Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks

Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks
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1 نوفمبر 2021
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Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks
Includes Inspection Procedures for Electric Traction and Winding Drum Elevators, Hydraulic Elevators, and Escalators and Moving Walks
Consolidation of A17.2.1, A17.2.2, and A17.2.3
Foreword . ix
Committee Roster . xii
Preface . xvii
Scope 1
Application . 1
Qualifications of Inspectors . 2
Personal Safety . 2
Duties of Inspectors . 3
Arrangement for Inspection 3
Recommended Equipment . 3
Reference Documents 4
Part 1
Elevator — Inside of Car
1.1 Door Reopening Device 5
1.2 Stop Switches 5
1.3 Operating Control Devices . 6
1.4 Sills and Car Floor 7
1.5 Car Lighting and Receptacles . 8
1.6 Car Emergency Signal . 9
1.7 Car Door or Gate . 9
1.8 Door Closing Force 10
1.9 Power Closing of Doors or Gates . 11
1.10 Power Opening of Doors or Gates 11
1.11 Car Vision Panels and Glass Car Doors . 13
1.12 Car Enclosure . 13
1.13 Emergency Exit . 14
1.14 Ventilation 15
1.15 Signs and Operating Device Symbols . 15
1.16 Rated Load, Platform Area, and Data Plate 16
1.17 Standby Power Operation 16
1.18 Restricted Opening of Car or Hoistway Doors . 17
1.19 Car Ride 18
,,,,,,,```,`,,,,,,,`````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---Part 2 Elevator — Machine Room Safety Precautions (Electric Elevators) . 20 Safety Precautions (Hydraulic Elevators) . 20 2.1 Access to Machine Space 21 2.2 Headroom 21 2.3 Lighting and Receptacles . 21 2.4 Machine Space 22 2.5 Housekeeping . 22 2.6 Ventilation 23 2.7 Fire Extinguisher 23 2.8 Pipes, Wiring, and Ducts . 24 2.9 Guarding of Exposed Auxiliary Equipment 24 2.10 Numbering of Elevators, Machines, and Disconnect Switches . 24 2.11 Disconnecting Means and Control 25 2.12 Controller Wiring, Fuses, Grounding, Etc . 26 2.13 Governor, Overspeed Switch, and Seal 27 2.14 Code Data Plate . 33 2.15 Static Control . 33 2.16 Overhead Beam and Fastenings 34 2.17 Drive Machine Brake 34 2.18 Traction Drive Machines . 35 2.19 Gears, Bearings, and Flexible Couplings . 35 2.20 Winding Drum Machine and Slack Cable Device . 36 2.21 Belt- or Chain-Drive Machine . 37 2.22 Motor Generator 37 2.23 Absorption of Regenerated Power 38 2.24 AC Drives From a DC Source 38 2.25 Traction Sheaves 39 2.26 Secondary and Deflector Sheaves 39 2.27 Rope Fastenings 40 2.28 Terminal Stopping Devices . 40 2.29 Car and Counterweight Safeties 41 2.30 Hydraulic Power Unit 48 2.31 Relief Valves 48 2.32 Control Valve . 49 2.33 Tanks 49 2.34 Flexible Hydraulic Hose and Fitting Assemblies 50 2.35 Supply Line and Shutoff Valve . 51 2.36 Hydraulic Cylinders 52 2.37 Pressure Switch . 52 2.38 Roped Water Hydraulic Elevators . 52 iv --`,,`,,,,,,`,,,,,,,`````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---Part 3 Elevator — Top of Car Safety Precautions . 54 3.1 Top-of-Car Stop Switch 54 3.2 Car Top Light and Outlet 54 3.3 Top-of-Car Operating Device . 55 3.4 Top-of-Car Clearance and Refuge Space . 55 3.5 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices . 58 3.6 Final and Emergency Terminal Stopping Devices 59 3.7 Car Leveling and Anticreep Devices . 60 3.8 Top Emergency Exit . 61 3.9 Floor and Emergency Identification Numbering 61 3.10 Hoistway Construction . 61 3.11 Hoistway Smoke Control . 62 3.12 Pipes, Wiring, and Ducts . 64 3.13 Windows, Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks . 64 3.14 Hoistway Clearances . 65 3.15 Multiple Hoistways 65 3.16 Traveling Cables and Junction Boxes . 66 3.17 Door and Gate Equipment . 68 3.18 Car Frame and Stiles 70 3.19 Guide Rails Fastening and Equipment . 70 3.20 Governor Rope 71 3.21 Governor Releasing Carrier . 72 3.22 Wire Rope Fastening and Hitch Plate . 72 3.23 Suspension Rope 75 3.24 Top Counterweight Clearance 78 3.25 Car, Overhead, and Deflector Sheaves 79 3.26 Broken Rope, Chain, or Tape Switch 79 3.27 Crosshead Data Plate 79 3.28 Counterweight and Counterweight Buffer 80 3.29 Counterweight Safeties 80 3.30 Speed Test . 81 3.31 Slack Rope Device — Roped-Hydraulic Elevators Installed Under A17.1b–1989 and Later Editions 81 3.32 Traveling Sheave — Roped-Hydraulic Elevators Installed Under A17.1b-1989 and Later Editions 82 3.33 Counterweight 82 3.34 Compensating Ropes and Chains . 83 Part 4 Elevator — Outside Hoistway 4.1 Car Platform Guard 84 4.2 Hoistway Doors . 84 4.3 Vision Panels . 86 v --`4.4 Hoistway Door Locking Devices 87 4.5 Access to Hoistway 88 4.6 Power Closing of Hoistway Doors 88 4.7 Sequence Operation . 89 4.8 Hoistway Enclosure 89 4.9 Elevator Parking Devices . 89 4.10 Emergency Doors in Blind Hoistways . 90 4.11 Separate Counterweight Hoistway 91 4.12 Standby Power Selection Switch . 91 Part 5 Elevator — Pit Safety Precautions . 92 5.1 Pit Access, Lighting, Stop Switch, and Condition . 92 5.2 Bottom Clearance, Runby, and Minimum Refuge Space 94 5.3 Final and Emergency Terminal Stopping Devices 96 5.4 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices . 96 5.5 Traveling Cables 97 5.6 Governor-Rope Tension Devices 97 5.7 Car Frame and Platform . 98 5.8 Car Safeties and Guiding Members — Including Roped-Hydraulic Elevators Installed Under A17.1b–1989 and Later Editions 98 5.9 Buffer and Emergency Terminal Speed Limiting Devices . 102 5.10 Compensating Chains, Ropes, and Sheaves . 104 5.11 Plunger and Cylinder 105 5.12 Car Buffer 105 5.13 Guiding Members . 106 5.14 Supply Piping . 106 Part 6 Elevator — Firefighters’ Service 6.1 Operation of Elevators Under Fire and Other Emergency Conditions (A17.1b–1973 Through A17.1b–1980) 107 6.2 Operation of Elevators Under Fire and Other Emergency Conditions (A17.1–1981 Through A17.1b-1983) . 109 6.3 Firefighters’ Service (A17.1–1984 Through A17.1a–1988 and A17.3) 112 6.4 Firefighters’ Service (A17.1b–1989 Through A17.1d–2000) . 114 Part 7 Escalator — External 7.1 General Fire Protection 120 7.2 Geometry . 120 7.3 Handrails . 122 7.4 Entrance and Egress Ends . 124 7.5 Lighting 124 vi --`,,`,,,,``,,,,,,,,,`````-,,,,,,,---7.6 Caution Signs . 125 7.7 Combplate 125 7.8 Deck Barricade 127 7.9 Steps and Upthrust Device . 128 7.10 Operating Devices . 131 7.11 Skirt Obstruction Device . 132 7.12 Handrail-Speed Monitoring Device 132 7.13 Rolling Shutter Device . 134 7.14 Speed 134 7.15 Balustrades . 134 7.16 Ceiling Intersection Guards . 135 7.17 Step/Skirt Clearances, Panels, and Performance Index 136 7.18 Outdoor Protection 139 Part 8 Escalator — Internal 8.1 Machinery Space Access, Lighting, Receptacle, and Condition . 140 8.2 Stop Switch 140 8.3 Controller and Wiring 141 8.4 Drive Machine and Brake 141 8.5 Speed Governor . 142 8.6 Broken Drive Chain and Disconnected Motor Safety Device . 143 8.7 Reversal Stop Switch 143 8.8 Broken Step Chain Device . 144 8.9 Step Upthrust Device 144 8.10 Missing Step Device . 144 8.11 Step Level Device . 145 8.12 Steps, Step Chains, and Trusses 145 8.13 Handrails . 147 8.14 Code Data Plate . 147 8.15 Response to Smoke Detectors 147 Part 9 Moving Walk — External 9.1 General Fire Protection 148 9.2 Geometry . 148 9.3 Handrails . 149 9.4 Entrance and Egress Ends . 152 9.5 Lighting 153 9.6 Caution Signs . 153 9.7 Combplates . 153 9.8 Deck Barricades . 154 9.9 Treadways 154 9.10 Operating Devices . 155 vii --,,,,,,``,```,,,,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---9.11 (Reserved) 156 9.12 Handrail-Speed Monitoring Device 156 9.13 Rolling Shutter Device . 156 9.14 Speed 157 9.15 Balustrades . 157 9.16 Ceiling Intersection Guards . 158 9.17 Skirt Panels . 158 9.18 Outdoor Protection 159 Part 10 Moving Walk — Internal 10.1 Machinery Space Access, Lighting, Receptacle, and Condition . 161 10.2 Stop Switch 161 10.3 Controller and Wiring 162 10.4 Drive Machine and Brake 162 10.5 Speed Governor . 164 10.6 Broken Drive Chain and Disconnected Motor Safety Device . 164 10.7 Reversal Stop Switch 164 10.8 Broken Treadway Device . 165 10.9 (Reserved) 165 10.10 Missing Pallet Device 165 10.11 Pallet Level Device 165 10.12 Pallets, Pallet Chains, and Trusses 166 10.13 Handrails . 167 10.14 Code Data Plate . 167 10.15 Response to Smoke Detectors 167 Nonmandatory Appendix A Inspection Checklists . 169 ASME A17 ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR COMMITTEE (October 2000) STANDARDS COMMITTEE R. L. Seymour, Chair J. W. Coaker, Vice Chair D. L. Steel, Vice Chair G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary L. Bialy, Otis Elevator Co. B. D. Black, Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association W. C. Burklund, Montgomery Kone, Inc. D. J. Camp, Dover Elevator Systems E. A. Donoghue, Edward A. Donoghue Associates R. E. Droste, Consultant R. T. Farley, NAESA International C. H. Murphy, Alternate, Massachusetts Department of Public Safety J. A. Filippone, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey J. H. Humphrey, Alternate, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey C. C. Fox, Rainbow Security Control Ltd. G. W. Gibson, George W. Gibson and Associates, Inc. H. E. Godwin, Jr., North Carolina Department of Labor A. P. Juhasz, Montgomery Kone, Inc. G. A. Kappenhagen, Schindler Elevator Corp. M. P. Lamb, Alternate, Schindler Elevator Corp. K. S. Lloyd, Abell Elevator International S. K. Lloyd, Alternate, Abell Elevator International Z. R. McCain, Jr., McCain Engineering Associates, Inc. M. V. Farinola, Alternate, MV Farinola, Inc. R. A. Gregory, Alternate, Vertex Corp. D. A. McColl, Otis Canada, Inc. J. L. Meyer, State of California, Division of Occupational Safety and Health E. F. Parvis, Fujitec America, Inc. M. Boutelle, Alternate, Fujitec America, Inc. H. E. Peelle III, The Peelle Co., Ltd. S. P. Reynolds, Alternate, The Peelle Co., Ltd. R. L. Phillips, Georgia Department of Labor V. P. Robibero, Schindler Elevator Corp. A. Rehman, Alternate, Schindler Elevator Corp. R. L. Seymour, Robert L. Seymour and Associates, Inc. R. S. Seymour, Alternate, Robert L. Seymour and Associates, Inc. C. F. Starmer, GAL Manufacturing D. A. Witham, Alternate, GAL Manufacturing D. L. Steel, David L. Steel Escalators D. L. Turner, Davis L. Turner & Associates R. S. Caporale, Alternate, Elevator World, Inc. A. H. Verschell, Consulting Engineer C. E. Vlahovic, TSSA D. M. Winkle, IUEC Local #14 Ex Officio Members E. J. Crawford A. J. Saxer A. J. Marchant Honorary Members L. J. Blaiotta A. A. Mascone F. W. Bowman J. McAulay, Jr. W. E. Chamberlain H. E. Peelle, Jr. B. J. Fanguy E. M. Philpot W. J. Figiel R. L. Rogers C. E. Hempel S. Wagoner C. L. Kort R. W. Young Regulatory Advisory Council N. B. Martin J. R. RunyanNATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW COMMITTEE J. P. Andrew R. A. Molinari J. Antona N. J. Montesano L. C. Arnold T. S. Mowrey W. Baehr J. Murphy R. Barker F. G. Newman R. J. Blatz J. S. Nicksic M. A. Boyle J. J. O’Donoghue J. E. Brannon D. J. O’Keefe III W. J. Braun E. J. Orrico III T. A. Bremer A. Patel J. A. Caluori M. S. Peck P. Caploon B. Y. Peyton M. A. Chavez M. J. Pfeiffer H. J. Clifford R. B. Pohlman, Jr. R. F. Dieter M. Poulin R. C. Duncan J. Powell S. M. Eisenman P. M. Puno B. Faerber L. S. Rigby J. J. Faup C. W. Rogler S. E. Fisher J. R. Runyan J. G. Gerk R. D. Schloss L. A. Giovannetti S. Shanes R. E. Haukeness M. Shipley H. H. Hayes H. Simpkins J. E. Herwig K. J. Smith J. Inglis M. L. Smith D. J. Jolly D. S. Snyder F. A. Kilian J. L. Stabler J. W. Koshak R. B. Sweeney M. L. Lane D. A. Swerrie M. R. Liberatore M. B. Taylor M. A. Malek D. Tolar J. J. Mancuso A. W. Whaley C. C. Mann D. J. Wilson N. E. Marchitto W. J. Witt N. B. Martin D. Younkin J. M. McKinley E. K. Zimpritsch B44.1/A17.5 ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT COMMITTEE H. E. Godwin, Jr., Chair M. L. Hite J. W. Blain J. M. Weber, Alternate J. D. Busse S. J. Koinoff J. Caldwell M. R. Liberatore B. Colavecchio R. Mackenzie J. H. Hidaka, Alternate A. Rehman S. E. Fisher C. E. Vlahovic R. F. Hadaller CODE COORDINATION COMMITTEE E. A. Donoghue, Chair G. W. Gibson R. Mohamed, Secretary G. A. Kappenhagen P. D. Armstrong M. J. Pfeiffer L. Bialy D. S. Snyder D. J. Camp W. J. Sterling P. Caploon R. D. Weber DUMBWAITER AND ATD COMMITTEE H. E. Peelle III, Chair E. A. Donoghue G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary H. E. Peelle, Jr. L. C. Arnold J. B. Peskuski R. Dolan E. J. Matot II, Alternate EARTHQUAKE SAFETY COMMITTEE G. W. Gibson, Chair S. L. Wagner, Alternate J. Smith, Vice Chair N. E. Marchitto M. A. Brookes, Secretary J. L. Meyer D. J. Camp W. C. Ribeiro R. E. Droste A. J. Schiff R. E. Fleming EDITORIAL COMMITTEE E. A. Donoghue, Chair J. A. Filippone D. McColl, Vice Chair C. E. Vlahovic G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary ELECTRICAL COMMITTEE A. P. Juhasz, Chair R. F. Hadaller J. M. Weber, Alternate G. Henry G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary J. H. Hidaka T. D. Barkand Y. C. Ho J. W. Blain A. Rehman, Alternate T. H. Nguyen, Alternate N. E. Marchitto J. D. Busse A. L. Peck J. Caldwell R. B. Pohlman, Jr. J. P. Donnelly P. M. Puno R. E. Droste V. P. Robibero R. C. Duncan C. E. Vlahovic R. Elias M. Stergulc, Alternate S. E. Fisher M. Yonemoto H. E. Godwin, Jr. S. H. Grainer, Alternate --`,,`,,,,``,```,`,,,,,,,-,,,,,,,—ELEVATORS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE
R. A. Gregory, Chair C. C. Fox
E. A. Donoghue R. L. Phillips
D. J. Camp, Chair D. McColl
M. A. Brookes, Secretary C. H. Murphy
P. Caploon T. F. Norton
D. Chu J. J. O’Donoghue
D. Cook R. B. Pohlman, Jr.
E. A. Donoghue A. Rehman
J. J. Faup L. F. Richardson
R. B. Fraser M. W. Bunker, Jr., Alternate
A. J. Gatfield J. B. Semple
R. F. Hadaller R. L. Seymour
R. E. Haukeness S. Shanes
H. Ickes C. F. Starmer
C. Koenig D. A. Witham, Alternate
M. Martin C. E. Vlahovic
J. C. Carlson, Alternate
D. L. Steel, Chair J. W. Kenneally
R. Schaeffer, Vice Chair M. R. Liberatore
R. Mohamed, Secretary J. J. Marcusky
P. E. Burge D. McColl
A. Rehman, Alternate T. G. Moskal
P. A. Carrajat T. R. Nurnberg
R. A. Di Piero K. J. Smith, Alternate
S. H. Grainer E. F. Parvis
Y. Haruta, Alternate K. A. Apperson, Alternate
P. L. Hackett D. E. Rush
R. F. Hadaller D. S. Snyder
K. G. Hamby D. L. Turner
H. H. Hayes C. E. Vlahovic
G. A. Kappenhagen P. J. Welch
D. R. Evans, Alternate C. J. White
J. L. Meyer, Chair E. A. Donoghue
R. S. Seymour, Vice Chair C. C. Fox
R. Mohamed, Secretary D. S. Snyder
A. J. Saxer, Chair D. McColl
L. M. Taylor, Vice Chair P. McPartland
E. S. Yoo, Secretary J. S. Nicksic
V. A. Amatulli G. Nyborg III
W. C. Burklund F. Padgett
J. H. Butler R. L. Phillips
E. A. Donoghue J. M. Pohlman
M. A. Fortin B. Pounders
A. P. Gallo J. S. Rearick
R. A. Gregory D. S. Snyder
H. H. Hayes G. Stiffler
B. R. Hines J. D. Carlisle, Jr., Alternate
A. P. Jolly C. E. Vlahovic
M. L. Lane P. J. Welch
K. S. Lloyd L. E. White
S. K. Lloyd, Alternate
R. S. Caporale, Chair G. Greenberg
V. G. Bahna H. J. Macuga
J. P. Merkel, Alternate N. J. Montesano
E. A. Donoghue
L. M. Capuano, Chair U. S. Kharbanda
D. McColl, Vice Chair P. Labadie
M. A. Brookes, Secretary M. R. Liberatore
L. Bialy J. E. Morrissey
P. Winey, Alternate R. L. Phillips
L. J. Blaiotta R. Quinlan
D. J. Camp K. Uerling, Alternate
G. B. Cassini A. Rehman
M. E. Jagoditz, Alternate S. P. Reynolds
F. R. Cooper S. W. Smith
E. A. Donoghue N. K. Tandon, Alternate
G. W. Gibson C. F. Starmer
H. J. Gruszynski D. A. Witham, Alternate
J. J. Urban, Alternate C. E. Vlahovic
G. A. Kappenhagen, Chair D. McColl
G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary M. G. Miller
L. Bialy E. W. Rossman, Alternate
P. Winey, Alternate R. V. Mistry
P. E. Burge T. S. Mowrey
A. Rehman, Alternate L. S. Rigby
C. C. Fox C. W. Rogler
R. F. Hadaller W. M. Shrum, Jr.
H. A. Hammerstrom H. Simpkins
A. Jahn J. Strzelec
N. L. Keylin C. E. Vlahovic
M. R. Liberatore L. E. White
A. H. Verschell, Chair R. Elias
J. R. Carrick H. H. Hayes
K. S. Lloyd, Chair J. T. Herrity
S. K. Lloyd, Alternate M. R. Liberatore
W. F. Barkman, Vice Chair N. B. Martin
R. Mohamed, Secretary Z. R. McCain, Jr.
R. E. Baxter D. McColl
R. J. Burke J. L. Meyer
J. J. Knolmajer, Alternate J. Murphy
J. A. Caluori B. L. O’Neill
J. W. Coaker D. C. Randall
C. E. Cunningham J. D. Rosenberger
E. A. Donoghue R. D. Schloss
M. V. Farinola R. S. Seymour
R. T. Farley G. Simard
J. A. Filippone D. S. Snyder
H. S. Frank J. Strzelec
R. F. Hadaller R. D. Troiano
H. H. Hayes C. E. Vlahovic
G. W. Gibson, Chair R. E. Droste
L. Bialy, Vice Chair R. T. Farley
T. Derwinski, Alternate A. P. Juhasz
G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary G. A. Kappenhagen
V. Q. Bates N. E. Marchitto
D. J. Camp D. L. Steel
R. S. Caporale J. Strzelec
E. A. Donoghue D. L. Turner
B. D. Black, Chair E. J. Matot II
D. C. Balmer, Vice Chair M. L. McDonald
E. S. Yoo, Secretary W. M. McKinley
K. Brinkman C. H. Murphy
R. G. Buonora M. W. Schumacher
E. A. Donoghue A. H. Verschell
C. C. Fox R. B. Weber
G. A. Kappenhagen D. M. Winkle, Sr.
Z. R. McCain, Jr., Chair D. McColl
R. A. Gregory, Vice Chair J. Murphy
E. S. Yoo, Secretary J. S. Nicksic
R. E. Baxter W. B. Pletch
J. A. Caluori A. Priestman
J. J. DeLorenzi J. R. Quackenbush
E. A. Donoghue J. S. Rearick
M. V. Farinola A. Rehman
J. Filippone V. P. Robibero
R. F. Hadaller M. D. Kao, Alternate
R. E. Haukeness A. Saxer
H. H. Hayes R. D. Schloss
A. S. Hopkirk D. S. Snyder
J. E. Jaster J. Strzelec
A. P. Jolly L. M. Taylor
K. S. Lloyd M. Tevyaw
S. K. Lloyd, Alternate C. E. Vlahovic
G. M. Losey D. M. Winkle, Sr.
G. W. Gibson, Chair M. P. Lamb
L. Bialy, Vice Chair D. P. Kraft, Alternate
G. Di Francesco, Alternate M. L. Lane
D. J. Camp, Vice Chair A. A. Mascone
M. A. Brookes, Secretary D. McColl
R. J. Bolen T. G. Moskal
M. Boutelle A. Rehman
R. V. Mistry, Alternate W. C. Ribeiro
R. E. Fleming D. S. Snyder
S. L. Wagner, Alternate M. B. Taylor
C. C. Fox C. E. Vlahovic
H. S. Frank S. P. Wurth
R. F. Hadaller
,,,,,,`,```,,,,,,,,````-,,,,,,,`—MINE ELEVATOR COMMITTEE
A. J. Saxer, Chair D. C. Lewetag
T. D. Barkand, Vice Chair A. L. Martin
E. S. Yoo, Secretary N. B. Martin
C. D. Barchet H. E. Newcomb
B. Bertram D. J. Podobinski
P. E. Fernatt J. K. Taylor
M. G. Kalich
A. J. Marchant, Chair R. E. Haukeness
E. P. Banke T. E. Meinen
P. E. Borders B. L. O’Neill
G. A. Cox C. E. Vlahovic
J. A. Harrison E. B. Wahlberg
A. H. Verschell, Chair H. K. Inderdahl
E. S. Yoo, Secretary J. C. Lund, Alternate
D. C. Balmer M. E. Mahoney
P. M. Bass S. L. Whittenburg, Alternate
G. L. Harmon, Alternate M. L. McDonald
K. Brinkman A. Norton, Alternate
P. Chance W. M. McKinley
R. Elias H. E. Peelle III
F. M. Hoch J. B. Peskuski
M. J. Holat R. L. Phillips
E. J. Crawford, Chair M. R. Tilyou
W. D. George

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