bagel) and no fat (unless it is a specialty bagel such as cheese).
Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester that are used to absorb
moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels are often sold in a set with face towels and wash
cloths and are always the largest of the three towels.
Beef jerky is a type of snack food that is made by marinating beef in a curing solution and drying
it. Meat treated in this way has a long shelf life and a unique flavor.Birth Control Pill
Oral contraceptives, or birth control pills, have been used by more than 60 million women
worldwide, and are considered by many to be the most socially significant medical advance of
the twentieth century. The birth control pill is a tablet taken daily by a woman to prevent
Sixty-five million people fling heavy balls down bowling lanes in the United States each year at
speeds up to 20 miles an hour. Other than the finger holes and eye-catching colors, the balls look
The first recorded reference to a game in which a ball is thrown at pins dates from 300 A.D. The
reference comes from Germany where the game was part of a religious ceremony practiced by
Braille is a tactile writing system used by the blind that was invented by Louis Braille in France
in 1824. It gradually spread beyond France, and it is now in widespread use across the globe.
A carbon fiber is a long, thin strand of material about 0.0002-0.0004 in (0.005-0.010 mm) in
diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in
microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber.
Carbon Monoxide Detector
A carbon monoxide detector is an electronic device that senses the presence of carbon monoxide
(CO) in a building and sounds an alarm to warn the occupants to escape. Carbon monoxide is an
odorless, poisonous gas, which can be generated by gas furnaces and water heaters, ranges, space
heaters, or wood stoves if they are malfunctioning or not vented properly.
A change machine is a device used to exchange one form of money for another, typically paper
currency for coins. Sensors in the machine detect the type of bill that is fed into it and relay this
information to a micro-processor.Cider
Cider is a natural, liquid beverage that is obtained from the pressing of a finely ground fruit such
as apples. Under the proper conditions, it undergoes a natural fermentation process, which yields
an alcoholic juice.
A compass is a device used to determine direction on the surface of the earth. The most familiar
type of compass is the magnetic compass, which relies on the fact that a magnetic object tends to
align itself with Earth’s magnetic field.
Concrete Beam Bridge
Nearly 590,000 roadway bridges span waterways, dryland depressions, other roads, and railroads
throughout the United States. The most dramatic bridges use complex systems like arches,
cables, or triangle-filled trusses to carry the roadway between majestic columns or towers.
Copper is one of the basic chemical elements. In its nearly pure state, copper is a reddish-orange
metal known for its high thermal and electrical conductivity.
Corn syrup is one of several natural sweeteners derived from corn starch. It is used in a wide
variety of food products including cookies, crackers, catsups, cereals, flavored yogurts, ice
cream, preserved meats, canned fruits and vegetables, soups, beers, and many others.
A credit card allows consumers to purchase products or services without cash and to pay for
them at a later date. To qualify for this type of credit, the consumer must open an account with a
bank or company, which sponsors a card.
Bubble wrap is the trademarked name for a packing material consisting of two plastic sheets
laminated together in a way that traps air bubbles in small, uniform pockets. This plastic sheet
assembly is used as a flexible cushion to protect fragile objects during storage or shipping.
DiceDice are implements used for generating random numbers in a variety of social and gambling
games. Known since antiquity, dice have been called the oldest gaming instruments.
A drum is a musical instrument which produces sound by the vibration of a stretched membrane.
The membrane, which is known as the head, covers one or both ends of a hollow body known as
The origin of the dulcimer is as elusive as its haunting sound. Two types of instrument stake
claim to the name—both have different shapes, different methods of being played, and diverse
Digital video disk or digital versatile disk (DVD) is a type of optical data storage medium
capable of holding up to 17 giga-bytes (GB) of information. First introduced during the mid-
1990s, they were developed as an improved form of compact disk (CD) technology.
The term fire hose refers to several different types of hose specifically designed for use in
fighting fires. The most common one consists of one or more outer layers of woven fabric with
an inner layer of rubber.
A fire hydrant is an above-ground connection that provides access to a water supply for the
purpose of fighting fires. The water supply may be pressurized, as in the case of hydrants
connected to water mains buried in the street, or unpressurized, as in the case of hydrants
connected to nearby ponds or cisterns.
Furniture polishes are pastes, creams, or lotions used to clean, protect, and shine wooden
furniture. These products were originally made from natural waxes, which were hard to apply
and tended to leave a heavy buildup over time.
Gasoline PumpA gasoline pump is used to dispense gasoline into motor vehicles. The gasoline pump evolved
from a simple mechanism into a more elaborate, specialized one as automobiles grew popular.
A golf club is used to strike the ball in the game of golf. It has a long shaft with a grip on one end
and a weighted head on the other end.
Helium is one of the basic chemical elements. In its natural state, helium is a colorless gas
known for its low density and low chemical reactivity.
The origin of the game of hockey is a hazy and contentious issue. Various forms of field hockey
were played in Scotland, Ireland, and France as early as the sixteenth century.
A kazoo is a type of instrument known as a mirliton, which uses a resonating membrane to
amplify sound. It belongs in the percussion family of instruments and can be made in a number
Krypton is chemical element number 36 on the periodic table of the elements. It belongs to the
group of elements known as the noble gases.
The word lace is derived from the Latin word lacques, meaning loop or snare. The term lace
extends to any openwork fabric that is created by looping, twisting, or knotting of threads either
by hand or machine.
Lead CrystalOrdinary glass has been made for thousands of years and was a product of most ancient cultures.
The ancients also began using crystal in its native form of rock crystal for beads, figurines, and
Mercury is one of the basic chemical elements. It is a heavy, silvery metal that is liquid at normal
The motorcycle is “a form of entertainment that can appeal only, one would think, to the most
enthusiastic of mechanical eccentrics,” Engineering magazine stated in 1901.
Oxygen is one of the basic chemical elements. In its most common form, oxygen is a colorless
gas found in air.
Playing cards are flat, rectangular pieces of layered pasteboard typically used for playing a
variety of games of skill or chance. They are thought to have developed during the twelfth
century from divination implements or as a derivative of chess.
Plywood is made of three or more thin layers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. Each
layer of wood, or ply, is usually oriented with its grain running at right angles to the adjacent
layer in order to reduce the shrinkage and improve the strength of the finished piece.
Polyester fleece is a soft, fuzzy fabric used for sweaters, sweat shirts, jackets, mittens, hats,
blankets, and in any other applications where a warm, wool-like material is needed. It is a twosided pile material, meaning that both the front and back surface of the fabric sprouts a layer of
cut fibers, similar to corduroy or velvet.
Raisins are made primarily by sun drying several different types of grapes. They are small and
sweetly flavored with a wrinkled texture.Shellac
Lac is the name given to the resinous secretion of the tiny lac insect (Laccifer lacca) which is
parasitic on certain trees in Asia, particularly India and Thailand. This insect secretion is
cultivated and refined because of the commercial value of the finished product known as shellac.
Spandex is a synthetic polymer. Chemically, it is made up of a long-chain polyglycol combined
with a short diisocyanate, and contains at least 85% polyurethane.
Diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds are known as precious gems. Next to the diamond,
the ruby is the hardest gemstone; it is also resistant to acids and other harmful substances.
Tin is one of the basic chemical elements. When refined, it is a silvery-white metal known for its
resistance to corrosion and its ability to coat other metals.
Vinyl floorcovering is defined as either resilient vinyl sheet floorcovering or resilient vinyl tile
floorcovering. Vinyl sheet floor-covering is generally available in either 6 ft (1.83 m) or 12 ft
(3.66 m) widths and vinyl tiles are generally 12 x 12 in (30.48 x 30.48 cm).
Yogurt is a dairy product, which is made by blending fermented milk with various ingredients
that provide flavor and color. Although accidentally invented thousands of years ago, yogurt has
only recently gained popularity in the United States.
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سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 4