Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
اسم المؤلف
Andrew Y. C. Nee
التاريخ
30 يوليو 2023
المشاهدات
509
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
Andrew Y. C. Nee
Editor
Contents
Volume 1
Section I Forming and Joining: Materials Forming – Forming
of Polymer and Composite Materials . 1
Yu Suzhu
1 Fundamentals of Polymers and Polymer Composite . 3
Alok Chaurasia, Nanda Gopal Sahoo, Mian Wang, Chaobin He, and
Vishal Tukaram Mogal
2 Properties and Applications of Polymer Nanocomposite 43
Alok Chaurasia, Yu Suzhu, Cheng Kuo Feng Henry,
Vishal Tukaram Mogal, and Sampa Saha
3 Polymer Surface Treatment and Coating Technologies 99
Mary Gilliam
4 Polymer Foam Technology . 125
Xiao Hu, Erwin Merijn Wouterson, and Ming Liu
Section II Forming and Joining: Metal Forming 169
Mehrdad Zarinejad
5 Bulk Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing . 171
Ehsan Ghassemali, Xu Song, Mehrdad Zarinejad, Danno Atsushi, and
Ming Jen Tan
6 Materials in Metal Forming 231
Sridhar Idapalapati, Xu Song, N. Venkata Reddy,
Narasimalu Srikanth, Farshid Pahlevani, Karthic R. Narayanan,
and Mehrdad Zarinejad
7 Roll Forming 285
Michael Lindgren, Jonas Edberg, and Lars-Erik Lindgren
xxiii8 Metal Casting . 309
Anders E. W. Jarfors and Salem Seifeddine
9 Incremental Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing . 411
N. Venkata Reddy, Rakesh Lingam, and Jian Cao
10 Combined Sheet and Bulk Forming of High Value Added
Components in Manufacturing 453
Atsushi Danno
11 Powder Processing of Bulk Components in Manufacturing . 487
Andrew Ruys, Oana Gingu, Gabriela Sima, and Saeed Maleksaeedi
Section III Forming and Joining: Materials Joining 567
Wei Jun and Wei Zhou
12 Solid State Welding Processes in Manufacturing . 569
Junfeng Guo
13 Arc Welding 593
N. Kishore Babu, Mahesh Kumar Talari, Sun Zheng, Pan Dayou,
S. Jerome, and V. Muthupandi
14 High Energy Beam Welding Processes in Manufacturing . 617
Chen Hui-Chi, Bi Guijun, and Sun Chen-Nan
15 Solid State Microjoining Processes in Manufacturing 641
Sharon Mui Ling Nai, Murali Sarangapani, and Johnny Yeung
16 Process of Nanojoining 685
Xiaoying Qi, Tey Ju Nie, and Ho Xinning
17 Solder Joint Technology . 713
Sharon Mui Ling Nai, Long Bin Tan, and Cheryl Selvanayagam
18 Adhesive Bonding Technology 765
Shantanu Bhowmik, R. Benedictus, and Yu Dan
Volume 2
Section IV Machining and Tolerancing Systems: Machining 785
Sathyan Subbiah and Hongyu Zheng
19 Science of Machining . 787
Sathyan Subbiah
20 Machine Tools for Machining 811
Irving Paul Girsang and Jaspreet Singh Dhupia
xxiv Contents21 Machining Dynamics in Manufacturing 867
Jeong Hoon Ko
22 Machinability of Engineering Materials 899
Hongyu Zheng and Kui Liu
23 Machining Process Monitoring . 941
Huaizhong Li and Yun Chen
24 Coolant and Lubrication in Machining . 981
Ramesh Singh and Vivek Bajpai
25 Fixed Abrasive Machining . 1019
Fu Yucan and Yang Changyong
26 Loose Abrasive Machining . 1051
Takashi Sato, Swee Hock Yeo, and Hamid Zarepour
27 Mechanical Micro-machining . 1089
Kushendarsyah Saptaji
28 Hybrid Machining Processes . 1109
Murali Meenakshi Sundaram
29 Environmentally Friendly Machining 1127
Fu Zhao and Abhay Sharma
30 Simulation in Machining 1155
Vis Madhavan
31 Virtual Machining . 1185
Peiling Liu and Cheng-Feng Zhu
Section V Machining and Tolerancing
Systems: Tolerancing System 1249
Ping Ji
32 Computer Aided Angular Tolerance Charting
System: Implementation . 1251
Jianbin Xue and Ping Ji
Volume 3
Section VI Nanomanufacturing and Non-Traditional
Machining: Nanomanufacturing Using Ion Beam Technology 1275
Zong Wei Xu and Fengzhou Fang
33 Introduction to Nanomanufacturing Using Ion Beam Technology 1277
Fengzhou Fang
Contents xxv34 State-of-the-Art for Nanomanufacturing Using
Ion Beam Technology . 1279
Fengzhou Fang and Zongwei Xu
35 Ion Beam Instruments Used for Nanomanufacturing 1317
Wuxia Li and Changzhi Gu
36 Ion Beam Figuring Technology . 1343
Xuhui Xie and Shengyi Li
37 Focused Ion Beam Nanofabrication Technology 1391
Zongwei Xu, Fengzhou Fang, and Guosong Zeng
38 Nanometric Cutting of Crystal Surfaces Modified by
Ion Implantation . 1425
Yunhui Chen and Fengzhou Fang
39 Micro Tools Fabrication by Focused Ion Beam Technology . 1473
Wei Wu, Wanli Li, Fengzhou Fang, and Zong Wei Xu
40 Nano-gap Electrodes Developed Using Focused
Ion Beam Technology . 1513
Takashi Nagase
41 Plasma-Based Nanomanufacturing Under
Atmospheric Pressure . 1529
Kazuya Yamamura and Yasuhisa Sano
Section VII Nanomanufacturing and Non-Traditional
Machining: Non-Traditional Machining Processes 1549
Hong Hocheng and Hung-Yin Tsai
42 Electrical Discharge Machining Processes . 1551
Masanori Kunieda
43 Chemical Mechanical Machining Process . 1581
Toshiro Doi
44 Process of Laser Machining 1601
George Chryssolouris, Panagiotis Stavropoulos, and
Konstantinos Salonitis
45 Process of Ultrasonic Machining 1629
Weilong Cong and Zhijian Pei
46 WaterJet Machining Process . 1651
Mohamed Hashish
47 Process of Biological Machining . 1687
Hong Hocheng and Umesh Jadhav
xxvi ContentsVolume 4
Section VIII Robotics and Automation 1715
Guilin Yang
48 Rigid-Body Motions 1717
Zhenhua Xiong, Chungang Zhuang, and Jianhua Wu
49 Manipulator Kinematics . 1777
Ashitava Ghosal
50 Manipulator Velocities and Static Forces . 1809
Dan Zhang, Kailiang Zhang, and Andreas Mu¨ller
51 Manipulator Dynamics 1855
Shaoping Bai, Lelai Zhou, and Guanglei Wu
52 Trajectory Planning 1873
Quang-Cuong Pham
53 Motion Control 1889
Chien Chern Cheah and Reza Haghighi
54 Force Control . 1933
Rolf Johansson, Klas Nilsson, and Anders Robertsson
55 Actuation . 1967
Lorenzo Masia
56 Robot Work Cell Calibration and Error Compensation 1995
Pey Yuen Tao, Shabbir Kurbanhusen Mustafa, Guilin Yang, and
Masayoshi Tomizuka
57 Grippers and End-Effectors 2035
Wenjie Chen, Su Zhao, and Siew Loong Chow
58 Simulation and Offline Programming for
Contact Operations . 2071
N. D. Vuong, T. M. Lim, and G. Yang
59 Parallel Robots 2091
Yan Jin, He´le`ne Chanal, and Flavien Paccot
60 Modular Robots . 2129
I-Ming Chen
61 Cable-Driven Robots . 2169
Shabbir Kurbanhusen Mustafa, Wen Bin Lim, Guilin Yang,
Song Huat Yeo, Wei Lin, and Sunil Kumar Agrawal
Contents xxvii62 Compliant Manipulators 2229
Tat Joo Teo, Guilin Yang, and I-Ming Chen
63 Autonomous In-door Vehicles 2301
Jun Feng Dong, Sean Efrem Sabastian, Tao Ming Lim, and
Yuan Ping Li
64 Robotic Assembly 2347
Heping Chen, Biao Zhang, and George Zhang
65 Robotic Welding . 2403
Wei Lin and Hong Luo
66 Robotic Finishing 2445
Yeow Cheng Sun and Chow Yin Lai
Volume 5
Section IX Additive Manufacturing and Surface
Technology – Additive Manufacturing-Rapid Prototyping,
Tooling & Manufacturing 2469
David SK Wong
67 Rapid Manufacturing Using FDM Systems 2471
Allen Kreemer and Zaw Hlwan Moe
68 Reverse Engineering for Additive Manufacturing . 2485
Bill Macy
69 Rapid Prototyping in Manufacturing . 2505
Jesse Hanssen, Zaw Hlwan Moe, Desmond Tan, and
Ong Yong Chien
70 Rapid Tooling in Manufacturing 2525
Chee Kai Chua, Kah Fai Leong, and Zhong Hong Liu
71 Micro Prototyping and Fabrication in Manufacturing . 2551
Ian Gibson
72 Micro- and Bio-Rapid Prototyping Using Drop-On-Demand
3D Printing . 2567
J. Y. H. Fuh, J. Sun, E. Q. Li, Jinlan Li, Lei Chang, G. S. Hong,
Y. S. Wong, and E. S. Thian
xxviii ContentsSection X Additive Manufacturing and Surface
Technology: Surface Technology . 2585
Guojun Qi and Sam Zhang
73 Foresight of the Surface Technology in Manufacturing 2587
Leszek A. Dobrzan´ski and Anna D. Dobrzanska-Danikiewicz
74 Laser Surface Engineering . 2639
Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar and Indranil Manna
75 Laser Surface Treatment in Manufacturing . 2677
Leszek A. Dobrzan´ski, Anna D. Dobrzan´ska-Danikiewicz,
Tomasz Tan´ski, Ewa Jonda, Aleksandra Drygała, and
Miroslaw Bonek
76 Physical Vapor Deposition in Manufacturing 2719
Leszek A. Dobrzan´ski, Klaudiusz Gołombek, and
Krzysztof Lukaszkowicz
77 Chemical Vapor Deposition in Manufacturing . 2755
Leszek A. Dobrzan´ski, Daniel Pakula, and Marcin Staszuk
78 Thermal and Cold Spraying Technology in Manufacturing . 2805
Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar
79 Electrochemical Processes in Manufacturing 2851
Adnan Younis, Dewei Chu, and Sean Li
80 Electrochemical Deposition and Mechanical Property
Enhancement of the Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Films 2891
Chen-Kuei Chung and Wei-Tse Chang
81 Magnetron Sputtering Technique . 2929
Manuel Braun
82 ALD: Atomic Layer Deposition – Precise and Conformal
Coating for Better Performance . 2959
Wei He
83 Surface Modification of Semiconductor by Simultaneous
Thermal Oxidation and Nitridation 2997
Kuan Yew Cheong and Yew Hoong Wong
84 Surface Treatments for Magnesium Alloys 3031
Xuecheng Dong
Contents xxix85 Thermal Stress Analysis and Characterization of
Themo-Mechanical Properties of Thin Films on an
Elastic Substrate . 3055
Ying Yong Hu and Wei Min Huang
Volume 6
Section XI Product Life Cycle and Manufacturing
Simulation: Product Life Cycle and Green Manufacturing . 3135
Bin Song
86 Remanufacturing and Remaining Useful Life Assessment 3137
Hongchao Zhang, Shujie Liu, Huitian Lu, Yuanliang Zhang, and
Yawei Hu
87 Product Design for Remanufacturing 3195
S. S. Yang, S. K. Ong, and A. Y. C. Nee
88 Product Service Supply-Chain Design 3219
Zhitao Xu, XG Ming, Tengyun Wu, and Maokuan Zheng
89 Remaining Life Prediction of Cores Based on Data-driven
and Physical Modeling Methods . 3239
Xiang Li, Wen Feng Lu, Lianyin Zhai, Meng Joo Er, and
Yongping Pan
90 Use of Embedded Smart Sensors in Products to Facilitate
Remanufacturing 3265
H. C. Fang, S. K. Ong, and A. Y. C. Nee
91 Pricing Strategies of Remanufacturing Business with
Replacement Purchase 3291
Lei Jing, Boray Huang, and Xue Ming Yuan
92 Diesel Engine Block Remanufacturing: Life Cycle
Assessment . 3313
Hong-Chao Zhang, Tao Li, Zhichao Liu, and Qiuhong Jiang
93 Sustainable Value Creation in Manufacturing at Product and
Process Levels: Metrics-Based Evaluation . 3343
Fazleena Badurdeen, Mohannad A. Shuaib, Tao Lu, and
I. S. Jawahir
94 Product Characteristic Based Method for End-of-Life Product
Recovery . 3377
Yen Ting Ng and Bin Song
95 Life Cycle Management of LCD Televisions – Case Study 3405
Guoqing Jin and Weidong Li
xxx ContentsSection XII Product Life Cycle and Manufacturing
Simulation: Manufacturing Simulation and Optimization 3437
Manoj Kumar Tiwari
96 Resource Scalability in Networked Manufacturing
System: Social Network Analysis Based Approach 3439
Vijaya Kumar Manupati, Goran Putnik, and Manoj Kumar Tiwari
97 Improved Intelligent Water Drops Optimization
Algorithm for Achieving Single and Multiple Objective
Job Shop Scheduling Solutions 3451
S. H. Niu, S. K. Ong, and A. Y. C. Nee
98 Process Plan and Scheduling Integration for Networked
Manufacturing Using Mobile-Agent Based Approach 3475
V. K. Manupati, S. N. Dwivedi, and M. K. Tiwari
Index 3487
Index
A
Abnormal grain growth, 582
Abrasive flow machining (AFM), 1056–1058
Accessibility matrix, 2136–2138
Accuracy in IF, 434, 436
Acid etching, 103, 119
Acid pickling, 3037
Ackermann steering, 2310
Acoustic emission (AE) technique, 1074
Acquisition return, 3295, 3300
Actuator, 2053, 2117
Adaptive control (AC), 1899–1903,
1920–1921, 2119
Adaptive Jacobian tracking controller,
1909–1915, 1922–1925
Addition polymerization, 7
Additive manufacturing (AM), 2486,
2508–2510, 2526–2527, 2552–2555,
2568
Adept courier, 2341
Adept Lynx, 2327
Adept Smart VisionTM, 2000, 2002
Adjoint representation, 2002–2003
Aerial robots, 2302
Ageing, 385
Alloy steel, 401–403, 2971
Aluminium, 913
Aluminum alloys, 314, 377–388
classification, 379
Cu in, 381
defect formation, 386–388
Fe in, 382
furnaces types, 314
impurities, 382
mechanical properties, 380
microstructure, 378–386
pure Al, 377
solidification, 378
Amorphous polymers, 143–144
Anode, 598–599
Anodizing methods, 3043–3044
Anomalous codeposition, 2893, 2897, 2906
Approximate Jacobian set-point controller,
1903–1909, 1921–1922
Arc column, 598
Arc discharge, 1553, 1562
Arc plasma, 1562
Arc welding, 594
Argon-oxygen-decarburization converter, 327
Artificial ageing, 386
Assembly automation, 2353, 2368–2372
Assembly configuration evaluation function
(ACEF), 2155
Assembly incidence matrix (AIM), 2133
ASTM F42, 2498, 2510
Asus Xtion, 2323
Asymptotically optimal method,
1881–1882
Atmospheric-pressure plasma, 1529
Atomic layer deposition (ALD), 2959
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs), 2303,
2438
Autonomous guided robot, 2303
Automatic robotic welding programming,
2438–2442
Autonomous indoor vehicles (AIV), 2302,
2319, 2324, 2328, 2336–2337,
2340–2344
Care-O-Bot, 2338–2339
exteroceptive sensors, 2319–2324
industrial applications, 2340
localization, 2328–2333
map construction, 2333–2334
path planning, 2334–2335
Pioneer 3 DX platform, 2338
PR2, 2339–2340
Autonomous indoor vehicles (AIV) (cont.)
proprioceptive sensors, 2324–2328
Roomba robot, 2336–2337. (See also
Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs))
Autonomous randomized robots, 2303
B
Ball grid array (BGA), 738
Ball wheel, 841, 2308
Ball nose mill, 835
Band offset, 3001
Barrel finishing, 1063–1064
Batch ALD reactor, 2980–2983
Bending test, 3113
Best fit alignment method, 2499–2500
Biaxial stretching, 421, 423, 429
Bilayer structures, 3077–3080, 3099
Binder jetting, 2512
Bioactive coating, 2575
Biomachining, 1687
Biomedical applications, 45, 48
Biopolymers classification, 45
Bitmap patterning method, 1288–1289, 1395
Bonding mechanism, 2814–2815
Boring machine, 819–820
Brittle materials, 927–928
Brittle removal modes, 1083, 1085
Broaching machine, 839
Broad beam instruments, 1337
Brockett theorem, 2318
Bubble,1562
Bulk forming, 483, 484
Burr, 1098–1101
C
Cable-driven robots, 2170, 2172
Cable tension planning, 2215–2220
CAD model, 2493–2495
Calibration, 2005, 2010, 2012, 2028
Calibration fixture, 2478–2480
benefits of, 2480–2842
design for DDM, 2478–2479
dual control stick system, 2479
performance of, 2480
Cam actuation, 2045–2046
Capacitive sensor, 2057
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 55, 68–70,
699–700
Carbon steels, 399
Care-O-Bot, 2338–2339
Car-like drive WMR, 2310
Casting, 275–280
defects, 276
heat treatment, 279–281
surface cleaning, 278–279
segregation, 277, 279
Casting/pouring, 313
cost, 407–408
materials, 366
Cast iron, 319–325, 366–368, 375
defect formations, 375
melting, 319
Castor wheel, 2305–2306
Cathode, 597–598
Cell survival rate, 2581
Cemented carbides, 252
Centered steering wheel, 2305
Centre lathe, 816
Centreless grinding machine, 845–847
Ceramics, 253, 930–931, 2841, 2844–2845
Chain growth, 6. See also Addition
polymerization
Channeling effect, 1291
Chemical conversion coating, 3038–3039
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP),
1053–1055
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 2761–2764
coating, 2797
Chip-interconnect metallization, 2877, 2878
Chronoamperometry, 2916–2918
Cladding, 608–609
Clamps, 2423
Classification of adhesives, 770–772
Cleaning, 3033
Cleaning process, 3008–3009,
3033–3034
Closed cell foams, 128
Closed-loop kinematics, 859. See also
Parallel kinematic machine tools
(PKMTs)
Coatings, 116, 2834–2835, 2841, 2844
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
3065, 3067, 3069
Cold forging, 457
Cold metal transfer (CMT), 2411
Cold spray, 2808, 2828–2829, 2831
Cold welding, 571
Collaborative network, 3444, 3446
Column-and-knee-type machines, 831
Column mounted robot, 2420
Compensations, 440, 443, 446, 2016–2017,
2019
Compliance, 2456, 2461
Compliant gripper, 2059
3488 IndexCompliant manipulator, 2239, 2246, 2281, 2289
fatigue failure, 2242–2245
high positioning resolution actuators,
2281–2283
history, 2239
topology optimization approach, 2275–2281
Composites, 932, 2248
Compound linear spring mechanism, 2248
Comprehensive assessment, 3152
Compression properties, 138–139
Compressive residual stress, 2893
Computed torque control (CTC), 2118
Computer aided engineering (CAE) systems,
289, 853
Computer numerical control (CNC), 853
Conceptual modeling, 2519
Conducting polymers, 2868–2872
Configuration optimization, 2153–2154
Configuration space, 1876
Configuration state space model, 2316
Conformal cooling, 2530, 2538
Connecting port, 2134
Connex process, 2557
Container, 184, 199, 218
Continuous inkjet printing, 2569–2570
Contour tool path, 415, 444–446
Conventional face milling, 835
Coordinate measurement machines (CMM),
318, 392, 2000, 2489
melting, 318–319
Copper alloys, 917
Corona, 104
Corrosion and ware resistant, 2856–2857, 2990
Cost, 654
Cost design, casting, 407–408
Creep feed grinding machine, 847
CrossBeam systems, 1319
Cross-section geometry inspection (CGI), 2489
Crystalline polymer, 128, 143–144
Curvature, 3072–3073, 3106, 3108
Cutting edge radius, 1092
Cutting fluids, 985, 998
contact conditions and geometry, 986, 997
coolant flow rates, 997
Cutting speed
drilling, 825
lathe, 817
milling, 833
Cutting tools
multipoint, 814, 824. (See also Multipoint
cutting tools; Single-point cutting tools)
single-point, 814. (See also Multipoint
cutting tools; Single-point cutting tools)
Cycle time reduction, 842, 2516
Cylindrical grinding machine, 842
D
Data acquisition (DAQ), 956–959
Debris, 1100, 1564, 1569, 1573, 2446–2448,
2454, 2461, 2463
Decision making, 3149, 3397–3401
Dedicated manufacturing systems (DMS),
375, 381, 386
aluminum alloys, 377, 386–388
cast irons, 375
Defects, 570, 586–587, 2418
Delta3 compliant manipulator, 2238
Denavit-Hartenburg (D-H) method, 2138–2139
Dendritic segregation, 277–278
Density of states, 688–690
Deposition, 2707
Deposition rate, 609–610
Design for remanufacturing, 3196–3197
Detonation gun spraying, 2827
Diamond robot, 2095
Dielectric coatings, 2844–2845
Dielectric constant, 1589, 2290, 2291,
3000–3001
Dielectric liquid, 1556, 1563, 1568
Diesel engine, 3324
Dies, 827–828
Differential drive WMR, 2309–2312
car-like drive, 2310
instantaneous center of rotation, 2311–2312
omnidirectional, 2312–2314
synchronous drive, 2311
tricycle, 2311
Differential kinematics, 1811
Diffractive optical element (DOE), 1486
Diffusion bonding, 587–588
Diffusion coefficient, 2918
Digital compass, 2319–2320
Digital thread, 2486
Dilution, 632
Dimensional synthesis 2102
Direct-current, 2894–2897, 2899–2900
Direct digital manufacturing (DDM),
2472–2473, 2476, 2478–2479
in aerospace, 2475
in automotive, 2476–2478
calibration fixture, 2478. (See also
Calibration fixture)
camera mount, 2475
Direct drive pumps, 1657
Directed energy deposition, 2514
Index 3489Direct hard tooling, 2537–2538
Direct kinematics, 1789–1790
Direct manufacturing, 2530
Direct numerical control (DNC), 853
Direct rapid tooling, 2541
Direct soft tooling, 2533
Disassembly planning, 3407, 3415, 3432
Discharge crater, 1568
Discharge current, 1557, 1559, 1565
Discharge delay time, 1571–1572
Discharge duration, 1553, 1559, 1560, 1566,
1571, 1576–1577
Discharge energy, 1560, 1566
Discharge gap, 1559, 1575
Discharge interval, 1560
Discharge location, 1553, 1570, 1572–1573
Discharge voltage, 1557, 1562
Displacement modeling, 2100
DoD Cell printing, 2578–2579
2-DOF CDR, 2205–2207, 2211
2-DOF orientation, 2206–2207
3-DOF orientation, 2207–2209
3-DOF CDR, 2207
Double compound linear spring mechanism,
2248
Double sided incremental forming (DSIF),
416–417, 441
Dow 17, 3044–3045
Drag finishing, 1065
Drilling, 1644–1645
Drilling machine, 824
Drop-on-demand 3D inkjet printing,
2568–2569, 2883
Drug delivery, 2883–2885
Dual control stick system, 2479
Ductile cast iron, 371–372
Ductile mode machining, 928–929
Ductile removal modes, 1083–1085
DYNACUT, quick milling optimization
software, 892
Dynamic calibration, 2114–2115
Dynamic fuzzy neural networks, 3250.
See also Fuzzy neural networks
Dynamic model, 2149
Dynamics equation, 1891–1894
E
Ejected scaffold, 2575
Elastic emission machining (EEM), 1055–1056
Elastic-plastic analysis, 3082–3087
Electrical discharge machining (EDM),
1553, 1556
Electric-arc spray process, 2822
Electric gripper, 2037
Electric motor, 2053
Electrochemical microfabrication, 2872–2880
Electrochemical process, 2853
Electrocrystallization, 2918–2919
Electrodeposition, 2894, 2902–2904
Electrohydrodynamic jet printing (E-jetting),
2571–2573
Electromagnet, 2039
Electroplating, 2895–2896, 2343
Elettric80 system, 2343
Embedded smart sensors, 3270, 3285–3286
End-effector, 2035–2053
End milling, 835
End-of-life (EoL), 3380
Energy sustainability, 3141–3142
Environmental impact, 3141–3142, 3315,
3318, 3336
Environment friendly machining, 1129, 3141,
3315, 3318, 3336
Errors, 1998
E-spinning, 2571
Eulerian simulation, 1170–1171
Euler’s theorem, 1719–1722
Explosion welding, 589–590
Extended Kalman filters (EKF), 2333
Exteroceptive sensors, 2319–2324
digital compass, 2319–2320
infrared and sonar, 2320–2321
vision camera, 2321–2324
Extrusion, 182–186, 191, 193–194,
199, 216–220, 225, 227–228
Extrusion foaming process, 132–134,
2559–2560
Extrusion systems, 2559
F
Face mill, 836
Failure analysis, 3140
Feed drives, 851–853
Feeding, 365–366
Fettling, 314
Fiber orientation, 2574–2575
FIB induced deposition (FIBID), 1409–1411
Fibre optic gyros (FOG), 2326
Filtration, cutting fluids, 1000–1001
cyclone separator, 1001
settling tank, 1000
Finishing, 2446–2450, 2454, 2456, 2465
Finite element analysis, 748
Finite element method (FEM), 1159
3490 IndexFinite element simulation, 299
Fixed-path time minimization, 1882–1883
Fixture, 2422
Flame, 106–107
Flame spray, 2820–2822
Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), 861
Flexible roll forming, 159, 303–306
Flexure properties, 158–160
Flow forming, 455
Fluid dynamics, 354
Fluidized ALD reactor, 2979, 2981
Fluoride anodizing, 3037–3038
Focused ion beam (FIB) technique, 1104
Focused ion beam (FIB) technology, 1277,
1392–1394, 1409–1412
advantages, 1403–1409
imaging, 1393–1395
induced deposition, 1409–1411
irradiation, 1412–1419
sputtering, 1395–1403
Force-closure analysis, 2181–2186, 2189
Force control, 2058, 2184, 2186, 2189,
2348–2349, 2353, 2355, 2367,
2373–2374, 2376, 2380, 2382–2383,
2398, 2447, 2449–2450, 2453, 2465
Force-torque sensor, 2058
Forge welding, 570
Forging, 175–183, 191, 193–194, 197–198,
201, 213, 215, 217, 225, 229
Formability, 234, 238–243
Formability in IF, 421–422
Forward kinematics, 2139
Forming limit diagram (FLD), 239, 2139
Fracture properties, 163
Fracture toughness, 908
Frequency, 606
Friction stir welding (FSW), 587, 2416–2418
Friction welding, 572–574
Fuel cells, 2880
Functionally gradient materials (FGMs),
2846
Functional models, 2521–2522
Furnace types, 314, 316, 319–321, 327
channel furnace, 321
coreless induction furnace, 327
crucible furnaces, 316
cupola furnaces, 319–322
electric arc furnaces, 327
electric furnaces, 320–322
medium frequency coreless furnaces, 314
for melting cast irons, 314, 319–326
reverberatory furnaces, 316
shaft furnace, 316
Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 2472,
2479–2480, 2560
Fuzzy neural networks, 3249–3252
G
Galvanostatic mode, 2915–2916
Gantry mounted robot, 2420
Gas field ion source (GFIS), 1321–1323
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 2409–2412
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 604, 606,
609, 2409–2412
Gear and rack actuation, 2042–2044
Generalized force, 1848–1849
Generalized predictive control (GPC), 2119
General 6R manipulator, 1800
Geometric constraints, 1874, 1877–1878, 2109
Geometrical calibration, 2109
Geometry-independent models, 2138–2139
Glasses, 928–929
Global conditioning index (GCI), 2103
Global time minimization, 1883
Glue effect, 2973
Gold wire, 653
Gough platform, 2092
Grain refinement, 383
Grain size, 687, 2899–2900, 2919
Grain-boundary strengthening, 687
Graphite, 253–254
Graphite cast iron, 372–374
Graphitization potential, 321
Gravity segregation, 278
Grease removal, 3036–3037
Green packaging, 75
Grey cast iron, 368–371
Grid search, 1878–1879
Grinding wheels, 841–842, 1646, 3035
actuator, 2053–2056
cylindrical grinding, 842–845
sensor, 2056–2058
surface grinding, 841–842
transmission mechanism, 2041
types, 2037–2041
Gripper, 2037, 2041, 2053, 2056
Groove test for IF, 421–423
Guarded tele-operated robot, 2303
H
HAE process, 2536, 3045
Hardness, 585, 904, 2906, 2909–2912,
2919–2920
Hard tooling, 2536
Index 3491Heat flux, 1553, 1566
Heat input, 606
Heat transfer and solidification, 354–360
high pressure die casting, 358–360
sand mold, 280, 354–357
Heat treatment, 279–281
Helium ion microscope (HIM), 1321, 1323,
1327, 1331–1333
High energy beam, 618
High mix low volume production, 2472
High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), 2825–2826
Holonomic WMR, 2316–2317
Horizontal boring machine, 819
Horizontal shaping machine, 820
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP), 544–547
Hot pressing (HP), 543–546
Hot spots, 404
Hybrid, 612
Hybrid kinematic machine tool, 860
Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW),
2415–2416
Hybrid machining process (HMP), 1109–1124
types, 1112
Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, 2499, 2578
I
IGES, 2499
Incremental sheet metal forming (ISMF),
413–420, 434
Indirect hard tooling, 2538–2539
Indirect rapid tooling, 2540–2541
Indirect soft tooling, 2534–2536
Indoor positioning system (iGPS), 2329–2332
advantages, 2329
applications, 2329
landmark markers, 2331
RFID reader, 2329
trilateration, 2329
ultrasonic transmitter and receivers, 2330
wireless networks, 2331–2332
Inductive sensor, 2056–2057
Industrial robots, 855–288, 1885, 2349–2350,
2355, 2360, 2367
Industrial robot programming, 2078, 2087
methods, 2078
process, 2087
Inertial measurement unit (IMU), 2325–2326
Infrared sensor, 2320
Ingot preheating, 280
Injection molding, 131
Inserts, 2541, 2545
copper tool, 2545
die, 2541
hotwork steel tool, 2545
Inspection, 586–587
Integrated remanufacturing design,
3209–3210
Integrated robot vision, 2000
Intelligent control, 2120
Intelligent water drops optimization, 3452
Intensifier pumps, 1656
Intermetallic layer/Intermetallics, 717
Inverse kinematics model (IKM), 1807, 1846,
2110, 2141
Investment casting process, 2535, 2544
Ion beam deposition systems, 1338
Ion beam etching, 1519–1520
Ion beam etching systems, 1337–1338
Ion beam figuring (IBF), 1278, 1343, 1344
Ion beam instruments, 1318
Ion beam implantation systems, 1340
Ion beam nano-lithography instruments, 1333
Ion beam nanomanufacturing (IBNM), 1277
Ion beam technology, 1280
Ion implantation, 1431
Ion optics, 1323–1326
IRB340 Flex Picker, 2092
Iron, 919
Iteration, 2151
backward, 2151–2152
forward, 2151
Iteration convergence method, 1171
J
Jacobian analysis, 2100–2101
Jacobian computation, 1829–1834
forward, 1829
Jacobian matrix, 1831, 1835
parallel manipulator, 1834
serial manipulator, 1829–1834
Jacobian matrix, 1895
JC flow-stress model, 1175
Job shop scheduling, 3452
Joining process, 571, 589
Joint space control vs. Cartesian space control,
2120–2121
Joint speed linear control, 2116
K
Kinematic design, WMRs, 2304–2308
castor wheel, 2305–2306
centered steering wheel, 2305
fixed wheel, 2304–2305
3492 Indexspherical wheel, 2308
Swedish wheel, 2306–2307
Kinematic redundancy, 1846, 1875, 1884
Kiva system, 2341
L
Lagrange’s equation, 1859
Lagrangian simulation, 1167–1169
Land robots, 2302
Lapping, 1053, 1054
Laser, 612–613
Laser beam, 2684
Laser beam welding (LBW), 2412–2415
Laser composite surfacing, 2662–2667
Laser conduction welding, 621, 1605
Laser machining, 1605
Laser-material interactions, 1603–1604
Laser processing, 1617
Laser scanners, 2324
Laser surface alloying, 2657–2262
Laser surface cladding, 2667–2669, 2673
Laser surface engineering, 2641, 2672
Laser surface melting (LSM), 2651–2656,
2658
Laser technique, 2678
Laser tracker, 2489–2490
Laser transformation hardening, 2643–2651
Layered manufacturing, 743, 2472
Lead-free solder, 724
Leaf-spring compound linear spring
mechanism, 2235
Leap frog, 2491
Levitrack reactor, 2985
Life cycle assessment (LCA), 3317–3320
Light-weight robot, 1861
Li-ion battery, 2883
Linear actuator, 2054
Linear computed torque control, 2116
Linear control, 2116–2118
Linear cutting motion, 794–795
Line vector, 1752
Linkage actuation, 2042
Liquid crystal display (LCD), 3420–3421
Liquid metal ion source (LMIS), 1319–1321
Lithium ion batteries (LIB), 2991
LIthography, Galvanoformung, Abformung
(LIGA), 2877
Load transfer vehicle, 2343
Long edge mill, 836
Loose abrasive machining, 1052
Low-temperature deposits, 2915
Low temperature plasma, 107
Lubricants for forming, 273–274
Lubrication/cooling, 981. See also
Cutting fluids
M
Machinability, 936
Machine health condition (MHC) prediction,
3249
Machine tools, 812, 849–850, 855–860
feed drives, 851–853
industrial robot, 855–858
parallel and hybrid kinematic machine
tools, 859–860
PKMTs, 859
RMS, 861
spindle drives, 850–851
Machine utilization, 3483–3484
Machining, 801–802, 813, 945
heat flow in, 802
measurands, 945
nomenclature, 801
Machining centres, 847–849
Machining dynamics, 867–896
DYNACUT, quick milling optimization
software, 892
input parameters/database information, 892
long depth milling stabilization, mold
base, 894
overall geometry and finished product
quality, 895
quick milling vibration solver
configuration, 893
schematic representation, 870
S45 cutting with 16 mm diameter/four
flutes end mill, 891
Machining economics, 934–935, 983, 1127
Machining process, 982, 1129
environmentally friendly machining, 1129
regions of heat generation, 983
Machining time, 817, 826, 834, 840
broaching, 840
drilling, 826
lathe, 817
milling, 834
Magnesium alloys, 317–318, 388–391
melting, 317–318
Magnetic actuator, 2055
Magnetic compound fluid (MCF), 1062–1063
Magnetic field assisted finishing (MAF), 1058
Magnetic float polishing, 1059–1060
Magnetic fluids (MFs), 1059
Magnetic gripper, 2039–2040
Index 3493Magnetic recording heads, 1057, 2879
Magneto-rheological abrasive flow finishing
(MRAFF), 1057–1058
Magneto-rheological finishing (MRF),
1060–1061
Magneto-rheological fluid-based slurry,
1061–1062
MAGOXID-COAT, 3046–3047
Makespan, 3483
Malleable cast iron, 375
Manual tele-operated robots, 2303
Manufacturing, solid state welding processes
in, 569
Manufacturing yield design, 404
Map-based localization approaches,
2332–2333
Maraging steels, 250, 252
Mass scaling, 1165
Material and energy flows, 1130
Material engineering, 2704
Material extrusion, 2510–2511
Material jetting, 2511–2512
Material removal mechanisms and modes,
1078–1079
Material removal rate, 903, 1040, 1556, 1576
Materials removal behavior, 1040
Materials selection, 255, 261
bulk metal forming, 255–260
sheet metal forming, 260–265
MATLAB/SIMULINK, 1915
Matrix exponentials, 2003
Measurement system, 1999
Mecanum wheel, 2307
Mechanical gripper, 2037–2038
Mechanical properties, 586
Media, 2449–2450, 2456–2459, 2465
Medium-carbon low-alloy steel, 250
MEMs, 2989, 3453
MEMS-based micro-actuator, 2239
Meta-heuristics, 328, 3453
Metal casting processes, 328
permanent, 328
Metal forming, 172–229, 473
Metal inert gas (MIG) welding, 605
Metallization, 3010–3011
Metal nitrides, 2967, 2970–2971
Metal oxide, 2967
Methodology of research, 2680, 2688
Metrology, 2488–2489, 2491
considerations for part measurement,
2491–2493
destructive internal, 2489
non destructive internal, 2488
Microcellular foams, 142
Micro-cutting, 1094–1096
cutting force, 1095
grain size, 1095
vs. macro-cutting, 1094
steel, 1096
Micro-dispensing, 2577
Micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMs)
gyroscope, 2326–2327
Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS),
1090, 2879
Microfabrication, 2874–2880
Micro grooves, 1454, 1498
Micro optical elements (MOE), 1403
Micro-machining, 1090, 1577
Micro-milling, 1090, 1101
Micro-segregation, 277
Microsoft Kinect, 2323
Microstructure, 574, 578, 1095
Micro tools, 1101–1104, 1473–1509
SEM image, 1493
Micro ultrasonic machining
configurations, 1073
development of, 1075–1078
ductile and brittle removal modes,
1083–1085
machining of microfeatures, 1071, 1078
material removal mechanisms and modes,
1078–1079
monitoring and control, 1074–1075
SEM image, 1073
tools, 1073
vs. USM, 1071
workpiece holding method, 1075
Micro-valve dispenser, 2576
Microwave sintering (MWS), 538–540,
828, 1645
Milling, 828–839, 1645
Minimum depth of cut, 1104
Mobile robot, 2302. See also Wheeled mobile
robots (WMRs)
Mobile-agent, 3476
Modeling, 173, 210, 214
Model predictive control (MPC), 2119
Modular CDR, 2175–2176, 2181–2184,
2186
components, 2134
design, 2132
representation, 2133
simulation software, 2158–2159
Modular robot, 2132–2134, 2158
Modulus of microcellular foams, 145
Mold casting mold processes
3494 IndexMold casting mold processes, disposable,
339–349
Mold/Die manufacturing, 311–313
Mold filling and solidification, 349–353
Molecular layer deposition (MLD), 2972
Monocrystalline, 1429
Monolithic compound linear spring
mechanism, 2235
Monte Carlo localization (MCL), 2333
Morphology of Ni-Co film, 2909–2912
Morphology of Ni films, 2906–2909
Motion planning, 1874
Moving robot, 2419
Multi-bodied CDRs, 2178–2181, 2186–2197
Multilayer thin film, 3074–3077, 3483
Multi-objective, 3483
Multiple objective job shop scheduling, 3452
Multipoint cutting tools, 824, 827–828, 839
broaching machine, 839–840
cutting edge, 824
dies, 827–828
drilling machine, 824–827
milling machine, 828–839
taps, 827–829
Multi stage forming, 431–432
N
Nanocomposite foams, 134–135
Nano-fabrication, 1407–1409, 2571
Nanofibers, 2571
Nanofillers, 67, 134–136, 138
Nano-hole fabrication, 1416
Nanojoining, 708
Nano machining of ion implanted materials
(NiIM), 1278
Nanomanufacturing, 1280
Nanomaterial reinforced composite, 708
Nanomaterials assisted joining, 708
Nanostructured coatings, 2846–2847, 2778
Nanotechnology, 2778
Neobotix system, 2344
Netdraw software package, 3444
Networked based manufacturing, 3475–3485
Networked manufacturing, 2149
Newton-Euler equation, 1859, 1863, 2149
Nickel, 922–923
Ni-Co films, 2906–2909
Ni films, 2906, 2919–2920
Nitridation, 3005–3006, 3009–3010
Non-ferrous alloys, 254–255
Nonholonomic WMRs, 2316–2319
Brokett Theorem, 2318
definition, 2317
kinematic constraints, 2317
posture stabilization, 2319
trajectory tracking, 2318–2319
Non linear control, 2118–2120
Notch flexure joints, 2249
Nucleating agents, 137–138
Nucleation, 135, 137, 143
Numerical control, 853
Numerically controlled plasma chemical
vaporization machining (NC-PCVM),
1298
Nylon 6 nanocomposites, 84, 85
O
Occupancy grid maps, 2334
Octree hierarchical space decomposition,
1209–1211
Odometry, 2324–2325
Off-centered steering wheel, 2305
Off-line programming, 1997
OLED, 2990–2991
Omnidirectional WMR, 2312–2313
OmniMove, 2342
Omni-wheel, 2307
On-demand manufacturing, 2472, 2474
On-line pre-processing implementation,
2014–2016
Online sensing data, 3150
Open cell polymer foam, 165–166
Optical applications, 2990
Optical trackers, 2490
Optimization, 1874, 1881–1882, 3452–3454
Organic finishing, 3048
Orthogonal cutting, 1157–1159
Orthogonal vs. oblique cutting, 794
Osteointegration, 2578
Oxidation, 2997–3207. See also Nitridation
Oxide inclusions, 2818
P
Packaging materials, 2992
Parallel kinematic machine tools (PKMTs),
859
Parallel linear spring mechanism, 2247
Parallel robot (PR), 2122, 2383
Parameter optimization, 2383, 2385,
2388–2389, 2391–2392, 2394–2396,
2399
Partial heating method, 719
Particle filters, 2332
Index 3495Path shortcut, 1876–1881
definition, 1877
optimization, 1881
planning, 1877–1878
Path matrix, 2136–2138
Path shortcut, 1882
PD plus gravity controller, 1896–1899, 1918
Perfactory system, 2558
Permanent magnet, 2040
Phenol formaldehyde resins, 7
Photoelectric/opto-electronic sensor, 2057
Photogrammetry, 2490, 3010
Photolithography, 3010–3011
Physical-fit models, 2519–2521
Physical vapour deposition (PVD), 2727–2735,
2737–2750
adhesion, 2740
AFM, 2746
application, 2737–2739
deposition method, 2727
GDOS, 2743
mechanical properties, 2737
SEM, 2743–2744
synthesis of coatings, 2734, 2743
TEM, 2743
Piezo-actuated printhead, 2579
Piezoelectric actuators, 2055–2056
Pillow effect, 436–437, 2338
Pioneer 3-DX differential drive robot, 2309
Pioneer 3 DX platform, 2338
Plain strain stretching, 429
Planarization CMP, 1591
Planar motion compliant manipulators, 1591
Planar motion compliant manipulators, 2237
Planing machine, 823–824
Plasma, 106–108, 596, 598, 611–612, 1565
cladding, 611–612
deposition, 107
low temperature, 107
spraying, 2822–2824
treatment, 105, 1409
Plasma ALD, 2976–2977, 2979
reactor, 2979
Plasma-assisted polishing (PAP), 1299
Plasmonic lens, 1408–1409
Plastics, 101, 116
in car, 81
coatings, 101, 116
surface treatment and modification, 101
Ploughing, 1093
Plunger, 322–323
Pneumatic actuation, 1984–1987
Pneumatic gripper, 2037
Pocket milling, 835
Point cloud registration, 2019, 2021
Poisson’s ratio, 3066, 3069
Polarity, 599–600, 1577
Polishing, 1053, 2652, 3035
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), 46–47
Polyaniline (PANI), 60
Polycaprolactone (PCL), 2574
Polygon mesh, 2495–2496
Polymer, 924–925, 2972
Polymer brushes, 63–66
Polymer coatings, 2845–2846
Porosity(ies), 2816–2818
cast iron, 375
Post casting processing, 366
Potential field method, 1878
Potentiostatic mode, 2915
Powder bed fusion, 2514
Powder metallurgy (P/M) tool steel, 249
Powder systems, 2428, 2558–2559
Power sources, 601–602, 2428
PR2, 2339–2340
Precipitates, 579–580
Precision, 604
Preston’s equation, 1052
Price discrimination, 3049, 3298, 3304, 3307
Primers, 3049
Process Sustainability Index (ProcSI),
3351–3353, 3371, 3372
case study, 3368
evaluation process, 3354–3355
hierarchical approach, 3352–3353
Product condition, 3381
Product customization, 2473
Product development, 3213
Productivity, 608–609
Product-of-exponentials, 2003–2005
Product recovery, 3377–3402
Product service, 3224, 3231, 3233
Product Sustainability Index (ProdSI),
3351–3352, 3354–3363
case study, 3363–3367
evaluation process, 3354–3363
hierarchical approach, 608, 3352
Profile milling, 835
Properties, laser, 2683
Proprioceptive sensors, 2324–2328
Adept Lynx, 2327–2328
gyroscope, 2326–2327
IMU, 2325–2326
odometry, 2324–2325
Proximity sensor, 2056, 2434
Pulse current, 2903, 2906
3496 IndexPulse discharge, 1561–1564
Pulse generators, 1557–158
Pulsing, 606
Q
Quantum effects, 686
Quattro robot, 2092
Quenching, 385
QuickCNC GUI, 1217
R
Random yield, 3298–3299, 3301–3304
Rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT),
1879–1881
Rapid manufacturing (RM), 2472–2473, 2530.
See also Direct Digital Manufacturing
(DDM)
Rapid prototyping (RP), 2472, 2507–2510,
2516, 2518, 2527–2528, 2568–2582
Rapid tooling (RT), 2528–2530
6R approach, 3350–3351
Reaction injection molding (RIM) 132
Reactive plasma spraying, 2824
Reconfigurable machine tools, 860–864
Reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS),
861–862
Reconfigurable modular manipulator,
2130–2131
Reconfigurable robotic workcell, 2159–2162
Recursive dimension reduction algorithm,
2150, 2184
Recursive Newton-Euler algorithm, 2150
Recursive Newton-Euler method, 1856, 1871,
2149–2152
Redundant manipulators, 1779, 1791, 1803
Regressor matrix, 1893–1894, 1899, 1909
Reliability, 722, 3152
Remaining useful life (RUL) assessment,
3137–3190
Remanufacturability, 3140, 3146
Remanufacturing, 3196–3197, 3265–3287
Remanufacturing decision-making, 3279–3282
Remanufacturing engineering, 3140
Remanufacturing time point, 3142, 3148–3150,
3196, 3266, 3292, 3315, 3320, 3324
Repairing, 2830, 2843–2844
Residual stress, 1569, 2819, 2835
Resistance spot welding (RSW), 2406–2409
Resistance welding, 588–589
Return acquisition, 3300. See also
Acquisition return
Reverse engineering, 2485–2503
Reverse post processing, 1193
Revolute and prismatic actuator modules, 2096
RiansWeldTM, 2440
Roboforming, 443
Robot, 2448–2453
Robotino robot 2313, 2315
Robot joint control, 1943
Roll forming
calibration method, 291–292
definition, 286
design of, 290
finite element simulation, 299–303
flexible, 303–306
flower design, 292–295
machine configuration, 296–299
process in, 286–289, 290
strategies in, 290–291
strip width calculation, 291–292
tool design, 296–299
Rolling, 173–177, 186, 189, 191, 193–194,
197–199, 201, 208–209, 214–215, 217
Rolling contact fatigue failure modes, 2835
Roll-to-roll spatial ALD reactor, 2993
Roomba robot, 2336–2337
Rope and pulley actuation, 2044–2045
Rotary ALD reactor, 2979, 2982
S
Sampling-based algorithms, 2335
Sand-blasting, 278
Sandwich composites, 148
Sandwich ladle, 322
Scheduling, 3452, 3465
Screw actuation, 2042
Sealants, 2833
Sealing, 3047
Selective laser sintering, 637, 2559
Self-assembled monolayers (SAM), 306, 2975
Self-driving blank holder system, 306
Semiconductor ALD applications, 2989
Semi-synthetic cutting fluids, 1131
SEMORS, 2158
Semi-synthetic cutting fluids, 2158
Sensor, 2056–2058
Sensor-based error compensation
method, 2017
Sensor fusion, 2368, 3276
Sensor selection, 3271–3273
Serial manipulators, 1807
Service supply chain
collaboration, 3229
Index 3497Service supply chain (cont.)
enabling process management, 3234–3235
functional process management,
3233–3234
strategy and network structure, 3224
structure of, 1560, 3222
Servo feed control, 1560–1561
Shake-out/part removal, 314
Shaping machine, 820–823
SHARP sensor, 2320
Shear, 738, 757
Sheet lamination, 2512
Sheet metal, 484
Shielding gas, 600–601, 625
Shoulder milling, 835
Side milling, 832, 975
structure of, 975
Signal processing, 959–960
chatter detection, 973
Silica mold, 2544
Silicon, 929–930, 2857–2860
Simulation, 188, 191, 197, 200–203, 209–214,
218
Simultaneous localization and mapping
(SLAM), 2333
Sine law for IF, 420
Single crystal, 1322, 1435
Single ion beam system, 1318
Single objective job shop scheduling,
3451–3472
Single particle impact, 1083
Single-point cutting tools, 814–815,
824, 828, 839
boring machine, 819–820
centre lathe, 815–819
closed-loop mechanisms, 1843–1845
geometry, 814
planing machine, 823–824
shaping machine, 820–823
Single point incremental forming (SPIF),
414–415, 430
Single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), 57
Singularities, 1842–1845
cuspidality concept, 1845
higher-order analysis, 1845
parallel manipulators, 1844–1845
serial manipulors, 1842
Sinking EDM, 1554–1556, 1570
Sinter forging (SF), 548–553
Sintering, 553
Size effect, 1092–1094
Slab milling, 832
Slip sensor, 2058
Slot milling, 832
Slotting machine, 821–822
Social network analysis, 3439–3449
Soft tooling, 2532
Software, 2495, 2497
Software packages, 2438
Solar cells, 2882, 2991–2992
Solid end mills, 836
Solidification, 314
Solid model, 2496–2497
Solid state /Batch foaming process, 142, 143
Solid state welding/bonding, 590
Soluble oils, 1131
Spark plasma sintering (SPS), 548
Spatial ALD reactor, 2983–2988
Spatial S-R-U CDR, 2191
Spherical parallel manipulator, 1864–1871
Spindle drives, 850–851
Spin forming, 468–470
Spiral tool path, 419, 444, 446
Spring back in IF, 434, 436
Sputtering
coating, 2943, 2945, 2948
decorative coating, 2945
deposition, 2937, 2938, 2945
functional coating, 2945
magnetron, 2955
metallization, 2946
PVD, 2953
reactive sputtering, 2937, 2940
unbalanced magnetron sputtering, 2937
Stamping, 457
State-space model (SSM), 3173–3174
Static calibration, 2114
Static forces, 1848–1849
Statics, 1850–1851
Statics and dynamics models, 2103–2104
Stationary robot, 2418–2419
Steel, 919, 2499
Steel alloys, 399
Steel-bonded carbides, 252
Steel casting
deoxidation practice, 325
equipment, 326
gas porosity, 326
reoxidations, 326
sulphides, 326
STEP, 2499
Stereolithography (STL), 2498,
2556–2557
Stewart platform, 2092, 2198
Stiffness, 2906
Stiffness analysis, 2198–2199, 2203
3498 IndexStopping and range of ion in matter (SRIM),
1287, 1392
Straddle milling, 832
Strain, 3074, 3107
Strain hardening modulus, 3074, 3103, 3107
Strain-rate testing, 733
Strengthening mechanism, 2920–2924
Stress, 3055–3129
Substrates, 2973
Summit robot, 2310
Supercapacitors, 2880–2881
Superchair robot, 2313, 2315
Supply chain design, 3219–3235
Support vector machine model, 3162
Surface cleaning, 278–279
Surface coating techniques, 2807
Surface contouring, 835
Surface cross-linking, 104, 107, 112
Surface degradation, 112
Surface engineering, 2798
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),
1303–1305
Surface finish in IF, 440
Surface grinding machine, 841–842
Surface modification, 107–108
Surface morphology, 2577–2578
Surface quality, 1096–1098
Surface roughness, 1556, 1576, 1706
Surface tension, 113–115
Surface treatment, 102–103
chemical, 103
physical, 102
reactive gas, 103
Survivability test, 2580–2582
Sustainable manufacturing, 3348–3350
Swedish wheel, 2306–2308
Swisslog robot, 2303
Synchronous drive WMR, 2311
Syntactic foam, 148–150
Synthetic cutting fluids, 1131
System integrators, for robotic welding, 2441
T
Tactile sensing, 2434
Tactile sensor, 2058
Tagnite surface treatment, 3045–3046
Tangential acceleration, 1722
Taps, 827–828
Task-space PD plus gravity, 1920
Technologies, 2704
Temperature cycling, 746–747
Temperature distribution, 1565–1567
Tensile properties, 85, 155–158
Thermal ALD, 2976
Thermal properties, 138
Thermal spraying, 2808–2810, 2819, 2846
Thermo-mechanical properties, 3064–3065,
3098
Thin coatings, 2763
Thin films, 3055–3129
Three-dimensional printing (3DP), 2508, 2552,

  1. See also Additive manufacturing
    3D roll forming, 303
    Through thickness shear, 425, 2971
    TiN, 2971
    Tissue regeneration, 2575
    Titanium, 922
    TOF camera, 2323
    Tolerance charting, 1269
    Tool, 2447, 2449–2450, 2455–2462, 2464
    Tool and die materials 243, 1576–1577
    Tool electrode, 1552, 1577
    Tool electrode wear, 1576–1577
    Tool materials, 2789–2792
    Topological synthesis, 2096
    Top paints, 3049
    Total heating method, 718–719
    Touch sensing, 2001
    Track mounted robot, 2420
    Trajectory, 1876–1877, 1881
    definition, 1877
    optimization, 1881
    Transferred plasma arc process, 2825
    Transformation Matrices, 2001–2002
    Triangulation, 2320
    Transport of ions in matter (TRIM) program
    1392, 2320
    Tricycle WMR, 2311
    Triple beam system, 1330
    Triple bottom-line (TBL), 3344
    Tundish cover, 322
    Tungsten carbide, 931
    Turning, 1644
    Turntable, 2424
    Twin-wire, 609
    Twist, 440
    Two-column planing machine, 823
    Two point incremental forming (TPIF),
    415–416, 440
    Two step sintering (TSS), 540–543
    U
    Ucinet software package, 3444
    Ultra-precision machining, 1497
    Index 3499Ultrasonic machining (USM)
    advantages, 1070
    basic elements, 1066–1068
    capabilities and applications of, 1069–1070
    micro-USM, 1070–1073. (See also Micro
    ultrasonic machining)
    process parameters and perfomance
    measures, 10681069
    working principle, 1066–1067
    Ultrasonic sensor, 2057, 2320
    Ultrasonic welding, 571–572
    Underactuated gripper, 2046
    Underwater robots, 2302
    Unicycle, 2318
    Universal wheel, 2307
    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs),
    2302, 2313
    V
    Vacuum gripper, 2038–2039
    Vacuum suction, 2054–2055
    Variable stiffness device, 2199–2200
    Velocity propagation, 1816
    Vat photopolymerization, 2513
    Velocity
    differential movement, 1811–1814, 1820
    differential relationships, coordinate
    frames, 1820–1824
    inverse kinematics, 1846
    Jacobian computation (See Jacobian
    computation)
    kinematic characteristics, 1838
    kinematic redundancy, 1846
    propagation, 1816–1817
    relationships, 1814–1816
    representation, 1811
    singularities. See Singularities
    Vertical boring machine, 819–820
    Vertical shaping machine, 820–823
    Vibratory finishing, 1064–1065
    Vision-guided robotic tow tracker, 2342
    Visual odometry, 2322
    W
    Waste electrical and electronic equipment
    (WEEE), 3406, 3414–315, 3432
    Water-based cutting fluids, 1131
    Wave soldering, 719, 2837
    Wear resistance, 2837
    Weibull plot, 747
    Weld/arc data monitoring, 2437
    Welding process, 569–590
    Weld seam tracking, 2434
    Wettability, 113–115, 717
    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs)
    castor wheel, 2305
    centered steering wheel, 2305
    degree of maneuverability, 2314–2316
    description, 2302
    differential drive (See Differential drive
    WMR)
    fixed wheel, 2304–2305
    nonholonomy (See Nonholonomic WMRs)
    spherical wheel, 2308
    Swedish wheel, 2306–2307
    White cast iron, 374
    Wire EDM (WEDM), 1554
    Wire feeders, 2432
    WMRs. See Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs)
    Workpiece clamping system, 1075–1076
    Workpiece handling system, 2422
    Workpiece holding method, 1075
    Workspace analysis, 2101–2102, 2204
    Workspace performance measures, 2212
    Workspace representation, 2205–2209
    Workspace volume, 2210–2212
    Wrought tool steel, 243
    X
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 3013,
    3015–3017
    Y
    Yield start stress, 3083, 3103
    Yield strength, 905–906
    Young’s modulus, 3066–3067, 3073
    Z
    Zinc alloys, 319, 396–398
    melting, 319
    Zinc oxide (ZnO), 2970
    ZnS, 2972
    Zr film on SiC
    electrical properties, 3020–3021
    growth mechanism, 3021–3023
    physical characteristics, 3011–3020
    vs. Si substrate, 3023–3026

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