Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
اسم المؤلف
William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch
التاريخ
23 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
36
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
An Integrated Approach
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Utah
David G. Rethwisch
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
Contents
List of Symbols Xxiii
. Introduction
Learning Objectives
. Historical Perspective
. Materials Science and Engineering
. Why Study Materials Science and Engineering?
Case Study—Liberty Ship Failures
. Classification of Materials
Case Study—Carbonated Beverage
Containers
. Advanced Materials
. Modern Materials’ Needs
Summary
References
Questions
. Atomic Structure and Interatomic
Bonding
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
. Fundamental Concepts
. Electrons in Atoms
. The Periodic Table
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS
. Bonding Forces and Energies
. Primary Interatomic Bonds
. Secondary Bonding or van der Waals
Bonding
Materials of Importance—Water (Its
Volume Expansion upon Freezing)
. Mixed Bonding
. Molecules
. Bonding Type-Material Classification
Correlations
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Structures of Metals and Ceramics
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
. Fundamental Concepts
. Unit Cells
. Metallic Crystal Structures
. Density Computations—Metals
. Ceramic Crystal Structures
. Density Computations—Ceramics
. Silicate Ceramics
. Carbon
. Polymorphism and Allotropy
. Crystal Systems
Material of Importance—Tin (Its
Allotropic Transformation)
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND
PLANES
. Point Coordinates
. Crystallographic Directions
. Crystallographic Planes
. Linear and Planar Densities
. Close-Packed Crystal Structures
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE
MATERIALS
. Single Crystals
. Polycrystalline Materials
. Anisotropy
. X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of
Crystal Structures
. Noncrystalline Solids
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References xvi • Contents
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Polymer Structures
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Hydrocarbon Molecules
. Polymer Molecules
. The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules
. Molecular Weight
. Molecular Shape
. Molecular Structure
. Molecular Configurations
. Thermoplastic and Thermosetting
Polymers
. Copolymers
. Polymer Crystallinity
. Polymer Crystals
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Imperfections in Solids
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
POINT DEFECTS
. Point Defects in Metals
. Point Defects in Ceramics
. Impurities in Solids
. Point Defects in Polymers
. Specification of Composition
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS
. Dislocations—Linear Defects
. Interfacial Defects
. Bulk or Volume Defects
. Atomic Vibrations
Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and
Surface Defects)
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
. Basic Concepts of Microscopy
. Microscopic Techniques
. Grain-Size Determination
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Diffusion
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Diffusion Mechanisms
. Fick’s First Law
. Fick’s Second Law—Nonsteady-State
Diffusion
. Factors that Influence Diffusion
. Diffusion in Semiconducting
Materials
Materials of Importance—Aluminum for
Integrated Circuit Interconnects
. Other Diffusion Paths
. Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric
Materials
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Mechanical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Concepts of Stress and Strain
ELASTIC DEFORMATION
. Stress–Strain Behavior
. Anelasticity
. Elastic Properties of Materials
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS
. Tensile Properties
. True Stress and Strain
. Elastic Recovery after Plastic
Deformation
. Compressive, Shear, and Torsional
Deformations
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—CERAMICS
. Flexural Strength Contents • xvii
. Elastic Behavior
. Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical
Properties of Ceramics
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—POLYMERS
. Stress–Strain Behavior
. Macroscopic Deformation
. Viscoelastic Deformation
HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL
PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS
. Hardness
. Hardness of Ceramic Materials
. Tear Strength and Hardness of
Polymers
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY
FACTORS
. Variability of Material Properties
. Design/Safety Factors
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Deformation and Strengthening
Mechanisms
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS
. Historical
. Basic Concepts of Dislocations
. Characteristics of Dislocations
. Slip Systems
. Slip in Single Crystals
. Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline
Metals
. Deformation by Twinning
MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN
METALS
. Strengthening by Grain Size
Reduction
. Solid-Solution Strengthening
. Strain Hardening
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN
GROWTH
. Recovery
. Recrystallization
. Grain Growth
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC
MATERIALS
. Crystalline Ceramics
. Noncrystalline Ceramics
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR
STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS
. Deformation of Semicrystalline
Polymers
. Factors that Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline
Polymers
Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap
Polymer Films
. Deformation of Elastomers
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Failure
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
FRACTURE
. Fundamentals of Fracture
. Ductile Fracture
. Brittle Fracture
. Principles of Fracture Mechanics
. Brittle Fracture of Ceramics
. Fracture of Polymers
. Fracture Toughness Testing
FATIGUE
. Cyclic Stresses
. The S–N Curve
. Fatigue in Polymeric Materials
. Crack Initiation and Propagation
. Factors that Affect Fatigue Life
. Environmental Effects
CREEP
. Generalized Creep Behavior
. Stress and Temperature Effects
. Data Extrapolation Methods
. Alloys for High-Temperature Use xviii • Contents
. Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric
Materials
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Phase Diagrams
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS
. Solubility Limit
. Phases
. Microstructure
. Phase Equilibria
. One-Component (or Unary)
Phase Diagrams
BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS
. Binary Isomorphous Systems
. Interpretation of Phase Diagrams
. Development of Microstructure in
Isomorphous Alloys
. Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous
Alloys
. Binary Eutectic Systems
. Development of Microstructure in Eutectic
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Lead-Free
Solders
. Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate
Phases or Compounds
. Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions
. Congruent Phase Transformations
. Ceramic Phase Diagrams
. Ternary Phase Diagrams
. The Gibbs Phase Rule
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM
. The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe C) Phase
Diagram
. Development of Microstructure in Iron–
Carbon Alloys
. The Influence of Other Alloying
Elements
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Phase Transformations
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS
. Basic Concepts
. The Kinetics of Phase
Transformations
. Metastable Versus Equilibrium
States
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES
IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS
. Isothermal Transformation Diagrams
. Continuous-Cooling Transformation
Diagrams
. Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon
Alloys
. Tempered Martensite
. Review of Phase Transformations and
Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory
Alloys
PRECIPITATION HARDENING
. Heat Treatments
. Mechanism of Hardening
. Miscellaneous Considerations
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS
TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS
. Crystallization
. Melting
. The Glass Transition
. Melting and Glass Transition
Temperatures
. Factors that Influence Melting and Glass
Transition Temperatures
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems Contents • xix
. Electrical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION
. Ohm’s Law
. Electrical Conductivity
. Electronic and Ionic Conduction
. Energy Band Structures in Solids
. Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic
Bonding Models
. Electron Mobility
. Electrical Resistivity of Metals
. Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Aluminum
Electrical Wires
SEMICONDUCTIVITY
. Intrinsic Semiconduction
. Extrinsic Semiconduction
. The Temperature Dependence of Carrier
Concentration
. Factors that Affect Carrier Mobility
. The Hall Effect
. Semiconductor Devices
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS
AND IN POLYMERS
. Conduction in Ionic Materials
. Electrical Properties of Polymers
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR
. Capacitance
. Field Vectors and Polarization
. Types of Polarization
. Frequency Dependence of
the Dielectric Constant
. Dielectric Strength
. Dielectric Materials
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MATERIALS
. Ferroelectricity
. Piezoelectricity
Material of Importance—Piezoelectric
Ceramic Ink-Jet Printer Heads
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Types and Applications
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS
. Ferrous Alloys
. Nonferrous Alloys
Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys
Used for Euro Coins
TYPES OF CERAMICS
. Glasses
. Glass-Ceramics
. Clay Products
. Refractories
. Abrasives
. Cements
. Carbons
. Advanced Ceramics
TYPES OF POLYMERS
. Plastics
Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard
Balls
. Elastomers
. Fibers
. Miscellaneous Applications
. Advanced Polymeric Materials
Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Questions
Fundamentals of Engineering
Questions
. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
FABRICATION OF METALS
. Forming Operations
. Casting
. Miscellaneous Techniques
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS
. Annealing Processes
. Heat Treatment of Steels xx • Contents
FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS
. Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and
Glass-Ceramics
. Fabrication and Processing of Clay
Products
. Powder Pressing
. Tape Casting
SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS
. Polymerization
. Polymer Additives
. Forming Techniques for Plastics
. Fabrication of Elastomers
. Fabrication of Fibers and Films
Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Composites
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
. Large–Particle Composites
. Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
. Influence of Fiber Length
. Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration
. The Fiber Phase
. The Matrix Phase
. Polymer-Matrix Composites
. Metal-Matrix Composites
. Ceramic-Matrix Composites
. Carbon–Carbon Composites
. Hybrid Composites
. Processing of Fiber-Reinforced
Composites
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
. Laminar Composites
. Sandwich Panels
Case Study—Use of Composites in the
Boeing Dreamliner
. Nanocomposites
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Corrosion and Degradation
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
CORROSION OF METALS
. Electrochemical Considerations
. Corrosion Rates
. Prediction of Corrosion Rates
. Passivity
. Environmental Effects
. Forms of Corrosion
. Corrosion Environments
. Corrosion Prevention
. Oxidation
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS
. Swelling and Dissolution
. Bond Rupture
. Weathering
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Thermal Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Heat Capacity
. Thermal Expansion
Materials of Importance—Invar and Other
Low-Expansion Alloys
. Thermal Conductivity
. Thermal Stresses
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems Contents • xxi
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Magnetic Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Basic Concepts
. Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
. Ferromagnetism
. Antiferromagnetism and
Ferrimagnetism
. The Influence of Temperature on
Magnetic Behavior
. Domains and Hysteresis
. Magnetic Anisotropy
. Soft Magnetic Materials
Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon
Alloy that Is Used in Transformer
Cores
. Hard Magnetic Materials
. Magnetic Storage
. Superconductivity
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Optical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
BASIC CONCEPTS
. Electromagnetic Radiation
. Light Interactions with Solids
. Atomic and Electronic Interactions
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS
. Refraction
. Reflection
. Absorption
. Transmission
. Color
. Opacity and Translucency
in Insulators
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA
. Luminescence
. Photoconductivity
Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting
Diodes
. Lasers
. Optical Fibers in Communications
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problem
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
. Component Design
. Materials
. Manufacturing Techniques
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL
CONSIDERATIONS
. Recycling Issues in Materials Science and
Engineering
Materials of Importance—Biodegradable
and Biorenewable Polymers/
Plastics
Summary
References
Design Questions
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI)
Appendix B Properties of Selected
Engineering Materials
B. : Density
B. : Modulus of Elasticity
B. : Poisson’s Ratio
B. : Strength and Ductility
B. : Plane Strain Fracture Toughness
B. : Linear Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion
B. : Thermal Conductivity
B. : Specific Heat
B. : Electrical Resistivity
B. : Metal Alloy Compositions xxii • Contents
Appendix C Costs and Relative
Costs for Selected Engineering
Materials
Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for
Common Polymers
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
Materials
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
Mechanical Engineering Online
Module
Learning Objectives
M. Introduction
FRACTURE
M. Principles of Fracture Mechanics
M. Flaw Detection Using Nondestructive
Testing Techniques
M. Fracture Toughness Testing
FATIGUE
M. Crack Initiation and Propagation
M. Crack Propagation Rate
AUTOMOBILE VALVE SPRING (CASE STUDY)
M. Mechanics of Spring Deformation
M. Valve Spring Design and Material
Requirements
FAILURE OF AN AUTOMOBILE REAR AXLE
(CASE STUDY)
M. Introduction
M. Testing Procedure and Results
M. Discussion
MATERIALS SELECTION FOR A TORSIONALLY
STRESSED CYLINDRICAL SHAFT (CASE STUDY)
M. Strength Considerations—Torsionally
Stressed Shaft
M. Other Property Considerations and the
Final Decision
Summary
Equation Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index (Module)
Library of Case Studies
Case Study CS —Materials Selection for a
Torsionally Stressed Cylindrical Shaft
Case Study CS —Automobile Valve Spring
Case Study CS —Failure of an Automobile
Rear Axle
Case Study CS —Artificial Total Hip
Replacement
Case Study CS —Intraocular Lens Implants
Case Study CS —Chemical Protective
ClothingContents
Index
Page numbers in italics refer to the glossary.Index •
Angle computation between two
crystallographic directions,
Angle-ply, laminar composite,
Anions, ,
Anisotropy, – ,
of elastic modulus, ,
magnetic, –
Annealing, , – ,
ferrous alloys, –
glass,
Annealing point, glass, ,
Annealing twins,
Anodes, ,
area effect, galvanic corrosion,
sacrificial, ,
Antiferromagnetism, ,
temperature dependence,
Aramid:
cost as a fiber,
fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, –
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
properties as fiber,
repeat unit structure, ,
Argon, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Argon-ion lasers,
Aromatic hydrocarbons (chain groups),
,
Arrhenius equation,
Artifi cial aging, ,
Asphaltic concrete,
ASTM standards,
Atactic configuration, ,
Athermal transformation, ,
Atomic bonding, see Bonding
Atomic mass,
Atomic mass unit (amu), ,
Atomic models:
Bohr, , ,
wave-mechanical, – ,
Atomic number, ,
Atomic packing factor, ,
Atomic point defects, – , –
Atomic radii, of selected metals,
Atomic structure, –
Atomic vibrations, , ,
Atomic weight, ,
metal alloys, equations for,
Atom percent, ,
Austenite, ,
shape-memory phase transformations,

transformations, –
summary, –
Austenitic stainless steels, ,
Austenitizing, ,
Automobiles, rusted and stainless
steel,
Automobile transmission,
Auxetic materials,
Average value,
Avogadro’s number,
Avrami equation, ,
AX crystal structures, –
A
mXp crystal structures,
Azimuthal quantum number,
B
Bainite, – , , ,
ductility vs. transformation
temperature,
hardness vs. transformation
temperature,
mechanical properties,
Bakelite, see Phenol-formaldehyde
(Bakelite)
Balsa wood, sandwich panels,
Band gap, –
Band gap energy,
determination of,
selected semiconductors,
Bands, see Energy bands
Barcol hardness,
Barium ferrite (as magnetic storage
medium),
Barium titanate:
crystal structure, , –
as dielectric,
as ferroelectric, –
as piezoelectric,
Base (transistor), –
Basic refractories,
Basic slags,
Bauxite ore,
Beachmarks (fatigue), –
Bend strength, . See also Flexural
strength
Beryllium-copper alloys,
Beverage containers, ,
corrosion of,
diffusion rate of CO through,

stages of production,
Bifunctional repeat units, ,
Billiard balls, ,
Bimetallic strips,
Binary eutectic alloys, –
tensile strength,
Binary isomorphous alloys, –
mechanical properties,
microstructure development,
equilibrium cooling, –
microstructure development,
nonequilibrium cooling, –
Biodegradable beverage can,
Biodegradable polymers/plastics,

Biomass,
Biomaterials,
Biorenewable polymers/plastics,

Bioresorbability,
Block copolymers, , ,
Blowing, of glass,
Blow molding, plastics,
Body-centered cubic structure,
– ,
Burgers vector for,
interstitial sites, tetrahedral and
octahedral, – , ,
slip systems,
twinning in,
Boeing (Dreamliner), case study,

Bohr atomic model, , ,
Bohr magneton, ,
Boltzmann’s constant, ,
Bonding:
carbon-carbon,
cementitious,
covalent, – , ,
hybrid sp,
hybrid sp , –
in graphite,
hybrid sp , –
in diamond,
hybridization in carbon, –
hydrogen, , ,
ionic, – , – ,
metallic, – ,
van der Waals, see van der Waals
bonding
Bonding energy, ,
and melting temperature for selected
materials,
Bonding forces, –
Bonding tetrahedron,
Bond rupture, in polymers, –
Bone, as composite,
Borazon,
Boron carbide:
hardness,
Boron:
boron-doped silicon
semiconductors,
fiber-reinforced composites,
,
properties as a fiber,
Borosilicate glass:
composition,
electrical conductivity,
viscosity,
Borsic fi ber-reinforced composites,
Bosons,
Bottom-up science,
Bragg’s law, – ,
Branched polymers, , • Index
Brass, , ,
annealing behavior,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
phase diagram, ,
Poisson’s ratio,
recrystallization temperature,
stress corrosion,
stress-strain behavior,
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Brazing, ,
Breakdown, dielectric, ,
Bridge, suspension,
Brinell hardness tests, , –
Brittle fracture, – , , ,
– ,
ceramics, –
Brittle materials, thermal shock,

Bronze, , ,
photomicrograph, coring,
Bronze age,
Buckminsterfullerene,
Buckyball,
Burgers vector, ,
for FCC, BCC, and HCP,
magnitude computation,
Butadiene:
degradation resistance,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure, ,
Butane, –
C
Cadmium sulfide:
color,
electrical characteristics,
Cadmium telluride, electrical
characteristics,
Calcination, ,
Calcite,
Calcium fl uoride, bonding energy and
melting temperature,
Calendering,
Capacitance, – ,
Capacitors, –
Carbon:
vs. graphite, ,
graphitic,
nano,
polymorphism,
pyrolytic,
turbostractic,
Carbon black, as reinforcement in
rubbers, ,
Carbon-carbon composites, ,
Carbon diffusion, in steels, ,
Carbon dioxide (pressure-temperature
phase diagram),
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, – ,
Carbon fibers, –
in composites, , –
properties as fiber,
structure,
Carbon monoxide emissions,
Carbon nanotubes,
applications,
in nanocomposites,
properties,
Carborundum, . See also Silicon
carbide.
Carburizing, , ,
Case-hardened gear,
Case hardening, , ,
Case studies:
carbonated beverage containers,
Liberty ship failures, –
Cast alloys,
Casting techniques:
metals, –
plastics,
slip, –
tape, –
Cast irons, , , – ,
annealing,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
graphite formation in,
heat treatment effect on
microstructure,
phase diagram, ,
stress-strain behavior (gray),
Catalysts,
Catalytic converters (automobiles),
,
Cathodes, ,
Cathodic protection, , – ,
Cations, ,
Cemented carbide, –
Cementite, – ,
decomposition, ,
proeutectoid, –
in white iron, ,
Cementitious bond,
Cements, , – ,
Ceramic-matrix composites,
– ,
Ceramics, – , . See also Glass
advanced, –
application-classifi cation scheme,
brittle fracture, –
coeffi cientof thermal expansion
values, , –
color,
corrosion,
costs, –
crystal structures, –
summary,
defects, –
defined, –
density computation, –
density values,
elastic modulus values, ,

electrical conductivity values for
selected,
electrical resistivity values, –
fabrication techniques
classification,
fl exural strength values, , –
fractography of, –
fracture toughness values, ,
impurities in, –
indices of refraction,
as electrical insulators, ,
magnetic, –
mechanical properties of, –
in MEMS,
phase diagrams, –
piezoelectric, ,
plastic deformation,
Poisson’s ratio values, ,
porosity, – , –
porosity, infl uence on properties,

silicates, –
specifi c heat values, ,
as superconductors,
thermal conductivity values, ,
thermal properties, , ,
– ,
traditional,
traditional vs. new,
translucency and opacity,
Cercor (glass-ceramic),
Cermets, ,
Cesium chloride structure,
Chain-folded model, ,
Chain-reaction polymerization, see
Addition polymerization
Chain stiffening/stiffness, ,
Charge carriers:
majority vs. minority,
temperature dependence, –
Charpy impact test, – ,
Chevron markings, –
Chips, semiconductor,
Chlorine, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Chloroprene, repeat unit structure,
,
Chloroprene rubber:
characteristics and applications,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
cis, ,
Clay, characteristics, Index •
Clay products, ,
drying and fi ring, , –
fabrication, –
Cleavage (brittle fracture),
Clinker,
Close-packed ceramic crystal structures,

Close-packed metal crystal structures,

Coarse pearlite, – , ,
Coatings (polymer),
Cobalt:
atomic radius and crystal structure,
Curie temperature,
as ferromagnetic material,
magnetization curves
(single crystal),
Coercivity (coercive force), ,
Cold work, percent,
Cold working, . See also Strain
hardening
Collector, –
Color,
metals,
nonmetals, –
Colorants, ,
Compacted graphite iron, , ,
Compliance, creep,
Component, , ,
Composites:
aramid fiber-reinforced polymer,

carbon-carbon, ,
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer,

ceramic-matrix, –
classifi cation scheme,
costs,
defi nition, ,
dispersion-strengthened,
elastic behavior:
longitudinal, –
transverse, –
fiber-reinforced, see Fiber-reinforced
composites
glass fiber-reinforced polymer,

hybrid, – ,
laminar, , , – ,
large-particle, –
metal-matrix, –
particle-reinforced, –
production processes, –
properties, glass-, carbon-,
aramid-fi ber reinforced,
recycling of, –
rule of mixtures expressions, , ,
, ,
strength:
longitudinal,
transverse,
stress-strain behavior, –
structural, –
Composition,
conversion equations, –
specifi cation of, –
Compressibility,
Compression molding, plastics,
Compression tests,
Compressive deformation, ,
Computers:
semiconductors in, –
magnetic drives in, –
Concentration, , . See also
Composition
Concentration cells,
Concentration gradient, ,
Concentration polarization,
– ,
Concentration profile, ,
Concrete, – ,
electrical conductivity,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
Condensation polymerization, ,
Conducting polymers, –
Conduction:
electronic,
ionic, ,
Conduction band, ,
Conductivity, see Electrical conductivity;
Thermal conductivity
Confi guration, molecular, –
Conformation, molecular,
Congruent phase transformations,
– ,
Constitutional diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Continuous casting,
Continuous-cooling transformation
diagrams, – ,
steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
for glass-ceramic,
Continuous fibers,
Conventional hard magnetic
materials,
Conversion factors, magnetic units,
Cooling rate, of cylindrical rounds,
Coordinates, point, –
Coordination numbers, , ,
– ,
Copolymers, , – ,
styrenic block, –
Copper:
atomic radius and crystal structure,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical conductivity,
OFHC,
Poisson’s ratio,
recrystallization, ,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Copper alloys, –
properties and applications of,
Copper-aluminum phase diagram,
,
Copper-beryllium alloys, ,
phase diagram,
Copper-nickel alloys:
ductility vs. composition, ,
electrical conductivity,
phase diagram, –
tensile strength vs. composition,
,
yield strength vs. composition,
Copper-silver phase diagram, ,
Copper-zinc alloys,
electrical resistivity vs.
composition,
Coring,
CorningWare (glass-ceramic),
Corrosion,
of beverage cans,
ceramic materials,
electrochemistry of, –
environmental effects,
environments, –
forms of, –
galvanic series, ,
overview of,
passivity, – ,
rates, –
prediction of, –
Corrosion fatigue, ,
Corrosion inhibitors,
Corrosion penetration rate, – ,
Corrosion prevention, –
Corundum, . See also Aluminum
oxide
crystal structure, front cover,
Cost of various materials, –
Coulombic force, ,
Covalency, degree of,
Covalent bonding, – , , ,
Crack confi gurations, in ceramics,
Crack critical velocity,
Crack formation,
in ceramics,
fatigue and,
glass,
Crack propagation, . See also
Fracture mechanics
in brittle fracture, –
in ceramics, –
in ductile fracture, –
fatigue and, –
Cracks:
stable vs. unstable, • Index
Crack surface displacement modes,
Crazing,
Creep, – ,
ceramics,
infl uence of temperature and stress
on, –
mechanisms,
in polymers, ,
stages of, – ,
steady-state rate,
viscoelastic,
Creep compliance,
Creep modulus,
Creep rupture tests,
data extrapolation, –
Crevice corrosion, – ,
Cristobalite, , ,
Critical cooling rate:
ferrous alloys, –
glass-ceramics,
Critical crack length (equation)
leak-before-break,
Critical fi ber length, –
Critical resolved shear stress, ,
as related to dislocation density,
Critical stress (fracture),
Critical temperature, superconductivity,
,
Critical velocity (crack), ,
Crosslinking, , ,
elastomers,
infl uence on viscoelastic behavior,
,
thermosetting polymers,
Cross-ply, laminar composite,
Crystalline materials, , ,
defects, –
single crystals, ,
Crystallinity, polymers, – ,
infl uence on mechanical properties,

Crystallites, ,
Crystallization, polymers, –
Crystallographic directions, –
easy and hard magnetization,
families,
hexagonal crystals, –
Crystallographic planes, –
atomic arrangements, –
close-packed, ceramics, –
close-packed, metals, –
diffraction by, –
families,
hexagonal crystals, –
Crystallographic point coordinates,

Crystal structures, – , . See also
Body-centered cubic structure;
Close-packed crystal structures;
Face-centered cubic structure;
Hexagonal close-packed structure
ceramics, –
close-packed, ceramics, –
close-packed, metals, –
determination by x-ray diffraction,

selected metals,
types, ceramics, – , –
types, metals, – , –
Crystallization (ceramics), ,
,
Crystal systems, – ,
Cubic crystal system,
Cubic ferrites, –
Cunife, ,
Cup-and-cone fracture,
Curie temperature, ,
ferroelectric,
ferromagnetic,
Curing, plastics,
Current density,
Cyclic stresses, –
D
Damping capacity, steel vs. cast
iron,
Data scatter, –
Debye temperature,
Decarburization,
Defects, see also Dislocations
atomic vibrations and,
dependence of properties on,
in ceramics, – ,
interfacial, –
point, – ,
in polymers,
surface,
volume,
Defect structure, ,
Deformation:
elastic, see Elastic deformation
elastomers,
plastic, see Plastic deformation
Deformation mechanism maps
(creep),
Deformation mechanisms
(semicrystalline polymers),
elastic deformation,
plastic deformation, –
Degradation of polymers, – ,
Degree of polymerization, ,
Degrees of freedom,
Delayed fracture, –
Density:
computation for ceramics, –
computation for metal alloys,
computation for metals,
computation for polymers,
of dislocations,
linear atomic, –
planar atomic, –
polymers (values for), –
ranges for material types
(bar chart),
relation to percent crystallinity for
polymers,
values for various materials,

Desiccants,
Design, component,
Design examples:
cold work and recrystallization,

conductivity of a p-type
semiconductor, –
cubic mixed-ferrite magnet, –
creep rupture lifetime for an S-
steel,
materials specification, pressurized
cylindrical tank, –
nonsteady-state diffusion, –
pressurized cylindrical tube, –
steel shaft, alloy/heat treatment of,

tensile-testing apparatus, –
tubular composite shaft, –
Design factor,
Design stress, ,
Dezincifi cation, of brass,
Diamagnetism, – ,
Diamond, , –
as abrasive,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
cost,
hardness,
properties and applications, –
thermal conductivity value, ,
Diamond cubic structure,
Die casting,
Dielectric breakdown, ,
Dielectric constant, ,
frequency dependence, –
relationship to refractive index,
selected ceramics and polymers,
Dielectric displacement, ,
Dielectric loss,
Dielectric materials, – , ,
Dielectric strength, ,
selected ceramics and polymers,
Diffraction (x-ray), – ,
Diffraction angle,
Diffractometers,
Diffusion, – ,
drive-in,
grain growth and, ,
in ionic materials, –
in integrated circuit interconnects,

in Si of Cu, Au, Ag, and Al,
interstitial, – ,
mechanisms, – Index •
and microstructure development,
– ,
nonsteady-state, – ,
in polymers, –
predeposition, semiconductors,
in semiconductors, –
short-circuit,
steady-state, – ,
vacancy, – , ,
Diffusion coefficient, ,
data (tabulation), various metal
systems,
relation to ionic mobility,
temperature dependence, –
Diffusion couples, ,
Diffusion flux, ,
for polymers,
Diffusivity, thermal,
Digital camera,
Digitization of information/signals,
,
Dimethyl ether,
Dimethylsiloxane, , , , . See
also Silicones; Silicone rubber
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
Dimethyl terephthalate (structure),
Diode, ,
Diode lasers,
Dipole moment,
Dipoles:
electric, ,
induced,
magnetic, –
permanent,
Directional solidification,
Directions, see Crystallographic
directions
Discontinuous fibers,
Dislocation density, , , ,
Dislocation line, , , ,
Dislocation motion, –
caterpillar locomotion analogy,
in ceramics,
at grain boundaries, –
infl uence on strength,
recovery and,
Dislocations, – ,
in ceramics, , ,
characteristics of, –
interactions,
multiplication,
at phase boundaries, ,
pile-ups,
plastic deformation and, , –
in polymers, ,
strain fields, –
Dispersed phase, ,
definition,
geometry,
Dispersion (optical),
white light through a prism,
Dispersion-strengthened composites,
,
Disposal of materials, –
Domain growth, –
iron single crystal,
Domains (magnetic), , , ,
photograph of,
Domain walls,
Donors, ,
Doping, , ,
Double bonds,
Drain casting, –
Drawing:
glass,
infl uence on polymer properties,

metals, ,
polymer fibers, ,
Dreamliner (Boeing ), case study,

Drift velocity, electron,
Drive-in diffusion,
Driving force, ,
electrochemical reactions,
grain growth,
recrystallization,
sintering,
steady-state diffusion,
Dry corrosion,
Dry ice,
Drying, clay products, –
Ductile fracture, – , – ,
Ductile iron, , ,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
Ductile-to-brittle transition,
– ,
failure of Liberty ships, –
polymers,
and temper embrittlement,
Ductility, – ,
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation
temperature,
fi ne and coarse pearlite,
precipitation hardened aluminum
alloy,
selected materials, , –
spheroidite,
temperedmartensite,
Durometer hardness, ,
E
Economics, materials selection:
considerations in materials
engineering, –
pressurized cylindrical tube, –
tubular composite shaft, –
Eddy currents,
Edge dislocations, , – , .
See also Dislocations
interactions, –
EEPROM memory,
E-glass, ,
Elastic deformation, – ,
Elastic modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Elastic (strain) recovery, , ,
Elastomers, , – , – ,
,
in composites,
deformation,
thermoplastic, –
trade names, properties, and
applications,
Electrical conduction:
in insulators and semiconductors,

in metals,
Electrical conductivity, , ,
ranges for material types
(bar chart),
selected ceramics and polymers,
selected metals,
selected semiconductors,
temperature variation (Ge),
values for electrical wires,
Electrical resistivity, , . See also
Electrical conductivity
metals:
infl uence of impurities,
infl uence of plastic deformation,
,
infl uence of temperature, –
values for various materials,

Electrical wires, aluminum and copper,

Electric dipole moment,
Electric dipoles, see Dipoles
Electric fi eld, , ,
Electrochemical cells, –
Electrochemical reactions, –
Electrodeposition,
Electrode potentials, –
values of,
Electroluminescence, ,
in polymers,
Electrolytes, ,
Electromagnetic radiation, –
interactions with atoms/electrons,

Electromagnetic spectrum, –
Electron band structure, see Energy
bands
Electron cloud,
Electron configurations, – ,
elements,
periodic table and, –
stable,
Diffusion (Continued) • Index
Electronegativity, , ,
infl uence on solid solubility,
values for the elements,
Electroneutrality, ,
Electron gas,
Electron orbital shapes, –
Electronic conduction, ,
Electronic polarization, , , ,
Electron microscopy, –
Electron mobility,
infl uence of dopant content on,
infl uence of temperature on, –
selected semiconductors,
Electron orbitals,
Electron probability distribution, ,
Electrons,
conduction process, , –
role, diffusion in ionic materials,
energy bands, see Energy bands
energy levels, –
free, see Free electrons
scattering, – ,
in semiconductors, –
temperature variation of
concentration, –
spin, , –
valence,
Electron states,
Electron transitions, –
metals, –
nonmetals, –
Electron volt, ,
Electronic waste,
Electropositivity, ,
Electrorheological fluids,
Elongation, percent,
selected materials, , –
selected metals,
selected polymers,
Embrittlement:
hydrogen, –
temper,
Embryo, phase particle, –
Emery,
Emf series, – ,
Emitter,
Emulsifiers,
Endurance limit, . See also
Fatigue limit
Energy:
activation, see Activation energy
bonding, – ,
current concerns about, , –
free, , , – ,
grain boundary,
to magnetize ferromagnetic material,

photon,
surface,
vacancy formation,
Energy band gap, see Band gap
Energy bands, –
structures for metals, insulators, and
semiconductors,
Energy levels (states), – , –
Engineered materials, ,
Energy product, magnetic, –
Engineering stress/strain, ,
Entropy, , ,
Environmental considerations and
materials, –
Epoxies:
degradation resistance,
polymer-matrix composites,
repeat unit structure,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Equilibrium:
defi nition of,
phase, – ,
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phase diagrams
Erosion-corrosion, – ,
Error bars,
Error function, Gaussian,
Etching,
Ethane,
Ethers,
Ethylene,
polymerization, –
Ethylene glycol (structure),
Euro coins, alloys used for,
Eutectic isotherm,
Eutectic phase, ,
Eutectic reactions, , ,
iron-iron carbide system,
Eutectic structure, ,
Eutectic systems:
binary, –
microstructure development,
, –
Eutectoid, shift of position,
Eutectoid ferrite,
Eutectoid reactions, ,
iron-iron carbide system,
kinetics, –
Eutectoid steel, microstructure changes/
development, –
Exchange current density,
Excited states, ,
Exhaustion, in extrinsic
semiconductors,
Expansion, thermal, see Thermal
expansion
Extrinsic semiconductors, – ,
electron concentration vs.
temperature,
exhaustion,
saturation,
Extrusion,
clay products,
metals,
polymers,
F
Fabrication:
ceramics, –
clay products, –
fi ber-reinforced composites, –
metals, –
Face-centered cubic structure,
– ,
anion stacking (ceramics), –
Burgers vector for,
close packed planes (metals), –
interstitial sites, tetrahedral and
octahedral, – , ,
slip systems, –
Factor of safety,
Failure, mechanical, see Creep; Fatigue;
Fracture
Faraday constant,
Fatigue, – ,
corrosion,
crack initiation and propagation,

cyclic stresses, –
environmental effects, –
low- and high-cycle,
polymers, –
probability curves,
thermal,
Fatigue damage, commercial
aircraft,
Fatigue life, ,
factors that affect, –
Fatigue limit, , ,
Fatigue S-N curves, –
for metals,
for polymers,
Fatigue strength, , ,
Fatigue testing, –
Feldspar,
Fermi energy, , , ,
Ferrimagnetism, – ,
temperature dependence,
Ferrite (α), – ,
eutectoid/proeutectoid, – ,
from decomposition of cementite,
Ferrites (magnetic ceramics),
– ,
Curie temperature,
as magnetic storage,
Ferritic stainless steels, ,
Ferroelectricity, – ,
Ferroelectric materials, –
Ferromagnetic domain walls,
Ferromagnetism, – ,
temperature dependence,
Ferrous alloys, . See also Cast irons;
Iron; Steels
annealing, –
classifi cation, ,
continuous-cooling transformation
diagrams, – Index •
costs, –
hypereutectoid, – ,
hypoeutectoid, – ,
isothermal transformation diagrams,

microstructures, –
mechanical properties of, – ,

Fiber effi ciency parameter, ,
Fiberglass,
Fiberglass-reinforced composites,

Fiber-reinforced composites,
– ,
continuous and aligned, –
discontinuous and aligned,
discontinuous and randomly oriented,

fi ber length effect, –
fi ber orientation/concentration effect,

fi ber phase, –
longitudinal loading, – ,

matrix phase,
processing, –
reinforcement efficiency,
transverse loading, – ,
Fibers, – ,
carbon:
graphitic,
structure,
turbostratic,
coeffi cientof thermal expansion
values,
in composites,
continuous vs. discontinuous,

fi ber phase, –
length effect, –
orientation and concentration,

costs,
density values,
elastic modulus values, ,
electrical resistivity values,
optical, –
polymer, –
properties of selected,
specifi c heat values,
spinning of,
tensile strength values, ,
thermal conductivity values,
Fick’s fi rst law, , ,
for polymers,
Fick’s second law, – , ,
solutions to, , ,
Fictive temperature,
Filament winding, –
Fillers, ,
Films:
polymer,
shrink-wrap (polymer),
Fine pearlite, , , – , ,
,
Firing, , – ,
Flame retardants, ,
Flash memory, ,
Flash memory cards,
Flexural defl ection, equation for,
Flexural strength, – ,
infl uence of porosity on, ceramics,

values for selected ceramics, ,

Float process (sheet glass),
Fluorescence, ,
Fluorite structure,
Fluorocarbons,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Flux (clay products), ,
Foams, ,
Forces:
bonding, –
coulombic, ,
Forging, , ,
Formaldehyde,
Forming operations (metals), –
Forsterite,
Forward bias, , ,
Fractographic investigations:
ceramics, –
metals,
Fractographs:
cup-and-cone fracture
surfaces,
fatigue striations,
glass rod,
intergranular fracture,
transgranular fracture,
Fracture, see also Brittle fracture;
Ductile fracture; Impact
fracture testing
delayed, –
fundamentals of,
of Liberty ships, –
polymers, –
types, – , –
Fracture mechanics, ,
applied to ceramics, –
polymers,
use in design, –
Fracture profiles,
Fracture strength, . See also Flexural
strength
ceramics, –
distribution of,
infl uence of porosity, –
infl uence of specimen size, ,

Fracture surface, ceramics, –
Fracture toughness, , – ,
ceramic-matrix composites,

ranges for material types
(bar chart),
testing,
values for selected materials,
, –
Free electrons, ,
contributions to heat capacity,
role in heat conduction,
Free energy, , – ,
activation, ,
volume,
Freeze-out region,
Frenkel defects, , ,
equilibrium number,
Full annealing, , ,
Fullerenes,
applications,
properties,
Functionality (polymers), ,
Furnace heating elements,
Fused silica,
characteristics, ,
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
fl exural strength,
index of refraction,
modulus of elasticity,
thermal properties,
G
Gadolinium, ,
Gallium arsenide:
cost,
electrical characteristics, ,
for lasers,
for light-emitting diodes, ,
Gallium phosphide:
electrical characteristics,
for light-emitting diodes,
Galvanic corrosion, – ,
Galvanic couples,
Galvanic series, , ,
Galvanized steel, ,
Garnets,
Garnet single crystal,
Gas constant, ,
Gating system,
Gauge length, ,
Gaussian error function,
Gears (transmission),
Gecko lizard,
Geometric isomerism, –
Germanium:
electrical characteristics, , ,
Gibbs phase rule, – ,
Gilding metal,
Ferrous alloys (Continued) • Index
Glass:
annealing, ,
blowing,
classification,
color,
commercial, compositions and
characteristics,
corrosion resistance,
cost, –
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
fl exural strength, ,
forming techniques, –
fracture surface
(photomicrograph),
hardness,
heat treatment, –
melting point,
modulus of elasticity, ,
optical flint,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
refractive index,
sheet forming (fl oat process),
soda-lime, composition,
softening point,
strain point,
stress-strain behavior,
surface crack propagation,
tempering, – ,
thermal properties,
viscous properties,
working point, ,
Glass-ceramics, – ,
composition (Pyroceram),
continuous-cooling transformation
diagram,
fabricating and heat treating,

fl exural strength, ,
modulus of elasticity, ,
optical transparency, conditions
for,
properties and applications,
Glass fibers,
fiberglass-reinforced composites,
– ,
forming,
properties as fiber,
Glass transition, polymers,
Glass transition temperature, , ,
,
factors that affect, polymers,
values for selected polymers, ,
Glucydur, low-expansion alloy used in
wristwatches,
Gold,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
electrical conductivity,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
Graft copolymers, , ,
Grain boundaries, , – ,
Grain boundary energy,
Grain growth, – ,
Grains,
definition,
distortion during plastic deformation,

Grain size,
dependence on time, –
determination of, –
linear intercept method for
determination of, ,
mechanical properties and, –
reduction, and strengthening of
metals, –
refinement by annealing,
Grain size number (ASTM),
Graphene, –
applications,
in nanocomposites,
properties,
Graphite, –
applications,
in cast irons,
compared to carbon, ,
cost,
from decomposition of cementite,
electrical conductivity,
properties,
properties as whisker,
as a refractory,
structure of,
Gray cast iron, – ,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
Green ceramic bodies, ,
Green design,
Ground state, , ,
Growth, phase particle, ,
– ,
rate, –
temperature dependence of rate,
Gutta percha,
H
Hackle region, –
Half-cells, standard,
Half-reactions,
Hall coefficient,
Hall effect, – ,
Hall-Petch equation,
Hall voltage,
Halogens,
Hard disk drives, –
Hardenability, – ,
Hardenability band, ,
Hardenability curves, –
Hard magnetic materials, – ,
properties,
Hardness,
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation
temperature,
ceramics, –
comparison of scales,
conversion diagram,
correlation with tensile strength,

fi ne and coarse pearlite,
spheroidite,
pearlite, martensite, tempered
martensite,
polymers,
tempered martensite, ,
Hardness tests, –
summary of tests,
Hard sphere model,
Head-to-head configuration,
Head-to-tail configuration,
Heat affected zone,
Heat capacity, – ,
temperature dependence,
vibrational contribution,
Heat flux,
Heat of fusion, latent,
Heat transfer:
mechanism, , –
nonsteady-state,
Heat treatable, defi nition of,
Heat treatments, . See
also Annealing; Phase
transformations
dislocation density reduction,
glass, –
hydrogen embrittlement, –
intergranular corrosion and, –
polymer morphology,
polymer properties,
for precipitation hardening, –
recovery, recrystallization, and grain
growth during, –
steel, –
Henry (magnetic unit),
Hertz,
Heterogeneous nucleation, , –
Hexagonal close-packed structure,
– , ,
anion stacking (ceramics),
Burgers vector for,
close-packed planes (metals), –
slip systems,
twinning in, –
unit cell volume,
Hexagonal crystal system,
direction indices, –
planar indices, –
Hexagonal ferrites,
Hexamethylene diamine, ,
Hexane,
High-carbon steels,
High-cycle fatigue, Index •
High polymers, ,
High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels,
,
High-temperature superconductors,
Holes, , ,
role, diffusion in ionic materials,
mobility:
infl uence of dopant concentration
on,
infl uence of temperature on,
values for selected
semiconductors,
temperature dependence of
concentration (Si, Ge),
Homogeneous nucleation, –
Homopolymers, ,
Honeycomb structure,
use in Boeing Dreamliner,
Hooke’s law, ,
Hoop stress (equation for cylinder),
Hot pressing,
Hot working, , , . See also
Heat treatments
HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy) steels,
,
Hume-Rothery rules,
Hund’s rule,
Hybrid composites, – ,
Hybridized bonding, in carbon, –
Hydration, of cement,
Hydrocarbons, –
Hydrogen:
diffusive purifi cation, ,
reduction, ,
Hydrogen bonding, , ,
water expansion upon freezing,
Hydrogen chloride, ,
Hydrogen electrode,
Hydrogen embrittlement, – ,
Hydrogen fl uoride, ,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Hydrogen induced cracking,
Hydrogen stress cracking,
Hydroplastic forming, ,
Hydroplasticity,
Hydrostatic powder pressing,
Hypereutectoid alloys, – ,
Hypoeutectoid alloys, – ,
Hysteresis (magnetic), –
Hysteresis, ferromagnetic,
soft and hard magnetic materials,
, –
I
Ice, , , , ,
Iceberg,
Impact energy, ,
fi ne pearlite,
temperature dependence:
high-strength materials,
low-strength FCC and HCP
metals,
low-strength steels, ,
Impact fracture testing, –
Impact strength, polymers,
Imperfections. See Defects; Dislocations
Impurities:
in ceramics, –
diffusion,
electrical resistivity,
in metals, –
thermal conductivity,
Incongruent phase transformation,
Index of refraction, – ,
selected materials,
Indices, Miller, ,
Indium antimonide,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
electrical characteristics,
Indium phosphide,
electrical characteristics,
in light-emitting diodes,
Induced dipoles,
Inert gases, ,
Inhibitors, ,
Initial permeability,
Injection molding, ,
Ink-jet printer heads, piezoelectric
ceramics in, –
Insulators (electrical), . See also
Dielectric materials
ceramics and polymers as, ,
color,
defined,
electron band structure,
translucency and opacity, –
Integrated circuits, – ,
interconnects, –
scanning electron micrograph,
,
Interatomic bonding, –
Interatomic separation,
Interconnects, integrated circuits,

Interdiffusion, ,
Interfacial defects, –
Interfacial energies,
for heterogeneous nucleation,
Intergranular corrosion, – ,
Intergranular fracture, , ,
Intermediate solid solutions, ,
,
Intermetallic compounds, – , ,
,
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO),
Interplanar spacing:
cubic crystals, –
orthorhombic crystals,
Interstitial diffusion, – ,
Interstitial impurity defects,
Interstitials:
in ceramics, –
in polymers,
self-, ,
Interstitial sites, FCC and BCC, – ,
,
Interstitial solid solutions, ,
Intrinsic carrier concentration,
temperature dependence for Si and
Ge,
Intrinsic conductivity, –
Intrinsic semiconductors, – ,
Invar, Material of Importance, –
thermal properties,
Invariant point,
Inverse lever rule, . See Lever rule
Inverse spinel structure, –
Ion cores,
Ionic bonding, – ,
in ceramics,
forces and energies, –
Ionic character (percent), – ,
Ionic conduction, , ,
Ionic polarization, ,
Ionic radii, – ,
Iridium,
Iron, see also Ferrous alloys; Steels
atomic radius and crystal structure,
Curie temperature,
electrical conductivity,
ferrite (α), , , ,
as ferromagnetic material,
magnetic properties,
magnetization curves
(single crystal),
polymorphism,
recrystallization temperature,
rolling texture,
slip systems,
stress-strain behavior (at three
temperatures),
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Iron age,
Iron-carbon alloys, see Ferrous alloys
Iron-iron carbide alloys, –
Iron-silicon alloy, magnetic
properties,
Material of Importance (use in
transformer cores),
Isobutane,
Isobutylene,
Isomerism, ,
geometric, –
stereoisomerism, –
Isomorphous systems, ,
binary, see Binary isomorphous alloys
Isoprene, • Index
ISO (International Organization for
Standardization),
Isostatic powder pressing,
Isostrain, in fiber-reinforced
composites,
Isostress, in fiber-reinforced
composites,
Isotactic confi guration, , ,
Isothermal,
Isothermal transformation diagrams,
– ,
alloy steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
Isotopes, ,
Isotropic materials, ,
Izod impact test, – ,
J
Jominy end-quench test, – ,
Junction depth, diffusion,
Junction transistors, – ,
K
Kaolinite clay, – ,
Kevlar, see Aramid
Kinetics, – ,
crystallization of polymers, –
oxidation, –
phase transformations, –
Knoop hardness, ,
Kovar:
as low-expansion alloy, –
thermal properties,
Krypton, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
L
Ladder polymer,
Lamellae (polymers),
Laminar composites, – ,
angle-ply,
carbon fiber-epoxy, Boeing
Dreamliner, –
cross-ply,
multidirectional,
unidirectional,
Large-particle composites, – ,
Larson-Miller parameter, –
plots of, ,
Lasers, – ,
semiconductor, – ,
types, characteristics, and
applications,
Laser beam welding,
Latent heat of fusion,
Latex,
Lattice parameters, ,
Lattices, ,
Lattice strains, – , – ,
,
Lattice waves,
Laue photograph, ,
Layered silicates, –
Lay-up, in prepreg processing,
Lead,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
diffraction pattern,
recrystallization temperature,
superconducting critical
temperature,
Lead-free solders,
Lead oxide, crystal structure,
Lead-tin phase diagram, , –
Lead titanate,
Lead zirconate,
Lead-zirconate-titanate, ,
Leak-before-break design,
Leathery region, polymers, –
LEDs, see Light-emitting diodes
Lever rule, – ,
Life cycle analysis/assessment,
Light:
absorption, –
reflection,
refraction, –
scattering, –
transmission,
Light-emitting diodes,
organic, –
polymer, –
semiconductor,
Lime,
Linear atomic density,
Linear coeffi cient of thermal expansion,
, – , , ,
values for selected materials,
, –
Linear corrosion rate,
Linear defects, –
Linear polymers, ,
Liquid crystal polymers, – ,
Liquidus line, , , ,
Liquidus temperatures:
solders,
Cu-Au system,
Lithium fl uoride, bonding energy and
melting temperature,
Lodestone (magnetite), ,
Logarithmic corrosion rate,
Longitudinal direction, – ,
Longitudinal loading, composites,
– , –
Lost-foam casting,
Lost-wax casting,
Low-angle grain boundaries, see
Small-angle grain boundaries
Low-carbon steels, –
Low-cycle fatigue,
Lower critical temperature (ferrous
alloys), – ,
Lower yield point, ,
Low-expansion alloys, –
in wristwatches,
Luminescence, ,
M
Macromolecules, ,
Magnesia, see Magnesium oxide
Magnesium:
automobile wheel,
diffraction pattern,
elastic and shear moduli,
Poisson’s ratio,
single crystal (cleaved),
slip systems,
Magnesium alloys, ,
Magnesium fluoride, optical
properties,
Magnesium-lead phase diagram,
Magnesium oxide:
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
fl exural strength,
index of refraction,
modulus of elasticity,
thermal properties,
Magnesium oxide-aluminum oxide
phase diagram,
Magnetic anisotropy, –
Magnetic ceramics, –
Magnetic dipoles, –
Magnetic domains, see Domains
Magnetic energy product, –
Magnetic fi eld strength, – ,
Magnetic fi eld vectors, –
Magnetic fl ux density, , ,
critical values for
superconductors,
Magnetic hard disk drives, –
Magnetic hysteresis, –
factors that affect,
soft and hard magnetic materials,

Magnetic induction, see Magnetic flux
density
Magnetic materials:
hard, –
low thermal expansion
characteristics,
neodymium-iron-boron alloys,

samarium-cobalt alloys,
soft, –
Magnetic moments, –
cations,
Magnetic permeability, , ,

Magnetic recording, Index •
Magnetic storage, –
hard disk drives, –
Magnetic susceptibility, ,
selected diamagnetic and
paramagnetic materials,
various units for, ,
Magnetic tapes, –
Magnetic texture,
Magnetic units, conversion
factors,
Magnetism:
basic concepts, –
electron spin and,
Magnetite (lodestone), ,
saturation magnetization
computation, –
Magnetization, , ,
easy and hard directions,
saturation, , – ,
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy,
Magnetostrictive materials,
Magnetorheological fluids,
Magnifi cation, determination from
photomicrographs,
Majority charge carriers, ,
Malleability, see Ductility
Malleable cast iron, , ,
,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
Manganese oxide, as antiferromagnetic
material,
Manufacturing techniques, economics,

Martensite, – , – ,
– ,
alloying to favor formation of,
crystal structure,
hardness,
hardness vs. carbon content,
shape-memory phase transformations,

tempering of, –
Martensitic stainless steels, ,
Materials:
advanced, –
by design,
classifi cation of, –
costs, –
current and future needs,
disposal of, –
economic considerations,

engineered, ,
of the future, –
historical development of,
nanoengineered, –
nonrenewable sources of, ,
smart, –
total cycle, –
Materials engineering, –
Materials of Importance:
aluminum electrical wires, –
aluminum for integrated circuit
interconnects, –
biodegradable and biorenewable
polymers/plastics, –
catalysts (and surface defects),
Invar and other low-expansion alloys,

an iron silicon alloy that is used in
transformer cores,
lead-free solders,
light-emitting diodes, –
metal alloys used for euro coins,
phenolic billiard balls,
piezoelectric ceramics for ink-jet
printer heads, –
shape-memory alloys, –
shrink-wrap polymer films,
tin (its allotropic transformation),
water (its volume expansion upon
freezing),
Materials science, –
Material-type tetrahedron,
Matrix phase,
definition,
fi ber-reinforced composites,
Matthiessen’s rule, ,
Maxwell (magnetic unit),
Mean stress (fatigue), – , –
Mechanical properties, see also specific
mechanical properties
grain size and,
variability, –
Mechanical twins, , . See also
Twinning
Mechanics of materials,
Medium carbon steels, , –
Meissner effect,
Melamine-formaldehyde, repeat unit
structure,
Melting (polymers),
Melting point (temperature):
and bonding energy for selected
materials,
ceramics,
factors that affect (polymers), –
glasses,
polymers, , ,
Melt spinning,
Memory, flash,
Mercury:
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
superconducting critical
temperature,
Mer unit,
Metal alloys, see Alloys
Metallic bonding, – ,
Metallic glasses, ,
Metallographic examination,
Metalloids,
Metal-matrix composites, – ,
Metals, see also Alloys; Crystalline
materials
corrosion, see Corrosion
costs, –
crystal structures, see Crystal structures
defined, – ,
density values, –
elastic modulus values, , –
as electrical conductors,
electrical resistivity values, –
electron band structures,
fabrication, –
fracture toughness for selected,
, –
linear coeffi cient of thermal
expansion values, , –
optical properties, –
oxidation, –
Poisson’s ratio for selected, , –
shear moduli,
specifi c heat values, , –
strengthening, see Strengthening of
metals
thermal conductivity values, ,

Metastability,
of microstructures, –
Metastable states,
Methane, ,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Methyl alcohol, ,
Methyl group,
Mica,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
Microconstituents, see also specific
microconstituent phases:
definition, ,
in eutectic alloys, –
in steel alloys, –
Microcracks, –
in ceramics, –
Microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS), , – ,
Microelectronics, –
Microindentation hardness tests,
Micron,
Microscopic techniques, useful
resolution ranges,
Microscopy, – ,
Microstructure, ,
austenite,
bainite,
bonded ceramic abrasive,
brass during recrystallization and
grain growth,
carbon-black-reinforced rubber,
cast irons, , • Index
Microstructure (Continued)
cemented carbide,
coarse and fi ne pearlite,
compacted graphite iron,
cored structure, brass,
craze in poly(phenylene oxide),
development in eutectic alloys,

development in iron-carbon alloys,

development in isomorphous alloys:
equilibrium cooling, –
nonequilibrium cooling, –
eutectic (lead-tin),
ferrite (α),
glass-ceramic,
glass fracture surface,
gray cast iron,
hard disk drive,
hypereutectoid steel alloy,
hypoeutectoid steel alloy,
infl uence of cooling rate,
integrated circuit, ,
magnetic tape storage,
martensite,
metastable,
microscopic examination, –
pearlite, ,
pearlite partially transformed to
spheroidite,
polycrystalline metal before and after
deformation,
porcelain,
precipitation-hardened aluminum
alloy,
reversible-matrix, Al-Cu eutectic,
single-phase iron-chromium
alloy,
sintered ceramic,
size ranges, various structural
features,
spheroidite,
spherulite (natural rubber),
stress corrosion in brass,
TEM (high resolution)—single
crystals of (Ce . Zr . )O ,
,
tempered martensite,
Microvoids, ,
Miller-Bravais index system,
Miller indices, ,
Minority charge carriers,
Mirror region (ceramics), –
Mist region (ceramics), –
Mixed bonding, –
tetrahedron,
Mixed dislocations, , , , .
See also Dislocations
Mobility, of charge carriers, – ,
infl uence of dopant content,
infl uence of temperature, –
ionic,
values for selected
semiconductors,
Modulus of elasticity, – ,
anisotropy,
atomic bonding and, – ,
carbon nanotubes,
copper reinforced with tungsten,
directionality dependence for cubic
crystals,
graphene,
infl uence of porosity on, in ceramics,

ranges for material types (bar chart),
relation to shear modulus,
selected ceramics, , –
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, ,
selected metals, , –
selected polymers, ,
temperature dependence:
elastomers,
metals,
and thermal fatigue,
and thermal stresses,
values for various materials, –
Modulus of resilience, ,
Modulus of rupture, . See also
Flexural strength
Mohs hardness scale, ,
Molarity, ,
Molding, plastics, – ,
Mole, ,
Molecular chemistry, polymers,
– ,
Molecular configurations, polymers,

Molecular mass,
Molecular materials,
Molecular shape, polymers, –
Molecular structure, polymers,
– ,
Molecular weight,
infl uence on polymer melting/glass
transition temperatures, –
infl uence on mechanical behavior,
polymers, ,
number-average, –
weight-average, –
Molecular weight distribution, –
Molecules, polar, ,
Molybdenum,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
density,
modulus of elasticity,
Poisson’s ratio,
properties as wire,
slip systems,
thermal properties, , ,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Moment of inertia, , ,
Monel,
Monoclinic crystal system,
Monomers, ,
Montmorillonite clay, as
nanoparticle,
MOSFET transistors, , – ,
Mullite, , ,
fl exural strength,
modulus of elasticity,
Multidirectional laminar composite,
Multiphase transformations, see Phase
transformations
Muntz metal,
Muscovite (mica),
N
Nanocarbons, – ,
properties,
Nanoclays,
Nanocomposites, – ,
applications, –
for dental restorations,
for electrostatic dissipation,
for energy storage,
as fl ame-barrier coatings,
as gas-barrier coatings,
for mechanical strength
enhancement,
Nanocrystals,
Nanomaterials, –
Nanoparticle,
size effect, ,
Nanotechnology,
Nanotubes, carbon,
in nanocomposites,
Natural aging, ,
Natural rubber (polyisoprene),
, ,
degradation resistance,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
stress-strain behavior,
thermal properties,
NBR, see Nitrile rubber (NBR)
Necking,
complex stress state in,
criterion for,
in ductile fracture, –
polymers,
Néel temperature,
Neodymium-iron-boron magnets,

Neodymium-YAG lasers,
Neoprene rubber, ,
Nernst equation,
Network formers (glass),
Network modifi ers (glass),
Network polymers, , ,
Neutrinos, Index •
Neutrons,
Nichrome,
Nickel,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
Curie temperature,
elastic and shear moduli,
as ferromagnetic material, –
magnetization curves
(single crystal),
Poisson’s ratio,
recrystallization temperature,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
thoria-dispersed (TD),
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Nickel ferrite,
Niobium,
Niobium alloys, as superconductors,
Nitinol, –
Nitrile rubber (NBR),
characteristics and applications,
degradation resistance,
Noble metals,
Nodular iron, see Ductile iron
Noncrystalline materials, , – ,
Nondestructive evaluation,
see Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive inspection,
see Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing,
Nonequilibrium cooling,
Nonequilibrium phases,
Nonequilibrium solidification, –
Nonferrous alloys, – . See also
specifi c nonferrous alloys
classifi cation of,
Nonsteady-state diffusion, – ,
Nonstoichiometry,
Nonvolatile memory,
Normalizing, , ,
Notches, effect of,
Notch toughness, ,
n-p-n Junction transistors,
n-Type semiconductors, – ,
Nucleation, – ,
heterogeneous, –
homogeneous, –
Nucleation rate,
temperature dependence,
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous,
Nucleus, phase particle,
Number-average molecular weight,

Nylon, fatigue behavior,
Nylon , :
degradation resistance,
density, – ,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
electrical conductivity,
mechanical properties, ,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
repeat unit structure, ,
thermal properties,
Nylons, trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
O
Octahedral position, , ,
in FCC and BCC, – ,
Oersted (magnetic unit),
Ohm’s law, – ,
Oil, as quenching medium,
Opacity, ,
in insulators,
in semiconductors, –
Optical dispersion, white
light,
Optical fibers, – ,
in communications, –
Optical fl int glass, composition and
properties, ,
Optical microscopy, –
Optical properties,
of metals, –
of nonmetals, –
Ordered solid solution, ,
Organic light-emitting diodes,
Orientation polarization, ,
Orthorhombic crystal system, ,
Osmium,
Overaging, ,
Overvoltage, –
Oxidation, – ,
kinetics, –
metals, –
Ozone, degradation of polymers,
,
P
Palladium, ,
Parabolic corrosion rate,
Paraffins,
Paramagnetism, – ,
Parisons, ,
Particle-reinforced composites,
– ,
Pascal-second,
Passivity, – ,
Pauli exclusion principle, ,
Pearlite, – ,
coarse, – ,
colonies,
as composite,
ductility vs. transformation
temperature,
fi ne, – , ,
formation of, – , – ,
,
hardness vs. transformation
temperature,
mechanical properties, –
Pentane,
Performance (materials),
Periclase, , , see also Magnesium
oxide
Periodic table, – ,
and properties of elements,
Peritectic reaction, ,
Permalloy ( ), magnetic properties,
Permanent dipoles, ,
Permeability (in polymers), –
Permeability coefficient,
Permeability, magnetic, – , ,
– ,
Permittivity, , , – ,
Perovskite structure, , ,
Perpendicular magnetic recording
media, , –
PET, see Polyester(s)
Phase boundaries, –
Phase diagrams,
binary eutectic systems, –
binary isomorphous systems, –
ceramic systems, –
congruent phase transformations,
defi nitions/basic concepts, –
eutectoid and peritectic reactions,
intermediate phases in, –
interpretation of, –
pressure-temperature (unary),

specific:
aluminum-copper, ,
aluminum oxide-chromium
oxide,
carbon dioxide
(pressure-temperature),
cast iron,
copper-beryllium,
copper-nickel,
copper-silver, ,
copper-zinc, ,
halfnium-vanadium,
iron-carbon (graphite),
iron-iron carbide,
lead-tin, , –
magnesium-lead,
magnesium oxide-aluminum
oxide,
nickel-titanium,
silica-alumina,
sugar-water,
tin-gold,
water (pressure-temperature),
, , ,
water-sodium chloride,
zirconia-calcia,
ternary,
Phase equilibria, – , • Index
Phases, ,
Phase transformation diagrams:
continuous-cooling,
metals, – ,
glass-ceramics,
isothermal, – ,
Phase transformation rate,
martensitic transformation,
temperature dependence,
Phase transformations,
athermal,
classification,
shape-memory effect, –
Phenol,
Phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite):
in billiard balls, ,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
electrical conductivity,
mechanical properties, ,
repeat unit structure, ,
thermal properties,
Phenolics, trade names, characteristics,
and applications,
Phenyl group, ,
Phonons, , , ,
Phosphorescence, ,
Photoconductivity, ,
Photomicrographs, ,
Photonic signal,
Photons, , ,
Photovoltaic solar cell,
Pickling, of steels,
Piezoelectricity, ,
Piezoelectric ceramics,
as Materials of Importance, in ink-jet
printer heads, –
properties and applications,
in smart materials/systems, –
Pilling-Bedworth ratio, ,
selected metals,
Pitting corrosion, – ,
Plain carbon steels, , ,
Planar atomic density, –
Planck’s constant, ,
Planes, see Crystallographic planes
Plane strain, ,
Plane strain fracture toughness, ,
ceramic-matrix composites, –
selected materials, , –
Plaster of Paris, , ,
Plastic deformation, – ,
ceramics, –
dislocation motion and, –
in fracture,
infl uence on electrical resistivity,

polycrystalline materials, –
semicrystalline polymers, , –
twinning,
Plasticizers, ,
Plastics,
characteristics and applications,

in composites,
forming techniques, –
Platinum, ,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
electrical conductivity,
Plexiglass, see Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Plywood,
p-n-p Junction transistors, –
p-n Junctions:
for light-emitting diodes,
for rectification, –
Point coordinates, –
Point defects, – ,
Poise,
Poisson’s ratio, – ,
values for various materials,
, –
Polarization, – , . See also
Electronic polarization; Ionic
polarization; Orientation
polarization
Polarization (corrosion), – ,
corrosion rates from, –
Polar molecules, ,
Polyacetylene, repeat unit structure,
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN):
carbon fibers,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure, ,
Poly(alkylene glycol), as a quenching
agent,
Poly(amide-imide) (PAI),
repeat unit structure,
glass transition temperature,
Polybutadiene, see Butadiene
Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT),
repeat unit structure,
melting temperature,
Polycarbonate:
density,
degradation resistance,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
reinforced vs. unreinforced
properties,
repeat unit structure, ,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Polychloroprene, see Chloroprene;
Chloroprene rubber
Polychlorotrifl uoroethylene, repeat unit
structure,
Polycrystalline materials, , ,
plastic deformation, –
Poly(dimethyl siloxane),
degradation resistance,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure, ,
Polyester(s):
degradation resistance (PET),
density (PET),
fatigue behavior (PET),
magnetic storage tape,
mechanical properties (PET),
, , ,
melting and glass transition
temperatures (PET), ,
in polymer-matrix composites,
recycle code and products (PET),
repeat unit structure (PET),
,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK),
degradation resistance,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure,
Polyetherimide (PEI),
Polyethylene, ,
crystal structure of,
degradation resistance,
density,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
index of refraction,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
recycle code and products,
single crystals,
thermal properties, , , ,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
ultra-high-molecular-weight, see
Ultra-high-molecular-weight
polyethylene
Poly(ethylene naphthalate), as magnetic
storage tape,
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),
see Polyester(s)
Poly(hexamethylene adipamide),
see Nylon ,
Polyimides:
glass transition temperature,
polymer-matrix composites,
repeat unit structure,
Polyisobutylene:
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure, , Index •
Polyisoprene, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
Poly(lactic acid),
Polymer-matrix composites,
– ,
Polymerization, – , –
degree of,
Polymer light-emitting diodes,

Polymer nanocomposites,
Polymers, – , , . See also
Plastics
additives, –
classification (molecular
characteristics),
coeffi cient of thermal expansion
values, ,
conducting, –
costs, –
crosslinking, see Crosslinking
crystallinity, – ,
crystallization, –
crystals, –
defi ned, – ,
defects in,
deformation (semicrystalline):
elastic,
plastic, –
degradation of, –
density,
density values, –
diffusion in, –
ductility values, ,
elastic modulus values, ,
elastomers, – , –
electrical properties, , – ,
,
fibers, –
fracture mechanics,
fracture toughness values, ,
glass transition, –
glass transition temperatures,
, ,
as insulators, ,
ladder,
as light-emitting diodes, –
liquid crystal, –
mechanical properties, – ,
factors that affect, –
values of, , , , , ,
melting of,
melting temperatures, ,
miscellaneous applications,

molecular chemistry, –
molecular configuration, –
molecular shape, –
molecular structure, –
molecular weight, –
natural,
opacity and translucency, –
Poisson’s ratio values, ,
radiation effects, –
refraction indices,
semicrystalline, , – , –
specifi c heat values, ,
spherulites in, , – , –
stereoisomerism, –
stress-strain behavior, –
swelling and dissolution, –
tensile strength values, ,
thermal conductivity values, ,

thermal properties, , ,
thermoplastic, see Thermoplastic
polymers
thermosetting, see Thermosetting
polymers
types of,
viscoelasticity, –
weathering,
yield strength values, ,
Poly(methyl methacrylate):
density, –
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
index of refraction,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
relaxation modulus,
repeat unit structure, ,
stress-strain behavior as function of
temperature,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Polymorphic transformations, in iron,

Polymorphism, ,
Poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide),
see Aramid
Poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO), repeat
unit structure,
Poly(phenylene sulfi de) (PPS),
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure,
Polypropylene,
degradation resistance,
density, ,
fatigue behavior,
index of refraction,
kinetics of crystallization,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
recycle code and products,
repeat unit structure, ,
thermal properties, , , ,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Polystyrene:
degradation resistance,
density,
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
index of refraction,
mechanical properties, , ,
, ,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
repeat unit structure, ,
thermal properties, , ,
,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
viscoelastic behavior, –
Polytetrafluoroethylene,
degradation resistance,
density,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
index of refraction,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
repeat unit structure, ,
thermal properties, , ,
,
Poly(vinyl acetate), repeat unit
structure,
Poly(vinyl alcohol), repeat unit
structure,
Poly(vinyl chloride):
density,
mechanical properties, , , ,
,
melting and glass transition
temperatures, ,
recycle code and products,
repeat unit structure, ,
Poly(vinyl fluoride):
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure,
Poly(vinylidene chloride):
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure,
Poly(vinylidene fluoride):
glass transition temperature,
repeat unit structure, • Index
Porcelain,
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength,
electrical conductivity,
microstructure,
Porosity:
ceramics, –
formation during sintering, –
infl uence on flexural strength,
ceramics,
infl uence on modulus of elasticity,
ceramics,
infl uence on thermal conductivity,
optical translucency and opacity,
Portland cement,
Portland cement concrete,
Posttensioned concrete,
Potassium niobate,
Powder metallurgy, ,
Powder pressing, ceramics, –
Powder x-ray diffraction techniques,

Precipitation-hardenable stainless steels,
,
Precipitation hardening, – ,
heat treatments, –
mechanism, –
Predeposition step (diffusion in
semiconductors), –
Prepreg production processes, ,
,
Pressing:
ceramics, powdered, –
glass,
Prestressed concrete, – ,
Primary bonds, – ,
Primary creep, ,
Primary phase, ,
Principal quantum number,
Principle of combined action, ,
Process annealing, ,
Processing, materials,
Proeutectoid cementite, ,
Proeutectoid ferrite, ,
Propane,
Properties,
categories of,
Proportional limit, ,
Protons,
PTFE, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
p-Type semiconductors, – ,
Pultrusion, –
Pumice,
Pyrex glass:
composition,
density,
electrical resistivity,
fracture of soda-lime imitation,
index of refraction,
mechanical properties, , ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
thermal properties, , , ,
thermal shock,
Pyroceram:
composition,
density,
electrical resistivity,
fl exural strength,
modulus of elasticity,
plane strain fracture toughness,
Poisson’s ratio,
thermal properties, , ,
Pyrolytic carbon,
Q
Quantum mechanics, ,
Quantum numbers, – ,
azimuthal,
magnetic, ,
Quarks,
Quartz, – ,
index of refraction,
Quenching media, –
R
Radiation effects, polymers, –
Random copolymers, , ,
Range of stress, ,
Recombination, electron-hole, ,
in light-emitting diodes,
Recovery, ,
Recrystallization, – , ,
effect on properties,
kinetics for copper,
rate,
Recrystallization temperature,
, – ,
dependence on alloy content,
dependence on percent cold work,
,
selected metals and alloys,
Rectification, –
Rectifying junctions, ,
Recycling:
issues in materials science and
engineering, –
of beverage cans,
of composite materials, –
of electronic waste,
of glass, –
of metals,
of thermoplastics,
of rubbers, –
separation techniques,
Recycling codes and products,
Reduction (electrochemical), ,
Reduction in area, percent,
Reflection, ,
Reflectivity, ,
Refraction, – ,
index of, ,
Refractories (ceramics),
, – ,
clay,
corrosion,
nonclay, –
Refractory metals,
Reinforced concrete, – ,
Reinforcement effi ciency, table of,
Relative permeability, , ,
Relative permittivity, see Dielectric
constant
Relaxation frequency, ,
Relaxation modulus, – ,
Relaxation time,
Remanence (remanent induction),
, ,
Repeated stress cycle,
Repeat units,
bifunctional and trifunctional,
table of, –
Residual stresses, , . See also
Thermal stresses
glass,
martensitic steels,
Resilience, , ,
Resin, polymer,
Resistance (electrical),
Resistivity, . See also Electrical
resistivity
Resolved shear stresses, ,
Retained austenite,
Reverse bias, ,
Reversed stress cycle,
Rhodium,
Rhombohedral crystal system, ,
Rochelle salt,
Rock salt structure, , ,
Rockwell hardness tests, – ,
Rolling, of metals, – ,
Rouge,
Rovings,
Rubbers, ,
natural, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
recycling of, –
synthetic, , –
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Rubbery region, polymers, ,
Ruby, see also Aluminum oxide
lasers, –
optical characteristics,
Rule of mixtures,
composites, , , ,
electrical resistivity,
multiphase alloys,
Rupture, ,
Rupture lifetime, ,
extrapolation of,
Rust, ,
Ruthenium, Index •
S
Sacrifi cial anodes, ,
Safe stress, ,
Safety factors, –
Samarium-cobalt magnets,
Samarian-iron garnet,
Sand casting,
Sandwich panels, , – ,
applications,
use in Boeing Dreamliner,
Sapphire, see also Aluminum oxide
optical transmittance,
Saturated hydrocarbons, ,
Saturation, extrinsic semiconductors,
Saturation magnetization, , – ,
– ,
iron ferrite (magnetite), –
nickel, –
temperature dependence,
SBR, see Styrene-butadiene rubber
Scale bar, on photomicrographs,
Scaling,
Scanning electron microscopy, ,
Scanning probe microscopy, , ,
– ,
Schmid factor,
Schottky defect, – , ,
equilibrium number, –
Scission, ,
Scleroscope hardness,
Screw dislocations, – , , .
See also Dislocations
in polymers,
Seawater, as corrosion environment,
Secant modulus, –
Secondary bonds, – ,
phenomena and applications,
Secondary creep, ,
Segregation,
Selective leaching, ,
Self-diffusion, ,
Self-interstitials, ,
SEM, see Scanning electron microscopy
Semiconductor devices, –
Semiconductor lasers, –
Semiconductors:
band structure,
carbon nanotubes as,
in computers,
costs, ,
defi ned, , ,
diffusion in, –
extrinsic, – ,
intrinsic, – ,
intrinsic carrier concentration, ,
light absorption, –
n-Type, – ,
p-Type, – ,
temperature dependence:
electron concentration, n-type Si,
electron mobility, Si,
hole mobility, Si,
intrinsic carrier concentration
of Ge,
intrinsic carrier concentration
of Si,
Semicrystalline polymers,
deformation mechanisms:
elastic,
plastic, –
Semi-metals,
Sensors, ,
Severity of quench,
Shape-memory:
alloys,
phase transformations, –
thermoelastic behavior,
Shear deformation, ,
Shear modulus,
relationship to elastic modulus,
selected metals,
Shear strain, ,
Shear stress, ,
resolved,
resolved from tensile stress,

Shear tests,
Sheet glass forming (fl oat process),
Shot peening,
Shrinkage, clay products, –
Shrink-wrap polymer films,
Siemens (electrical unit), ,
Silica,
crystalline and noncrystalline
structures,
fi bers for optical communications,

fused, see Fused silica
as refractory,
Silica-alumina phase diagram,
Silica glasses, –
viscosity,
Silicates:
glasses, –
layered, –
tetrahedral structure,
types and structures, –
Silicon:
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
conduction in,
cost,
electrical characteristics,
electron concentration vs.
temperature, n-type,
electron/hole mobility vs. impurity
concentration,
electron/hole mobility vs.
temperature,
fracture toughness,
intrinsic carrier concentration vs.
temperature,
in MEMS,
vacancy (surface),
Silicon carbide:
as abrasive,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
fl exural strength, ,
hardness,
modulus of elasticity, ,
properties as whiskers and
fibers,
as refractory,
Silicon dioxide, see Silica
layer formation in integrated
circuits,
Silicone rubber, ,
characteristics and applications,
degradation resistance,
Silicon nitride:
fl exural strength, ,
fracture strength distribution,
hardness,
modulus of elasticity, ,
properties as a whisker,
Silly putty,
Silver,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
electrical conductivity, ,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
Simple cubic crystal structure, ,
Single crystals, ,
slip in, –
Sintered aluminum powder (SAP),
Sintering, – ,
SI units, –
Ski, cross-section,
Slip, , ,
compared to twinning, –
polycrystalline metals, –
single crystals, –
Slip casting, – ,
Slip direction,
Slip lines, ,
Slip plane, , ,
Slip systems, – ,
selected metals,
Small-angle grain boundaries, ,
Smart materials, –
Societal considerations, materials
science, –
Soda-lime glasses:
composition,
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
hardness,
thermal properties,
thermal shock,
viscosity, • Index
Sodium chloride:
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
bonding energy determination of,
ionic bonding,
structure, ,
Sodium-silicate glass,
Softening point (glass), ,
Soft magnetic materials, – ,
properties,
Soils, as corrosion environments,
Solar panels,
Soldering, , ,
Solders, lead-free,
Solid-solution strengthening, – ,
– ,
Solid solutions, – ,
in ceramics, –
intermediate, , ,
interstitial, ,
in metals, –
ordered, , –
terminal, ,
Solidus line, , ,
Solubility limit, ,
factors that infl uence for solid
phases,
Solutes,
defined,
Solution heat treatment, ,
Solvents,
defined,
Solvus line, ,
Sonar, use of piezoelectric
ceramics in,
sp hybrid bonds,
in polymers,
sp hybrid bonds,
in graphite, –
in nanocarbons,
in polymers,
sp hybrid bonds, –
in diamond,
in polymers,
Specifi c heat, ,
values for selected materials,
, –
Specifi c modulus, ,
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials,
Specifi c strength, , ,
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials,
Sphalerite structure, ,
Spheroidite, – ,
hardness and ductility,
Spheroidization, ,
Spherulites, in polymers, ,
– ,
alteration during deformation,

photomicrograph of polyethylene,
transmission electron micrograph,
,
Spinel, , ,
fl exural strength,
index of refraction,
modulus of elasticity,
structure, ,
thermal properties,
Spin magnetic moments, ,
values for cations,
Spinnerets,
Spinning, polymer fibers, – ,
Stabilized zirconia, ,
Stabilizers, ,
Stacking faults,
Stainless steels, – , . See also
Ferrous alloys; specific steels
compositions, properties, and
applications for selected,
creep resistance,
electrical conductivity,
passivity,
thermal properties,
weld decay,
Stainless steel automobile,
Standard deviation, –
Standard emf series, –
Standard half-cells, ,
Static fatigue,
Steady-state creep rate,
Steady-state diffusion,
Steatite, dielectric properties,
Steels, . See also Alloy steels;
Stainless steels
AISI/SAE designation scheme,
classifi cation, ,
costs, –
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior ( ),
heat treatments, –
impact energy,
magnetic properties,
overview of types, –
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
Poisson’s ratio,
properties as wires (fiber
reinforcement),
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths, ductility
( ),
Step reaction polymerization, see
Condensation polymerization
Stereoisomerism,
polymers, –
Sterling silver, ,
Stiffness, see Modulus of elasticity
Stoichiometry, ,
Stone age,
Strain, . See also Stress-strain
behavior
engineering, ,
lattice, – , , ,
shear, ,
true, ,
Strain hardening, – ,
corrosion and,
infl uence on electrical resistivity,
,
infl uence on mechanical properties,
,
recrystallization after, –
Strain-hardening exponent, – ,
determination of,
selected metal alloys,
Strain point (glass), ,
Strength,
flexural, – ,
fracture,
ranges for material types
(bar chart),
Strengthening of metals:
grain size reduction, –
mechanism,
solid-solution strengthening, –
strain hardening, see Strain hardening
Stress, see also Stress-strain behavior
critical (for fracture),
effect on creep, –
engineering, ,
mean (fatigue), , , ,
normal (resolved from pure tensile),

range (fatigue), ,
residual, see Residual stresses
safe, ,
shear, , ,
shear (resolved from pure tensile),

thermal, see Thermal stresses
true, ,
working,
Stress amplitude, ,
Stress concentration, – , ,
,
polymers,
Stress concentration factor,
Stress corrosion cracking,
– ,
in ceramics, –
Stress raisers, , ,
in ceramics, ,
Stress ratio,
Stress relaxation measurements,
Stress relief annealing, ,
Stress state, geometric considerations,

Stress-strain behavior:
brass,
cast iron, gray, Index •
ceramics,
composite, fi brous (longitudinal),
elastic deformation, –
natural rubber, vulcanized and
unvulcanized,
nonlinear (elastic),
plastic deformation, –
polymers, –
shape-memory alloys,
steel alloy,
for steel, variation with percent cold
work,
true,
Striations (fatigue), –
Structural clay products, ,
Structural composites, – ,
Structure,
atomic, –
definition,
Structures, crystal, see Crystal structures
Styrene,
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR),
characteristics and applications,
degradation resistance,
Styrenic block copolymers, –
Substitutional impurity defects,
Substitutional solid solutions,
,
Superabrasives,
Superalloys,
compositions of selected,
creep resistance,
fi ber reinforcement,
Superconductivity, – ,
applications, –
Superconductors,
ceramic,
critical properties,
high-temperature,
types I and II,
Supercooling, , ,
degrees for homogeneous
nucleation,
Superfi cial Rockwell hardness tests,

Superheating, ,
Super Invar, ,
as low-expansion alloy, –
Supermalloy, magnetic properties,
Superparamagnetism,
Surface energy, ,
Surfactants, and secondary bonds,
Susceptibility, magnetic, ,
Sustainability,
Symbols, list, xxiii-xxv
Syndiotactic configuration, ,
Synthetic rubbers, , ,
Systems:
definition, ,
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous,
T
Talc,
Tangent modulus, ,
Tantalum,
Tape casting, , –
Tarnishing,
Tear strength, polymers,
Teflon, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
TEM, see Transmission electron
microscopy
Temperature gradient,
thermal stresses,
Temper designation, ,
table for aluminum alloys,
Tempered martensite, – ,
hardness vs. carbon content,
mechanical properties vs. tempering
temperature,
dependence on cylinder diameter,
– ,
Temper embrittlement,
Tempering:
glass, , – ,
chemical,
steels, –
Tensile strength, ,
carbon nanotubes, –
correlation with hardness, –
fi brous composites, –
fi ne pearlite,
infl uence of recrystallization on,
ranges for material types (bar chart),
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials,
selected metals, –
selected polymers,
tempered martensite,
values for various materials,
, –
Tensile test apparatus, , –
Tensile tests, – . See also
Stress-strain behavior
Terminal solid solutions, ,
Ternary phase diagrams,
Tertiary creep, ,
Tesla (magnetic unit),
Tetragonal crystal system,
Tetrahedral position, , ,
FCC and BCC, – , ,
Tetrahedron:
bonding,
material types,
Textile fibers, –
Texture:
magnetic,
rolling (sheet, BCC iron), ,
Thermal conduction, ,
Thermal conductivity, , –
infl uence of impurities,
selected materials, , –
Thermal diffusivity,
Thermal expansion, –
linear coeffi cient of, , ,
– ,
relation to bonding,
selected materials, , –
volume coeffi cient of,
Thermal fatigue, ,
Thermally activated processes, ,
Thermal properties, . See also specific
thermal properties
selected materials, , –
Thermal shock, , ,
brittle materials, –
maximum temperature change
without,
Thermal shock resistance, –
Thermal stresses, , – ,
glass,
Thermal tempering (glass), – ,
Thermoelastic phenomenon,
Thermoplastic elastomers, – ,
Thermoplastic polymers, – ,
characteristics and applications, –
degradation resistance,
forming techniques, –
recycling of,
Thermosetting polymers, – ,
characteristics and applications,
degradation resistance,
forming techniques, –
Thermostat (operation of),
Thoria-dispersed (TD) nickel,
Tie lines, ,
Tilt boundaries, ,
Time-temperature-transformation
diagrams. See Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tin,
allotropic transformation for,
crystal structure (𝛽), ,
crystal structures,
density,
electrical resistivity,
mechanical properties, , ,
recrystallization temperature,
superconducting critical
temperature,
thermal properties, , ,
Tin cans,
Titanium:
atomic radius and crystal structure,
density,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical resistivity,
Poisson’s ratio, ,
slip systems,
superconducting critical
temperature,
thermal properties, , ,
yield and tensile strengths, ductility,
,
Stress-strain behavior (Continued) • Index
Titanium alloys, – ,
compositions,
densities,
electrical resistivities,
mechanical properties, , ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
properties and applications of,
thermal properties, , ,
Tool steels, –
Top-down science,
Torque,
Torsion,
Torsional deformation, ,
Torsional tests,
Toughness, – ,
Tows,
Trade names:
selected elastomers,
selected plastics, –
Trans, ,
Transducers,
Transfer molding, plastics,
Transformation rate, – ,
temperature dependence,
Transformation toughening,
Transformer cores,
Transgranular fracture, – ,
Transient creep,
Transistors, –
Transition metals,
Transition temperature, ductile-brittle.
See Ductile-to-brittle transition
Translucency, ,
insulators, –
Transmission (of light),
Transmission electron microscopy,
, ,
Transmissivity,
Transparency, ,
Transverse bending test, –
equation for maximum deflection,
Transverse direction, ,
Transverse loading, composites, –
Triclinic crystal system,
anisotropy in,
Tridymite,
Trifunctional (polymers), ,
Trigonal crystal system, see
Rhombohedral crystal system
Triple point,
True stress/strain, – ,
T-T-T diagrams. See Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tungsten,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
density,
diffraction pattern,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical resistivity,
Poisson’s ratio, ,
properties as wire,
recrystallization temperature,
slip systems,
superconducting critical
temperature,
thermal properties, , , ,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Tungsten carbide:
hardness,
Turbine blades, ,
Turbostratic carbon, –
Twin boundaries, –
Twinning,
compared to slip,
role in shape-memory effect, –
Twins,
U
Undercooling. See Supercooling
UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene), ,
properties as a fiber,
Unary phase diagrams, –
Uniaxial powder pressing,
Unidirectional laminar composite,
Unidirectional solidification,
Uniform corrosion,
Unit cells, , . See also Crystal
structures
crystal systems, ,
Units:
electrical and dielectric
parameters,
magnetic parameters,
SI, –
Unsaturated hydrocarbons, ,
UNS designation scheme,
Upper critical temperature, ,
Upper yield point, ,
V
Vacancies, ,
in ceramics, ,
diffusion, , , ,
equilibrium number,
in polymers,
Valence band, ,
Valence electrons, ,
van der Waals bonding, – , ,
in clays,
gecko lizards,
hydrocarbons,
in polymers, ,
Vermiculite,
Vibrational heat capacity,
Vibrations, atomic, ,
Vickers hardness tests, ,
Vinyl esters, polymer-matrix
composites,
Vinyls,
Viscoelastic creep,
Viscoelasticity, , – ,
Viscoelastic relaxation modulus,
– ,
Viscosity, – , ,
temperature dependence for
glasses,
Viscous flow:
in ceramics,
in polymers,
Visible spectrum,
Vision (glass-ceramic),
Vitreous silica, see Fused silica
Vitrification, ,
Volatile organic compound (VOC)
emissions,
Volume defects,
Volume expansion coefficient,
Volume fraction (phase),
Vulcanization, , , ,
Vycor,
W
Wallner line,
Water:
as corrosion environment,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
desalination of,
hydrogen bonding in, ,
phase diagram (pressuretemperature), , ,
as quenching medium,
volume expansion upon freezing,
Wave-mechanical atomic model, ,
Weathering, of polymers,
Weber (magnetic unit), ,
Weight-average molecular weight,

Weight percent, – ,
Weld decay, ,
Welding, – ,
Wetting,
Whiskers, , ,
White cast iron, , , ,
Whitewares, , , ,
Wiedemann-Franz constant,
values of, for metals,
values of, for nonmetals,
Wiedemann-Franz law,
Wires,
Wood:
as composite,
cost,
density, Index •
electrical resistivity,
modulus of elasticity,
specifi c heat,
tensile strength,
thermal conductivity,
thermal expansion coefficient,
Work hardening, see Strain hardening
Working point (glass), ,
Working range (glass),
Working stress,
Wristwatches, low-expansion alloys in,

Wrought alloys, ,
Wüstite, , ,
X
X-ray diffraction, –
reflection rules,
X-rays, ,
Y
Yielding, ,
Yield point phenomenon, ,
Yield strength, , , ,
dependence on grain size (brass),
fi ne pearlite,
precipitation-hardened aluminum
alloys,
selected metals, –
selected polymers,
tempered martensite,
values for various materials, , ,

Young’s modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Yttrium barium copper oxide,
Yttrium iron garnet (YIG),
Z
Zinc:
atomic radius and crystal
structure,
density,
electrical resistivity,
mechanical properties, , ,
recrystallization temperature,
slip systems,
thermal properties, , ,
Zinc alloys, ,
Zinc blende structure, , ,
Zinc sulfide, electrical
characteristics,
Zinc telluride, electrical
characteristics,
Zircon, ,
Zirconia:
density,
electrical resistivity,
fl exural strength, ,
hardness,
modulus of elasticity, ,
plane strain fracture toughness,
Poisson’s ratio,
stabilized,
transformation toughening,
Zirconia-calcia phase diagram,
Zirconium:
alloys, ,
density,
electrical resistivity,
mechanical properties, ,
,
slip systems,
thermal properties, , ,
Wood (Continued)Unit Conversion Factors
Length
Area
Volume
Mass
Density
Force
Stress
Fracture Toughness
Energy
Length
Area
Volume
Mass
Density
Force
Stress
Fracture Toughness
Energy
1 m = 1010 Å
1 m = 109 nm
1 m = 106 μm
1 m = 103 mm
1 m = 102 cm
1 mm = 0.0394 in.
1 cm = 0.394 in.
1 m = 3.28 ft
1 m2 = 104 cm2
1 mm2 = 10−2 cm2
1 m2 = 10.76 ft2
1 cm2 = 0.1550 in.2
1 m3 = 106 cm3
1 mm3 = 10−3 cm3
1 m3 = 35.32 ft3
1 cm3 = 0.0610 in.3
1 Mg = 103 kg
1 kg = 103 g
1 kg = 2.205 lbm
1 g = 2.205 × 10−3 lbm
1 kg/m3 = 10−3 g/cm3
1 Mg/m3 = 1 g/cm3
1 kg/m3 = 0.0624 lbm/ft3
1 g/cm3 = 62.4 lbm/ft3
1 g/cm3 = 0.0361 lbm/in.3
1 N = 105 dynes
1 N = 0.2248 lbf
1 MPa = 145 psi
1 MPa = 0.102 kg/mm2
1 Pa = 10 dynes/cm2
1 kg/mm2 = 1422 psi
1 psi√in. = 1.099 × 10−3 MPa√m
1 J = 107 ergs
1 J = 6.24 × 1018 eV
1 J = 0.239 cal
1 J = 9.48 × 10−4 Btu
1 J = 0.738 ft ⋅ lbf
1 eV = 3.83 × 10−20 cal
1 cal = 3.97 × 10−3 Btu
1 Å = 10−10 m
1 nm = 10−9 m
1 μm = 10−6 m
1 mm = 10−3 m
1 cm = 10−2 m
1 in. = 25.4 mm
1 in. = 2.54 cm
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 cm2 = 10−4 m2
1 cm2 = 102 mm2
1 ft2 = 0.093 m2
1 in.2 = 6.452 cm2
1 cm3 = 10−6 m3
1 cm3 = 103 mm3
1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3
1 in.3 = 16.39 cm3
1 kg = 10−3 Mg
1 g = 10−3 kg
1 lb
m = 0.4536 kg
1 lb
m = 453.6 g
1 g/cm3 = 103 kg/m3
1 g/cm3 = 1 Mg/m3
1 lb
m/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m3
1 lb
m/ft3 = 1.602 × 10−2 g/cm3
1 lb
m/in.3 = 27.7 g/cm3
1 dyne = 10−5 N
1 lbf = 4.448 N
1 psi = 6.90 × 10−3 MPa
1 kg/mm2 = 9.806 MPa
1 dyne/cm2 = 0.10 Pa
1 psi = 7.03 × 10−4 kg/mm2
1 MPa√m = 910 psi√in.
1 erg = 10−7 J
1 eV = 1.602 × 10−19 J
1 cal = 4.184 J
1 Btu = 1054 J
1 ft ⋅ lbf = 1.356 J
1 cal = 2.61 × 1019 eV
1 Btu = 252.0 calPower
1 W = 0.239 cal/s 1 cal/s = 4.184 W
1 W = 3.414 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.293 W
1 cal/s = 14.29 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.070 cal/s
Viscosity
1 Pa∙s = 10 P 1 P = 0.1 Pa∙s
Temperature, T
T(K) = 273 + T(°C) T(°C) = T(K) − 273
T(K) = 5 9[T(°F) − 32] + 273 T(°F) = 9 5[T(Κ) − 273] + 32
T(°C) = 5 9[T(°F) − 32] T(°F) = 9 5[T(°C)] + 32
Specific Heat
1 J/kg∙K = 2.39 × 10−4 cal/g∙K 1 cal/g∙°C = 4184 J/kg∙K
1 J/kg∙K = 2.39 × 10−4 Btu/lbm∙°F 1 Btu/lbm∙°F = 4184 J/kg∙K
1 cal/g∙°C = 1.0 Btu/lbm∙°F 1 Btu/lbm∙°F = 1.0 cal/g∙K
Thermal Conductivity
1 W/m∙K = 2.39 × 10−3 cal/cm∙s∙K 1 cal/cm∙s∙K = 418.4 W/m∙K
1 W/m∙K = 0.578 Btu/ft∙h∙°F 1 Btu/ft∙h∙°F = 1.730 W/m∙K
1 cal/cm∙s∙K = 241.8 Btu/ft∙h∙°F 1 Btu/ft∙h∙°F = 4.136 × 10−3 cal/cm∙s∙K
Periodic Table of the Elements
1 H
1.0080
3
Li
6.941
4
Be
9.0122
11
Na
22.990
12
Mg
24.305
19
K
39.098
20
Ca
40.08
37
Rb
85.47
38
Sr
21
Sc
44.956
39
Y
87.62
55
Cs
132.91
56
Ba
137.33
5 B
10.811
13
Al
26.982
31
Ga
69.72
49
In
114.82
81
Tl
204.38
6 C
12.011
14
Si
28.086
32
Ge
72.64
50
Sn
118.71
82
Pb
207.19
7 N
14.007
15
P
30.974
33
As
74.922
51
Sb
121.76
83
Bi
208.98
8 O
15.999
16
S
32.064
34
Se
78.96
52
Te
127.60
84
Po
(209)
9 F
18.998
17
Cl
35.453
35
Br
79.904
53
I
126.90
85
At
(210)
10
Ne
20.180
2
He
4.0026
18
Ar
39.948
36
Kr
83.80
54
Xe
131.30
86
Rn
(222)
22
Ti
47.87
40
Zr
88.91 91.22
72
Hf
178.49
23
V
50.942
41
Nb
92.91
73
Ta
180.95
24
Cr
51.996
42
Mo
95.94
74
W
183.84
25
Mn
54.938
43
Tc
(98)
75
Re
186.2
26
Fe
55.845
44
Ru
101.07
76
Os
190.23
27
Co
58.933
45
Rh
102.91
77
Ir
192.2
28
Ni
58.69
46
Pd
106.4
78
Pt
195.08
104
Rf
(261)
105
Db
(262)
106
Sg
(266)
107
Bh
(264)
108
Hs
(277)
109
Mt
(268)
110
Ds
(281)
29
Cu
63.55
29
Cu
63.55
47
Ag
107.87
79
Au
196.97
30
Zn
65.41
48
Cd
112.41
80
Hg
200.59
66
Dy
162.50
98
Cf
(251)
67
Ho
164.93
99
Es
(252)
68
Er
167.26
100
Fm
(257)
69
Tm
168.93
101
Md
(258)
70
Yb
173.04
102
No
(259)
71
Lu
174.97
103
Lr
(262)
57
La
138.91
89
Ac
(227)
58
Ce
140.12
90
Th
232.04
59
Pr
140.91
91
Pa
231.04
60
Nd
144.24
92
U
238.03
61
Pm
(145)
93
Np
(237)
62
Sm
150.35
94
Pu
(244)
63
Eu
151.96
95
Am
(243)
64
Gd
157.25
96
Cm
(247)
65
Tb
158.92
97
Bk
(247
كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً