Guide Codes For Homeowners

Guide Codes For Homeowners
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Bruce A. Barker
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25 يوليو 2021
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Guide Codes For Homeowners
Electrical, Plumbing, Construction, Mechanical
Black Decker Complete Guide Codes For Homeowners Electrical Plumbing Construction Mechanical
Current with 2018–2021 Codes
4th Edition
Bruce A. Barker
Contents
Codes for Homeowners
Introduction 7
Codes & Permits: The Basics 8
BUILDING DESIGN & SAFETY 19
Habitable Rooms 20
Fire Separations 22
Stairways 24
Emergency Escape Openings 30
Egress Doors 32
Exterior Doors 33
Door & Window Hazards 34
Ventilation & Exhaust 36
Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Alarms
Contents (Cont.)
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 45
Foundations 48
Crawlspaces 52
Decks 54
Floor Systems 62
Wall Systems 70
Wall Penetration Flashing 84
Roof Systems 86
EXTERIOR COMPONENTS 97
Shingle Roof-Covering Installation 98
Fireplaces & Chimneys 104
HEATING & AIR CONDITIONING 109
HVAC Appliances 110
HVAC Duct Installation 116
Combustion Air for Fuel-Burning Appliances 118
Vents for Fuel-Burning Appliances 121
PLUMBING SYSTEM 125
The Home Plumbing System 130
Water Supply Piping 131157
INDEX 235
aboveground exhaust duct construction, 38
aboveground service, 180, 182–183
ABS plastic pipe joints, 144
accessible (readily), 170
accessible (wires), 170
air, prohibited sources for return and
outdoor, 117
air admittance valve, 126, 155
air conditioners. See also heating and air
conditioning
condensate disposal for, 114–115
parts for central, 110
room units, 190
air gaps, 166
air intake vents, 111
air movement requirements, 37
airtight construction, 119
aluminum wire, recognizing, 224
American Concrete Institute, 49
anchor bolts, 51
anchor straps, 51
antennas, 218–219
appliances
chimney as vent for, 105
circuits for, 190
fuel‑burning, 118–123
HVAC, 110–115
not requiring a vent, 123
prohibited locations for, 111
arc‑fault (AFCI) protection, 203
area requirements, 20
area wells, 31
armored cable, 217
attics
access to, 95
lights required in, 214
storage in, 91
wiring protection in, 197
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), 11
band board, 65
bars, 30
baseboard heating systems, 112
basements
ceiling height for, 20
concrete for, 50
escape openings in, 30
lights required in, 214
receptacles in, 201, 203
bathrooms
ceiling fans and lights near, 215
circuits for, 190
design standards for, 21
receptacles in, 201, 202
windows in, 35
bedroom floor joist spans, 62–63
bend (elbow), 140
bonding, 170, 184–188
bonding jumper wire, 225
bottom plate construction, 75
braced wall, 78
branch circuit
definition of, 170
load limits for, 189–191
quantity of receptacles on, 191
requirements for, 189–197
branch drain, 126
branch vent, 126
braze (brazing), 126
brick veneer, 103
bridging, 66
broadband cable wiring, 220–221
building departments, 11
building design and safety
about, 19
door and window hazards, 34–35
egress doors, 32
emergency escape openings, 30–31
exterior doors, 33
Index
fire separations, 22–23
habitable rooms, 20–21
smoke and carbon monoxide alarms,
42–43
stairways, 24–29
ventilation and exhaust, 36–41
building drain, 126
building sewer, 126
cable
common problems with, 225–227
definition of, 170
secured to cabinet, 207
carbon monoxide alarms, 42–43
ceiling fans, 215
ceiling height, minimum, 20–21
ceiling joist
bearing on support, 88
bridging and lateral support for, 88
deflection for, 92
nailing to rafter, 89–90
notches and holes in, 88
span definitions for, 91, 92
ceilings, fire separation and, 23
central air conditioner parts, 110
certificates of occupancy, 15
chimney crickets, 102
chimneys, 104–107
circuit breaker panels, 210–211
clay soil, 48
cleanout openings, 146–147
closed‑cut valley flashing, 101
closet bend, 140
closet flange, 139, 140, 161
closet lights, 216
clothes dryer exhaust requirements, 40–41
clothes washing machines, 163
code compliance, 11
codes & permits, basics of, 8–17236 CODES FOR HOMEOWNERS
cold water supply system, 131
collar ties, 88
combustion air
for fireplaces, 105
for fuel‑burning appliances, 118–120
concrete, foundation, 50–51
concrete encased electrodes, 187
condensate disposal, 114–115
conduit and tubing installation, 196
connections and joints, drain and sewer
pipe, 142–145
continuity, 29
corrugated stainless steel gas tubing,
bonding, 188
coupling, 140
crawlspaces, 52–53, 203, 214
cripple wall framing, 77
cutoff valves, 136
damp locations, 206, 215
dead load, 46, 91
decks, 54–61
beams, 58
bracing, 61
flashing, 59
flooring, 60
footings, 56
guards and handrails, 60–61
joists, 56–58
posts, 58–59
stairs, 60
decorative chimney covers, 107
deflection of structural components, 46–47
device boxes, 204–211
discharge tubes, 114–115
dishwashing machines, 162
door hazards, 34–35
doors
exterior, 33, 214
how to flash, 85
lights required at, 214
downdraft ventilation, 39
draftstopping, 68
drainpipe, 126, 137
drip edge, 99
drip pans, 159
drop wire clearances, 182–183
ducts
combustion air, 119–120
construction of, 40
installation of HVAC, 116–117
length of, 40–41
sizing of HVAC, 114
edge spacing, 70
egress doors, 32
egress requirements, 30
egress wells, 31
egress windows, 30
elastomeric gaskets, 127, 138, 144, 145
electric equipment grounding, 217
electric radiant (baseboard) heating
systems, 112
electrical boxes
inspection of, 229–231
length of wires extending from, 177
non‑metallic, 204
specifications for, 209
supports for, 206–207
types of, 208
unclamped cable entering, 227
electrical branch circuit requirements,
189–197
electrical currents, understanding,
173–183
electrical panels
identification of circuits in, 174
inspecting for proper grounding, 185
prohibited locations for, 174
working clearances around, 175
electrical receptacle installation, 198–201
electrical rough‑in inspection, 17
electrical service
disconnecting, 179
identifying, 180–181
electrical system
about, 169–172
broadband cable wiring, 220–221
electrical branch circuit requirements,
189–197
electrical grounding and bonding,
184–188
electrical receptacle installation,
198–201
ground‑fault (GFCI) and arc‑fault (AFCI)
protection, 202–203
junction boxes, device boxes and
enclosures, 204–211
light fixture installation, 214–217
satellite dishes, television and radio
antennas, 218–219
switch installation, 212–213
understanding electrical circuits,
173–183
electrodes, grounding, 186–188
emergency escape openings, 30–31
enclosures, 204–211
endnailing, 70
environmental load, 46
exhaust, 36–41
exhaust fan labels, 37
exhaust hoods, 38
exterior components
about, 97
fireplaces and chimneys, 104–107
shingle roof‑covering installation,
98–103
exterior doors, 33, 214
exterior receptacles, 201, 202–203
exterior stairways, 24, 25
facenailing, 70
factory‑built fireplaces, 106–107
fall hazard rules, 34, 35
fasteners, roofing, 103
final inspections, 15
fire separation, 22–23
fireblocking, 82–83
fireplaces, 104–107
fire‑rated doors, 22
fittings
definition of, 126
DMV, 140–142
for water supply lines, 133–134
fixture drain, 126–127
fixtures
definition of, 126
flow rate at, 132
flashing
roof, 101–103
for skylights, 102INDEX 237
vent, 150
wall penetration, 84–85
flexible cords, 197
flexible HVAC duct installation, 116–117
flexible water connectors, 134
floor joist openings, 66
floor joist span tables, 62–63
floor sheathing, 67
floor systems, 62–69
floor trusses, 68
food disposers, 163
footings
inspection of, 16
width and depth for, 49
forced air heating system, 111
foundation anchors, 51
foundation walls inspection, 16
foundations, 48–51
four‑way switches, 212
FOUR‑wire feeder, 186
framing inspection, 17
framing materials, wood nailing to, 71
freeze proof yard hydrant, 129
furnaces, 110
fuses, common problems with, 223
garage
appliances installed in, 113
concrete for, 50
definition of, 22
fire separation and, 22–23
receptacle circuits for, 190
receptacles in, 201, 202
gas fireplaces, 106
gas furnace parts, 110
gas pipe bonding, 188
girders, on supports, 64
grade plane, 10
grandfathering existing work, 13
gravel soil, 48
ground fault, 170, 184
grounded (definition), 170
grounded wire, 170
ground‑fault (GFCI), 202–203
grounding, 184–188, 220–221
grounding electrode, 170
grounding electrode wire, 170,
186–188, 219
grounding wire, 170
grounding wire continuity, 178
guards, 28–29, 60–61
gypsum drywall, 23
habitable rooms, 20–21, 214. See also
individual rooms
handrails, 28–29, 60–61
hardware
for decks, 54, 55
for joists, 65
headers, on supports, 64
headwalls, 103
hearth extension, 104
heat alarms, 42
heat producing devices, insulation
clearance to, 95
heating and air conditioning
about, 109
combustion air for fuel‑burning
appliances, 118–120
in garage, 23
HVAC appliances, 110–115
HVAC duct installation, 116–117
inspection of, 17
vents for fuel‑burning appliances,
121–123
high wind, 46
hip rafter framing, 86–87
home wiring system, 172
hose bibs, 136
hot water supply system, 131
house numbers, 33
hub, 127
hurricane ties/clips, 46, 57, 90
ice dams, 100
I‑joists, 68
indirect waste receptor, 127
inlet, 140
inspections
of electrical boxes, 229–231
of electrical panels, 185
of electrical rough‑in, 17
final, 15
of footings, 16
of foundation walls, 16
framing, 17
of heating and air conditioning, 17
overview of, 14–17
of plumbing rough‑in, 17
of receptacles, 232–233
required, 15
of service panel, 223–224
of switches, 232–233
inspectors, working with, 11–12
installation instructions, 13
insulation clearance to heat producing
devices, 95
intake openings, 37, 117
interior stairways, 24–29
intermediate spacing, 70
International Building Code (IBC), 9, 10
International Code Council (ICC), 8
International Energy Conservation Code
(IECC), 9
International Fuel Gas Code (IFG), 9
International Mechanical Code (IMC), 9
International Plumbing Code (IPC), 9
International Residential Code (IRC), 7,
8, 9, 10
ionizing alarms, 42
irrigation systems, 167
island fixture vent, 154–155
jumper wire, 225
junction boxes, 204–211
kick‑out flashing, 84, 103
kitchens. See also individual appliances
exhaust fan rates, 39
exhaust requirements, 38
receptacle installation, 200–202
kneewall areas, 20
laminated beam, 68
laminated glass, 34
landing, 24, 27–28, 32, 33
lateral load connector hardware, 55
laundry receptacle, 201238 CODES FOR HOMEOWNERS
laundry receptacle circuits, 190
laundry tray, 127
ledger attachment, 55–56
light fixtures
boxes for, 204
common problems with, 231
installation of, 214–215
lighting, for stairways, 24, 25
live loads, 29, 46–47, 91, 93
living area floor joist spans, 63
load‑bearing walls
floor joists under, 64
stud size and spacing for, 73
loads, 46–47
local building codes, 8
local code amendments, 9
location (damp), 170
location (wet), 170–171
locks, 30, 32
lumber
for decks, 54, 60
nailing structural, 72
manufacturer’s instructions, 13
masonry fireplace clearance, 104–105
measurement conversions, 234
microwave ovens, 39
mildew, 36
mistakes, common, 222–233
moisture, 36
mold, 36
multiwire branch circuit, 171, 191
nail guards, 226
nailing definitions, 70
National Electric Code (NEC), 9, 222
National Fire Protection Agency, 222
NM cable, 193–195, 217
non‑grounding type receptacles, 199
nonload‑bearing walls, stud size and
spacing for, 74
nosing, 24, 27
notches and holes
in ceiling joist, 88
in joists and rafters, 68–69
in joists and studs, 193
in rafters, 69, 88
in top plate, 75
in wall studs, 76
O.C. (on center), 70
offset, 127
offset joints, 75
on‑center spacking, 58
open risers, 26
OSB panel labels, 67
outdoor air, prohibited sources for, 117
outlet, 171
overcurrent protection device, 171
permit expiration, 15
permits, 14–15
pet doors, 22
photoelectric alarms, 42
pipe support, 135
pipes
connections and joints between,
142–145
drain and sewer, 138
joints between different types, 145
protecting, 136
size reduction, 145
slope of, 145
plate constructions, 75
plumbing rough‑in inspection, 17
plumbing systems
about, 125–129
drain, waste and vent piping (DWV),
137–147
home plumbing system, 130
plumbing appliances and fixtures,
157–167
plumbing traps, 156
plumbing vents, 148–155
water supply piping, 131–136
plywood labels, 67
point load, 46, 47
polarized receptacles, 217
post cap hardware, 59
pressure‑reducing valve, 132
private inspectors, 12
pull‑down stairs, 23
purlins, 87
PVC plastic pipe joints, 144–145
raceways, box support by, 206
radio antennas, 218–219
rafters
bearing on support, 88
bridging and lateral support for, 88
ceiling joist nailed to, 89–90
deflection for, 92
notches and holes in, 69, 88
span definitions for, 91, 93
truss connection to walls and, 90
rain cap, 105
range hoods, 38, 39
receptacles
definition of, 171
inspecting, 232–233
installation of, 198–201
types of, 217
receptor (indirect waste), 127
recessed lights, 214
relief valves, 158
required inspections, 15
resources, 234
return air, prohibited sources for, 117
ridge framing, 86–87
ridgeboards, 86–87
rim joist connections, 57
riser, 24
riser height, 26
rod and pipe electrodes, 187
roof, vent height above, 123
roof deck type restriction, 98
roof flashing, 101–103
roof slope
restrictions for, 98
underlayment application for, 99–100
roof systems, 86–95
roof truss installation, 94
roofing fasteners, 103
rust stains, 223
saddle fitting, 128
safety, wiring, 173, 189, 211
safety glazing, 34–35
sandy gravel soil, 48
sandy soil, 48
sanitary tee, 141
satellite dishes, 218–219INDEX 239
seismic risk areas, 46
service clearance, 182
service current capacity requirements,
minimum, 174
service drop, 171
service entrance wires, 171
service panel, 179
service panel inspection, 223–224
sewer pipe, 138
shield plate, 75
shingle roof‑covering installation, 98–103
showers, 21, 165
silt soil, 48
sinks, 20, 21
site address, 33
skylights, 102
slip joint, 128, 139
smoke alarms, 42–43
snow loads, 91, 93
soil (plumbing term), 128
soil load‑bearing capacities, 48
soil types, common, 48
solder (soldering), 128
solvent cement, 144
sone ratings, 37
spark arrestor, 105
splices, 176, 227
spread footing, 50
stack, 128
stack vent, 128
stairways, 24–29
on decks, 60
dimensions for, 25–26
exterior, 24, 25
guards for, 28–29
headroom height for, 27
landings for, 27–28
lighting and switching for, 24–25
terms for, 24
width for, 25
windows in, 35
standpipe, 129
staples as shingle fasteners, 103
state building codes, 8
steel pipe joints, 144
step flashing, 102
step footing, 50
stop‑and‑waste valve, 129
street fitting, 141
structural components
about, 45–470
crawlspaces, 52–53
decks, 54–61
floor systems, 62–69
foundations, 48–51
roof systems, 86–95
wall penetration flashing, 84–85
wall systems, 70–83
structural panel wall bracing, 78, 80, 82
subfloor, nailing one‑piece, 72
support posts, 58
supports, for flooring system, 64–65
sweep, 141
switches
inspecting, 232–233
installation of, 212–213
load limits for, 212
for stairways, 24, 25
tailpiece, 129, 139
tamper‑resistant receptacles, 198–199
tee, 141
television antennas, 218–219
tempered glass, 34–35
three‑slot receptacles, 217
three‑way switches, 212
timer switches, 213
toenailing, 70
toilets, 20, 21, 160–161
top plate construction, 75
transition cement, 144
transition duct, 41
traps, 129, 137, 148, 156
tread, 24
tread depth, 26
tread nosing, 27
tread slope, 27
trusses
alteration and repair of, 94
connection to walls, 90
design and bracing requirements for, 94
floor, 68
installation tolerances for, 94
roof, 94
tubs, 21
Type X drywall, 23
UF cable, 193–195
underground service lateral, 181
underground water pipe electrodes, 187
underlayment
application of, 99–100
specifications for, 99
ungrounded conductor, 171
Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), 9
unused openings, closure of, 174
valley framing, 86–87
vent (plumbing term), 129
vent pipes, 137, 148–155
vent stack, 129
vent termination, 150–155
vents and ventilation, 36–41
chimney as appliance vent, 105
clearance for, 122
connectors and fittings for, 121
for crawlspaces, 52–53
for fireplaces, 104
for fuel‑burning appliances, 121–123
joints between, 123
plumbing, 148–155
slope of, 123
volume units, 205
wall bracing, 78–82
wall footing, 50
wall penetration flashing, 84–85
wall studs
notches and holes in, 76
size and spacing for, 73–75
wall systems, 70–83
walls, fire separation and, 23
waste, 129
waste tee, 163
water distribution pipes, 133–134
water flow, 132
water heaters, 157–159
water pipe bonding, 188
water pressure, 132
water supply backflow protection, 166
water supply riser, 165240 CODES FOR HOMEOWNERS
water‑hammer arrestors, 163
web‑type trusses, 68
wet locations, 206, 213, 215
wet surfaces, safety glazing near, 35
wet vents, 153–154
whirlpool bathtubs (jetted baths), 164, 203
wind, high, 46
winder stair tread, 27
winder tread, 24
window hazards, 34–35
window wells, 31
windows
above bathtubs and showers, 35
fall hazard rules for, 35
how to flash, 85
wire, recognizing aluminum, 224
wire connections, checking, 228
wire volume unit, 205
wires
color codes for, 178
connecting to terminals, 177
size chart for, 178
splicing, 176
wiring methods, 192–197
wiring safety, 173, 189, 211
wiring support requirements, 196
wood grades, in wall construction, 73
wood nailing
definitions for, 70
requirements for, 71–72
wood structural panel wall bracing, 82
wood‑burning fireplace energy efficiency
requirements, 105
woven valleys, 101
wye, 141
yard hydrant (freeze proof), 129
zoning ordinances, 10
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