Handbook of Plastics Joining – A Practical Guide 2nd ed

Handbook of Plastics Joining – A Practical Guide 2nd ed
اسم المؤلف
Michael J. Troughton
التاريخ
29 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
285
التقييم
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Handbook of Plastics Joining – A Practical Guide 2nd ed
Michael J. Troughton
Table of contents
Heated Tool Welding; Ultrasonic Welding;
Vibration Welding; Spin Welding;
Radio Frequency Welding;
Hot Gas Welding; Extrusion Welding;
Laser Welding; Infrared Welding;
Resistive Implant Welding; Induction Welding;
Heat Sealing;
Flash Free Welding;
Friction Stir Welding;
Microwave Welding;
Solvent Welding;
Adhesive Bonding;
Mechanical Fastening;
Material Specific Joining Information (25 Generic Polymer Families)
Yardley Products Corp.
10 West College Avenue
PO Box 357
Yardley
PA 19067-8357
USA
Tel: + 1 215 493 2723
Web: www.yardleyproducts.com577
mechanical fastening, 440
solvent welding, 438
ultrasonic welding, 437–438
vibration welding, 438
Additives, 18–19
Adhesive bonding, 145–172
acetal, 208–211
acrylic/PVC alloy, 474
acrylic resin, 221–223
acrylics, 151–158
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
434–436
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA),
438–440
adhesive failure, 510
AdhFAST, 171
advantages and disadvantages, 146–147
alkaline cleaning, 159
anaerobic, 153
application methods, 162–166
applications, 147–149
blooming, 153, 512
cellulosics, 225–226
classification, 150
cohesive failure, 515–516
contact adhesives, 155–156
corona discharge, 160
curing, 149–150
cyanoacrylates, 152–153
degreasing, 158–159
detergent cleaning, 159
diallyl phthalate polymer, 497
elastomeric, 155–157
elastomeric alloys, 496
emulsions, 158
epoxy, 498
equipment, 162–166
etching, 159
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 236
fl ame treatment, 161
fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 233fl
uoroelastomer, 507
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 367–368
hot melt, 157–158
hybrid joining, 171
impact polystyrene (IPS), 427
iodine treatment, 159–160
ionomer, 239–240
A
ABS/PVC alloy, 473
mechanical fastening, 473
solvent welding, 473
Acetal, 205–212
adhesive bonding, 208–211
heated tool welding, 205
hot gas welding, 207–208
laser welding, 208
mechanical fastening, 211–212
solvent welding, 208
spin welding, 207
ultrasonic welding, 206–207
vibration welding, 207
Acrylic/PVC alloy, 473–475
adhesive bonding, 474
heated tool welding, 473
hot gas welding, 473–474
mechanical fastening, 474–475
solvent welding, 474
ultrasonic welding, 473
Acrylic resin, 213–223
adhesive bonding, 221–223
heated tool welding, 213
infrared welding, 215
laser welding, 214–215
mechanical fastening, 223
microwave welding, 215
solvent welding, 215–221
ultrasonic welding, 213–214
vibration welding, 214
Acrylite, 215, 218, 219, 220, 223
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
427–437
adhesive bonding, 434–436
friction stir welding, 432–433
heated tool welding, 427–429
infrared welding, 431–432
mechanical fastening, 436–437
solvent welding, 433–434
spin welding, 431
ultrasonic welding, 429–431
vibration welding, 431
Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA),
437–440
adhesive bonding, 438–440
heated tool welding, 437
laser welding, 438
Index578 INDEX
stress cracking, 162
styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), 442
styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA), 445
styrenic thermoplastic elastomer, 491
surface energy, 145, 147, 157
surface grafting, 160
surface modification, 159–160
surface preparation, 145, 158–162
surface tension, 145–146
thermal treatment, 160
thixotropic, 150, 152–154, 171
transcrystalline growth, 161
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 371
ultraviolet radiation, 161
vinyl ester, 504
vinyl thermoplastic elastomer, 492–493
wetting, 145, 157–158
working life, 154
Advanta, 508
Aldyl, 368
Alpha, 348, 467, 492, 494, 511, 514, 527
Amodel, 276–279
Angular friction welding, 46
Apec, 288, 290, 293
Aptiv, 241, 244
Aramid, 511
Aristech, 219–220
B
Bayblend, 293, 475–478
BCF welding, 127, 129, 512
Beetle, 251, 257–258, 318
Bolts, 175
Butt fusion welding, 3, 8–11, 132, 370, 470, 525
C
Cadco, 205–208, 210, 212, 218–219, 232, 257, 371–372
Cadon, 444
Calibre, 287–288, 292–293, 297–301, 308–310
Capron, 261–265, 271
Carbon black, 19, 82, 90, 230, 263–264, 298, 328, 355
Carilon, 250
Celanex, 319–320, 322, 331, 333–334
Celcon, 205–206, 211
Cellulosics, 225–226
Celstran, 396, 399, 401
Centrex, 437, 440
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), 470
hot gas welding, 470
solvent welding, 470
Clearweld, 83–85, 87, 90, 315
Coeffi cient of thermal expansion, 183, 279, 281, 311,
313, 387, 551
Adhesive bonding (contd.)
joint design, 166–170
laser treatment, 161
light-curing, 153
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 338–339
low density polyethylene (LDPE), 358–360
mechanical treatments, 159
methacrylates, 151
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 381–384
nylon, 256
nylon 12, 275
nylon 46, 273
nylon 6, 265–266
nylon 6/3T, 276
olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 485
oxidation, 159
PC/ABS alloy, 478
perfl uoroalkoxy (PFA), 234–235
phenolic, 499–501
plasma discharge, 160–161
polyamide-imide (PAI), 283
polyarylamide, 280
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 329–332
polycarbonate (PC), 303–306
polyester, 501
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 244, 250
polyetherimide (PEI), 349–350
polyetherketone (PEK), 249–250
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 249
polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), 250
polyethersulfone (PES), 454
polyethylene (PE), 356
polyethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA), 373
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 316–318
polyimide (PI), 375
polymethylpentene (PMP), 377
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 391
polyphthalamide (PPA), 278
polypropylene (PP), 408–410
polystyrene (PS), 423
polysulfides, 156–157
polysulfone (PSU), 460
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 231
polyurethane (PU), 503
polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 489–490
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 468
pot-life, 154
pressure sensitive, 157
primers, 160
process description, 145–146
rubber alloy, 508
silicone, 156, 503
sodium treatment, 159
solvent cleaning, 158–159INDEX 579
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), 232–233
hot gas welding, 232–233
Ethylene propylene rubber, 507
hot gas welding, 507
laser welding, 507
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 235–238
adhesive bonding, 236–237
heated tool welding, 235
hot gas welding, 236
mechanical fastening, 237–238
ultrasonic welding, 235
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 372
radio frequency welding, 372
Evoprene, 491
Extrusion welding, 73–79
advantages and disadvantages, 73–74
applications, 74
discontinuous welding, 77
equipment, 74–75
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 363
injection welding, 78–79
joint design, 75–76
materials, 74
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 487
polypropylene copolymer, 416–417
polypropylene homopolymer, 412–414
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 229
process description, 73
sheet welding, 77–78
welding parameters, 76–77
F
Fabric, 33–34
Fillers, 18
Film, 33–34, 83
Flash-free welding, 127–129
advantages and disadvantages, 127–128
applications, 128
BCF welding, 127, 129, 512
fl ow fusion welding, 129
high performance fusion welding, 526
equipment, 128–129
materials, 128
pipes, 127
process description, 127
sheet, 127
welding parameters, 129
Flow fusion welding, 129
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 233–234
adhesive bonding, 233–234
hot gas welding, 233
Fluoroelastomer, 507
adhesive bonding, 507
Fluoroplastics, 227–238
Cold staking, 195
Colo-Fast, 503
Corzan, 470
Crastin, 332–333
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), 370
electrofusion welding, 107–110
heated tool welding, 370
Cyclic olefi n copolymer (COC), 373
solvent welding, 373
Cycolac, 427–428, 431, 433–434, 436
Cycoloy, 476–477
Cyrolite, 217–219
Cyrolon, 300
D
Degradation, 517
Delrin, 206–208, 210–212
Desmopan, 487–488
Diallyl phthalate polymer, 497
adhesive bonding, 497–498
Dielectric welding, 57
Dissimilar materials, 20
Dowlex, 369
Durethan, 259–260, 267
Durez, 499–500
Dylark, 444–447
E
Eastar, 315
Ecoflex, 485
Ektar, 479
Elastollan, 487, 491
Elastomeric alloys, 494–496
adhesive bonding, 496
heated tool welding, 494
hot gas welding, 495
induction welding, 495
radio frequency welding, 495
ultrasonic welding, 494–495
vibration welding, 495
Electrofusion welding, 107–110
advantages and disadvantages, 108
cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), 370
equipment, 108–110
process description, 107–108
welding parameters, 110
Electromagnetic welding, 135, 338, 365,
406, 475
Elite, 369
Elpene, 369
EMA welding, 113, 527
Engage, 484
Epoxy, 498–499
adhesive bonding, 498–499580 INDEX
nylon 12, 274
nylon 6, 259–260
nylon 66, 268
olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 483
PC/ABS alloy, 475
PC/PBT alloy, 478–479
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 321–322
polycarbonate (PC), 288–290
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 485
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 241
polyetherimide (PEI), 345
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 248
polyethersulfone (PES), 451–452
polyethylene (PE), 353
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 389
polyphthalamide (PPA), 276–277
polypropylene (PP), 395–398
polypropylene copolymer, 414–415
polypropylene homopolymer, 411
polystyrene (PS), 421
polysulfone (PSU), 457
polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 487–488
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 465
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 227
PPO/PA alloy, 480–481
process description, 3–4
saddle/sidewall fusion welding, 11–12
socket fusion welding, 10–11
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 371
welding by distance, 3
welding by pressure, 3
welding parameters, 7
weld microstructure, 5
Heat sealing, 121–126
advantages and disadvantages, 122
applications, 123
automatic welding, 125
continuous welding, 125–126
equipment, 124–126
hot-bar welding, 121, 124
impulse welding, 121–122, 124–125
ionomer, 239
linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), 369–370
low density polyethylene (LDPE), 357–358
materials, 124
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 381
polycarbonate (PC), 299
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 244
polylactic acid (PLA), 342
polypropylene (PP), 407–408
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 471
process description, 121–122
welding parameters, 126
Fortilene, 398, 406
Fortron, 389–390, 392–393
Friction stir welding, 131–133
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
427–437
advantages and disadvantages, 132
applications, 132
equipment, 133
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 360–368
materials, 133
polypropylene (PP), 395–417
process description, 131–132
reciprocating welding, 131–132
rotational welding, 131
viblade welding, 132
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE),
371–372
welding parameters, 133
G
Geloy, 438, 440
Geon, 465–466
Grilamid, 274–275
Grilon, 251, 254, 256–257
Grivory, 251, 256–257
H
Halar, 232
Heat affected zone (HAZ), 5, 83, 361–362, 397, 525
Heated tool welding, 3–13
acetal, 205–206
acrylic/PVC alloy, 473
acrylic resin, 213
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
427–429
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 437
advantages and disadvantages, 4
applications, 4–5
butt fusion welding, 8–10
cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), 370
elastomeric alloys, 494
equipment, 5–6
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 235
heated wedge welding, 12–13
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 360–362
high temperature welding, 8
impact polystyrene (IPS), 425
joint design, 6–7
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 336
materials, 5
medium density polyethylene (MDPE), 368
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 379
nylon, 251
nylon 11, 273INDEX 581
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 229
process description, 65–66
speed welding, 65–66
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 371
welding parameters, 69–70
Hot plate welding, 8, 38, 98, 205, 259, 396–397,
405, 526
Hot shoe welding, 12, 526
Hot tool welding, 4, 6, 37, 251, 289, 525
HPF welding, 127, 129, 526
Hyflon, 234
Hylar, 227, 229
Hytrel, 485–487
Hyzod, 297
I
Impact polystyrene (IPS), 425–427
adhesive bonding, 427
heated tool welding, 425
solvent welding, 426–427
ultrasonic welding, 425–426
Impet, 315–316, 318–319
Impulse welding, 121–122, 124–125
Induction welding, 113–120
advantages and disadvantages, 114–115
applications, 115
elastomeric alloys, 495–496
equipment, 117–118
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 365
implant, 116–117
joint design, 118–119
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 338
materials, 115–117
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 380–381
nylon 6, 265
nylon 66, 272
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 328–329
polycarbonate (PC), 298–299
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 390–391
polypropylene (PP), 406–407
polypropylene copolymer, 417
polysulfone (PSU), 459
process description, 113–114
welding parameters, 120
work coil, 118
Infrared welding, 97–103
acrylic resin, 215
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
431–432
advantages and disadvantages, 100–101
applications, 101
equipment, 101–102
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 364–365
Heat staking, 196–197
HF welding, 57, 545
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 360–368
adhesive bonding, 367–368
extrusion welding, 363
friction stir welding, 365
heated tool welding, 360–362
hot gas welding, 363
induction welding, 365
infrared welding, 364–365
laser welding, 363–364
microwave welding, 365–367
radio frequency welding, 363
spin welding, 363
ultrasonic welding, 362–363
High frequency welding, 57, 205, 248, 251, 274, 320,
451, 485, 487, 545
Hostacom, 395, 410
Hostaform, 205, 207, 210–211
Hostalen, 371–372, 395, 414, 416
Hot air staking, 197
Hot air welding, 65, 67, 227, 248–249, 453, 458,
487, 526
Hot bar welding, 121, 124
Hot gas welding, 65–71
acetal, 207
acrylic/PVC alloy, 473–474
advantages and disadvantages, 66–67
applications, 67
automatic, 70–71
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), 470
elastomeric alloys, 495
equipment, 67–68
ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), 232–233
ethylene propylene rubber, 507
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 236
fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 233
hand welding, 65–67
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 363
joint design, 68–69
lap welding, 70
materials, 67
modified fluoroalkoxy (MFA), 238
nozzles, 68
perfl uoroalkoxy (PFA), 234
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 327–328
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 487
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 249
polyethersulfone (PES), 453
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 315
polypropylene (PP), 403–404
polysulfone (PSU), 458–459
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 467
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 471582 INDEX
acrylic resin, 214–215
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 438
advantages and disadvantages, 83
applications, 83–87
beam delivery, 88–89
clamping, 89–90
CO2 laser, 82–85, 87–88
clearweld, 83–85, 87, 90
diode laser, 84–85, 88
direct welding, 82
equipment, 87–91
ethylene propylene rubber, 507
fi ber laser, 485
film, 83
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 363–364
joint design, 91
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 337–338
materials, 87
modelling, 94
molded parts, 83–85
monitoring, 90–91
Nd:YAG laser, 82, 84, 87–88
nylon, 254
nylon 6, 263–265
nylon 66, 272
olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 484–485
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 328
polycarbonate (PC), 297–298
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 242–243
polyethersulfone (PES), 453
polyethylene (PE), 355
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 315–316
polyketone, 250
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 390
polypropylene (PP), 404–405
polypropylene copolymer, 417
polystyrene (PS), 422
process description, 81–83
sheet, 83
textiles, 85–87
transmission measurements, 87
transmission welding, 82–83
troubleshooting, 94
types of laser, 87–88
welding parameters, 91–94
Lexan, 288–290, 293–294, 296, 299, 302–303, 306,
313–314, 492
Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), 369
heat sealing, 369
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 336–341
adhesive bonding, 338–340
heated tool welding, 336
induction welding, 338
laser welding, 337–338
Infrared welding (contd.)
joint design, 102
materials, 101
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 328
polyethersulfone (PES), 453–454
polyethylene (PE), 355–356
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 390
polypropylene (PP), 405–406
polysulfone (PSU), 459
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 230–231
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 229–230
process description, 97–100
surface heating, 98–99
through-transmission welding, 99–100
welding parameters, 102–103
Injection welding, 78–79
Inserts, 181–186
Ionomer, 239–240
adhesive bonding, 239
heat sealing, 239
mechanical fastening, 239–240
IR staking, 200
IR welding, 98–102
Isoplast, 419
Ixef, 279–281
J
Joint design
adhesive bonding, 166–171
extrusion welding, 75–76
heated tool welding, 6–7
hot gas welding, 68–69
induction welding, 118–120
infrared welding, 102
laser welding, 91
radio frequency welding, 61–62
solvent welding, 142–143
spin welding, 52–54
ultrasonic welding, 25–31
vibration welding, 42–43
K
Kapton, 299, 375–376
Ketone-based resins, 241–250
Kinel, 502–503
Kodar, 342
Kydex, 473–475
Kynar, 228
L
Laser welding, 81–94
absorbers, 87
absorber application, 90
acetal, 208INDEX 583
nylon 6, 267–268
nylon 66, 273
PC/ABS alloy, 478
permissible deflection, 194
polyamide-imide (PAI), 284–285
polyarylamide, 280–281
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 332–336
polycarbonate (PC), 307–314
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 487
polyetherimide (PEI), 350–351
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 249
polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), 250
polyethersulfone (PES), 455
polyethylene (PE), 357
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 318–319
polyimide (PI), 503
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 392
polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 463–464
polyphthalamide (PPA), 279
polypropylene (PP), 410
polypropylene homopolymer, 414
polystyrene (PS), 424
polysulfone (PSU), 461–462
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 469
pullout strength, 545
rivets, 195
seating torque, 546
self-tapping inserts, 184
self-tapping screws, 176–181
snap-fits, 188–194
staking, 195–200
stress concentrations, 192
stress relaxation, 187–188
stripping torque, 179–180
strip-to-drive ratio, 180, 549
styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA), 445–447
swaging, 200
thermal inserts, 183–184
thread-cutting screws, 177
thread-forming screws, 177
tightening torque, 180
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE),
371–372
ultrasonic inserts, 185–186
ultrasonic staking, 197–200
washers, 175–176
Medium density polyethylene (MDPE), 368
heated tool welding, 368
Microwave welding, 135–137
acrylic resin, 215
advantages and disadvantages, 135–136
applications, 136
equipment, 136–137
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 365–367
mechanical fastening, 340–341
solvent welding, 338
spin welding, 337
ultrasonic welding, 336–337
vibration welding, 337
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 357–360
adhesive bonding, 358–360
heat sealing, 357–358
spin welding, 357
Lucalen, 239, 353, 357, 373
Lucite, 214–215
Lupolen, 353–354, 356–357
Luran, 427–428, 431, 433, 437–438, 440, 442
Lustran, 427, 429, 436, 442, 444
M
Magnetic induction welding, 527
Magnum, 430, 433
Makroblend, 479–480
Makrolon, 288–290, 293, 296, 299, 301, 305, 307,
310–311
Maranyl, 271
Mechanical fastening, 175–200
ABS/PVC alloy, 473
acetal, 211–212
acrylic/PVC alloy, 474
acrylic resin, 223
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS), 436
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 440
annular snap-fits, 188
bolts, 175–176
bosses, 178–180
cantilever beam, 188
cold staking, 195–196
defl ection force, 192
deformation and recovery inserts, 185
disassembly force, 192
engagement force, 192
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 237–238
expansion inserts, 183
gusset supports, 177–178
heat staking, 196–197
hot air staking, 197
inserts, 181–186
interference fits, 187–188
ionomer, 240
IR staking, 200
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 340–342
machine screws, 175–176
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 384–388
molded-in inserts, 181–183
molded-in threads, 181
nuts, 175–176
nylon, 257–259584 INDEX
Nylon 6/3T, 275–276
adhesive bonding, 276
solvent welding, 276
ultrasonic welding, 275–276
Nylon 66, 268–273
heated tool welding, 268
induction welding, 272
laser welding, 272
mechanical fastening, 273
microwave welding, 272
spin welding, 271–272
ultrasonic welding, 268–269
vibration welding, 269–271
O
Olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 483–485
adhesive bonding, 485
heated tool welding, 483
laser welding, 484–485
ultrasonic welding, 483–484
vibration welding, 484
Orbital friction welding, 45–46
Oxychem, 468
P
PC/ABS alloy, 475–478
adhesive bonding, 478
heated tool welding, 475
mechanical fastening, 478
solvent welding, 477–478
ultrasonic welding, 475
vibration welding, 476–477
PC/PBT alloy, 478–479
heated tool welding, 478–479
vibration welding, 479
PC/PCT alloy, 479
solvent welding, 479
PC/PET alloy, 479–480
solvent welding, 480
ultrasonic welding, 479–480
Pellethane, 488–489
Perfl uoroalkoxy (PFA), 234–235
adhesive bonding, 234–235
hot gas welding, 234
Perspex, 98, 221
Phenolic, 499
adhesive bonding, 499
Plastic alloys, 473–482
Plexiglas, 213–215, 220, 222–223
Pocan, 320–321, 325, 327
Polyamide (PA), 251–280
Polyamide-imide (PAI), 283–285
adhesive bonding, 283–284
mechanical fastening, 284–285
Microwave welding (contd.)
materials, 136
nylon 66, 272–273
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 230
process description, 135
welding parameters, 137
Minlon, 257–258, 268–269
Mirror welding, 87–89, 148, 227, 242, 247, 273, 298, 340
Modified fluoroalkoxy (MFA), 238
hot gas welding, 238
Modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 379–388
adhesive bonding, 381–384
heated tool welding, 379
heat sealing, 381
induction welding, 380
mechanical fastening, 384–388
solvent welding, 381
spin welding, 380
ultrasonic welding, 379–380
vibration welding, 380
Moisture, 19
Mold release agents, 19
N
Noncontact heated tool welding, 532
Noryl, 379–382, 384–388, 481–482
Novolen, 401–402
Nylon, 251–259
adhesive bonding, 257–259
heated tool welding, 251
laser welding, 254
mechanical fastening, 259
solvent welding, 254–256
spin welding, 254
ultrasonic welding, 251–253
vibration welding, 253–254
Nylon 11, 273
heated tool welding, 273
Nylon 12, 274–275
adhesive bonding, 275
heated tool welding, 274
solvent welding, 274–275
Nylon 46, 273
adhesive bonding, 273
Nylon 6, 259–268
adhesive bonding, 265–267
heated tool welding, 259–260
induction welding, 265
laser welding, 263–265
mechanical fastening, 267–268
ultrasonic welding, 260
vibration welding, 260–263
Nylon 612, 273
ultrasonic welding, 273INDEX 585
solvent welding, 348–349
ultrasonic welding, 345–346
vibration welding, 346–347
Polyetherketone (PEK), 249
adhesive bonding, 249
Polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 248–249
adhesive bonding, 249
heated tool welding, 248
hot gas welding, 249
mechanical fastening, 249
ultrasonic welding, 248
vibration welding, 248–249
Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), 250
adhesive bonding, 250
mechanical fastening, 250
Polyethersulfone (PES), 451–456
adhesive bonding, 454–455
heated tool welding, 451–452
hot gas welding, 453
infrared welding, 453–454
laser welding, 453
mechanical fastening, 455–456
solvent welding, 454
spin welding, 453
ultrasonic welding, 452
vibration welding, 452–453
Polyethylene (PE), 353–357
adhesive bonding, 356–357
heated tool welding, 353
infrared welding, 355–356
laser welding, 355
mechanical fastening, 357
radio frequency welding, 355
spin welding, 354–355
ultrasonic welding, 353–354
Polyethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA), 373
adhesive bonding, 373
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 342
vibration welding, 342
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 315–319
adhesive bonding, 316–318
hot gas welding, 315
laser welding, 315–316
mechanical fastening, 318–319
solvent welding, 316
ultrasonic welding, 315
Polyimide (PI), 502–503
adhesive bonding, 502–503
mechanical fastening, 503
Polyketone, 250
laser welding, 250
Polylactic acid (PLA), 342–343
heat sealing, 342–343
Polyman, 473
Polyarylamide, 279–281
adhesive bonding, 280
mechanical fastening, 280–281
ultrasonic welding, 279–280
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 319–336
adhesive bonding, 329–332
heated tool welding, 321–322
hot gas welding, 327–328
induction welding, 328–329
infrared welding, 328
laser welding, 328
mechanical fastening, 332–336
solvent welding, 329
spin welding, 327
ultrasonic welding, 322–325
vibration welding, 325–327
Polycarbonate (PC), 287–314
adhesive bonding, 303–307
heated tool welding, 288–290
heat sealing, 299
induction welding, 298–299
laser welding, 297–298
mechanical fastening, 307–314
radio frequency welding, 297
solvent welding, 299–303
spin welding, 297
ultrasonic welding, 290–293
vibration welding, 293–297
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene ethylene terephthalate
(PETG), 342
solvent welding, 342
Polyester, 501
adhesive bonding, 501
Polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 485–487
extrusion welding, 487
heated tool welding, 485
hot gas welding, 487
mechanical fastening, 487
radio frequency welding, 487
ultrasonic welding, 485–486
vibration welding, 486–487
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 241–248
adhesive bonding, 244–248
heated tool welding, 241–242
heat sealing, 244
laser welding, 242–243
resistive implant welding, 243–244
ultrasonic welding, 242
vibration welding, 242
Polyetherimide (PEI), 345–351
adhesive bonding, 349–350
heated tool welding, 345
mechanical fastening, 350–351
resistive implant welding, 347–348586 INDEX
ultrasonic welding, 421–422
vibration welding, 422
Polystyrol, 421–422, 542
Polysulfone (PSU), 456–463
adhesive bonding, 460–461
heated tool welding, 457
hot gas welding, 458–459
induction welding, 459
infrared welding, 459
mechanical fastening, 461–462
solvent welding, 459–460
spin welding, 458
ultrasonic welding, 457–458
vibration welding, 458
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 230–232
adhesive bonding, 231–232
infrared welding, 230–231
Polyurethane (PU)
adhesive bonding, 503
solvent welding, 419
ultrasonic welding, 419
Polyurethane rubber
ultrasonic welding, 508
Polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 487–491
adhesive bonding, 489–491
heated tool welding, 487–488
radio frequency welding, 488–489
ultrasonic welding, 488
vibration welding, 488
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 465–470
adhesive bonding, 468–469
heated tool welding, 465
hot gas welding, 467
mechanical fastening, 469–470
radio frequency welding, 466–467
solvent welding, 467–468
ultrasonic welding, 465–466
vibration welding, 466
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 471
heat sealing, 471
hot gas welding, 471
ultrasonic welding, 471
Polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 227–230
extrusion welding, 229
heated tool welding, 227
hot gas welding, 229
infrared welding, 229–230
microwave welding, 230
solvent welding, 230
spin welding, 228–229
ultrasonic welding, 227–228
vibration welding, 228
PPO/PA alloy, 480–482
heated tool welding, 480–481
Polymer coated materials joining, 541
Polymethylpentene (PMP), 377–378
adhesive bonding, 377–378
Polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 389–393
adhesive bonding, 391–392
heated tool welding, 389
induction welding, 390–391
infrared welding, 390
laser welding, 390
mechanical fastening, 392–393
resistive implant welding, 390
spin welding, 390
ultrasonic welding, 389–390
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 463
mechanical fastening, 463
Polyphthalamide (PPA), 276–279
adhesive bonding, 278–279
heated tool welding, 276–277
mechanical fastening, 279
spin welding, 277–278
ultrasonic welding, 277
vibration welding, 277
Polypropylene (PP), 395–411
adhesive bonding, 408–410
friction stir welding, 408
heated tool welding, 395–398
heat sealing, 407–408
hot gas welding, 403–404
induction welding, 406–407
infrared welding, 405–406
laser welding, 404–405
mechanical fastening, 410–411
resistive implant welding, 406
ultrasonic welding, 398–400
vibration welding, 400–403
Polypropylene copolymer, 414–417
extrusion welding, 416–417
heated tool welding, 414–415
induction welding, 417
laser welding, 417
vibration welding, 415–416
Polypropylene homopolymer, 411–414
extrusion welding, 412–414
heated tool welding, 411–412
mechanical fastening, 414
ultrasonic welding, 412
vibration welding, 412
Polystyrene (PS), 421–425
adhesive bonding, 423–424
heated tool welding, 421
laser welding, 422
mechanical fastening, 424–425
solvent welding, 422–423
spin welding, 422INDEX 587
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 390
polypropylene (PP), 406
process description, 105–106
welding parameters, 106–107
RF welding, 57–61
Rotary friction welding, 49
Rubber alloy, 508
adhesive bonding, 508
Rubbers, 507–508
Rulon, 231
Rynite, 315–316, 318–319
Ryton, 389, 392–393
S
Saddle fusion welding, 11
Santoprene, 494–496
Saranex, 471
Sarlink, 483, 485, 494, 496
Screws, 175–176
Shinko-Lac, 438–439
Shinkolite, 216
Silicone, 503
adhesive bonding, 503
Snap-fits, 188–193
Socket fusion welding, 10–11, 360, 395, 411, 414–415
Solef, 227–230
Solvent welding, 139–143
ABS/PVC alloy, 473
acetal, 208
acrylic/PVC alloy, 474
acrylic resin, 215–221
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS), 433
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 438
advantages and disadvantages, 140
applications, 140
blushing, 139
capillary method, 142
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), 470
cyclic olefi n copolymer (COC), 373
dip method, 142
equipment, 141–142
impact polystyrene (IPS), 426
joint design, 142–143
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 338
materials, 140–141
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 381
nylon, 254–256
nylon 12, 274–275
nylon 6/3T, 276
PC/ABS alloy, 477
PC/PCT alloy, 479
PC/PET alloy, 480
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 329
polycarbonate (PC), 299–303
solvent welding, 482
vibration welding, 481–482
PPO/PPS alloy, 482
vibration welding, 482
Prevex, 381, 383
Profax, 408–409
Pulse, 476
Q
Questra, 424
R
Radel, 455–456, 463
Radio frequency welding, 57–62
advantages and disadvantages, 58
applications, 58–59
barrier materials, 61
cooling time, 62
control unit, 59
elastomeric alloys, 495
enclosure, 59–60
equipment, 59–61
ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 372
generator, 59
handling mechanism, 60–61
heating time, 62
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 363
joint design, 61
materials, 59
platen temperature, 62–63
polycarbonate (PC), 297
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 487
polyethylene (PE), 355
polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 488
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 466
power, 59, 62
press, 59
pressure, 62
process description, 57–58
styrenic thermoplastic elastomer, 491
tear/seal welding, 61–62
tooling, 61
vinyl thermoplastic elastomer, 492
weld depth, 62
welding parameters, 61–63
Resilin, 369
Resistive implant welding, 105–110
advantages and disadvantages, 106
applications, 106
electrofusion welding, 107–110
equipment, 106
materials, 106
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 243
polyetherimide (PEI), 347588 INDEX
Spot welding
ultrasonic, 32–33
Staking, 195–200
Stanyl, 273
Starex, 442
Stratofilm, 358
Stress concentration, 22, 168–170, 187–188, 548
Stress cracking, 162
Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), 440–444
adhesive bonding, 442–444
solvent welding, 442
ultrasonic welding, 440–442
Styrene-butadiene copolymer, 448–449
solvent welding, 449
ultrasonic welding, 448–449
Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA),
444–448
adhesive bonding, 445
mechanical fastening, 445–448
solvent welding, 445
ultrasonic welding, 444
vibration welding, 444–445
Styrenics, 421–449
Styrenic thermoplastic elastomer, 491
adhesive bonding, 491
radio frequency welding, 491
Styrolux, 448
Styron, 421–424, 426–427
Sulfone-based resins, 451–463
Supec, 391
Surlyn, 239–240
Swaging, 200
T
Tedur, 390
Teflon, 230–236
Tefzel, 235, 237–238
Tenite, 225
Terluran, 427–428, 431, 433
Thermofil, 401
Thermoplastic elastomers, 483–496
Thermosets, 497–504
Topas, 373
Torlon, 283–285
Triax, 475
Trogamid, 275–276
Tuffak, 287, 300, 305, 307
Tyril, 441–442, 444
U
Udel, 456–461
Ultem, 345–351, 492
Ultradur, 320, 328–329, 331, 334
Ultraform, 205, 208, 211–212, 438
Solvent welding (contd.)
polycyclohexylenedimethylene ethylene terephthalate
(PETG), 342
polyetherimide (PEI), 348–349
polyethersulfone (PES), 454
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 316
polystyrene (PS), 422
polysulfone (PSU), 459
polyurethane (PU), 419
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 467
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 230
PPO/PA alloy, 482
process description, 139–140
soak method, 142
solvent affected zone (SAZ), 139
solvent cement, 139–140
styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), 442
styrene-butadiene copolymer, 449
styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA), 445
vinyl thermoplastic elastomer, 492
welding parameters, 143
Spectar, 315–318
Spin welding, 49–55
acetal, 207
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
(ABS), 431
advantages and disadvantages, 50
applications, 50
direct-drive welding, 55
drive pin, 52
equipment, 51–52
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 363
inertia welding, 50
joint design, 52–54
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 337
low density polyethylene (LDPE), 357
materials, 50–51
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 380
nylon, 254
nylon 66, 271
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 327
polycarbonate (PC), 297
polyethersulfone (PES), 453
polyethylene (PE), 354
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 390
polyphthalamide (PPA), 277
polystyrene (PS), 422
polysulfone (PSU), 458
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 228–229
run-up time, 55
tooling, 52
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 371
welding parameters, 54–55INDEX 589
olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 483
part design, 30–31
PC/ABS alloy, 475
PC/PET alloy, 479
polyarylamide, 279
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 322–324
polycarbonate (PC), 290–292
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 485
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 242
polyetherimide (PEI), 345
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 248
polyethersulfone (PES), 452
polyethylene (PE), 353
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 315
polymer structure, 16–18
polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 389
polyphthalamide (PPA), 277
polypropylene (PP), 398–399
polypropylene homopolymer, 412
polystyrene (PS), 421
polysulfone (PSU), 457
polyurethane (PU), 419
polyurethane rubber, 508
polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 488
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 465
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 471
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 227
power supply, 20–21
pressure, 15, 31
process control, 32
process description, 15
shear joint, 28–30
sonotrode, 22
spot welding, 32–33
styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), 440–441
styrene-butadiene copolymer, 448
styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA), 444
transducer, 21
trigger force, 31
trigger point, 553
vinyl thermoplastic elastomer, 491
welding parameters, 31–32
weld time, 31
Ultrax, 337
V
Valox, 321, 323–329, 332, 334–336, 346
Vandar, 319
Vectra, 336–341
Verton, 401
Vespel, 375–376
Vestamid, 274–276
Vestodur, 320, 329, 331
Vestolen, 413, 416–417
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE),
371–372
adhesive bonding, 371
friction stir welding, 371
heated tool welding, 371
hot gas welding, 371
mechanical fastening, 371–372
spin welding, 371
Ultramid, 251, 254–255, 258–259
Ultrapek, 248–249
Ultrason, 451–461
Ultrasonic welding, 15–33
acetal, 206
acrylic/PVC alloy, 473
acrylic resin, 213
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS),
429–430
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 437
actuator, 23
advantages and disadvantages, 15–16
amplitude, 32
applications, 16
booster, 21
control, 24
diaphragmming, 31
dissimilar materials, 19–20
elastomeric alloys, 494
energy director, 26–28
equipment, 20–25
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 235
fabrics, 33–34
far fi eld, 15, 31–32
fi llers and reinforcements, 18
films, 33–34fi
xtures, 23–24
frequency, 31
gain, 22
generator, 20–21
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 362
horns, 22–23
impact polystyrene (IPS), 425
joint design, 25–31
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 336
materials, 16–20
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 379
moisture, 19
mold release agents, 19
near fi eld, 15, 32
nylon, 251–252
nylon 6, 260
nylon 612, 273
nylon 6/3T, 275
nylon 66, 268
oil-canning, 518590 INDEX
polypropylene homopolymer, 412
polystyrene (PS), 422
polysulfone (PSU), 458
polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer, 488
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 466
polyvinylidene fl uoride (PVDF), 228
PPO/PA alloy, 481
PPO/PPS alloy, 482
process description, 37
styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA), 444
welding parameters, 43–45
Victrex, 241–242, 244–249
Vinyl ester, 504–505
adhesive bonding, 504–505
Vinyls, 465–471
Vinyl thermoplastic elastomer, 491–494
adhesive bonding, 492–494
radio frequency welding, 492
solvent welding, 492
ultrasonic welding, 491–492
Viton, 507
W
Washers, 175–176
Weld factor, 229, 298, 357, 363, 402, 556
Weld time, 31
X
Xenoy, 479
Xydar, 338
Z
Zemid, 354
Zenite, 337
Zytel, 251, 253, 255, 257, 261, 263, 268–270, 27
Vestolit, 465
Viblade welding, 132–133
Vibration welding, 37–46
acetal, 207
acrylic resin, 214
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS), 431
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer (ASA), 438
advantages and disadvantages, 37–38
angular friction welding, 46
applications, 38–39
elastomeric alloys, 495
equipment, 40–42
IR preheat, 45
joint design, 42–43
liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 337
materials, 39–40
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide, 380
nylon, 253
nylon 6, 260–262
nylon 66, 269–270
olefi nic thermoplastic elastomer, 484
orbital friction welding, 45–46
PC/ABS alloy, 476
PC/PBT alloy, 479
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 325–326
polycarbonate (PC), 293–296
polyester thermoplastic elastomer, 486
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 242
polyetherimide (PEI), 346
polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), 248
polyethersulfone (PES), 452
polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 342
polyphthalamide (PPA), 277
polypropylene (PP), 400–402
polypropylene copolymer, 415

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