Fundamentals of Process Safety Engineering

Fundamentals of Process Safety Engineering
اسم المؤلف
Umesh Mathur
التاريخ
16 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
103
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fundamentals of Process Safety Engineering
Samarendra Kumar Biswas
Umesh Mathur
Swapan Kumar Hazra
Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface .xix
Acknowledgments xxiii
List of Figures xxv
List of Tables .xxix
Acronyms and Abbreviations . xxxiii
Authors .xxxvii
Chapter 1 Hazards in the Process Industries 1
1.1 Chemical Hazards .2
1.1.1 Flammable Chemicals 2
1.1.2 Explosive Chemicals 3
1.1.3 Reactive Chemicals 4
1.1.4 Toxic Chemicals .4
1.2 Physical Hazards .5
1.2.1 Physical Explosion 5
1.2.2 Electrostatic Charges 6
1.2.3 Rollover/Boilover of Liquids 6
1.3 Environmental Hazards .7
1.3.1 Air Pollutants .7
1.3.2 Water Pollutants .7
1.3.3 Solid Wastes .7
1.4 Other Hazards 7
1.4.1 Electricity .7
1.4.2 Hazards in Maintenance Work .8
1.5 Classification Categories and Labeling of
Hazardous Chemicals 8
1.5.1 Globally Harmonized System (GHS) .9
1.5.2 Adoption of GHS by Countries 10
1.6 Provision of Hazard Information . 10
1.6.1 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) . 11
Reference 11
Chapter 2 Overview of Some Major Accidents in the World . 13
2.1 Cleveland, Ohio . 13
2.1.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 13
2.1.2 The Accident 14
2.1.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences . 15
2.1.4 Lessons/Recommendations 15
2.2 Feyzin, France . 16
2.2.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 16
2.2.2 The Accident 16vi Contents
2.2.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences . 17
2.2.4 Lessons/Recommendations 17
2.3 Flixborough, UK . 18
2.3.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 18
2.3.2 The Accident 19
2.3.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .20
2.3.4 Lessons/Recommendations 21
2.4 Seveso, Italy .22
2.4.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 22
2.4.2 The Accident 24
2.4.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .24
2.4.4 Lessons/Recommendations 25
2.5 Qatar, Persian Gulf 26
2.5.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 26
2.5.2 The Accident 26
2.5.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .26
2.5.4 Lessons/Recommendations 27
2.6 Caracas, Venezuela 27
2.6.1 Brief Description of Facilities and Process 27
2.6.2 The Accident 27
2.6.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .28
2.6.4 Lessons/Recommendations 28
2.7 Mexico City .29
2.7.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 29
2.7.2 The Accident 29
2.7.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .30
2.7.4 Lessons/Recommendations 31
2.8 Bhopal, India . 32
2.8.1 Brief Description of Facilities and Process 32
2.8.2 The Accident 34
2.8.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .34
2.8.4 Lessons/Recommendations 35
2.9 Offshore Oil Rig Piper Alpha, North Sea .37
2.9.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 38
2.9.2 The Accident 40
2.9.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences . 41
2.9.4 Lessons/Recommendations 42
2.10 Bharat Petroleum Refinery, Bombay, India . 43
2.10.1 Description of Facility and Process . 43
2.10.2 The Accident 44
2.10.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .44
2.10.4 Lessons/Recommendations 45
2.11 Petrochemical Complex, Phillips Petroleum, Pasadena, USA 46
2.11.1 Brief Description of Facility and Processes .46
2.11.2 The Accident 46
2.11.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .46
2.11.4 Lessons/Recommendations 48Contents vii
2.12 LPG Import Terminal Hindustan
Petroleum, Vishakhapatnam, India .49
2.12.1 Brief Description of the Facility and the Process 49
2.12.2 The Accident 49
2.12.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .50
2.12.4 Lessons/Recommendations 51
2.13 Grande Paroisse, Ammonium Nitrate Facility
Toulouse, France 51
2.13.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 52
2.13.2 The Accident 52
2.13.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences of
the Accident 52
2.13.4 Lessons/Recommendations 54
2.14 Space Shuttle Columbia, NASA Florida .54
2.14.1 Brief Description of Space Program and the Shuttle . 54
2.14.2 The Accident 55
2.14.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences . 55
2.14.4 Lessons/Recommendations 55
2.15 LNG Liquefaction Facility, Skikda, Algeria .56
2.15.1 Brief Description of Facility and the Process 56
2.15.2 The Accident 57
2.15.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .58
2.15.4 Lessons/Recommendations 58
2.16 BP Refinery, Texas City, Texas, USA 59
2.16.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 59
2.16.2 The Accident 60
2.16.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences of
the Accident 60
2.16.4 Lessons/Recommendations 62
2.17 Imperial Sugar, Port Wentworth, Georgia, USA .63
2.17.1 Brief Description of Facility and Process 63
2.17.2 The Accident 63
2.17.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .63
2.17.4 Lessons/Recommendations 64
2.18 Indian Oil Corporation Product Tank Farm,
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India .65
2.18.1 Description of Facility and Process .65
2.18.2 The Accident 67
2.18.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences . 67
2.18.4 Lessons/Recommendations 69
2.19 BP Deepwater Horizon Offshore Rig 70
2.19.1 Description of Facility and Process .70
2.19.2 The Accident 71
2.19.3 Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences .72
2.19.4 Lessons/Recommendations 72
2.20 Summary and Conclusions 73
References 75viii Contents
Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Fire Processes .77
3.1 How Fire Starts 77
3.1.1 Flammability Limits 79
3.1.1.1 Pure Fuels .79
3.1.1.2 Dependence of LFL and UFL on
Pressure and Temperature 80
3.1.1.3 Mixture of Fuels in Air 81
3.1.1.4 Flammability Range in Oxygen 83
3.1.1.5 Effect of Addition of Inert Gases 83
3.1.2 Flash Point 86
3.1.3 Fire Point 88
3.2 Heat Balance in Flames .88
3.3 Types of Flames .88
3.3.1 Premixed and Diffusion Flames 88
3.3.2 Pool Fire .89
3.3.3 Jet Fire 89
3.3.4 Vapor Cloud Fire 89
3.3.5 Fireball .90
3.4 Ignition 90
3.4.1 Requirements and Characteristics of
Ignition Sources 90
3.4.2 Hot Work 91
3.4.3 Electrical Equipment 92
3.4.4 Static Electricity .92
3.5 Effect of Thermal Radiation 93
3.5.1 Effect on the Human Body .93
3.5.2 Effect on Plant and Machinery .95
3.6 Fire Prevention Systems 96
3.6.1 Good Housekeeping .96
3.6.2 Control of Flammable Materials 96
3.6.3 Control of Sources of Ignition 96
3.6.4 Fire Hazards Awareness .97
3.6.5 Monitoring 97
3.7 Fire Protection Systems .97
3.7.1 Passive Fire Protection .97
3.7.2 Active Fire Protection 97
3.7.2.1 Detection of Flammable Material 98
3.7.2.2 Detection of Fire .99
3.7.2.3 Cooling by Water 100
3.7.2.4 Fire Extinguishing 100
3.7.2.5 Firefighting Plan . 103
References 103
Chapter 4 Static Electricity . 105
4.1 Historical Background of Static Electricity 105
4.2 Basic Concepts of Static Electricity 106Contents ix
4.3 Conductors and Insulators . 107
4.3.1 Liquids 107
4.3.2 Solids 108
4.4 Generation of Electrostatic Charge . 109
4.4.1 Mechanisms of Charge Generation 109
4.4.1.1 Relative Movement at Material Interfaces . 109
4.4.1.2 Induction . 109
4.4.1.3 Charge Transfer 110
4.4.2 Quantitative Relationships for Charge Generation 110
4.4.2.1 Charge Generation on Liquids 110
4.4.2.2 Charge Generation in Powders . 111
4.5 Accumulation of Electrostatic Charge 112
4.5.1 Accumulation in Liquids 112
4.5.2 Accumulation on Insulated Conductors . 117
4.5.3 Accumulation on Lined/Coated Containers .120
4.5.4 Accumulation on Powders 122
4.6 Electrostatic Discharge 124
4.6.1 Spark Discharge .124
4.6.2 Corona Discharge .125
4.6.3 Brush Discharge .126
4.6.4 Propagating Brush Discharge . 127
4.6.5 Bulking Brush Discharge . 128
4.7 Ignition of Flammable Vapors and Dusts by
Electrostatic Discharge 129
4.7.1 Hybrid Mixtures . 130
4.8 Hazards from People and Clothing . 130
4.9 Earthing and Bonding . 131
4.10 Examples of Static Ignition . 132
4.10.1 Draining Flammable Liquids into Buckets 132
4.10.2 Removing Synthetic Clothing from Body 132
4.10.3 Charging High-Resistivity Flakes/Powders . 133
4.10.4 Filling Polyethylene Granules into a Silo . 133
4.11 Summary of Common Precautionary Measures for
Static Hazards 134
References 135
Chapter 5 Pool Fire . 137
5.1 Size and Shape of Flames 137
5.1.1 Confined Pool Fire on Land . 137
5.1.1.1 Pool Diameter . 137
5.1.1.2 Burning Rate . 138
5.1.1.3 Flame Height 139
5.1.2 Unconfined Pool Fire on Land . 146
5.1.3 Pool Fire on Water 150
5.1.4 Tank Fire 150
5.2 Modeling for Radiation Intensity 151x Contents
5.2.1 Surface Emissive Power of Flames 151
5.2.2 View Factor between a Flame and a Target . 151
5.2.2.1 Case 1: Pool Fire and Target at
Ground Level 152
5.2.2.2 Case 2: Tank Fire with Target at
Ground Level/Elevated Position . 157
5.2.3 Atmospheric Transmissivity . 159
5.2.4 Assessment of Safety Distance 160
References 164
Chapter 6 Jet Fire 167
6.1 Flow through a Hole (Free Expansion) . 168
6.1.1 Theoretical Basis 171
6.1.2 Compressibility Factor and Enthalpy for Real Gases 172
6.1.3 Release Rate Calculation 174
6.1.3.1 Bernoulli’s Equation . 174
6.1.3.2 Sonic Velocity . 174
6.1.3.3 C
p, Cv, and γ = Cp/Cv Ratio . 174
6.1.3.4 Density 175
6.1.3.5 Velocity . 176
6.1.4 Additional Examples 182
6.1.5 Flashing of Liquids 183
6.1.6 Flashing of Pure Components 184
6.2 Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria . 185
6.2.1 Phase Equilibria in Hydrocarbon Mixtures . 185
6.2.2 Phase Equilibria in Chemical Mixtures . 188
6.2.3 Flash Calculations for Mixtures . 191
6.2.4 Laboratory Measurements Versus
Estimation Methods in Phase Equilibria 193
6.2.5 Commercial Process Simulators 196
6.2.6 Release of a Liquefied Gas: Two-Phase
Flashing Flow . 198
6.2.7 Concluding Remarks for Release Rate Calculations 200
6.3 Calculations for Jet Fires .200
6.3.1 Size and Shape of Flames 201
6.3.1.1 Hawthorn, Weddell, and Hottel Model 201
6.3.1.2 API Model 202
6.3.1.3 Shell Model .207
6.4 Estimation of Radiation Intensity 216
6.4.1 Fractional Radiation . 217
6.4.2 Radiation Intensity by the API method 217
6.4.3 Radiation Intensity by the Shell Method 218
References 220Contents xi
Chapter 7 Vapor Cloud Fire 223
7.1 Flash Fire Accidents and Experiments 223
7.2 Flame Speed 224
7.2.1 Premixed Flame .225
7.2.2 Nonpremixed Flame .226
7.3 Flame Dimensions .227
7.4 Effect of Flame Exposure 229
References 231
Chapter 8 Fireball . 233
8.1 BLEVE 233
8.2 Diameter and Duration of Fireball 234
8.3 Intensity of Thermal Radiation . 235
8.3.1 Fractional Radiation . 235
8.3.2 Surface Emissive Power . 235
8.3.3 View Factor 236
8.3.4 Atmospheric Transmissivity . 237
8.4 Measures to Prevent BLEVE .238
8.4.1 Cooling the Vessel by Water Deluge or Spray .238
8.4.2 Insulation of the Vessel 238
8.4.3 Providing an Earth Mound around the Vessel .238
8.5 Measures in Case of Imminent BLEVE 239
References 239
Chapter 9 Explosion 241
9.1 Kinds and Types of Explosions . 241
9.2 Explosion Mechanisms 242
9.2.1 Deflagration 242
9.2.2 Detonation 243
9.2.3 DDT 244
9.3 VCE .244
9.3.1 TNT Equivalent Model 245
9.3.2 TNO Correlation Model .248
9.3.3 TNO Multienergy Model 249
9.3.4 Baker-Strehlow-Tang (BST) Method . 257
9.3.5 Congestion Assessment Method .263
9.3.6 CFD Models . 270
9.3.6.1 FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator) . 271
9.3.6.2 EXSIM™ (EXplosion SIMulator) . 272
9.3.6.3 AutoReaGas Model . 272
9.3.7 Comparison of Various Models 272xii Contents
9.3.8 Precautionary Measures to Prevent and
Minimize Damage in VCEs . 273
9.3.9 Damage Caused by VCE 274
9.3.9.1 Damage to Structures – TNO . 274
9.3.9.2 Damage to Structures – Major Hazard
Assessment Panel (IChemE, U.K.) .277
9.3.9.3 Damage to Storage Tanks – TNO .277
9.3.9.4 Effect on People – Major Hazard
Assessment Panel (IChemE U.K.) 277
9.4 Condensed Phase Explosion 279
9.4.1 Precautionary Measures to Minimize Damage in
Condensed Phase Explosion .280
9.4.2 Formation of Explosive Mixture – Ammonium
Nitrate (AN) . 281
9.4.3 Effect of Mechanical or Electrical Shock 281
9.5 Explosions in a Chemical Reactor .282
9.6 Dust Explosion .282
9.7 Physical Explosion .285
References 285
Chapter 10 Toxic Releases 287
10.1 Process Safety Concerns – Acute Effects/Emergency
Exposure Limits 287
10.1.1 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines 288
10.1.2 Toxic Endpoints 288
10.1.3 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 289
10.1.3.1 Level 1 289
10.1.3.2 Level 2 289
10.1.3.3 Level 3 289
10.2 Occupational Safety Concerns – Toxicity Measures and
Assessment 290
10.2.1 Median Lethal Dose (LD50) 290
10.2.2 Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) .290
10.2.2.1 Toxic Load 290
10.2.3 Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health . 291
10.3 Regulatory Controls 292
10.3.1 Occupational Exposure Standards .292
10.4 Emergency Planning 294
References 295
Chapter 11 Dispersion of Gases and Vapors .297
11.1 Purpose of Dispersion Studies .297
11.2 Emission Source Models .297
11.2.1 Liquid Releases 298Contents xiii
11.2.2 Gas Jet Releases .298
11.2.3 Two-Phase Releases .298
11.2.4 Evaporation from Liquid Pools 300
11.2.4.1 Evaporation of Cryogenic Liquids 301
11.2.4.2 Evaporation of High Boiling Liquids .302
11.3 Dispersion Models .304
11.3.1 Passive Dispersion 304
11.3.1.1 Factors Affecting Passive Dispersion .304
11.3.1.2 Dispersion Calculations 307
11.3.2 Dense Gas Dispersion 314
11.3.3 Jet Dispersion . 321
11.3.3.1 Dense Gas Jet Dispersion . 321
11.3.3.2 Positively Buoyant Jet Dispersion . 323
11.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling . 325
References 325
Chapter 12 Hazard Identification 327
12.1 Framework for Hazard Management . 327
12.2 Hazard Identification Methods 328
12.2.1 Safety Audit 328
12.2.2 What-If Checklist . 329
12.2.3 HAZOP Study 331
12.2.3.1 Basic Concepts of the Study 331
12.2.3.2 Study Procedure .336
12.2.4 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 338
12.2.5 Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis 348
12.3 Comments on Choice of the Method .348
References 349
Chapter 13 Risk Assessment and Control . 351
13.1 Methods of Expressing Risks 351
13.1.1 Fatal Accident Rate 351
13.1.2 Individual Risk . 352
13.1.3 Average Individual Risk . 352
13.1.4 Societal Risk . 353
13.2 Layer of Protection Analysis . 353
13.2.1 LOPA Process 355
13.2.2 Select Criteria for Consequence Screening 355
13.2.3 Select Consequence Analysis Scenarios for LOPA . 355
13.2.4. Identify Initiating Events and Frequencies . 356
13.2.5 Identify IPLs . 358
13.2.6 Risk Estimation 359
13.2.7 Risk Evaluation 363xiv Contents
13.2.8 LOPA Summary Sheet: An Example .364
13.2.9 Advantages of LOPA 364
13.3 Barrier Analysis .366
13.3.1 Barrier failure and Catastrophic Accidents 367
13.3.2 Important Definitions Related to Barrier
Management . 367
13.3.3 Independence of Barriers . 371
13.3.4 Barrier Management Process . 373
13.4 QRA . 377
13.4.1 Estimation of Frequency of a Hazardous Event . 378
13.4.1.1 Fault Tree Methodology 380
13.4.1.2 Event Tree Methodology .390
13.4.2 Estimation of Risk 392
13.4.2.1 Individual Risk .394
13.4.2.2 Societal Risk (F-N Curve) 395
13.4.3 Risk Determination 396
13.4.4 Risk Acceptability 396
13.4.4.1 Individual Risk – Acceptability Criteria 397
13.4.4.2 Societal Risk – Acceptability Criteria 397
13.4.5 Risk Reduction and ALARP 398
13.5 Functional Safety .400
13.5.1 SIS 400
13.5.2 SRS – Safety Requirement Specification . 401
13.5.3 SIL 402
13.5.3.1 SIL Verification 402
13.5.3.2 SIL Validation .402
13.6 Database for Failure Frequencies and Probabilities 403
13.6.1 Failure Frequencies for Tanks and Vessels 403
13.6.2 Failure Frequencies of Process Pipework 403
13.6.3 Failure Frequencies of Cross-Country Pipelines .404
13.6.4 Failure Rates of Loading Arms 404
13.6.5 Failure Frequencies for Valves .404
13.6.6 Failure Probabilities for Protective Equipment 404
13.6.7 Probabilities of Human Error .406
13.6.8 Ignition Probability of Flammable
Liquid Releases 406
13.6.9 Ignition of Gas Clouds .406
13.7 Application of LOPA, Barrier Analysis, and QRA .406
References 407
Chapter 14 Human Factors in Process Safety .409
14.1 Accidents and Human failures 410
14.2 Human Role in Hazard Control . 411
14.3 Types of Human Errors . 411
14.4 Human Factors in Safety (HFs) . 412Contents xv
14.5 Human Error Identification . 413
14.6 HFs – A Core Element . 414
14.7 Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) 414
14.8 HRA Adoption . 415
14.9 Human Development . 416
14.10 Industry Response . 416
References 417
Chapter 15 Process Safety and Manufacturing Excellence 419
15.1 Process Safety Leadership . 419
15.2 Process Safety Laws and Regulations .420
15.3 Process Safety vis-à-vis Personnel Safety .420
15.4 The Role of Process and Equipment Design in
Ensuring Process Safety 421
15.5 Strategies for Implementation of Process Safety Programs . 421
15.5.1 Sensor Validation . 422
15.5.2 Sample Time Recording . 423
15.5.3 Control System Hardware and Configuration 423
15.5.4 Control Valves 423
15.5.5 Control System Configuration 425
15.5.6 Regulatory Control Tuning 426
15.6 Higher-Level Multivariable Control and
Optimization Applications 427
15.7 Online Calculations/Equipment Health Monitoring . 430
15.7.1 Fired Heater Radiant Section Duty 431
15.7.2 Heat Exchanger Duty . 431
15.7.2.1 No Phase Change 431
15.7.2.2 Condensing or Boiling 432
15.7.3 Distillation Column Pressure-Compensated
Temperature 432
15.7.4 Distillation Column Approach to Flooding . 433
15.7.5 Pump/Compressor/Turbine Efficiency and
Vibration . 435
15.7.6 Compressor Efficiency . 436
15.7.7 Turbine Efficiency 437
15.7.8 Pump Efficiency . 437
15.8 Smart Sensors/Inferential Calculations . 438
15.9 Multivariable, Optimal Predictive Control (MPC) .440
15.9.1 Using Dynamic Simulation for Developing
MPC Models 441
15.9.2 Closing Remarks on Model-Predictive
Control (MPC) .442
15.10 Closed-Loop, Real-Time, Optimization (CLRTO) 442
15.10.1 Open-Equation Modeling for a
Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger .443xvi Contents
15.10.2 Building Successful Plant-Wide CLRTO
Applications 445
15.10.3 Challenges in Rigorous Chemical
Reactor Modeling .446
15.11 Planning and Scheduling Optimization 447
15.12 Intelligent Alarm Management .448
15.13 Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD) . 450
15.14 Location of Process Control Rooms 452
References 453
Index 455
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Cross section of semi-toroidal construction, Tank 4. . 14
Figure 2.2 Drain valves underneath propane tank at Feyzin . 17
Figure 2.3a Flow diagram of cyclohexane oxidation plant 20
Figure 2.3b Sketch of temporary bypass assembly for Flixborough reactors 20
Figure 2.4a Reaction scheme for 2,4,5-TCP 23
Figure 2.4b Schematic diagram of Seveso reactor .23
Figure 2.5 Sketch plan of PEMEX site in Mexico City .30
Figure 2.6 Flow diagram of MIC storage system . 33
Figure 2.7a Piper Alpha – west elevation 38
Figure 2.7b Simplified flow diagram of the Piper Alpha production process .39
Figure 2.7c Simplified flow diagram of condensate injection pump unit
at Piper Alpha .40
Figure 2.8 Plan of the aromatics tank farm at BPCL .44
Figure 2.9 Arrangement of settling leg at Phillips loop reactor 47
Figure 2.10 Broad layout of LNG complex at Skikda before explosion 57
Figure 2.11 Flow diagram of raffinate splitter and blowdown system .60
Figure 2.12a IOCL Jaipur tank farm .66
Figure 2.12b Hammer-Blind Valve 66
Figure 2.13 Deepwater horizon rig on fire . 71
Figure 3.1 Fire triangle 77
Figure 3.2 Fire tetrahedron 78
Figure 3.3 Effect of inert gases on flammability of methane in air .84
Figure 3.4 Flammability diagram of n-butane/oxygen/nitrogen system 85
Figure 4.1 Charge accumulation in a flow system . 114
Figure 4.2 Equivalent circuit for an electrostatic charging of a conductor 118
Figure 4.3a Spark discharge .124
Figure 4.3b Corona discharge 126
Figure 4.3c Brush discharge 126xxvi List of Figures
Figure 4.3d Propagating brush discharge .128
Figure 4.3e Bulking brush discharge . 129
Figure 5.1 Typical flame geometry in case of a pool fire . 138
Figure 5.2 Schematic diagram of unconfined pool fire 146
Figure 5.3 Coordinate system for vertical and tilted pool fire flames
near a target 153
Figure 5.4 An equivalent flat radiator with a vertical target 156
Figure 5.5 Flame/target configuration in case of a tank fire in still air . 158
Figure 5.6 Flame/target configuration in case of a tank fire with wind 163
Figure 6.1 Distortion of a vertical flame due to wind (With permission,
API Standard 521, 6th Ed. (2014) – Approximate Flame
Distortion Due to Lateral Wind on Jet Velocity from the
Flare Stack.) 203
Figure 6.2 Flame center for flares and ignited vents – horizontal
distance xc – SI units (With permission, API 521.) 205
Figure 6.3 Flame center for flares and ignited vents – vertical distance
yc – SI units (With permission, API 521.) 205
Figure 6.4 Shell model for vertically released flame shape with wind 207
Figure 6.5 Shell model for horizontally-released flame shape with wind 208
Figure 6.6 Approximation of jet flame model for view factor calculation . 219
Figure 7.1 Schematic representation of a flash fire 227
Figure 7.2 Plan View of the area affected by propane release .230
Figure 8.1 Configuration of a fireball relative to an object 236
Figure 8.2 Schematic of an earth-mounded storage vessel 238
Figure 9.1a Typical shape of a pressure wave: deflagration .242
Figure 9.1b Typical shape of a pressure wave: detonation .243
Figure 9.2 Peak overpressure, Po, vs. scaled distance ‘Z’ for TNT
explosion . 247
Figure 9.3 MEM blast chart: peak static overpressure vs. scaled distance 250
Figure 9.4 MEM blast chart: peak dynamic pressure vs. scaled distance . 251
Figure 9.5 MEM blast chart: positive phase duration and
blast-wave shape . 252
Figure 9.6 Positive scaled overpressure vs. distance for various flame
speeds . 259List of Figures xxvii
Figure 9.7 Positive scaled impulse vs. distance for various flame speeds .260
Figure 9.8 Scaled source overpressure as a function of scaled severity
index .266
Figure 9.9 CAMS pressure decay as a function of scaled distance . 267
Figure 9.10 Damage categories of 18 types of structure (Table 9.8)
against peak overpressure . 276
Figure 9.11 Damage categories of 19 types of structure (Table 9.8)
against peak overpressure .277
Figure 9.12 Overpressure of atmospheric tanks against H/D ratio . 278
Figure 11.1 Coordinate system for a typical plume dispersion 306
Figure 11.2 Typical isopleths (contours) at ground level for continuous
release at ground level (C1 >C2) from a point source 307
Figure 11.3 Contour diagram for Example 11.5 . 311
Figure 11.4 Contour diagram for Example 11.6 . 312
Figure 11.5 Schematic representation of the use of a virtual point source 313
Figure 11.6 Britter and McQuaid correlation for dense gas dispersion –
continuous release model 315
Figure 11.7 Britter and McQuaid correlation for dense gas dispersion –
instantaneous release model . 316
Figure 12.1 Framework for management of process plant hazards . 327
Figure 12.2 Flowchart for hazard identification by the “what if” method . 329
Figure 12.3 Simplified flow diagram of LPG feed vessel for LPG loading . 347
Figure 13.1 Typical representation of individual risk contours . 353
Figure 13.2 Typical representation of F-N curves . 353
Figure 13.3 IPLs . 354
Figure 13.4 LOPA process schematic 356
Figure 13.5 Initiating events, layers of protection/defense,
and consequences . 357
Figure 13.6 Multiple barrier failure caused worst-ever chemical accident
at Union Carbide, Bhopal .368
Figure 13.7 Types of barrier sub- (or sub-sub-) functions; safety-critical
tasks, safety functions, and SIFs . 370
Figure 13.8 Barrier management . 374
Figure 13.9 Barrier functions implemented through barrier elements 377xxviii List of Figures
Figure 13.10 Breakdown structure for the barrier function “prevent HC
leaks” (example) 377
Figure 13.11 Breakdown structure for the barrier function “prevent
collision with visiting vessel” (example) . 378
Figure 13.12 Breakdown Structure for Barrier Function “prevent fatalities
during evacuation” (example) . 378
Figure 13.13 Detailed functional breakdown of barrier function “prevent
HC leak from process equipment” (example) . 379
Figure 13.14 Symbols used in a fault tree 382
Figure 13.15 Caustic soda feeding system for Example 13.1 . 383
Figure 13.16a Demand logic diagram for control system in Figure 13.15 384
Figure 13.16b Logic diagram for the protective system in Figure 13.15 .384
Figure 13.16c Fault tree for the level control system in Figure 13.15 385
Figure 13.17 Schematic for Example 13.2 for loading LPG to trucks .388
Figure 13.18 Event tree for LPG release from a storage tank
in Example 13.3 . 390
Figure 13.19 Simplified layout of an explosives factory 393
Figure 13.20 Individual risk criteria for land use in Canada .397
Figure 13.21 Societal risk criteria in the U.K. and the Netherlands 398
Figure 13.22 ALARP diagram .399
Figure 15.1 Hierarchy of planning, scheduling, optimization, and
multivariable/regulatory control (With permission, Edgar,
T. F., et al.: Optimization of Chemical Processes (2nd Ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001).). 429xxix
List of Tables
Table 1.1 List of Common Process Plant Hazards .2
Table 1.2 Example Regulatory Categories Acute Toxicity Levels for
(Major Accident Hazards) .5
Table 3.1 Flammability Limits (% Volume) in Fuel/Air Mixtures
at 1 atm .79
Table 3.2 Flammability Range in Oxygen at Ordinary
Temperatures and Pressures .83
Table 3.3 Minimum Inert Gas Concentration for Suppression of
Flammability of Selected Substances in Air 84
Table 3.4 Flash Point Temperatures of Selected Liquids .87
Table 3.5 Minimum Ignition Energy and Auto-Ignition Temperature
for Selected Fuel/Air Mixtures .90
Table 3.6 Electrical Classification of Hazardous Areas .92
Table 3.7 Time to Experience Pain on Exposure to Thermal Radiation 94
Table 3.8 Relationship between Percentage and Probit 95
Table 3.9 Thermal Radiation Intensity vs. Effect on Plant and Material .96
Table 4.1 Classification of Liquids Based on Electrical Conductivity . 108
Table 4.2 Typical Charge Levels on Medium-Resistivity Powders
Emerging from Various Operation . 112
Table 4.3 Charge Density after 100 seconds for the Hyperbolic and
Exponential Decay Models . 114
Table 4.4 Calculated Values of Ф*
max for Different Values of α and H 116
Table 4.5 Capacitance of Some Common Conductors . 119
Table 4.6 Variation of Minimum Ignition Voltage and Corresponding
Ignition Energy (mJ) with Capacitance and Electrode
Diameter .125
Table 4.7 Minimum Ignition Energies of Gases and Vapors in Air . 130
Table 5.1a Heats of Combustion and Vaporization at Atmospheric
Pressure . 139
Table 5.1b Mass Burning Rate and Regression Rate for Liquid Fuels . 140xxx List of Tables
Table 5.2 Calculated Values of Flame Height in Still Air for
Hexane and Ethanol 142
Table 5.3 Effect of Wind Speed on Flame Length and Angle of Tilt for
a 10-m-Diameter Hexane Pool Fire 143
Table 5.4 Maximum View Factor (Fmax) Using Mudan’s
Equations 5.23(a–o) 154
Table 6.1a Sonic or Sub-Sonic Flow through a Valve or Hole Variables
and Equations . 179
Table 6.1b Sonic or Sub-Sonic Flow through a Valve or Hole Case A
and Case B Solutions (Using Excel®) . 180
Table 6.2 Friction Loss Factor 199
Table 6.3 Fractional Radiation from Gaseous Diffusion Flames . 217
Table 7.1 Summary of Tests on Vapor Cloud Fires 224
Table 7.2 Experimental Data on Flame Speed in Vapor Cloud Fires 226
Table 9.1 Equations for Nondimensional Peak Overpressure in MEM .254
Table 9.2 Equations for Nondimensional Positive Phase Duration
in MEM 255
Table 9.3 Guidelines for Selecting Charge Strength (Kinsella) . 255
Table 9.4 Guidelines for Selection Charge Strength (Roberts and
Crowley) 256
Table 9.5 Guidance on Congestion based on ABR, Pitch and
Number of Layers .258
Table 9.6 BST Correlation for Flame Speed (Mach No. = Mf) . 261
Table 9.7 Fuel Factor F and Expansion Ratio E for Common fuels .264
Table 9.8 Description of Structure Whose Explosion Damage
Category is Shown in Figures 9.10 and 9.11 . 275
Table 9.9 Damage Versus Overpressure for Structures 278
Table 9.10 Overpressure Vs. Casualty Probability . 279
Table 9.11 Explosive Power of Materials .280
Table 9.12 Dust Explosion Class 284
Table 10.1 ERPGs 288
Table 10.2 Toxic Endpoints for Selected Chemicals 289
Table 10.3 Probit Function Constants for Lethal Toxicity . 291
Table 10.4 Calculated values of LC50 using the Probit Function 291List of Tables xxxi
Table 10.5 IDLH Values for a Few Common Chemicals .292
Table 10.6 Permissible Exposure Limits (ppm by Volume) for
Airborne Chemicals 294
Table 11.1 Thermal Properties of Concrete and Soils . 301
Table 11.2 Pasquill stability classes .305
Table 11.3 Data on Surface Roughness 305
Table 11.4 Values of Constants for Approximate Calculation of
Dispersion Coefficients in Case of Continuous Release .308
Table 11.5 Values of Constants for Approximate Calculation of
Dispersion Coefficients in Case of Instantaneous Release .308
Table 11.6 Equations for Graphical Correlations in Figure 11.6 318
Table 11.7 Equations for Graphical Correlations in Figure 11.7 319
Table 12.1 Simple Format for “What-If” Analysis 330
Table 12.2 Structured “What-If” Worksheet 332
Table 12.3 The Six Stages of ICI’s Hazard Study System 333
Table 12.4 HAZOP Study Guidewords and Deviations, Continuous
Processes . 334
Table 12.5 Checklist of Common Causes of Deviations 334
Table 12.6 Additional HAZOP Study Points for PESs 335
Table 12.7 HAZOP Study Method for Continuous Processes . 336
Table 12.8 HAZOP Study Method for Batch Processes 337
Table 12.9 Operating Instructions for LPG Truck Loading . 338
Table 12.10 HAZOP Study Proceedings on LPG Truck Loading . 339
Table 12.11 Categories of Consequences for FMEA Worksheet . 343
Table 12.12 FMEA Worksheet for LPG Feed Vessel .344
Table 13.1 FAR Values for Some U.K. Industries 353
Table 13.2 Types of Initiating Events . 357
Table 13.3 Examples of Safeguards Not Normally
Considered IPLs 360
Table 13.4 Examples of Active IPLs and Associated PFDs . 361
Table 13.5 Passive IPLs and Associated PFDs 362
Table 13.6 LOPA Summary Sheet .365xxxii List of Tables
Table 13.7 Summary of the Types and Categories of Barrier 371
Table 13.8 Barrier Management Activities in Specific Life Cycle Phases . 373
Table 13.9 Examples of Typical Major Accident Hazards and
Associated Barrier Functions . 376
Table 13.10a Fail Danger Fault Level of Components of Control Loop 385
Table 13.10b Fail Danger Fault Level of Components of High-Level Trip . 385
Table 13.11 FDT of Redundant Systems 387
Table 13.12 Estimated Frequencies for Incident Outcomes
in Example 13.3 387
Table 13.13 Summary of Estimated Risk for the LPG Storage System
(in Figure 13.17) 392
Table 13.14 Incident Details for Example 13.4 393
Table 13.15 Individual Risk of Fatality at Various Locations
(in Figure 13.19) 395
Table 13.16 Calculated Values of Cumulative Frequency vs. N for
Construction of F-N Curve . 395xxxiii
Acronyms and Abbreviations
ACC American Chemical Council
ACDS Advisory Committee on Dangerous Substances
ACIGH American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists
ACMH Advisory Committee on Major Hazards
AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers
AEGL Acute Exposure Guideline Levels
AFPM American Fuels and Petrochemical Manufacturer’s Association
(former NPRA)
ALARA As Low As Reasonably Acceptable
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
ANSI American National Standard Institute
APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
API American Petroleum Institute
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
BI Business Interruption
BLEVE Boiling Liquid, Expanding Vapor Explosion
BP Boiling Point
BPCS Basic Process Control System
BSP Barrier Status Panel
CAEPPR Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and
Response) Rules, India
CAM Congestion Assessment Method
CBM Condition-Based Maintenance
CCF Common Cause Failure
CCR Central Control Room
CCPS Center for Chemical Process Safety (AIChE)
CEI Dow Chemical Exposure Index
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
CHEM Services Chemical Hazard & Emergency Management Services,
Queensland, Australia
CM Corrective Maintenance
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management System
COMAH Control of Major Accident Hazards – Regulation in the U.K.
CPCB Central Pollution Control Board (India)
CPQRA Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Assessment
CSB Chemical Safety Board (USA)
CSChE Canadian Society of Chemical Engineering
CW Cooling Water
DCS Distributed Control System
DDT Deflagration to Detonation
DIERS Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (AIChE)
DISH Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health, Indiaxxxiv Acronyms and Abbreviations
DSHA Defined Situations of Hazard and Accident
DNV GL DNV GL Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd
DOE Department of Energy (USA)
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
EBV Emergency Block Valve
EPP Emergency Preparedness Plan
ERPG Emergency Response Planning Guidelines
ESD Emergency Shutdown System
ESV Emergency Shutdown Valve
ESRA European Safety and Reliability Association
F&EI Dow Fire & Explosion Index
FAR Fatal Accident Rate
FCE Final Control Element
FAIR Focused Asset Integrity Review
FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
F-N Fatality Frequency-Cumulative Number (Curve)
FTA Fault Tree Analysis
GHS The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and
Labeling of Chemicals
HAZAN Hazard Analysis
HAZID Hazard Identification
HAZOP Hazard and Operability Analysis
HE Hazard Evaluation
HEMP Hazard and Effects Management
HF Human Factor
HID Hazardous Installations Directorate (U.K.)
HIRAC Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Control
HMI Human–Machine Interface
HRA Human Reliability Analysis
HSE Health and Safety Executive (U.K.)
HSE-MS Health, Safety and Environment Management System
HTRI Heat Transfer Research Institute
ICC Indian Chemical Council
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEM International Conference on Industrial Engineering and
Engineering Management
IDLH Immediate Danger to Life or Health
IMO International Maritime Organization
IOGP International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
IOMC The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management
of Chemicals
IPEEE Individual Plant Examination for External Events
IPL Individual Protection Level
IPL Independent Protection Layer
IPS Instrumented Protective SystemAcronyms and Abbreviations xxxv
ISA International Society of Automation
LFL Lower Flammability Limit
LAH Level Alarm-High
LAMPS Local Accident Mitigation And Prevention (U.N. Model)
LEPC Local Emergency Planning Committee (USA Model)
LI Level Indicator
LT Level Transmitter
LIC Level Indicator-Controller
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LOPA Layer of Protection Analysis
LOTO Lockout, Tag-Out
MAHB Major Accident Hazards Bureau (E.U.) of JRC (Joint Research
Centre)
MSIHC Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals
Rule, India
MAWP Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MOC Management of Change
MHF Major Hazard Facilities Regulation (Victoria, Australia)
MHIDAS Major Hazard Incident Data Service (E.U.)
MI Mechanical Integrity
MIACC Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada
MOEF Ministry of Environment & Forests, India
MARG Mutual Aid Resource Group (India Model)
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA)
NDMA National Disaster Management Authority (India)
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (USA)
NPRA National Petoleum Refiners Association
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USA)
NSC National Safety Council (USA)
NSCI National Safety Council of India
OSBL Outside Battery Limits
OREDA The Offshore and Onshore Reliability Data Project
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S.)
PADHI Planning Advice for Developments near Hazardous
Installations (U.K.)
PCB Pollution Control Board (India)
PEIM Process Equipment Integrity Management
P&ID Piping And Instrumentation Diagram
PFD Probability of Failure on Demand
PHA Process Hazard Analysis
PHI Potential Hazardous Installation
PI Pressure Indicator
PL Protection Layer
PLL Potential Loss of Lifexxxvi Acronyms and Abbreviations
PM Preventive Maintenance or Predictive Maintenance
PPRT Plans de Prévention des Risques Technologiques (France)
PRA Probabilistic Risk Assessment
PRV Pressure Relief Valve
PSA Petroleum Safety Authority, Norway
PSE Process Safety Engineering
PSV Pressure Safety Valve
PSM Process Safety Management
PTSC Partnership Towards A Safer Community (Canada Model)
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
RBI Risk-Based Inspection
RBPS Risk-Based Process Safety
RC Responsible Care
RNNP Trends in Risk Level in the Petroleum Industry (Norway)
RV Relief Valve
RSSG Royal Society Study Group (U.K.)
SCBA Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
SCE Safety-Critical Equipment
SCTA Safety-Critical Task Analysis
SFARP So Far As is Reasonably Practicable
SWSS Process Safety Regulation China
SIF Safety Instrumented Function
SIGTTO Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminals Limited
SIL Safety Integrity Level
SIS Safety Instrumented System
SRS Safety Requirement Specification
TEEL Temporary Emergency Exposure Limit
TIMP Technical Integrity Management Project
TOR Tolerability of Risk
TO&O Technical, Operational and Organizational
TRIF Temporary Refuge Impairment Frequency
TQ Threshold Quantity
UVCE Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion
VCE Vapor Cloud Explosion
VLE Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium
VLLE Vapor–Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium
XV Remote-Activated/Controlled Valve
Index
acceptable risk 327, 363, 396, 411
accidents – major accidents in chemical
industry 13
adiabatic flame temperature 201, 225
ammonium nitrate facility, Toulouse, France 51
API model 202, 203, 216
assessment of safety distance 160
atmospheric stability 229, 304, 391
auto-ignition temperature 87, 90, 243
average individual risk 352, 394
barrier analysis 270, 282, 366, 373–374, 406–407
Bharat Petroleum – vapor cloud explosion 43
Bhopal, India 32–37
blast waves 69, 249–250, 252–253, 257, 263,
271–272, 274, 277, 280
BLEVE – causes, consequences and measures to
prevent BLEVE 238–239
BLEVE – phenomenon 233–234
boilover of liquids 27–28
BP deepwater horizon offshore Rig 70
BP refinery, texas city (vapor cloud explosion) 59
Britter and McQuaid correlation for dense gas
dispersion 315–316, 318
brush discharge 124, 126–127
building successful plant-wide CLRTO
applications 445–446
bulking brush discharge 124, 128–129
burning rate (also called regression rate) 88,
138–142, 144–147, 149–150, 160,
162–163
burning velocity 225–226, 263–264
calculation of pressure-compensated
temperature 433
capacitance 107, 118–121, 124–125, 131
Caracas, Venezuela 27
challenges in rigorous chemical reactor modeling
446–447
channel fire 144, 152, 156
charge accumulation 96, 105, 114–115, 123, 131
charge generation 105–106, 109–111, 134
charge generation on liquids and powders 106,
110–111, 134
chemical hazards 2
classification / labeling of hazardous chemicals 8
classification of fires – A, B, C, D, electrical
fires 102
Cleveland, Ohio, USA – LNG fire and
explosion 14
closed-loop, real-time, optimization (CLRTO)
442–447
compressor efficiency 436–437
condensed phase explosion 279
conductors and insulators 107
confined pool fire on land 137
control system configuration 425–426
control system hardware and configuration
422–423
control valves 423–425, 430, 435, 450
corona discharge 124–126
coulomb’s law 106
Cp/Cv ratio 174
damage caused by blast waves 275–277
data base for failure frequencies and probabilities
403–404
deflagration 3, 29–30, 41, 68–69, 89, 242–244
demand 7, 39, 346, 358–362, 381–384, 389, 401,
404–405, 429, 437, 448
detonation 3, 52–53, 65, 67–69, 89, 243–244, 250,
272, 279, 281, 285, 359, 362
detonators / detonating fuse 279
diameter and duration of fireball 234
dielectric constant 106–107, 112, 115–117,
120–123
dioxin 22, 24–25
dispersion 167–168, 223, 229–230, 248, 251, 288,
294, 297–298, 300, 304–309, 315–316,
321, 323, 325
dispersion calculation – from point and area
sources 307
dispersion models – passive dispersion, pasquill
stability classes, puff and plume
models 304–305, 307–309, 312, 314,
323, 391, 394
distillation column approach to flooding 433–435
distillation column pressure-compensated
temperature 432–433
dust explosion 4, 63–64, 282–285
earthing and bonding 131
effect of flame exposure 229
effect of mixture composition 6, 11, 53, 56,
79–80, 85, 90, 170, 172–173, 183,
192, 194, 196, 198, 249, 314, 410, 427,
431–433, 437, 439, 446
effect of pressure 81, 183
effect of temperature 195
effect on people 277, 287456 Index
effects of thermal radiation 93–96, 137, 143, 151,
160, 162, 164, 200, 203, 207, 219, 224,
229, 233, 235, 237
electrical classification of hazardous areas 92
electrostatic discharge / spark discharge 2, 6, 107,
109–110, 112, 117–118, 124, 129, 131,
134–135, 284
emergency action 103, 288, 294, 399
emergency isolation valves 18, 29–31, 33, 35–36,
41, 43, 46–48, 50, 67, 69, 102, 199,
334, 379, 412, 452
emergency planning (release as gas or vapor) 294,
297, 398–399
emergency response planning guidelines (ERPG)
288–289, 297, 306
emergency shutdown systems 31, 43, 53, 68, 241,
331, 409, 412–413, 422, 430, 450–452
emission source models – liquid release, gas
jet releases, two-phase releases,
evaporation from liquid pools 297–298
environmental hazards 2, 7, 9
equivalent radiator model 152, 156–157, 230
event 2, 35, 37, 40, 56, 69, 71, 75, 156, 191, 233,
281, 295, 328, 340, 346–348, 351–352,
355–365, 372, 375, 377–378, 380–383,
386–387, 390–392, 397, 402, 407, 413,
448, 452
event tree 328, 348, 358, 378, 390–392
event tree analysis 328, 348
examples of leakage rate calculation 300
explosion 1–2, 4–5, 13, 15, 17–18, 21, 27, 29,
31, 37, 40–43, 46–54, 56–61, 63–65,
67–70, 89–90, 98, 102, 130, 133, 223,
229, 233, 241–243, 245–247, 249,
251–253, 255–257, 259, 261, 263, 265,
267, 269, 271–277, 279–285, 294,
332, 351, 357, 360, 362, 376, 378, 380,
390–394, 417
explosion mechanisms 242
explosion types – condensed phase explosion,
dust explosion, physical explosion,
vapor cloud explosion (VCE) 15, 19,
21, 44–47, 50, 60, 67–69, 241–245,
249, 251, 253, 257, 261, 265, 270–274,
277, 387
explosive chemicals 2–3, 62
failure 1, 5, 14–15, 26, 30, 35, 42, 55–56, 62, 67,
72–74, 85, 93, 133–134, 167–168, 241,
278, 285, 300, 328, 334–335, 338,
342–346, 348, 356–362, 364–368,
372, 376–378, 380–382, 384–385,
387–389, 392, 396, 399, 403–405, 413,
415, 424–426, 432, 435, 448–451
failure modes and effects analysis 328, 338
fatal accident rate (FAR), table 13.1, 351–352,
392, 394–395
fault 328, 332, 348–349, 358, 361, 378, 380–387,
389–390, 403, 429, 449
fault tree analysis 328, 348–349, 378, 380
fault tree methodology 328, 348–349, 378,
380–383, 385–387, 389–390
Feyzin, France 16–17, 224, 233–234
fire 1, 3–6, 13–18, 21, 26–31, 37, 41–45, 47–48,
50–51, 56, 58–60, 64, 68–72, 77–79,
81, 83, 85, 87–91, 93, 95–97, 99–103,
132–133, 137–139, 141, 143–147,
149–153, 155–164, 167–169, 171, 173,
175, 177, 179, 181, 183, 185, 187, 189,
191, 193, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203, 205,
207, 209, 211, 213, 215–218, 223–225,
227, 229, 233–234, 238–239, 242, 244,
249, 271, 273, 285, 294, 329, 331–332,
334, 339–340, 346, 351, 360, 367, 372,
376, 378, 380
fire extinguishing – fire fighting plan 97, 331
fire point 88
fire prevention systems 96
fire protection systems 97, 161, 329
fire triangle / fire tetrahedron 77–78
fireball 29, 41, 63, 90, 95, 223, 233–237, 239
fired heater radiant section duty 431
flame definition 2
flame dimensions 227
flame exposure – effect on human body, thermal
load 229, 285
flame height 15, 89, 138–140, 142, 145–146, 150,
227, 230
flame height in still air and in presence of wind
139–146
flame speed and dimensions 89, 224–228, 249,
257–259, 261, 272, 286
flames types 88–90
flammability limits of fuel-air mixture
(table 3.1) 79
flammability range 3, 78, 80–81, 83
flammability range in oxygen 83
flammable chemicals 2–3
flash calculation for mixtures 183, 185,
191–192, 300
flash fire (also called vapor cloud fire) 29, 44–45,
69, 88–89, 223–224, 227, 229–230,
242, 249, 387, 390–392
flash point 2–3, 19, 28, 79, 86–88
flash point – closed cup, open cup 79, 86–88
flashing of liquids across a valve 85,
167, 183–184, 198, 298, 313,
320, 334
Flixborough vapor cloud explosion 18
Flixborough, UK 18
flow through a hole (free expansion)
168–170, 172
formal permits 36
fractional dead time 381–382Index 457
frequency and rate 381
frequency of a hazardous event 378
fundamentals of fire processes 77, 79, 81, 83, 85,
87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 103
globally harmonized system (GHS) 8
Hawthorn, Weddell and Hottel Model 201
HAZAN 54
hazard – definition 41
hazard and operability study (HAZOP) 25, 48,
51, 54, 58–59, 62, 70, 274, 281–282,
328, 331–349
hazard identification 11, 58–59, 62, 70, 74,
327–329, 331, 333, 335, 337, 339,
341, 343, 345, 347–349, 355,
414, 420
hazard rate 382, 386
hazards – framework for management of process
plant hazards 327
hazards in the process industries 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11
HAZOP 4, 25, 48, 51, 54, 58–59, 62, 70, 274,
281–282, 328, 331–342, 347–349,
355–356, 364, 375, 406–407
heat exchanger duty 431–432
higher level optimization and control applications
422–423, 427, 429–430, 442–448
higher-level multivariable control and
optimization applications 427–430
Hindustan Petroleum (HPCL), Bombay, India
(vapor cloud explosion) 49–51
horizontally released jet fires 207
human factors in process safety management 409
IDLH values for a few common chemicals 292
ignition of fuels and flammable mixtures
2–3, 6, 8, 15, 72, 78, 87–88, 90–93,
96, 101
immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH)
291, 297
Imperial Sugar, Port Wentworth, USA 63
individual risk 352–353, 362–363, 392, 394–398
intelligent alarm management 448–449
intensity of thermal radiation 93–96, 99–100,
137, 151, 156, 160–164, 200, 216–220,
229–230, 233, 235, 237
IOCL Tank Farm, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India 65
isenthalpic versus isentropic expansion 168–172,
182–183
jet dispersion 304, 321, 323
jet fire 30, 89, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175, 177, 179,
181, 183, 185, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195,
197, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 209, 211,
213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 233, 244,
387, 390–392
Joule-Thompson Equation 172
layer of protection analysis (LOPA) 353–366
LFL / UFL 2–3, 78–89, 130, 133, 229–230,
291–292, 297, 306, 309, 314,
319–320
LNG Liquefaction Facility, Skikda, Algeria 56
location / relocation of process control rooms
422, 452
LOPA 59, 62, 270, 282, 353–356, 358, 360–361,
363–367, 371, 396, 406–407, 414
maintenance 8, 35–37, 40–42, 46–48, 53, 57–59,
62, 73–74, 91, 95, 97–98, 132, 241,
329, 331–332, 334–335, 341–345, 348,
357, 360–362, 366–367, 370, 373, 377,
379, 381, 389–390, 399, 402, 406,
409–412, 423–424, 429, 436–437,
442, 446–447, 449–452
mass burning rate, regression rate 138–150,
160–162
measures to minimize damage 280
measures to prevent BLEVE 238
methane 6, 14, 40, 56, 78–79, 81–84, 90, 125,
130, 170, 173, 177, 182, 187, 201–202,
206, 212, 219, 221, 224, 264, 324
methods of expressing risks 351
methyl isocyanate (MIC) 32
Mexico City Fire 29–31
Mexico City, Mexico 17, 29
minimum ignition energy 90, 125, 283
modeling for radiation intensity 151
mounded tank 33, 238
multivariable, optimal predictive control (MPC)
422, 440–442
non-flaming combustion (smoldering) 2, 78
on-line calculations (equipment health
monitoring) 422–423, 425, 430–439
open-equation modeling for a counter-flow heat
exchanger 443–445
Pasquill stability classes (table) 305
permissible exposure limits for toxic
chemicals 294
permissible exposure limits in factories
(table 10.6) 292–294
Phillips Petroleum. Pasadena, TX, USA, – Vapor
Cloud Explosion 46–48
Piper Alpha accident 35, 42
Piper Alpha Platform, North Sea 37–43
planning and scheduling optimization 422,
447–448
pool fire 41, 89, 137–139, 141, 143–147, 149–153,
155, 157, 159–161, 163, 165, 216, 218,
223, 233, 244
pool fire / tank fire 89, 102, 137–165
premixed and diffusion flames 88458 Index
probability 1–2, 54, 90, 92, 94–95, 161, 238, 277,
279–280, 283, 327, 344–345, 351,
358–360, 362, 364–366, 377, 380–383,
386, 390–391, 394, 396, 404, 406, 415
process safety vs. personnel (occupational) safety
287, 290, 292–293, 420
propagating brush discharge 124, 128
protective system 381–384, 386
pump efficiency 437–438
pump, compressor, turbine efficiencies 435–436
pyrolysis 2, 78
Qatar – LPG Leakage and Fire 26–27
Qatar, Persian Gulf, VI 26
quantitative risk assessment 16, 348, 351, 407
quenching diameter 91
radiation intensity estimation (fractional
radiation, API method) 216–218
radiation intensity modeling 200–220
reactive chemicals – examples 4
regulatory control tuning 426–427
regulatory controls on exposure 287–295
regulatory controls on toxic substances 290–294
release of liquefied gas: two-phase flashing flow
183–193, 198–200
requirements and characteristics of ignition
sources 90
risk – definition, likelihood (frequency and
probability) 351–353, 359–364,
396–399
risk analysis 31, 59, 62, 230, 239, 295, 300, 326,
387, 392, 406–408, 415–416
risk assessment and control 351, 353, 355, 357,
359, 361, 363, 365, 367, 369, 371, 373,
375, 377, 379, 381, 383, 385, 387, 389,
391, 393, 395, 397, 399, 401, 403,
405, 407
risk reduction measures (acceptable, ALARP,
unacceptable) 273, 378, 397–401
safety audit 75, 328
safety data sheets 8, 11, 282, 287
sampling time recording 423
sensor validation 422–423
Seveso Seveso, Italy, – Release of Highly Toxic
Dioxin to Atmosphere 22–26
shell model 207–208, 216–218
size and shape of flames (typical flame geometry)
137, 200–216
Skikda (Algeria) – Explosion and Fire in LNG
facility 56–59
smart sensors / inferential calculations 438–439
societal risk (F-N Curves) 351–353
sonic velocity 89, 171, 174–177, 179, 181–183, 187,
200, 242–243, 257, 298
Space Shuttle Columbia, NASA, Florida 54–56
spark discharge 124–125, 131
state 25, 62, 65, 67, 106, 109, 117, 120, 147, 170,
172, 185–188, 192, 220–221, 231, 287,
302, 335, 337, 359, 380–383, 396, 401,
420, 426, 428–429, 433, 435–436,
440–442, 445–447
static charges – generation and accumulation
105–135
static electricity 2, 44, 75, 91–92, 105–107, 109,
111, 113, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125,
127, 129, 131, 133, 135
static ignition – examples and precautionary
measures 132–135
streaming current 106, 109–111, 114, 116–117,
120–121
surface emissive power 151, 218, 230, 235–236
thermal radiation from a fireball 235–238
thermodynamics of fluid phase equilibria
185–196
Thomas Equation (Wood / Wood Cribs)
139–140
TNO correlation model 248–249
TNO multi-energy model 249–257
TNT equivalent model 245, 248
tolerable risk 364, 396, 399, 401
Toulouse – ammonium nitrate explosion 51–54
toxic chemicals 2, 4–5, 25, 45, 287, 289, 292
toxic endpoints 288–289
toxic releases 287–289, 291, 293, 295, 363, 367
toxicity measures / assessment (LD50, LC50,
toxic load) 290–292
turbine efficiency 437
vapor cloud explosion 15, 18, 29, 46, 49, 59,
65, 70, 76, 89, 223, 229, 231, 241,
285–286, 378, 390–392
vapor cloud fire (also called flash fire) 29, 44–45,
69, 88–89, 167, 223–231, 242, 249,
387, 390–392
view factor 151 –161, 164, 218–220, 230, 236–237
what-if checklist 329

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