Handbook of Adhesives and Surface Preparation – Technology, Applications and Manufacturing

Handbook of Adhesives and Surface Preparation – Technology, Applications and Manufacturing
اسم المؤلف
Sina Ebnesajjad
27 سبتمبر 2023
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Handbook of Adhesives and Surface Preparation – Technology, Applications and Manufacturing
Edited by
Sina Ebnesajjad
President, FluoroConsultants Group, LLC
Table of contents
Chapter 1 Introduction and Adhesion Theories (Chapter 1, from Adhesives Technology, 19
Chapter 2 Introduction to Surface Preparation (Chapter 1 from Surface Treatment, 5 pages)
Chapter 3 Surface Tension and Its Measurement (Chapter 2 from Surface Treatment, 20
Chapter 4 Surface and Material Characterization Techniques (Chapter 4 from Surface
Treatment, 33
Chapter 5 Material Surface Preparation Techniques (Chapter 6 from Surface Treatment,
Chapter 6 Surface Preparation of Metals (Chapter 7 from Surface Treatment, 42 pages)
Chapter 7 Surface Preparation of Thermoplastics, Thermosets, and Elastomers (Chapter 8
from Surface Treatment, 54 pages)
Chapter 8 Characteristics of Adhesive Materials (Chapter 5, from Adhesives Technology, 73
NEW: Chemical structures added
Chapter 9 Heat‐resistant adhesives (Sections 4.1, 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 from Chapter 4
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, Vol 2 by Philippe Cognard, 55
Chapter 10 UV‐Radiation curing of adhesives (Section 5.1 to the end of Chapter 5 except
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, Vol 2 by Philippe Cognard, 37 pages)
Chapter 11 Adhesives for Special Adherends (Chapter 6 from Adhesives Technology, 22
Chapter 12 Adhesives for Electronics (Sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 from Chapter 6
of Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, Vol 1 by Philippe Cognard, 45
Chapter 13 Adhesives for Automotive and Aerospace Applications (Sections 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5
from Chapter 5
of Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, Vol 1 by Philippe Cognard, 32 pages)
Chapter 14 Adhesives for Medical and Dental Applications (New by Sina Ebnesajjad,
estimate 20
Appendix Safety, Environmental, Economic Aspects, and Future Trends (Chapter 13 from
Adhesives Technology, 20
NEW: Regulatory frameworks: REACH, ROHS, WEEE etc
Glossary (From Adhesives Technology, 25 pages)
2-OCA adhesive, 349e50, 352, 359
380 Black Max adhesive, 148, 349e50
Abrading of reinforced plastics/thermosets, 124
Abrasive treatment:
butyl rubber, 127
chlorobutyl rubber, 128
chlorosulfonated polyethylene, 128
description, 16
general-purpose bonding of zinc, 102
neoprene, 125e6
nickel/nickel alloys, 92
nitrile, 128
platinum, 92e3
polybutadiene, 131
polysulfide rubber, 131
polyurethane elastomers, 129
styrene-butadiene rubbers, 129
synthetic natural rubbers, 129
ABS see acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
Acetal copolymer, 109, 249, 250
Acetal homopolymer, 109e11
Acetic-hydrochloric acid for uranium, 102
Acetylene terminated thermosetting resins, 199e200,
Acid etch:
(FPL-ferric sulphate) for copper/copper alloys, 90e1
stainless steel (types 301, 302), 95
steel, 94
zinc, 102e3
Acidebase theory of adhesion, 9
Acrylic adhesives, 140e1
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 111, 250
Activated-gas plasma:
butyl rubber, 127
nitrile, 129
silicone rubber, 127
styrene-butadiene rubbers, 130
Adhesion promoters:
applications, 376e7
chemistry, 369e70
concepts, 369
coupling agents, 369e70
industry and utility
fiber glass surface treatment, 377e8
minerals fillers in rubber reinforcement, 381e2
PICA, 382e3
surface treatment of minerals in plastics, 378e81
mechanism with silanes
bonding to inorganic substrate, 372
bonding to organic polymer, 373
coupling agents, 373e5, 375e6
interphase region, 371e2
non-silane, 383e4
silanes, 369e71
sources, 384
Adhesive joints:
adhesives, 320e45
aluminium, 309e10
corrosion inhibiting primers, 317e18
fiber-metal laminate, 310e11
fiber-reinforced plastics, 310
organosilanes, 318e19
primers and priming, 316e17
sandwich panels, 311e15
stainless steel, 310
substrate surface pretreatment, 315e16
substrates, 309e15
surface protection primers, 317
titanium, 310
wood, 309
Aerospace industry adhesives processing conditions, 218
Aerospace structures adhesives:
chemistries, 322e3
commercial, 324e32
cure temperatures, 323e4
curing, 341e3
formats, 321e2
formulations, 324
manufacture, 332e7
mechanisms, 320
metallic aircraft structures, 301
postwar aerospace industry, 304e9
primers, 340e1
415Aerospace structures adhesives: (Continued)
Redux and Redux process, 301e2
role, 320e1
Aeroweb honeycomb, 311
Airbus, 328
Alkaline cleaning of titanium, 99
Alkaline etch for titanium, 99e100
Alkaline-detergent for magnesium/magnesium alloys, 91
Alkaline-peroxide etch (RAE) for titanium, 100e1
Alloyed or modified (two-polymer) adhesives, 141e2
Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39), 111, 141
adhesive joints, 309e10
surface preparation,
adhesive bonded joints, 51
anodization, 88
brush plate bond etch, 88e9
chromate-free etch process, 84
etching research, 85e8
FPL etch, 83e4
immersion etch (optimised FPL process), 83
Aluminium/aluminium alloys recommended adhesives,
Anaerobic adhesives/sealants, 139, 142e3
Animal glues:
blood albumen, 160
bone and hide, 160
casein, 159
description, 138
fish, 160
shellacs, 160e1
aluminium, 88
magnesium/magnesium alloys, 91
Antireflection (AR) coatings, 108
AR see antireflection
Arall (aramid fiber-reinforced aluminum laminates), 310
Ardel (polyarylate) adhesive, 113
Aromatic polymer adhesives, 143
Asphalt, 143, 172
ASTM methods:
stainless steel, 96e7
steel, 94e5
titanium, 101
Atmospheric plasma:
cleaning metals, 56
plastic surfaces, 68, 70
thermoplastics, 108
ATR see attenuated total reflection
Attenuated total reflection (ATR), 33
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), 31e2, 37e8
Basic salts (Sorel cements), 157
recommended adhesives, 247
surface preparation, 89
Blood albumen glue, 160
Boeing Aircraft, 88
Bonding aircraft parts:
crack growth arrest, 307
fatigue life, 306
increased strength, 308
dissimilar materials, 305
thin substrates, 307
joint sealing, 308
new types of structure, 308e9
production costs/time, 307
weight, 304e5
simplification of design, 307
smooth external finish, 307
sonic dampening, 306
adhesive process, 6
cleanliness, 5, 17
failure, 10e12
joint design, 5
requirements, 5, 17
stress, 12
wetting, 5, 17
Bone glues, 160
BR see butyl rubber
recommended adhesives, 247
surface preparation, 89
Bristol-Blenheim fighter-bomber, 301
British Tego film, 303
Bromophosphate for stainless steel, 96
recommended adhesives, 247
surface preparation, 89
Brush plate bond etch for aluminium, 88e9
Butyl rubber (BR):
abrasive treatment, 127
activated gas plasma, 127
adhesives, 143e4
chlorination, 127
cyclization, 127
primers, 127
Butylcyanoacrylate adhesive, 349
CA see cyanoacrylates
Cadmium (coated on steel):
recommended adhesives, 247
surface preparation, 89
Calibre polycarbonate, 114
“Canada Balsam”, 159
Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers
(CTBN), 208
416 INDEXCare (carbon fiber-reinforced laminates), 310
Casein glue, 138, 159
Celcon copolymer, 109, 249
ester adhesives, 144
ether adhesives, 144
Cellulose acetate plasma treatment, 69
Cellulosics, 111e12, 250
Celonex adhesive, 115
Ceramics recommended adhesives, 255e6
CF see coefficient of friction
Chemical bonding:
covalent and ionic bonds, 8e9
intermolecular reactions, 8e9
organosilanes, 9
theory of adhesion, 8e9
Chemical etching:
introduction, 70e3
sodium etching of fluoroplastics, 73e6
sulfuric ac0d-dihromate, 73
Chemical treatment (cleaning), 16e17, 56
Chemlok primers:
chlorosulfonated polyethylene, 128
epoxies, 121
plated metals, 92, 93
polysulfide rubber, 131
silicone rubber, 127
styrene-butadiene rubbers, 129
Chippendale, 137
butyl rubber, 127
chlorobutyl rubber, 128
neoprene, 126
nitrile, 128
polybutadiene, 131
styrene-butadiene rubbers, 129
synthetic natural rubbers, 129
Chlorobutyl rubber:
abrasive treatment, 128
chlorination, 128
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene:
abrasive treatment, 128
primers, 128
Choice of adhesive, 5, 17
Chromate conversion coating for silver, 93
Chromate-free etch process, 84
Classification of adhesives, 4
chemical, 56
grit blasting, 54e6
atmospheric plasma jet, 56
degreasing, 50e2
nickel/nickel alloys plated parts, 92
plastic surfaces, 57e8, 58e9
safety, 53e4
ultrasonic with liquid rinse, 53
ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 53
vapor degreasing, 52e3
surface preparation sequence, 52
Coefficient of friction (CF), 108
Cold plasma, 66
Cold rolled steel surface preparation, 51e2
Colophony (rosin) glue, 159
Commercial range of structural adhesives (aerospace),
Compimide adhesive, 208
Condensation oligomers, 194e6
Condensation prepolymers:
polybenzimidazoles, 216e18
polyimides, 213e16
Conductive adhesives, 144e5
Contact angle:
test, 77
Young’s equation for surface tension, 23e5, 27
Contact-bond (plastic foams) recommended adhesives, 255
Conversion coatings:
magnesium/magnesium alloys, 91e2
zinc/zinc alloys, 103
Coover, Harry, 139
Copper surface preparation, 51e2
Copper/copper alloys:
recommended adhesives, 247e8
surface preparation
acid etch, 90e1
nitric acid, 90
nitric acid/ferric chloride, 90
nitric acid/sodium chlorite, 90
Corona treatment of plastic surfaces, 58e63, 70
Corrosion resistance of metals, 50
Corrosion-resistant stainless steel (CRES), 95
Critical surface tension concept, 28
Cured adhesives for electronics:
adhesive cure, 287e8
bond strength, 290e1, 290e4
coefficient of linear thermal expansion, 294e5
dielectric properties, 295
electrical stability, 296
filler content, 289
ionic content, 289e90
outgassing, 289e90
properties, 287
sequential environmental testing, 296e7
thermal conductivity, 295
thermal stability, 288e9
volume resistivity, 295
aerospace structures adhesives, 341e3
INDEX 417Curing: (Continued)
electronics adhesives agents, 264e8
Cyanate ester resins, 272e3
Cyanoacrylate (CA) adhesives:
advantages, 348
benefits/limitations, 349
bond strength, 351
case studies
bacterial counts, 353e4
gastrointestinal endoscopy, 355e6
hernias, 356e9
pediatric urology, 355
plastic surgery, 359
sutureless anastomoses, 354e5
topical skin wounds, 356
classification, 3
description, 147e8, 347e9
Food and Drug Administration, 359
history, 139
manufacturers, 351e2
medical applications, 345e6
medical grade, 349e50
pitfalls and pearls, 358
skin closure, 346e7, 359
Boeing-Vertol modification and neoprene, 126
butyl rubber, 127
nitrile, 128
polybutadiene, 131
styrene-butadiene rubbers, 129
synthetic natural rubbers, 129
DAP see diallyl phthalate
De Bruyne, Norman:
bonding aircraft parts, 304e9
Redux, 301
Redux 775 film, 311
sandwich panels, 311
De Havilland:
DH103 Hornet aircraft, 303, 305
DH104 Dove aircraft, 306
De Khotinsky cement, 161
adhesive bonding, 3, 15
adhesives, 3, 15, 137
failure, 10
surface preparation, 15
surface tension, 21e2
Degrease-abrade-prime for silver, 93
Degreasing, 16
Delayed-tack adhesives, 149e50
Delrin (acetal copolymer), 109, 250
Dental adhesives:
applications, 359e63
ingredients, 361
introduction, 345
orthodontic appliances, 346
restorative fillings, 346
Dermabond (2-OCA) adhesive, 349e50, 352, 359
Dextrins, 159, 160
Diallyl phthalate (DAP), 120e1, 253
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 41e2
Differential thermal analysis (DTA), 43
Diffusion theory of adhesion, 7
DMA see dynamic mechanical analysis
Dornier helicopter rotor blades, 342
Dry abrasion:
fluorocarbon elastomers, 130
polyacrylate rubbers, 131
DSC see differential scanning calorimetry
DTA see differential thermal analysis
Du Nouy Ring method for measurement of surface tension,
Dual-care systems and UV-curable adhesive resins, 230e1
Dupre, A., 23
Duralumin, 301, 303
Duranickel (nickel alloy), 92
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 43e4
Dyne liquids, 16, 77
Dyneon adhesive, 130
E&Rs see etch and rinse adhesives
Eastman Chemical Company, 139, 147e8, 347
ECAs see electrically conductive adhesives
Economics and adhesives, 390e1
ECTFE see ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
EDS see Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EFTE see ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
adhesives, 150
carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile, 208
epoxies, 141
fluorosilicone, 130
history, 138
polymers in non-structural applications, 145e6
polyurethane, 129
thermoplastic, 131e2
Electrical conductivity, 277e80
Electrical and thermal conductivities:
electrical conductivity, 277e80
inorganic fillers, 277
thermal conductivity, 280e3
Electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs), 144, 146e7, 262
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA),
10e11, 31e2, 37e8, 74e5
Electronics adhesives:
cured, 287e97
cyanate ester resins, 272e3
electrical and thermal conductivities, 277e83
epoxies, 259e68
418 INDEXepoxy-phenolic resins, 268e9
epoxy-silicone compositions, 269e71
free radical and ionic polymerization, 259
introduction, 259
material properties, 283
polyimides, 273e7
silicone resins, 271e2
uncured, 283e7
Electrostatic (electronic) theory of adhesion, 6e7
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), 31e2, 35
Environment and adhesives, 389e90
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 34
EPDM see ethylene-propylene-diene
Epichlorohydrin elastomer, 130e1
electrically conductive adhesives, 144
history of adhesives, 138
recommended adhesives, 253
thermosets, 121
Epoxy adhesives:
description, 150e2
curing agents, 264e8
epoxy resins, 260e4
introduction, 259e60
reactive and non-reactive solvents, 264
Epoxy-phenolic adhesives, 141, 152, 268e9
Epoxy-polysulfide adhesives, 152
Epoxy-silicone compositions, 269e71
epoxy-phenolic resins, 268e9
ESCA see electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
Etch and rinse adhesives (E&Rs), 360
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), 112
Ethylene-propylene-diene polymer (EPDM), 125, 126e7
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), 112
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 112, 143, 155
EVA see ethylene-vinyl acetate
Failure modes, 10
FDA see Food and Drug Administration
FEP see fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer
Fiber-metal laminate, adhesive joints, 310e11
Fiber-reinforced plastics, adhesive joints, 310
surface treatment
introduction, 377
miscellaneous, 378
printed circuit boards, 378
reinforced plastics, 377e8
Fibrin, 346
FID see flame ionisation detector
Film adhesives, 152e4, 339e40, 341
Fish glues, 138, 160
Flame ionisation detector (FID), 40
Flame treatment for plastic surfaces, 63e5
Fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP), 45e7,
62e3, 68, 72, 112
Fluoro Etch, 76
Fluorocarbon elastomers:
dry abrasion, 130
epichlorohydrin elastomer, 130e1
sodium etch, 130
corona treatment, 62e3
electron spectroscopy, 74e5
plasma treatment, 70, 70e2
recommended adhesives, 250
sodium etching, 73e6
Fluoropolymer insulated wires, 71
Fluorosilicone elastomers, 130
FM series adhesives, 196, 210, 216, 218, 254
Foamable hot-melt adhesives, 155
Foams (plastic) recommended adhesives, 254e5
Fokker F-27 Friendship aircraft, 306
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), cyanoacrylate
adhesives, 347, 349, 359
tissue adhesive for topical application of skin,
Forest Products Laboratory see FPL
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 32e3,
FPL etch:
aluminium, 83e4
plastics, 73
zinc, 103
Fracture energies of thermosetting resins, 208e9
Free radical and ionic polymerization, 259
FTIR see Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Functions of adhesives, 3e4
Fundamentals of Adhesion, 6
Furane adhesives, 154
Future trends in adhesives, 391e3
Gas chromatography (GC), 39e40
GC see gas chromatography
Glare (glass fiber-reinforced aluminum laminate),
307e8, 310
Glass recommended adhesives, 255e6
Glossary, 407e13
Glubran 2 adhesive, 356, 358
Gold recommended adhesives, 248
Gordon Aerolite composite, 301e2, 311
Green adhesives, 392e3
Green adhesives and sealants, 178e9
Grit blasting:
cleaning, 54e5
reinforced plastics/thermosets, 123
Hardening agents for epoxy adhesives:
aliphatic polyamines, 151
INDEX 419Hardening agents for epoxy adhesives: (Continued)
anhydrides, 151e2
aromatic polyamines, 151
boron trifluoride, 152
fatty polyamides, 151
miscellaneous, 152
Heat-resistant adhesives:
aerospace industry, 218
aromatic polyimides, 186e8
heterocyclic polymers, 185
introduction, 185e7
lap-shear strength measurement, 203e4
light scattering analysis, 187
linear polymers, 204e7
macromolecular backbone, 186
molecular weight determination, introduction, 187
polymer chemistry
condensation oligomers, 194e6
introduction, 190e1
linear polymer precursors, 191e2
precyclized polymers, 192e4
thermosetting resins, 196e200
precyclized polymers, 204e7
resin characterization
HPLC, 201e2
infrared spectroscopy, 200e1
introduction, 200
NMR, 201
size exclusion chromatography, 187e9
strength measurement, 203
thermal properties
dynamic TGA, 188
isothermal aging, 188e90
stability, 185e6
thermomechanical analysis, 190
thermosetting resins, 196e200, 207e13
HEMA see hydroxy ethyl methacrylate
Heterocyclic polymers and heat-resistant adhesives, 185
Hide glues, 160
High-density polyethylene sheet plasma treatment, 67
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 201e2
Histoacryl adhesive, 349
History of adhesives:
anaerobic adhesives, 139
animal glues, 138
casein glue, 138
chronology, 139e40
cyanoacrylates, 139
description, 137e9
epoxies, 138
fish glue, 138
hot-melt adhesives, 138e9
RTV silicone adhesive, 139
rubber-based solvent cements, 138
starch, 138
violins, 137
World War II, 138
Honeycomb core, 311e14
Hot-melt adhesives, 138e9, 154e6
HPLC see high-performance liquid chromatography
Hydrogels for skin closure, 346
Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 362
Hytrel elastomer, 131
Imidite 850 adhesive, 217
Immersion etch (optimised FPL process) for aluminium, 83
In-line plasma treatment of wire insulation, 68e9
Inconel(nickel-iron-chromium), 92
Industrial Revolution, 137
Infrared spectroscopy, 31e3, 287
Inorganic adhesives (cements):
basic salts, 157
introduction, 156e7
litharge, 157
phosphate, 157
Sauereisen’s, 157e8
soluble silicates, 156e7
sulfur, 157
Intermolecular interactions, 8e9
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN), 229
Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), 31e2, 38
Ion-assisted reaction, 108e9
Ionomer (Surlyn) recommended adhesives, 250
Ionomers, 112
IPN see interpenetrating polymer networks
Iridite (chromate free etching), 84
Isothermal aging, 188e90
Isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (ITGA), 188e90
ISS see ion scattering spectroscopy
ITGA see isothermal thermogravimetric analysis
Joining using adhesives (advantages/disadvantages), 4e5
Joint design:
cleanliness, 5
surface treatment, 17
wetting, 5
Kel-F elastomer, 130
Kraton elastomer, 131
Krieble, Vernon, 139
Lap-shear strength measurement:
heat-resistant adhesives, 203e4, 206, 210e11, 215e16
plastics, 67, 69
Laplace’s equation (bubbles and liquids), 25
Larc adhesives, 204e6, 211, 218, 254
Latex adhesives:
contact bonding, 176e7
fish glues, 160
heat reactivation, 176e7
420 INDEXopen-time bonding, 176e7
solvent reactivation, 176e7
wet bonding, 176e7
Lead recommended adhesives, 248
Lexan polycarbonate, 114
Light scattering analysis, 187
Linear polyimide precursors, 204e7
Liquid Bandage, 349
Litharge cements, 157
Loctite Corporation, 139, 148, 349
Loose materials removal (metals), 50
MA see methacrylic acid
“Mach 3 Fighter” test, 214
Magnesium surface preparation, 51e2
Magnesium/magnesium alloys:
alkaline-detergent, 91
anodic treatments, 91
conversion coatings and wash primers, 91e2
hot chromic acid, 91
recommended adhesives, 248
sodium hydroxide-chromic acid, 91
Maleimide terminated thermosetting resins, 197e8, 207e10
Manual scouring of reinforced plastics/thermosets, 124
Manufacture of adhesives, primers, 332e8
Mass spectroscopy (MS), 39
Manufacture of adhesives:
film, 339e40
paste, 338e9
Mechanical theory of adhesion, 6
Mechanical treatment (roughening) of plastic surfaces, 59
Medical adhesives:
applications, 345e6
introduction, 345
skin closure, 346e59
strength tests, 352e3
Melamine-formaldehyde (melamines) adhesives, 121, 158,
Melinex adhesive, 115
Metal oxides and weak boundary layers, 9e10
Metalite panels, 308e9, 311
cleaning (degreasing), 50e2
recommended adhesives, 247e9
surface preparation, 49e50
see also individual metals
Methacrylate-based adhesives, 346
Methacrylic acid (MA) adhesive, 362
10-Methacryloyloxyethyl dihydrogen phosphate, 363
4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimetillic acid, 362e3
4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimetillitate anhydride, 363
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) adhesive, 362
Micro-encapsulated adhesives, 158
Minerals fillers in rubber reinforcement:
rubber tires, 381e2
wire and cable, 382
MMA see methyl methacrylate
Monel (nickel-copper alloy), 92
MS see mass spectroscopy
Mylar adhesive, 115
Nadimide terminated thermosetting resins, 198e9, 209,
Natural glues:
animal, 159e61
introduction, 158
vegetable, 158
Neoprene (polychloroprene):
abrasive treatment, 125e6
adhesives, 161
chlorination, 126
cyclization, 125e6
Neoprene-phenolic adhesives, 141, 161
Newell, George, 301
Nickel/nickel alloys:
abrasive cleaning, 92
cleaning and plated parts, 92
nickel-base alloys, 92
nitric acid etch, 92
recommended adhesives, 248
sulfuric-nitric acid pickle, 92
Nitric acid:
copper/copper alloys, 90
nickel/nickel alloys, 92
uranium, 102
Nitric acid/ferric chloride for copper/copper alloys, 90
Nitric acid/sodium chlorite (black oxide) for copper/
copper alloys, 90
Nitrile (butadiene-acrylonitrile):
abrasive treatment, 128
activated-gas plasma, 129
chlorination, 128
cyclization, 128
epoxy adhesives, 161
primers, 128
rubber adhesives, 162
Nitrile-phenolic adhesives, 141e2, 162
NMR see nuclear magnetic resonance
NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, 201
Non-silane adhesion promoters, 384
Novalac resins, 268e9
NR 056X adhesive, 204e5, 254
NR 150 series adhesives, 215e16, 254
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 40e1
Nylon 6 plasma treatment and lap-shear joint strength, 69
Nylon (polyamides):
adhesives, 112e13, 162
epoxies, 141
recommended adhesives, 250
Nylon-epoxy adhesives, 162
INDEX 421Octylcyanoacrylate see 2-OCA
Organosilanes, 9, 318e20
Orlon, 120
Oxalic-sulfuric acid and heat resistance of stainless steel,
PAA (phosphoric acid anodization), 88
Painted surfaces preparation, 132
Pasa-Jell treatment for titanium, 100
Paste adhesives, 338e9, 340e1
PBIs see polybenzimidazoles
PCs see polycarbonates
PCTFE see polychlorofluoroethylene
PEEK see polyetheretherketone
Peel tests and surface exposure time, 78e9
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) polymer, 43, 113
PES see polyethersulfone
PFA see perfluoroalkoxy
Phenol-formaldehyde (phenolics), 121
recommended adhesives, 253e4
Phenolic adhesives:
acid-catalysed phenolics, 163
hot-setting phenolics, 163
introduction, 163
Phenolic resoles, 302e3
Phenoxy adhesives, 163e4
Phenylene-oxide-based resins (Noryl), 113, 250e1, 254
Phosphate cements, 157
Phosphate-fluoride for titanium, 99
Phosphoric acid anodization see PAA
Photo-initiated cationic polymerization:
introduction, 227
epoxides, 227e8
hybrid systems, 229e30
VEs, 228e9
Photo-initiated radical polymerization:
introduction, 222
thiol-polyene system, 225e7
UV-curable acrylate resins, 222e5
Phyfe, Duncan, 137
PICA adhesion, 382e3
Plasma (glow discharge) treatment for plastic surfaces,
65e8, 70e2
foams recommended adhesives, 254e5
FPL etch, 73
history, 138
Plastics surface preparation:
ablation, 57e8
chemical etching, 73
chemical modification, 57e8
cleaning, 57e8, 58e9
corona treatment
fluoroplastics, 62e3, 70
plastics, 58, 59e61
corona treatment (3D), 61e2, 68, 70
cross-linking, 57e8
flame treatment, 63e5
foams, 124
introduction, 56e7
lap-shear joint strength, 67, 69
mechanical treatment (roughening), 59
plasma treatment
atmospheric, 68
description, 58, 65e8
fluoroplastics, 70
wire insulation, 68e9
Plated metals recommended adhesives, 248
Platinum abrasive cleaning, 92e3
Plexiglas (polymethyl methacrylate), 41, 117, 139
PMMA see polymethyl methacrylate;
Polvinyl chloride (PVC), recommended adhesives, 253
Polvinyl fluoride (Tedlar), recommended adhesives, 253
Poly(1, 4)-phenylene, 185
Polyacrylate rubbers dry abrasion, 131
Polyamic acid synthesis, 191
polyester resins, 155e6
solvents, 172
see also nylon
Polyaryl ether (Arylon T), recommended adhesives, 251
Polyaryl sulfone (Astrel 360), 114, 251
Polyarylate, 113
Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs):
adhesives, 143, 164
condensation prepolymers, 216e18
Polybutadiene (butadiene rubber):
abrasive treatment, 131
cyclization, 131
solvent wipe, 131
Polycarbonate (PC):
ion-assisted reaction, 109, 114e15
plasma treatment and lap-shear joint strength, 67
recommended adhesives, 251
Polychlorofluoroethylene (PCTFE), 115
Polydimethylsiloxanes, 139
adhesives, 141, 165
polyamide, 155e6
saturated, 115
thermoplastic recommended adhesives, 251
thermosets, 121, 254
Poly(ether-imides), 194
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK):
adhesive chemistries, 322
recommended adhesives, 251
thermoplastics, 115e16
ultraviolet light, 107e8
422 INDEXPolyetherimide (Ultem), 116, 251
Polyethersulfone (PES), 116, 251e2
Polyethylene (PE):
plasma treatment and lap-shear joint strength, 67, 69
recommended adhesives, 252
thermoplastics, 107, 116e17
weak boundary layers, 9e10
Polyethylene-nitrile rubber recommended adhesives,
Polyimides (PIs):
adhesives for electronics, 273e7
aromatic polymer adhesives, 143
heat-resistant adhesives, 186e8
linear precursors, 204e7
precursors, 273
self-standing films, 273e4
thermosets, 121, 165, 254
Polyisobutylene rubber, 166, 254
Poly(isoimides), 193e4
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 41, 117, 139
free radical and ionic polymerization, 259
recommended adhesives, 252
Polymethylpentene (TPX), 117, 252
Polymethylsiloxane, 170
Polyphenols, 268
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS; Ryton), 117e18, 252
Polyphenylqinoxalines, 204
Polyphenylquinoxalines, 192e3
Polypropylene (PP):
chemical treatment, 58, 67
plasma treatment and lap-shear joint strength, 67
recommended adhesives, 252
thermoplastics, 107, 118
Polypropylene oxide rubber, 131
Polystyrene adhesives, 118e19, 166, 252, 254
Polystyrene terephthalate plasma treatment and lap-shear
joint strength, 69
Polysulfide rubber (PTR):
abrasive treatment, 131
chlorination, 131
Polysulfides (thiokols) adhesives, 166
adhesives, 166e7
recommended adhesives, 252
Udel, 119e20
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
bond values and lap-shear test, 74e5
cleaning (degreasing) of metals, 51
corona treatment of fluoroplastics, 62
differential thermal analysis, 70
plasma treatment of fluoroplastics, 70
recommended adhesives, 252
thermogravimetric analysis, 45
thermoplastics, 119
Polytrichlorofluoroethylene (PCTFE: Aclar), 251
adhesives, 167, 254
elastomers, 129
thermosets, 122
Polyurethane-acrylates (PUAs), 223
Polyvinl chloride (PVC), recommended adhesives,
Polyvinyl acetal adhesives, 168
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesives, 160, 168
Polyvinyl alcohol adhesives, 168e9
Polyvinyl butyral adhesives, 168e9
Polyvinyl butyral-phenolics adhesives, 175
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 120
Polyvinyl fluoride:
plasma treatment and lap-shear joint strength, 69
thermoplastics, 120
Polyvinyl formal-phenolics adhesives, 175
Polyvinyl pyrrolidine particles, 36e7
Polyvinylidene fluoride, (PVDF; Kynar), 120, 253
Potassium iodide-phosphoric acid method for steel, 94
PP see polypropylene
PPS see polyphenylene sulfide
Precyclized polymers:
introduction, 192
linear polyimide precursors, 204e7
poly(ether-imides), 194
poly(isoimides), 193e4
polyphenylquinoxalines, 192e3, 204
Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs), 169, 234e6, 255
aerospace industry, 316e18, 332e8, 340
butyl rubber, 127
silicone, 127
surface protection, 317
surfaces and adhesion, 383
see also Chemlok primers
aerospace applications, 316e18
metals, 50
surfaces, 56
PSAs see pressure-sensitive adhesives
PTFE see polytetrafluoroethylene
PTR see polysulfide rubber
PUAs see polyurethane-acrylates
PVDF see polyvinylidene fluoride
Radiation-curable adhesives applications:
conclusions, 237
pressure-sensitive, 234e6
release coatings, 236e7
structural adhesives, 232e4
summary, 231e2
Raman spectroscopy, 33
RBS see Rutherford backscattering theory
Real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR), 223, 228
INDEX 423Redux adhesives:
319 specification, 329e36
aerospace structures, 301e4
series, 325e36
Reinforced plastics/composites, recommended adhesives,
Reinforced plastics/thermosets:
grit blasting/sand blasting, 123
introduction, 123
manual scouring, 124
sanding, 123
solvent soak and abrading, 124
tear-ply method, 123
Reinforced thermoplastics (glass-reinforced) surface
preparation, 124
Release coatings and radiation-curable adhesives, 236e7
Remixed frozen adhesives, 169
Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives, 169
Rolls Royce engines, 342
Room temperature vulcanization (RTV), 115, 139, 259
Rosin glue, 159
Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), 100e1
RTIR see real time infrared spectroscopy
RTV see room temperature vulcanization
RTV silicone adhesive, 139
Rubber-based adhesives see elastomers
Rubber-based solvent cements, 138
butyl, 127
chlorobutyl, 127e8
chlorosulfonated polyethylene, 128
elastomers, 255
ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer, 126e7
fluorocarbon elastomers, 130e1
fluorosilicone elastomers, 130
introduction, 124e5
neoprene, 125e67
nitrile, 128e9
polyacrylate, 131
polybutadiene, 131
polypropylene oxide, 131
polysulfide, 131
polyurethane elastomers, 129
silicone rubber, 127
styrene-butadiene, 129e30
synthetic natural, 129
Rutherford backscattering theory (RBS), 31e2, 34e5
Rutherford, Lord Ernest, 34
Safety and adhesives, 387
SAN see styrene-acrylonitrile
Sand blasting of reinforced plastics/thermosets, 123
Sanding reinforced plastics/thermosets, 123
Sandwich panels:
honeycomb core, 311e14
introduction, 311
skins, 314
Sauereisen’s adhesives, 157e8
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 31, 33e5
Scotchweld 3553adhesive, 70
Sea Hornet aircraft, 303
SEAs see self-etch adhesives
SEC see size exclusion chromatography
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), 31e2, 38e9
Self-etch adhesives (SEAs), 359e60
SEM see scanning electron microscopy
SET see surface exposure time
Shellac glues, 160e1
Silicone adhesives, 122, 170e2, 254
“Silicone Adhesives and Sealants”, 318
Silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane):
activated-gas plasma, 127
primers, 127
soap and water wash, 127
solvent cleaning, 127
Silquest adhesive primer, 318e20
recommended adhesives, 248
surface preparation
chromate conversion coating, 93
degrease-abrade-prime, 93
see also platinum abrasive cleaning
SIMS see secondary ion mass spectroscopy
Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), 187e9
Skin closure adhesives, 346e59
Sodium etch:
fluorocarbon elastomers, 130
fluoroplastics, 73e6
Sodium hydroxide-chromic acid for magnesium/
magnesium alloys, 91
Solids and surface energy, 23
Solprene elastomer, 131
Soluble silicates, 156e7
film adhesives, 172
reinforced plastics/thermosets, 124
safety, 53e4
storage, 54
thermoplastic resins, 172
Sorel cements, 157
Soybean glue, 159
Stainless steel:
acid etch, 95
adhesive joints, 310
ASTM methods, 96e7
bromophosphate, 96
introduction, 95
oxalic-sulfuric acid for heat resistance, 95e6
recommended adhesives, 248
surface preparation, 51e2
424 INDEXStarch, 138, 158e9
acid treatment, 94
ASTM methods, 94e5
introduction, 92e4
(mild, carbon, iron), recommended adhesives, 248
potassium iodide-phosphoric acid, 94
Stradivari, Antonio, 137
Structural adhesives, 232e4
Styrene butadiene rubber (Buna S):
abrasive treatment, 129
activated-gas plasma, 130
cyclization, 129
Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN; Lustran), 120, 253
Sulfur cements, 157
Sulfuric acid-dichromate etch see FPL etch
Sulfuric-nitric acid pickle for nickel/nickel alloys, 92
Super glues see cyanoacrylates
Supermarine Spitfire cockpit, 301
Surface chemical analysis by ESCA, 11
Surface exposure time (SET), 77e9, 123
Surface free energy:
solids, 23
surface tension, 22e3
work of adhesion, 23
Surface hardening of metals, 50
Surface and materials analysis:
Auger electron spectroscopy, 31e2, 37e8
differential scanning calorimetry, 41e2
differential thermal analysis, 43
dynamic mechanical analysis, 43e4
electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, 31e2, 37e8
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, 31e2, 35
environmental scanning electron microscopy, 34
gas chromatography, 39e40
infrared spectroscopy, 31e3
introduction, 31
ion scattering spectroscopy, 31e2, 38
mass spectroscopy, 39
nuclear magnetic resonance, 40e1
Raman spectroscopy, 33
Rutherford backscattering theory, 31e2, 34e5
sample depth, 32
scanning electron microscopy, 31, 33e5
secondary ion mass spectroscopy, 31e2, 38e9
thermogravimetric analysis, 44e7
time-of-flight, 39
transmission electron microscopy, 35e7
Surface preparation:
chemical etching, 70e9
cleaning, 52e6
cold rolled steel, 51e2
contact-angle test, 77
dyne liquids, 16, 77
surface exposure time, 77e9
water-break test, 77
introduction, 49
aluminium, 51e2, 83e9
atmospheric plasma jet, 56
beryllium, 89
brass, 89
bronze, 89
cadmium, 89
cleaning (degreasing), 50e2
conclusions, 104
copper, 51e2
copper/copper alloys, 89e91
gold see platinum
introduction, 83
magnesium, 51e2
magnesium/magnesium alloys, 91e2
nickel/nickel alloys, 92
platinum, 92e3
silver, 92e3
stainless steel, 51e2, 95e7
steel, 93e5
summary, 49e50, 56
tin, 97
titanium, 51e2, 97e101
tungsten/tungsten alloys, 101e2
uranium, 102
weldbonding, 103e4
zinc/zinc alloys, 102e3
painted surfaces, 132
plastics, 56e70
foams, 124
priming, 56
reinforced plastics/thermosets, 123e4
reinforced thermoplastics, 124
rubbers, 124e31
thermoplastics, 107e20, 132
elastomers, 131e2
thermosets, 120e3, 132
Surface pretreatment, 49
Surface tension:
contact angle (Young’s equation), 23e5
definition, 21e2
interface, 21
introduction, 21
Laplace’s equation, 25
liquids, 25e6
solids, 26, 28e9
polymers, 22
surface free energy, 22e3
temperature, 25
Surface treatment:
abrasion, 15e16
INDEX 425Surface treatment: (Continued)
adhesive bonds, 17
chemical treatment, 15e16
cleanliness, 17
degreasing, 16
introduction, 15e16
joint design, 17
minerals in plastics
bonding to minerals, 378e9
silanes, 379e80, 380e1
reasons, 15e16
wetting, 17
Synthetic natural rubbers (polyisoprene):
abrasive treatment, 129
chlorination, 129
cyclization, 129
Tape adhesives, 152e4
Tear-ply (peel-ply) method, 123
Tedlar (polyvinyl fluoride) adhesive, 120, 253
Teflon see polytetrafluoroethylene
Tefzel ETFE, 68
TEM see transmission electron microscopy
Temperature and surface tension, 25
Tenite adhesive, 115
Tetra Etch, 76
Tetramethylsilane (TMS), 40
TGA see thermogravimetric analysis
Theory of adhesion:
acidebase theory, 9
chemical bonding, 8e9
diffusion, 7
electrostatic (electronic), 6e7
introduction, 5e6
mechanical, 6
weak boundary layer, 9e10
wetting, 7e8
Thermal conductivity, 280e3
Thermally conductive adhesives, 147
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 44e7, 185, 188
Thermomechanical analysis, 190
acetal copolymer, 109
acetal homopolymer, 109e11
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, 111
allyl diglycol carbonate, 111
cellulosics, 111e12
conclusions, 132
ECTFE, 112
elastomers, 131e2
ETFE, 112
ethylene-vinyl acetate, 112
FEP, 112
introduction, 107
ionomer, 112
nylon, 112e13
PCTFE, 115
perfluoroalkoxy resins, 113
phenylene-oxide-based resins, 113
polyaryl sulfone, 114
polyarylate, 113
polycarbonates, 114e15
polyester, 115
polyetheretherketone, 115e16
polyetherimide, 116
polyethersulfone, 116
polyethylene, 116e17
polymethylmethacrylate, 117
polymethylpentene, 117
polyphenylene sulfide, 117e18
polypropylene, 118
polystyrene, 118e19
polysulfone, 119
polytetrafluoroethylene, 119
polyvinyl chloride, 120
polyvinyl fluoride, 120
polyvinylidene fluoride, 120
recommended adhesives, 249e53
atmospheric plasma, 108
ion-assisted reaction, 108e9
ultraviolet light, 107e8
resin adhesives, 172e3
rubber in adhesives, 173
styrene-acrylonitrile, 120
conclusions, 132
diallyl phthalate, 120e1
epoxies, 121
foams, 255
introduction, 120
melamine-formaldehyde, 121
phenol-formaldehyde, 121
polyester, 121
polyimide, 121
polyurethane, 122
recommended adhesives, 253e5
resin adhesives, 173
silicone resins, 122
urea-formaldehyde, 122e3
Thermosetting resins:
acetylene terminated, 199e200, 211e13
fracture energies, 208e9
introduction, 196e7
maleimide terminated, 197e8, 207e10
nadimide terminated, 198e9, 209e11
Thiol-polyene system (radical polymerisation), 225e7
Three-dimensional (3D) corona treatment for plastic
surfaces, 61e2, 68, 70
Time-of-flight analysis, 39
426 INDEXTin:
recommended adhesives, 248
surface preparation, 97
adhesive joints, 310
alkaline cleaning, 99
alkaline etch, 99e100
alkaline-peroxide etch, 100e1
ASTM methods, 101
biomaterial, 98e9
introduction, 97e8
Pasa-Jell treatment, 100
stabilized phosphate-fluoride, 99
surface preparation, 51e2
VAST process, 100
Titanium/titanium alloys, recommended adhesives, 249
TMS see tetramethylsilane
Torlon 4000T adhesive, 209
TPR adhesive, 131
TPX see polymethylpentene
Transdermal patches, 345e6
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 35e7
Tuffak polycarbonate, 114
Tungsten/tungsten alloys:
hydrofluoric-nitric-sulfuric acid, 101e2
recommended adhesives, 249
Tyril copolymer, 120
Ubbelhode viscometer, 187
P1700 adhesive, 209
Polysulfone adhesive, 166
Ultem 1000 adhesive, 196, 208, 216, 251, 275
cleaning with liquid rinse, 53
vapor degreasing, 53
Ultraviolet (UV) light, thermoplastics, 107e8
Uncured adhesives for electronics:
corrosivity, 287
infrared spectroscopy, 287
materials, 283e4
pot life, 284e7
shelf life, 284e7
viscosity and rheology, 284e7
Upjohn 2080 adhesive, 209
abrasive method, 102
acetic-hydrochloric acid, 102
nitric acid, 102
recommended adhesives, 249
Urea-formaldehyde adhesives, 122e3, 174e5, 254
US Army Research and Development Center, 78
UV-curable acrylate resins, 222e5
UV-curable adhesives:
description, 173e4
dual-care systems, 230e1
introduction, 222
photo-initiated cationic polymerization, 227e30
photo-initiated radical polymerization, 222e7
UV-curing acrylates, 346
Vapor degreasing, 53
Vapor honing/PASA-Jell 107M for weld bonding,
VAST process:
titanium, 100
weldbonding, 104
Vegetable glues:
dextrins, 159
rosin, 159
soybean, 159
starch, 158e9
Vespel polyimide, 121e2
Vinyl-epoxy adhesives, 175
Vinyl-phenolic adhesives, 141, 175
Vinyl-resin adhesives, 175
Violins, 137
Viton elastomer, 130
Vogelesang, Boud, 310
Vought, Chance, 308, 311e12
Water-based emulsions (plastic foams), recommended
adhesives, 254
Water-break test, 77
Water-resin adhesives:
Latex, 176e7
natural polymers, 176
soluble synthetic polymers, 176
Weak boundary layer theory of adhesion, 9e10
Weldbonding of metals:
introduction, 103
vapor honing/PASA-Jell 107M, 103e4
Wetting theory of adhesion, 7e8
Wilhelmy Plate method for measurement of surface
tension, 25e7
Wood and adhesive joints, 309
Work of adhesion, 23
World War II, 138, 301, 304
Wound closure devices comparison, 357
Zinc/zinc alloys:
abrasion, 102
acid etch, 102e3
conversion coatings, 103
FPL etch, 103
recommended adhesives, 249

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