Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
اسم المؤلف
William D. Callister
التاريخ
3 يوليو 2021
المشاهدات
266
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
An Interactive e
FIFTH EDITION
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering The University of Utah
Contents
Chapters 1 through 13 discuss core topics (found in both print and on
the CD-ROM) and supplementary topics (in the eText only)
LIST OF SYMBOLS xix
1. Introduction 1
Learning Objectives 2
1.1 Historical Perspective 2
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4
1.4 Classification of Materials 5
1.5 Advanced Materials 6
1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 6
References 7
2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 9
Learning Objectives 10
2.1 Introduction 10
ATOMIC STRUCTURE 10
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 10
2.3 Electrons in Atoms 11
2.4 The Periodic Table 17
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 18
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 18
2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 20
2.7 Secondary Bonding or Van der Waals Bonding 24
2.8 Molecules 26
Summary 27
Important Terms and Concepts 27
References 28
Questions and Problems 28
3. Structures of Metals and Ceramics 30
Learning Objectives 31
3.1 Introduction 31
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 31
3.2 Fundamental Concepts 31
3.3 Unit Cells 32
3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 33xii ● Contents
3.5 Density Computations—Metals 37
3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures 38
3.7 Density Computations—Ceramics 45
3.8 Silicate Ceramics 46
• The Silicates (CD-ROM) S-1
3.9 Carbon 47
• Fullerenes (CD-ROM) S-3
3.10 Polymorphism and Allotropy 49
3.11 Crystal Systems 49
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS AND
PLANES 51
3.12 Crystallographic Directions 51
3.13 Crystallographic Planes 54
3.14 Linear and Planar Atomic Densities
(CD-ROM) S-4

3.15 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 58
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE
MATERIALS 62
3.16 Single Crystals 62
3.17 Polycrystalline Materials 62
3.18 Anisotropy 63
3.19 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of
Crystal Structures (CD-ROM) S-6

3.20 Noncrystalline Solids 64
Summary 66
Important Terms and Concepts 67
References 67
Questions and Problems 68
4. Polymer Structures 76
Learning Objectives 77
4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 77
4.3 Polymer Molecules 79
4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 80
4.5 Molecular Weight 82
4.6 Molecular Shape 87
4.7 Molecular Structure 88
4.8 Molecular Configurations
(CD-ROM) S-11

4.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting
Polymers 90
4.10 Copolymers 91
4.11 Polymer Crystallinity 92
4.12 Polymer Crystals 95
Summary 97
Important Terms and Concepts 98
References 98
Questions and Problems 99
5. Imperfections in Solids 102
Learning Objectives 103
5.1 Introduction 103
POINT DEFECTS 103
5.2 Point Defects in Metals 103
5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics 105
5.4 Impurities in Solids 107
5.5 Point Defects in Polymers 110
5.6 Specification of Composition 110
• Composition Conversions
(CD-ROM) S-14
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 111
5.7 Dislocations—Linear Defects 111
5.8 Interfacial Defects 115
5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects 118
5.10 Atomic Vibrations 118
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 118
5.11 General 118
5.12 Microscopic Techniques
(CD-ROM) S-17

5.13 Grain Size Determination 119
Summary 120
Important Terms and Concepts 121
References 121
Questions and Problems 122
6. Diffusion 126
Learning Objectives 127
6.1 Introduction 127
6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 127
6.3 Steady-State Diffusion 130
6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 132
6.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 136
6.6 Other Diffusion Paths 141
6.7 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric
Materials 141
Summary 142
Important Terms and Concepts 142
References 142
Questions and Problems 143
7. Mechanical Properties 147
Learning Objectives 148
7.1 Introduction 148
7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 149
ELASTIC DEFORMATION 153
7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 153
7.4 Anelasticity 157
7.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 157Contents ● xiii
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS 160
7.6 Tensile Properties 160
7.7 True Stress and Strain 167
7.8 Elastic Recovery During Plastic
Deformation 170
7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional
Deformation 170
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—CERAMICS 171
7.10 Flexural Strength 171
7.11 Elastic Behavior 173
7.12 Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical
Properties of Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-22

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—POLYMERS 173
7.13 Stress–Strain Behavior 173
7.14 Macroscopic Deformation 175
• 7.15 Viscoelasticity (CD-ROM) S-22
HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTY
CONSIDERATIONS 176
7.16 Hardness 176
7.17 Hardness of Ceramic Materials 181
7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of
Polymers 181
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY
FACTORS 183
7.19 Variability of Material Properties 183
• Computation of Average and Standard
Deviation Values (CD-ROM) S-28
7.20 Design/Safety Factors 183
Summary 185
Important Terms and Concepts 186
References 186
Questions and Problems 187
8. Deformation and Strengthening
Mechanisms 197
Learning Objectives 198
8.1 Introduction 198
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS 198
8.2 Historical 198
8.3 Basic Concepts of Dislocations 199
8.4 Characteristics of Dislocations 201
8.5 Slip Systems 203
• 8.6 Slip in Single Crystals (CD-ROM) S-31
8.7 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline
Metals 204
8.8 Deformation by Twinning
(CD-ROM) S-34

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN
METALS 206
8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size
Reduction 206
8.10 Solid-Solution Strengthening 208
8.11 Strain Hardening 210
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN
GROWTH 213
8.12 Recovery 213
8.13 Recrystallization 213
8.14 Grain Growth 218
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC
MATERIALS 219
8.15 Crystalline Ceramics 220
8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics 220
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR
STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 221
8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline
Polymers 221
8.18a Factors That Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-35

8.18b Factors That Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers
(Concise Version) 223
8.19 Deformation of Elastomers 224
Summary 227
Important Terms and Concepts 228
References 228
Questions and Problems 228
9. Failure 234
Learning Objectives 235
9.1 Introduction 235
FRACTURE 235
9.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 235
9.3 Ductile Fracture 236
• Fractographic Studies (CD-ROM) S-38
9.4 Brittle Fracture 238
9.5a Principles of Fracture Mechanics
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-38

9.5b Principles of Fracture Mechanics
(Concise Version) 238
9.6 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 248
• Static Fatigue (CD-ROM) S-53
9.7 Fracture of Polymers 249
9.8 Impact Fracture Testing 250xiv ● Contents
FATIGUE 255
9.9 Cyclic Stresses 255
9.10 The S–N Curve 257
9.11 Fatigue in Polymeric Materials 260
9.12a Crack Initiation and Propagation
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-54

9.12b Crack Initiation and Propagation
(Concise Version) 260
9.13 Crack Propagation Rate
(CD-ROM) S-57

9.14 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 263
• 9.15 Environmental Effects (CD-ROM) S-62
CREEP 265
9.16 Generalized Creep Behavior 266
9.17a Stress and Temperature Effects
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-63

9.17b Stress and Temperature Effects (Concise
Version) 267
9.18 Data Extrapolation Methods
(CD-ROM) S-65

9.19 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 268
9.20 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric
Materials 269
Summary 269
Important Terms and Concepts 272
References 272
Questions and Problems 273
10 Phase Diagrams 281
Learning Objectives 282
10.1 Introduction 282
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 282
10.2 Solubility Limit 283
10.3 Phases 283
10.4 Microstructure 284
10.5 Phase Equilibria 284
EQUILIBRIUM PHASE DIAGRAMS 285
10.6 Binary Isomorphous Systems 286
10.7 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 288
10.8 Development of Microstructure in
Isomorphous Alloys (CD-ROM) S-67

10.9 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous
Alloys 292
10.10 Binary Eutectic Systems 292
10.11 Development of Microstructure in
Eutectic Alloys (CD-ROM) S-70

10.12 Equilibrium Diagrams Having
Intermediate Phases or Compounds 297
10.13 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 298
10.14 Congruent Phase Transformations 301
10.15 Ceramic Phase Diagrams (CD-ROM)
S-77

10.16 Ternary Phase Diagrams 301
• 10.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule (CD-ROM) S-81
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 302
10.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C)
Phase Diagram 302
10.19 Development of Microstructures in
Iron–Carbon Alloys 305
10.20 The Influence of Other Alloying
Elements (CD-ROM) S-83

Summary 313
Important Terms and Concepts 314
References 314
Questions and Problems 315
11 Phase Transformations 323
Learning Objectives 324
11.1 Introduction 324
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS 324
11.2 Basic Concepts 325
11.3 The Kinetics of Solid-State
Reactions 325
11.4 Multiphase Transformations 327
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN
IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 327
11.5 Isothermal Transformation
Diagrams 328
11.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation
Diagrams (CD-ROM) S-85

11.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon
Alloys 339
11.8 Tempered Martensite 344
11.9 Review of Phase Transformations for
Iron–Carbon Alloys 346
PRECIPITATION HARDENING 347
11.10 Heat Treatments 347
11.11 Mechanism of Hardening 349
11.12 Miscellaneous Considerations 351
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS
TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 352
11.13 Crystallization 353
11.14 Melting 354
11.15 The Glass Transition 354
11.16 Melting and Glass Transition
Temperatures 354
11.17 Factors That Influence Melting and
Glass Transition Temperatures
(CD-ROM) S-87
•Contents ● xv
Summary 356
Important Terms and Concepts 357
References 357
Questions and Problems 358
12. Electrical Properties 365
Learning Objectives 366
12.1 Introduction 366
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 366
12.2 Ohm’s Law 366
12.3 Electrical Conductivity 367
12.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 368
12.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 368
12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and
Atomic Bonding Models 371
12.7 Electron Mobility 372
12.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 373
12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
Alloys 376
SEMICONDUCTIVITY 376
12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 377
12.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 379
12.12 The Temperature Variation of
Conductivity and Carrier
Concentration 383
• 12.13 The Hall Effect (CD-ROM) S-91
• 12.14 Semiconductor Devices (CD-ROM) S-93
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS
AND IN POLYMERS 389
12.15 Conduction in Ionic Materials 389
12.16 Electrical Properties of Polymers 390
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 391
• 12.17 Capacitance (CD-ROM) S-99
12.18 Field Vectors and Polarization
(CD-ROM) S-101

• 12.19 Types of Polarization (CD-ROM) S-105
12.20 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric
Constant (CD-ROM) S-106

• 12.21 Dielectric Strength (CD-ROM) S-107
• 12.22 Dielectric Materials (CD-ROM) S-107
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MATERIALS 391
• 12.23 Ferroelectricity (CD-ROM) S-108
• 12.24 Piezoelectricity (CD-ROM) S-109
Summary 391
Important Terms and Concepts 393
References 393
Questions and Problems 394
13. Types and Applications
of Materials 401
Learning Objectives 402
13.1 Introduction 402
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 402
13.2 Ferrous Alloys 402
13.3 Nonferrous Alloys 414
TYPES OF CERAMICS 422
13.4 Glasses 423
13.5 Glass–Ceramics 423
13.6 Clay Products 424
13.7 Refractories 424
• Fireclay, Silica, Basic, and Special
Refractories
(CD-ROM) S-110
13.8 Abrasives 425
13.9 Cements 425
• 13.10 Advanced Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-111
13.11 Diamond and Graphite 427
TYPES OF POLYMERS 428
13.12 Plastics 428
13.13 Elastomers 431
13.14 Fibers 432
13.15 Miscellaneous Applications 433
13.16 Advanced Polymeric Materials
(CD-ROM) S-113

Summary 434
Important Terms and Concepts 435
References 435
Questions and Problems 436
Chapters 14 through 21 discuss just supplementary topics, and are
found only on the CD-ROM (and not in print)
14. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing
of Materials (CD-ROM) S-118
Learning Objectives S-119
14.1 Introduction S-119
FABRICATION OF METALS S-119
14.2 Forming Operations S-119
14.3 Casting S-121
14.4 Miscellaneous Techniques S-122xvi ● Contents
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS S-124
14.5 Annealing Processes S-124
14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels S-126
FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS S-136
14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses
S-137
14.8 Fabrication of Clay Products S-142
14.9 Powder Pressing S-145
14.10 Tape Casting S-149
SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS
S-149
14.11 Polymerization S-150
14.12 Polymer Additives S-151
14.13 Forming Techniques for Plastics S-153
14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers S-155
14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films S-155
Summary S-156
Important Terms and Concepts S-157
References S-158
Questions and Problems S-158
15. Composites (CD-ROM) S-162
Learning Objectives S-163
15.1 Introduction S-163
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES S-165
15.2 Large-Particle Composites S-165
15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
S-169
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES S-170
15.4 Influence of Fiber Length S-170
15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration S-171
15.6 The Fiber Phase S-180
15.7 The Matrix Phase S-180
15.8 Polymer–Matrix Composites S-182
15.9 Metal–Matrix Composites S-185
15.10 Ceramic–Matrix Composites S-186
15.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites S-188
15.12 Hybrid Composites S-189
15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced
Composites S-189
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES S-195
15.14 Laminar Composites S-195
15.15 Sandwich Panels S-196
Summary S-196
Important Terms and Concepts S-198
References S-198
Questions and Problems S-199
16. Corrosion and Degradation of
Materials (CD-ROM) S-204
Learning Objectives S-205
16.1 Introduction S-205
CORROSION OF METALS S-205
16.2 Electrochemical Considerations S-206
16.3 Corrosion Rates S-212
16.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates S-214
16.5 Passivity S-221
16.6 Environmental Effects S-222
16.7 Forms of Corrosion S-223
16.8 Corrosion Environments S-231
16.9 Corrosion Prevention S-232
16.10 Oxidation S-234
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS S-237
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS S-237
16.11 Swelling and Dissolution S-238
16.12 Bond Rupture S-238
16.13 Weathering S-241
Summary S-241
Important Terms and Concepts S-242
References S-242
Questions and Problems S-243
17. Thermal Properties (CD-ROM) S-247
Learning Objectives S-248
17.1 Introduction S-248
17.2 Heat Capacity S-248
17.3 Thermal Expansion S-250
17.4 Thermal Conductivity S-253
17.5 Thermal Stresses S-256
Summary S-258
Important Terms and Concepts S-259
References S-259
Questions and Problems S-259
18. Magnetic Properties (CD-ROM) S-263
Learning Objectives S-264
18.1 Introduction S-264
18.2 Basic Concepts S-264
18.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism S-268
18.4 Ferromagnetism S-270
18.5 Antiferromagnetism and
Ferrimagnetism S-272
18.6 The Influence of Temperature on
Magnetic Behavior S-276
18.7 Domains and Hysteresis S-276
18.8 Soft Magnetic Materials S-280
18.9 Hard Magnetic Materials S-282Contents ● xvii
18.10 Magnetic Storage S-284
18.11 Superconductivity S-287
Summary S-291
Important Terms and Concepts S-292
References S-292
Questions and Problems S-292
19. Optical Properties (CD-ROM) S-297
Learning Objectives S-298
19.1 Introduction S-298
BASIC CONCEPTS S-298
19.2 Electromagnetic Radiation S-298
19.3 Light Interactions with Solids S-300
19.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions
S-301
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS S-302
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS S-303
19.5 Refraction S-303
19.6 Reflection S-304
19.7 Absorption S-305
19.8 Transmission S-308
19.9 Color S-309
19.10 Opacity and Translucency in
Insulators S-310
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA S-311
19.11 Luminescence S-311
19.12 Photoconductivity S-312
19.13 Lasers S-313
19.14 Optical Fibers in Communications S-315
Summary S-320
Important Terms and Concepts S-321
References S-321
Questions and Problems S-322
20. Materials Selection and Design
Considerations (CD-ROM) S-324
Learning Objectives S-325
20.1 Introduction S-325
MATERIALS SELECTION FOR A TORSIONALLY
STRESSED CYLINDRICAL SHAFT S-325
20.2 Strength S-326
20.3 Other Property Considerations and the
Final Decision S-331
AUTOMOBILE VALVE SPRING S-332
20.4 Introduction S-332
20.5 Automobile Valve Spring S-334
ARTIFICIAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT S-339
20.6 Anatomy of the Hip Joint S-339
20.7 Material Requirements S-341
20.8 Materials Employed S-343
THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM ON THE SPACE
SHUTTLE ORBITER S-345
20.9 Introduction S-345
20.10 Thermal Protection System—Design
Requirements S-345
20.11 Thermal Protection
System—Components S-347
MATERIALS FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
PACKAGES S-351
20.12 Introduction S-351
20.13 Leadframe Design and Materials S-353
20.14 Die Bonding S-354
20.15 Wire Bonding S-356
20.16 Package Encapsulation S-358
20.17 Tape Automated Bonding S-360
Summary S-362
References S-363
Questions and Problems S-364
21. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering (CD-ROM) S-368
Learning Objectives S-369
21.1 Introduction S-369
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS S-369
21.2 Component Design S-370
21.3 Materials S-370
21.4 Manufacturing Techniques S-370
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL
CONSIDERATIONS S-371
21.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering S-373
Summary S-376
References S-376
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI) 439
Appendix B Properties of Selected
Engineering Materials 441
B.1 Density 441
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 444
B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 448
B.4 Strength and Ductility 449
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 454
B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion 455
B.7 Thermal Conductivity 459xviii ● Contents
B.8 Specific Heat 462
B.9 Electrical Resistivity 464
B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 467
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs
for Selected Engineering Materials 469
Appendix D Mer Structures for
Common Polymers 475
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
Materials 479
Glossary 480
Answers to Selected Problems 495
Index 501
Index
Page numbers in italics refer to the glossary.
A
Abrasive ceramics, 422, 425
Abrasives, 480
Absorption coefficient, S–308
Absorption of light:
in metals, S–302
in nonmetals, S–303—S–310
Absorptivity, S–300
ABS polymer, 429
AmBnXp crystal structures, 43
Acceptors, 382, 480
Acetabulum, S–340
Acetabular cup, S–344
Acetic acid, 80
Acetylene, 78
Acid rain, as corrosion environment, S–231
Acids, 80
Acid slags, S–110
Acrylics, see Polymethyl methacrylate
Acrylonitrile, see Polyacrylonitrile
(PAN)
Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, 431
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS), 429
Activation energy, 480
for creep, S–63—S–64
for diffusion, 136
for viscous flow, S–159
phase transformations, 326–327
Activation polarization, S–215—
S–216, 480
Addition polymerization, S–150—
S–151, 480
Additives, polymer, S–151—
S–153
Adhesives, 433, 480
Advanced ceramics, 422, S–111—
S–113
Advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI),
S–347—S–348
501
wrought, 414
yield strength values, 449–451
Alloy steels, 338, 403, 480. See
also Steels
Alnico, S–283
 Iron, see Ferrite ()
Alternating copolymers, 91, 92,
480
Alumina, see Aluminum oxide
Aluminosilicates, S–142
Aluminum:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374, 376
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization temperature,
217
slip systems, 204
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
thermal properties, S–251
used beverage cans, S–368
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Aluminum alloys, 416–418
fatigue behavior, 276
integrated circuits, S–352
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, 454, S–49
precipitation hardening, 323,
349–351
properties and applications, 417
Aluminum-copper alloys, phase
diagram, 350
Aluminum-lithium alloys, 417, 418
Aluminum-neodymium phase
diagram, 319
Aluminum nitride, use in
electronic packaging,
S–112—S–113
Advanced materials, 6
Advanced polymers, S–113—
S–117
Age hardening, see Precipitation
hardening
Air, as quenching medium, S–132
AISI/SAE steel designation
scheme, 406
Akermanite, S–1
Alcohols, 80
Aldehydes, 80
Alkali metals, 17
Alkaline earth metals, 17
Allotropy, 49, 480
Alloys, 402, 480. See also Solid solutions; specific alloys
atomic weight equations, S–15
cast, 414
composition specification,
110–111
compositions for various,
467–468
costs, 469–471
defined, 107
density equations, S–15
density values, 441–443
ductility values, 449–451
electrical resistivity values,
464–466
fracture toughness values, 454
heat treatable, 414
high-temperature, 268–269
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion values, 455–456
modulus of elasticity values,
444–446
Poisson’s ratio values, 448
specific heat values, 462–463
strengthening, see Strengthening
of metals
tensile strength values, 449–451
thermal conductivity values,
459–460502 ● Index
Aluminum oxide:
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
hardness, 182
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
Poisson’s ratio, 154
sintered microstructure, S–148
stress-strain behavior, 173
thermal properties, S–251
translucency, 4, S–311
use in artificial hip, S–344
use in ceramic armor, S–112
use in electronic packaging,
S–112
as whiskers and fibers, S–181
Aluminum oxide-chromium oxide
phase diagram, S–77, S–78
Ammonia, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 22
Amorphous materials, 31, 64–65,
480
Anelasticity, 157, 480
Anions, 38, 480
Anisotropy, 63–64, 480
of elastic modulus, 64, 158,
188–189
Annealing, S–87, S–124, S–125—
S–126, 480
ferrous alloys, S–125—S–126
glass, S–140—S–141, 480
Annealing point, glass, S–139, 480
Annealing twins, 117
Anodes, S–206, 480
area effect, galvanic corrosion,
S–225
sacrificial, S–233, 490
Antiferromagnetism, S–272, 480
temperature dependence, S–276
Aramid:
cost, as a fiber, 473
fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, S–183—S–184
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
mer structure, S–184, 477
properties as fiber, S–181
Argon, bonding energy and melting temperature, 22
Aromatic hydrocarbons (chain
groups), 80, S–87
Artificial aging, 351, 480
Artificial hip replacement, materials selection, S–341—
S–345
Asphaltic concrete, S–168
ASTM standards, 148
Atactic configuration, S–12, 480
Athermal transformation, 337, 480
Atomic bonding, see Bonding
Atomic force micrograph, 9, S–20
Atomic mass, 10
Atomic mass unit (amu), 10–11,
480
Atomic models:
Bohr, 11, 13, 481
wave-mechanical, 12–13, 494
Atomic number, 10, 480
Atomic packing factor, 34, 480
Atomic point defects, 103,
105–107
Atomic radii, of selected metals,
33
Atomic structure, 10–18
Atomic vibrations, 118, S–248—
S–249, 480
Atomic weight, 10, 480
metal alloys, equations for,
S–15
Atom percent, 110–111, 480
Austenite, 302–304, 481
transformations, 327–339,
S–85—S–87
summary, 346–347
Austenitic stainless steels,
407–408
Austenitizing, S–126, 481
Automobile valve spring design,
S–332—S–339
Average value, 183, S–28
Avogadro’s number, 11
Avrami equation, 325, 353
AX crystal structures, 41–42
A
mXp crystal structures, 42–43
B
Bainite, 332–333, 347, S–85, 481
mechanical properties, 342, 343
Bakelite, see Phenol-formaldehyde
(Bakelite)
Band gap, 370
Band gap energy, 481
determination, 385
selected semiconductors, 377
Bands, see Energy bands
Barcol hardness, 182
Barium titanate:
crystal structure, 43, 44, S–108
as dielectric, S–107
as ferroelectric, S–108—S–109
Base (transistor), S–95—S–96
Basic refractories, S–110—S–111
Basic slags, S–111
Beachmarks (fatigue), 261,
S–55—S–56
Bend strength, 172. See also flexural strength
Beryllia, S–111
Beryllium-copper alloys, 416
Beverage containers, 1, S–367
stages of production, S–118
Bifunctional mers, 82, 481
Bimetallic strips, S–260
Binary eutectic alloys, 292–297,
S–70—S–77
tensile strength, 362
Binary isomorphous alloys, 286–
287, S–67—S–70
mechanical properties, 292
microstructure development,
equilibrium cooling, S–67,
S–68
microstructure development,
nonequilibrium cooling,
S–67—S–70
Biocompatibility, S–341—S–342
Biomaterials, 6
Block copolymers, 92, 481
Blowing, of glass, S–139—S–140
Blow molding, plastics, S–155
Body-centered cubic structure,
34–35, 481
slip systems, 204
twinning in, S–35
Bohr atomic model, 11, 13, 481
Bohr magneton, S–268, 481
Boltzmann’s constant, 104, 481
Bonding:
carbon-carbon, 81
cementitious, 426–427
covalent, 22–23, 38, 482
hybrid sp, 16
hydrogen, 25, 26, 486
ionic, 20–22, 38, 486
metallic, 23–24, 487
van der Waals, see van der
Waals bonding
Bonding energy, 20, 481
and melting temperature for
selected materials, 21, 22Index ● 503
Cemented carbide, S–166, S–167
Cementite, 302–303, 481
decomposition, 409, 413
proeutectoid, 310–311
in white iron, 410, 411
Cementitious bond, 426–427
Cements, 422, 425–427, 481
Ceramic armor, S–112
Ceramic-matrix composites,
S–186—S–188, 481
Ceramics, 5, 481. See also Glass
advanced, S–111—S–113
application-classification
scheme, 422
brittle fracture, 248–249
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, S–251, 457
color, S–309—S–310
corrosion, S–237
costs, 471–472
crystal structures, 38–44, 60–61
summary, 44
defects, 105–107
defined, 5
density computation, 45–46
density values, 443
elastic modulus values, 154,
446
electrical conductivity values
for selected, 389
electrical resistivity values, 466
fabrication techniques classification, S–137
flexural strength values, 165,
452
fracture toughness values, 244,
S–49, 454–455
impurities in, 109–110
indices of refraction, S–304
as insulators, 389, S–101, S–107
magnetic, S–272—S–276
mechanical properties of,
171–173
phase diagrams, S–77—S–81
plastic deformation, 220–221
Poisson’s ratio values, 154, 448
porosity, S–147—S–148
porosity, influence on properties, S–22
silicates, 46–47, S–1—S–3
specific heat values, S–251, 463
as superconductors, S–289—
S–290
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
mer structure, 93, 476
Butane, 78–79
C
Cadmium sulfide:
color, S–309
electrical characteristics, 377
Calcination, 426, 481
Calendering, S–191
Cantilever beam, materials selection, S–364
Capacitance, S–99—S–100, 481
Capacitors, S–99—S–103
Carbon:
vs. graphite, S–181, S–183
polymorphism, 47–48, 49
Carbon black, as reinforcement in
rubbers, 432, S–166—
S–167
Carbon-carbon composites, S–188,
S–351, 481
Carbon diffusion, in steels, 306–
307, 345
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymermatrix composites, S–183,
S–185
Carbon fibers, S–183
properties as fiber, S–181
Carburizing, 134, 481
Case-hardened gear, 126
Case hardening, 126, 265, 481
Cast alloys, 414
Casting techniques:
metals, S–121—S–122
plastics, S–155
slip, S–143—S–144
tape, S–149
Cast irons, 305, 403, 409–414, 481
annealing, S–126
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
graphite formation in, 409–410
heat treatment effect on microstructure, 413
phase diagram, 409, 413
stress-strain behavior (gray),
188
Cathodes, S–207, 481
Cathodic protection, S–225,
S–232—S–234, 481
Cations, 38, 481
Bonding forces, 18–19
Bond rupture, in polymers, S–238,
S–240—S–241
Bone:
as composite, S–163
mechanical properties, S–339
Boron carbide:
in ceramic armor, S–112
hardness, 182
Boron:
boron-doped silicon semiconductors, 381–382, 383–385
fiber-reinforced composites,
S–184, S–186
properties as a fiber, S–181
Boron nitride, S–112
Borosilicate glass:
composition, 423
electrical conductivity, 389
viscosity, S–138
Borsic fiber-reinforced composites, S–186
Bragg’s law, S–6—S–8, 481
Branched polymers, 89, 481
Brass, 414, 415, 481
annealing behavior, 216
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374, 395
fatigue behavior, 276
phase diagrams, 298–299
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization temperature,
217
stress corrosion, 229, 230
stress-strain behavior, 163
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Brazing, S–123, 481
Breakdown, dielectric, S–94,
S–107
Brinell hardness tests, 179
Brittle fracture, 164–165, 235–236,
238–240, 481
ceramics, 248–249
Brittle materials, thermal shock,
S–257—S–258
Bronze, 416, 481
Buckminsterfullerene, S–3—S–4
Burgers vector, 112, 113, 114, 124,
481
Butadiene:
degradation resistance, S–239504 ● Index
thermal conductivity values,
S–251, 460
thermal properties, S–251,
S–253, S–255, S–257—
S–258
traditional vs. new, S–111
translucency and opacity,
S–310—S–311
Ceramic tile systems (Space Shuttle), S–348—S–351
Cercor (glass ceramic), 423
Cermets, S–166—S–167, 481
Cesium chloride structure, 41–42,
44
Chain-folded model, 95–96, 481
Chain-reaction polymerization,
S–150—S–151, 481
Chain stiffening/stiffness, 88,
S–87, S–89—S–90
Charge carriers:
majority vs. minority, 381
temperature variation, 384–386
Charpy impact test, 251–254, 481
Chevron markings, 238–239
Chips, semiconductor, S–97—
S–99, S–351—S–352
Chlorine, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 22
Chloroprene, mer structure, 93, 476
Chloroprene rubber:
characteristics and applications,
431
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
Chrome-vanadium steels, S–337—
S–339
cis, S–12, 482
Clay products, 422, 424, S–142—
S–145
characteristics, S–142
drying and firing, 424, S–144—
S–145
fabrication, S–142—S–144
Cleavage, 238
Clinker, 426
Close-packed crystal structures:
ceramics, 60–61
metals, 58–59
Coarse pearlite, 331, S–85, S–87,
482
Coatings (polymer), 433
Cobalt:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
Curie temperature, S–276
as ferromagnetic material,
S–270
Cobalt-nickel-chromiummolybdenum alloy, for artificial hips, S–343—S–344
Coercivity (coercive force), S–279,
482
Cold work, percent, 210
Cold working, see Strain hardening
Collector, S–96
Color, 482
metals, S–303
nonmetals, S–309—S–310
Colorants, S–152, 482
Compact disc, S–367
Component, 282, S–81, 482
Composites:
aramid fiber-reinforced polymer, S–183—S–184
carbon-carbon, S–188, S–351
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer, S–183
ceramic-matrix, S–186—S–188
classification scheme, S–164—
S–165
costs, 474
definition, 5, S–163
dispersion-strengthened, S–169
elastic behavior:
longitudinal, S–173—S–174
transverse, S–176
fiber-reinforced, see Fiberreinforced composites
glass fiber-reinforced polymer,
S–182
hybrid, S–189, 486
laminar, S–164, S–179, S–195—
S–196, 487
large-particle, S–164, S–165—
S–169
metal-matrix, S–185—S–186
particle-reinforced, S–165—
S–169
production processes, S–189—
S–192
properties, glass-, carbon-, aramid-fiber reinforced, S–185
rule of mixtures expressions,
S–165—S–166, S–174,
S–176, S–177, S–178, S–194
strength:
longitudinal, S–177
transverse, S–177
stress-strain behavior, S–172—
S–173
structural, S–195—S–196
Composition, 482
conversion equations, S–14—
S–17, 123, 124
specification of, 110–111
Compression molding, plastics,
S–153—S–154
Compression tests, 151
Compressive deformation, 150,
170–171
Computers, semiconductors in,
97–99
Concentration, 110, 482. See also
Composition
Concentration cells, S–225
Concentration gradient, 131, 482
Concentration polarization,
S–216—S–217, 482
Concentration profile, 130, 482
Concrete, S–167—S–169, 482
electrical conductivity, 389
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
Condensation polymerization,
S–151, 482
Conducting polymers, 390
Conduction:
electronic, 368, 368–372
ionic, 368, 389–390
Conduction band, 370, 482
Conductivity, see Electrical conductivity; Thermal conductivity
Configuration, polymer,
S–11—S–13
Conformation, polymer, 88
Congruent phase transformations,
301, 482
Constitutional diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Continuous casting, S–122
Continuous cooling transformation
diagrams, S–85—S–88, 482
4340 steel, S–88
0.76 wt% C steel, S–86
1.13 wt% C steel, 361
Continuous fibers, S–171
Conventional hard magnetic materials, S–282—S–283
Conversion factors, magnetic
units, S–267
Cooling rate, of cylindrical
rounds, S–133
Ceramics (Continued)Index ● 505
Critical fiber length, S–170—
S–171
Critical resolved shear stress,
S–31, 482
as related to dislocation density,
230
Critical stress, 242, 245, S–42,
S–49
Critical temperature (superconductivity), S–288, S–290
Crosslinking, 89–90, 482
elastomers, 225–226
influence on viscoelastic behavior, S–26—S–27
thermosetting polymers, 91
Crystalline materials, 31, 62, 482
defects, 103–107
single crystals, 62, 491
Crystallinity, polymers, 92–95, 482
influence on mechanical properties, 224, S–36, S–37
Crystallites, 95, 482
Crystallization (polymers),
353–354
Crystallographic directions, 51–54
families, 53
Crystallographic planes, 54–58
atomic arrangements, 57, 58
close-packed, 58–61
diffraction by, S–7—S–8
families, 57
Crystal structures, 31–37, 482. See
also Body-centered cubic
structure; Close-packed
crystal structures; Face-centered cubic structure; Hexagonal close-packed
structure
ceramics, 38–44
close-packed, 58–61
determination by x-ray diffraction, S–6—S–10
selected metals, 33
types, 33–35, 41–44, 58–61
Crystal systems, 49–50, 482
Cubic crystal system, 49, 50
Cubic ferrites, S–273—S–275
Cunife, S–283
Cup-and-cone fracture, 237, S–38
Curie temperature, S–276, 482
ferroelectric, S–109
ferromagnetic, S–250
Curing, plastics, S–153
Current density, 367
Cyclic stresses, 255–257
Corrosion inhibitors, S–232
Corrosion penetration rate,
S–213, 482
artificial hip alloys, S–344
minimum for body implant materials, S–342
Corrosion prevention, S–232—
S–234
Corundum, 425. See also Aluminum oxide
crystal structure, 73
Cost of various materials, 469–474
Coulombic force, 21, 482
Covalency, degree of, 23
Covalent bonding, 22–23, 38, 77,
482
Crack formation, 236
fatigue and, 260–262,
S–54—S–57
glass, S–141
Crack propagation, 236. See also
Fracture mechanics
in brittle fracture, 238
in ceramics, 248–249, S–53
in ductile fracture, 236–237
fatigue and, 260–262,
S–54—S–62
Griffith theory, S–41—S–42
Crack propagation rate,
S–57—S–62
Cracks:
stable vs. unstable, 236
stress analysis of, 239–242,
S–38—S–41, S–43—S–45
Crack surface displacement
modes, 243, 244, S–43
Crazing, 250, 251
Creep, 265–269, S–63—S–66,
482
ceramics, 269
influence of temperature and
stress on, 267–268,
S–63—S–65
mechanisms, S–64—S–65
in polymers, 269, S–27
stages of, 266
steady-state rate, 266
viscoelastic, S–27
Creep modulus, S–27
Creep rupture tests, 267
data extrapolation, S–65—S–66
Crevice corrosion, S–225—S–226,
S–342, 482
Cristobalite, 47, S–80
Critical cooling rate, S–85—S–88
Coordination numbers, 34, 35, 38–
40, 46, 482
Copolymers, 82, 91–92, 482
styrenic block, S–115—S–116
Copper:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
diffraction pattern, 75
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374
OFHC, 376
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization, 217, 326
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Copper alloys, 414–416
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–354—S–355
properties and applications of,
415
Copper-beryllium alloys, 376
phase diagram, 363
Copper-nickel alloys:
ductility vs. composition, 209,
292
electrical conductivity, 375–376
phase diagrams, 286–287
tensile strength vs. composition,
209, 292
yield strength vs. composition,
209
Copper-silver phase diagram,
292–294, S–82
Copper-titanium phase diagram,
319
Coring, S–70
Corningware (glass ceramic), 423
Corrosion, 482
ceramic materials, S–237
electrochemistry of, S–206—
S–212
environmental effects, S–222—
S–223
environments, S–231—S–232
forms of, S–223—S–231
galvanic series, S–212, S–213
integrated circuits, S–354
overview of, S–205
passivity, S–221—S–222
rates, S–212—S–214
prediction, S–214—S–221
Corrosion fatigue, S–62, S–342,
482506 ● Index
D
Damping capacity, steel vs. cast
iron, 413
Data scatter, 183
Debye temperature, S–249—
S–250
Decarburization, 143
Defects, see also Dislocations
atomic vibrations and, 118
dependence of properties on,
102
in ceramics, 105–107
interfacial, 115–118
point, 103–111, 489
volume, 118
Defect structure, 105, 483
Deformation:
elastic, see Elastic deformation
elastomers, 224
plastic, see Plastic deformation
Deformation mechanism maps,
S–64—S–65
Degradation of polymers,
S–237—S–240, 483
Degree of polymerization, 84, 483
Degrees of freedom, S–81
Delayed fracture, S–53
Density:
computation for ceramics,
45–46
computation for metal alloys,
S–15
computation for metals, 37
of dislocations, 201
polymers, 443–444
relation to percent crystallinity
for polymers, 94
values for various materials,
441–444
Design, S–325. See also Materials
selection
component, S–370
Design examples:
cold work and recrystallization,
217–218
conductivity of an n-type semiconductor, 387–388
cubic mixed-ferrite magnet,
S–275—S–276
creep rupture lifetime for an
S-590 steel, S–66
fatigue life prediction,
S–61—S–62
filament-wound composite shaft,
S–192—S–195
nonsteady-state diffusion,
139–140
spherical pressure vessel (failure
of), 245–248, S–51—S–53
steel shaft, alloy/heat treatment
of, S–135—S–136
tensile-testing apparatus,
184–185
Design factor, 183
Design guidelines, S–328
Design stress, 183, 483
Devitrification, 423, 483
Dezincification, of brass, S–228
Diamagnetism, S–268—S–269, 483
Diamond, 48, 427
as abrasive, 425
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
cost, 472
films, 427, 428
hardness, 181, 182
thermal conductivity value, 460
Diamond cubic structure, 48
Die (silicon), S–352
Die bonding, S–354
Die casting, S–120, S–122
Dielectric breakdown, S–94, S–107
Dielectric constant, S–100—S–101,
483
frequency dependence, S–106—
S–107
relationship to refractive index,
S–303—S–304
selected ceramics and polymers,
S–101
Dielectric displacement, S–102,
483
Dielectric loss, S–106
Dielectric materials, S–99, S–107,
483
Dielectric strength, S–107, 483
selected ceramics and polymers,
S–101
Diffraction, S–6, 483
Diffraction angle, S–9
Diffractometers, S–8
Diffusion, 127, 483
grain growth and, 218
interstitial, 95, 486
in ionic materials, 141
mechanisms, 127–129
and microstructure development, S–68—S–70, S–72—
S–74, 306–307
nonsteady-state, 132–135, 488
in polymers, 141
short-circuit, 141
steady-state, 130–131, 492
vacancy, 129, 494
Diffusion coefficient, 131, 483
relation to ionic mobility, 390
temperature dependence,
136–139
values for various metal systems, 136
Diffusion couples, 127
Diffusion flux, 130, 483
Digitization of information/signals,
S–285—S–287, S–317—
S–318
Dimethyl ether, 80
Dimethylsiloxane, 93, 431, 432,
476. See also Silicones;
Silicone rubber
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
Diode, S–93, 483
Dipole moment, S–101
Dipoles:
electric, 25, 483
induced, 25–26
magnetic, S–264—S–265
permanent, 26, S–105
Directional solidification, 269
Directions, see Crystallographic
directions
Discontinuous fibers, S–171
Dislocation density, 201, 228, 230,
483
Dislocation etch pits, 197
Dislocation line, 111–112, 113,
114, 483
Dislocation motion, 199–200
caterpillar locomotion analogy,
200
in ceramics, 220
at grain boundaries, 207
influence on strength, 206–208
in polymers, 112
recovery and, 213
Dislocations, 111–114, 483
characteristics of, 201–202
interactions, 201–202
multiplication, 203
at phase boundaries, 340, 344
plastic deformation and, 160,
199–206
strain fields, 201
Dispersed phase, S–164, 483
definition, S–164Index ● 507
Electroluminescence, S–312, 484
Electrolytes, S–208, 484
Electromagnetic radiation,
S–298—S–300
interactions with atoms/electrons, S–301—S–302
Electromagnetic spectrum,
S–298—S–299
Electron band structure, see
Energy bands
Electron cloud, 12, 23
Electron configurations, 15–16,
484
elements, 16
periodic table and, 17
stable, 15
Electronegativity, 18, 23, 484
influence on solid solubility, 108
values for the elements, 18
Electroneutrality, 106, 484
Electron gas, 371
Electronic conduction, 367,
368–372
Electronic packaging:
advanced ceramics in, S–112—
S–113
case study, materials selection,
S–351—S–361
Electronic polarization, S–105,
S–106, S–301, S–305, 489
Electron microscopy, S–17—S–20
Electron mobility, 372–373
selected semiconductors, 377
Electron orbitals, 11
Electron probability distribution,
12, 13
Electrons, 10
conduction process, 378,
S–95—S–96
energy bands, see Energy bands
energy levels, 11–14
free, see Free electrons
scattering, 373, S–249
in semiconductors, 377–383
temperature variation of concentration, 383–387
spin, 14, S–268
valence, 15
Electron states, 484
Electron transitions, S–301—
S–302
metals, S–302
nonmetals, S–305—S–307
Electron volt, 21, 484
Electropositivity, 18, 484
torsionally stressed shaft,
S–330—S–331
tubular filament-wound shaft,
S–193—S–195
Eddy currents, S–281
Edge dislocations, 111–112, 199–
200, 483. See also Dislocations
interactions, 202
E-glass, S–181, S–182
Elastic deformation, 153–160, 483
Elastic modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Elastic recovery, 483
Elastic strain energy, S–41—S–42
Elastic strain recovery, 170, 483
Elastomers, 174, 431–432, 483
in composites, S–166
deformation, 224–225
thermoplastic, S–115—S–117
trade names, properties and
applications, 431
Electrical conduction:
in insulators and semiconductors, 371–372
in metals, 371
Electrical conductivity, 367, 373–
374, 484
influence of impurities, 375
influence of plastic deformation,
375
influence of temperature, 374–375
integrated circuit lead-frame
materials, S–355
selected ceramics and polymers,
389
selected metals, 374
selected semiconductors, 377
temperature variation, 383–
387, 397
Electrical resistivity, 366, 490. See
also Electrical conductivity
values for various materials,
464–467
Electric dipole moment, S–101
Electric dipoles, see Dipoles
Electric field, 367, 373, 484
Electrochemical cells, S–208—
S–209
Electrochemical reactions,
S–206—S–212
Electrodeposition, S–208
Electrode potentials, S–207—
S–209
values of, S–210
geometry, S–164
Dispersion-strengthened composites, S–169, 483
Disposal of materials, S–371—
S–372
Domain growth, S–278
iron single crystal, S–263
Domains, S–271, S–276—S–279,
483
Domain walls, S–277
Donors, 381, 483
Doping, 383, 385–387, 483
Double bonds, 77–78
Drain casting, S–143, S–144
Drawing:
glass, S–139, S–140
influence on polymer properties, 224, S–36—S–37
metals, S–121, 483
polymer fibers, S–155, 483
Drift velocity, electron, 373
Driving force, 131, 483
electrochemical reactions, S–209
grain growth, 218
recrystallization, 213
sintering, S–147
steady-state diffusion, 131
Dry corrosion, S–234
Drying, clay products, S–144—
S–145
Ductile fracture, 164–165, 236–
237, 483
Ductile iron, 410, 411, 483
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
Ductile-to-brittle transition, 253–
254, 483
polymers, 249, 254
and temper embrittlement, 346
Ductility, 164–165, 483
artificial hip materials, S–344
fine and coarse pearlite, 342
precipitation hardened aluminum alloy, 352
selected materials, 449–453
selected metals, 165
spheroidite, 342
tempered martensite, 345
Durometer hardness, 180, 182
E
Economics, materials selection:
considerations in materials engineering, S–369—S–370
Dispersed phase (Continued)508 ● Index
Elongation, percent, 164
selected materials, 449–453
selected metals, 165
selected polymers, 165
Embrittlement:
hydrogen, S–230—S–231
temper, 345–346
Emf series, S–209—S–211
Emitter, S–96
Endurance limit, 258. See also
Fatigue limit
Energy:
activation, see Activation
energy
bonding, 20–22, 481
current concerns about, 6–7,
S–372—S–373
free, 284, 285, 485
grain boundary, 116–117
photon, S–300
surface, 115
vacancy formation, 104
Energy band gap, see Band gap
Energy bands, 368–370
structures for metals, insulators,
and semiconductors, 370
Energy levels (states), 11–14,
368–369
Energy and materials, S–372
Energy product, magnetic, S–282
Engineering stress/strain, 149–151,
492
Entropy, 225, 284
Environmental considerations and
materials, S–371—S–376
Epoxies:
degradation resistance, S–239
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–359—S–360
mer structure, 475
polymer-matrix composites,
S–185
trade names, characteristics, applications, 430
Equilibrium:
definition of, 284
phase, 284–285, 484
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Erosion-corrosion, S–228—S–229,
484
Error bars, S–30
Error function, Gaussian, 133
Etching, S–17
Etch pits, 197
Ethane, 78
Ethers, 80
Ethylene, 77–78
polymerization, 81
Eutectic isotherm, 294
Eutectic phase, S–72, 484
Eutectic reactions, 294, S–72, 484
iron-iron carbide system, 305
Eutectic structure, S–73, 484
Eutectic systems:
binary, 292–297, S–70—S–77
microstructure development,
S–70—S–77
Eutectoid, shift of position,
S–83—S–84
Eutectoid ferrite, 308
Eutectoid reactions, 298, 300–301,
484
iron-iron carbide system, 305
kinetics, 328–329
Eutectoid steel, microstructure
changes/development,
305–307
Exchange current density, S–215
Excited states, S–302, 484
Exhaustion, in extrinsic semiconductors, 386
Expansion, thermal, see Thermal
expansion
Extrinsic semiconductors, 379–
383, 484
saturation, 386
Extrusion, 484
clay products, S–143
metals, S–120—S–121
polymers, S–155
F
Fabrication:
ceramics, S–136—S–137
clay products, S–142—S–144
fiber-reinforced composites,
S–189—S–192
integrated circuits, S–351—
S–361
metals, S–119—S–124
Face-centered cubic structure, 33–
34, 484
anion stacking, 60–61
close-packed planes, 58–59
slip systems, 203–204
Factor of safety, 184, 246, S–51,
S–326
Failure, mechanical, see Creep;
Fatigue; Fracture
Faraday constant, S–211
Fatigue, 255–265, S–54—S–63,
484
automobile valve springs,
S–335—S–336
corrosion, S–62—S–63
crack initiation and propagation, 260–263, S–54—S–61
cyclic stresses, 255–257
environmental effects, S–62
low- and high-cycle, 259
polymers, 260
probability curves, 259
thermal, S–62
Fatigue life, 259, 484
factors that affect, 263–265
prediction, S–60—S–62
Fatigue limit, 258, S–335, S–336,
484
Fatigue strength, 258, 484
artificial hip materials, S–342,
S–344
Fatigue testing, 257
S–N curves, 257–259, 260, 276,
S–336
Feldspar, S–142
Felt reusable surface insulation
(FRSI), S–347—S–348
Fermi energy, 370, 381, 396,
S–250, 484
Ferrimagnetism, S–272—S–276,
484
temperature dependence,
S–276—S–277
Ferrite (), 302–304, 484
eutectoid/proeutectoid, 281,
308–309, 490
from decomposition of cementite, 409
Ferrites (magnetic ceramics),
S–272—S–276, 484
Curie temperature, S–276
as magnetic storage, S–285—
S–286
Ferritic stainless steels, 407, 408
Ferroelectricity, S–108—S–109,
484
Ferroelectric materials, S–109
Ferromagnetic domain walls, 117
Ferromagnetism, S–270—S–271,
484
temperature dependence, S–276
Ferrous alloys, 484. See also Cast
irons; Iron; Steels
annealing, S–125—S–126Index ● 509
fundamentals of, 235–236
polymers, 249–250
types, 164–165, 236–238
Fracture mechanics, 328, S–38,
S–41—S–42, 485
applied to ceramics, 248
crack propagation rate,
S–57—S–62
Griffith theory, 239–241,
S–38—S–39, S–41—S–42
polymers, 250
stress analysis of cracks,
S–43—S–45
use in design, 245–248,
S–48—S–53
Fracture profiles, 236
Fracture strength, 162. See also
Flexural strength
ceramics, 172
distribution of, 248–249
influence of porosity, S–22,
S–23
influence of specimen size, 248,
S–180
Fracture toughness, 167, 242–245,
S–45—S–48, 485
ceramic-matrix composites,
S–187—S–188
values for selected materials,
244, S–49, 454–455
Free electrons, 371–373, 485
contributions to heat capacity,
S–250
role in heat conduction, S–254
Free energy, 284, 285, 485
Frenkel defects, 106, 485
Fringed-micelle model, 95
Full annealing, S–87, S–126, 485
Fullerenes, S–3—S–4
Functional groups, 79, 80
Furnace heating elements, 376
Fused silica, 65
characteristics, 423, S–138
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
thermal properties, S–251
G
Gadolinium, S–270
Gallium arsenide:
cost, 472
diffraction pattern, 30
spinning, S–155
tensile strength values, S–181,
453
thermal conductivity values, 461
Fibrous refractory composite insulation (FRCI), S–349
Fick’s first law, 131, S–254, 484
Fick’s second law, 132, S–261, 485
Fictive temperature, S–137
Field ion microscopy, 102
Filament winding, S–191—S–192
Filler bars, Space Shuttle, S–350
Fillers, S–152, 485
Films:
diamond, 427, 428
polymer, 433
Fine pearlite, 331, 340, 342, 485
Fireclay refractories, S–110
Firing, 424, S–145, 485
Fixation agents, S–345
Flame retardants, S–152—S–153,
485
Flexural strength, 171–172, 485
influence of porosity on, ceramics, S–22, S–23
values for selected ceramics,
165, 452
Fluorescence, S–312, 485
Fluorite single crystals, 62
Fluorite structure, 42–43
Fluorocarbons, 81
trade names, characteristics, applications, 429, 431
Foams, 433–434, 485
Forces:
bonding, 18–20
coulombic, 21, 482
Forging, S–120, 485
Formaldehyde, 80
Forming operations, metals,
S–119—S–121
Forsterite, S–1
Forward bias, S–94, S–95—S–96,
485
Fractographic investigations, S–38
Fractographs:
cup-and-cone fracture surfaces,
S–39
fatigue striations, 262, S–56
intergranular fracture, 240
transgranular fracture, 240
Fracture, see also Brittle fracture;
Ductile fracture; Impact
fracture testing
delayed, S–53
classification, 305, 403
continuous cooling transformation diagrams, S–85—S–88
costs, 469–470
hypereutectoid, 310–312, 486
hypoeutectoid, 307–309, 486
isothermal transformation diagrams, 328–339
microstructures, 305–312
mechanical properties of, 339–
343, 444–445, 448, 449–450
Fiber efficiency parameter, S–178
Fiberglass, 423
Fiberglass-reinforced composites,
S–182
Fiber-reinforced composites,
S–170, 484
continuous and aligned,
S–171—S–178
discontinuous and aligned,
S–178
discontinuous and randomly oriented, S–178—S–179
fiber length effect, S–170—
S–171
fiber orientation/concentration
effect, S–171—S–180
fiber phase, S–180—S–181
longitudinal loading, S–172—
S–176, S–177
matrix phase, S–180—S–181
processing, S–189—S–192
reinforcement efficiency, S–179
transverse loading, S–176—
S–177
Fibers, 432, 484
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, 458
in composites, S–164—S–165
continuous vs. discontinuous,
S–171
fiber phase, S–180, S–181
length effect, S–170—S–171
orientation and concentration, S–171—S–179
costs, 473
density values, 444
elastic modulus values, S–181,
447
electrical resistivity values, 467
optical, S–318—S–320
polymer, 432
properties of selected, S–181
specific heat values, 464
Ferrous alloys (Continued)510 ● Index
electrical characteristics, 377
for lasers, S–315, S–317
for light-emitting diodes, S–323
Gallium phosphide:
electrical characteristics, 377
for light-emitting diodes, S–323
Galvanic corrosion, S–224—
S–225, 485
Galvanic couples, S–208
Galvanic series, S–212, S–213, 485
Galvanized steel, 422, S–233
Garnets, S–274
Gas constant, 104, 485
Gating system, S–121
Gauge length, 149
Gaussian error function, 133
Geometrical isomerism, 91,
S–12—S–13
Germanium:
crystal structure, 48
electrical characteristics, 377,
397
Gibbs phase rule, S–81—S–83,
485
Gilding metal, 415
Glass:
as amorphous material, 64–65
annealing, S–126, S–140
blowing, S–139, S–140
classification, 422
color, S–310
commercial; compositions and
characteristics, 423
corrosion resistance, S–237
cost, 472
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
forming techniques, S–139—
S–140
hardness, 182
heat treatment, S–140—S–141
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–359
melting point, S–138
modulus of elasticity, 154, 443
optical flint, 423
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
refractive index, S–304
soda-lime, composition, 423
softening point, S–138
strain point, S–138
stress-strain behavior, 173
structure, 65
surface crack propagation, 248
tempering, S–139—S–140
thermal properties, S–251
viscous properties, S–138—
S–139
working point, S–138, 494
Glass-ceramics, 423, 485
composition and properties, 423
flexural strength, 165, 452
microstructure, 401
modulus of elasticity, 154, 446
Glass fibers, 423, S–182
fiberglass-reinforced composites,
S–182, S–185
forming, S–139
properties as fiber, S–181
Glass transition, polymers, 354,
355
Glass transition temperature, 354–
355, S–137—S–138, 485
factors that affect, polymers,
S–89—S–90
values for selected polymers,
356, 479
Gold, 421
AFM micrograph of surface, 9
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
electrical conductivity, 374
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–357
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
Goodman’s law, S–336
Graft copolymers, 92, 485
Grain boundaries, 62, 115–117,
485
Grain boundary energy, 116–117
Grain growth, 218–219, 485
Grains, 485
definition, 62
distortion during plastic deformation, 204–205
Grain size, 485
dependence on time, 219
determination, 119–120
mechanical properties and, 219
reduction, and strengthening of
metals, 206–207
refinement of by annealing,
S–126
Grain size number (ASTM), 120
Graphite:
in cast irons, 409–411
compared to carbon, S–181,
S–183
cost, 472
from decomposition of cementite, 409
electrical conductivity, 389
properties/applications, 427–428
properties as whisker, S–181
as a refractory, S–111
structure of, 48
Gray cast iron, 410, 411, 485
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
Green ceramic bodies, S–144, 485
Green products, S–372
Griffith theory of brittle fracture,
S–41—S–42
Ground state, 15, S–302, 485
Gutta percha, S–13
H
Half-cells, standard, S–209—
S–210
Half-reactions, S–207
Hall coefficient, S–91
Hall effect, S–91—S–92, 485
Hall-Petch equation, 207
Hall voltage, S–91
Halogens, 17
Hardenability, S–127—S–131, 485
Hardenability band, S–130—
S–131
Hardenability curves, S–127—
S–131
Hard magnetic materials, S–282—
S–284, 485
properties, S–283
Hardness, 485
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation temperature, 343
ceramics, 181, 182
comparison of scales, 180–181
conversion diagram, 181
correlation with tensile strength,
180, 182
fine and coarse pearlite, spheroidite, 340, 342
pearlite, martensite, tempered
martensite, 343
polymers, 182
tempered martensite, 343, 346
Hardness tests, 177–180
summary of tests, 178
Hard sphere model, 32
Head-to-head configuration, S–11
Gallium arsenide (Continued)Index ● 511
electrical conductivity, 375–376
in metals, 107–109
thermal conductivity, S–255
Incongruent phase transformation,
301
Index of refraction, S–303—
S–304, 486
selected materials, S–304
Indices, Miller, 54–57, 488
Indium antimonide, electrical characteristics, 377
Induced dipoles, 25
Inert gases, 17
Inhibitors, S–232, 486
Initial permeability, S–278
Injection molding, S–154
Insulators (electrical), 486. See
also Dielectric materials
ceramics and polymers as, 389,
S–107—S–108
color, S–309—S–310
defined, 368
electron band structure, 370,
371–372
translucency and opacity,
S–310—S–311
Insulators (thermal), Space Shuttle thermal protection system, S–345—S–351
Integrated circuits, S–97—S–99,
486
advanced ceramics in, S–112—
S–113
fabrication, S–351—S–361
materials selection, S–351—
S–361
scanning electron micrograph,
365, S–98
Interatomic bonding, 20–24
Interatomic separation, 19, 20
Interdiffusion, 127, 486
Interfacial defects, 115–118
Interfacial energy, 118
Intergranular corrosion, S–227—
S–228, 486
Intergranular fracture, 238, 240,
486
Intermediate solid solutions, 298,
301, 486
Intermetallic compounds, 69, 298,
350, S–358, 486
Interplanar spacing, cubic crystals,
S–8
Interstitial diffusion, 129, 486
Interstitial impurity defects, 108
Hip joint replacement, materials
selection, S–341—S–345
Holes, 371, 377–379, 485
mobility, selected semiconductors, 377
temperature dependence of concentration, 383–387
Homopolymers, 82, 486
Honeycomb structure, S–196
Hooke’s law, 153, S–22
Hot pressing, S–147
Hot working, 215, S–119, 486. See
also Heat treatments
HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy)
steels, 404–405, 485
Hybrid composites, S–189, 486
Hydration, of cement, 426
Hydrocarbons, 77–79
Hydrogen:
diffusive purification, 131, 143,
145
reduction, S–215
Hydrogen bonding, 22, 25, 26, 486
Hydrogen chloride, 26, 29
Hydrogen electrode, S–209—
S–210
Hydrogen embrittlement, S–230—
S–231, 486
Hydrogen fluoride, 26, 29
Hydrogen induced cracking, S–230
Hydrogen stress cracking, S–230
Hydroplastic forming, S–143, 486
Hydroplasticity, S–142
Hydrostatic powder pressing,
S–146
Hypereutectoid alloys, 310–312,
486
Hypoeutectoid alloys, 307–310,
486
Hysteresis, S–278—S–280
Hysteresis, ferromagnetic, 486
soft and hard magnetic materials, S–280—S–282
I
Impact energy, 251, 486
fine pearlite, 341
temperature dependence, 253
Impact fracture testing, 250–255
Impact strength, polymers, 254
Imperfections, see Defects; Dislocations
Impurities:
in ceramics, 109–110
diffusion, 127–128
Head-to-tail configuration, S–11
Heat affected zone, S–123
Heat capacity, S–248—S–250,
485
temperature dependence,
S–249—S–250
vibrational contribution,
S–248—S–249
Heat flux, S–253
Heat transfer:
mechanism, S–248—S–249,
S–254
nonsteady-state, S–261
Heat treatable, definition of, 414
Heat treatments, 126. See also Annealing; Phase transformations
dislocation reduction, 201
glass, S–140—S–141
hydrogen embrittlement, S–231
intergranular corrosion and,
S–227
polymer morphology, 223
polymer properties, S–37
for precipitation hardening,
347–349
recovery, recrystallization, and
grain growth during,
213–219
steel, S–126—S–136
Hermetic sealing, S–354
Hertz, S–300
Hexagonal close-packed structure,
35–36, 485
anion stacking, 60
close-packed planes, 58–59
slip systems, 203–204
twinning in, S–35
Hexagonal crystal system, 49, 50
direction indices, 53–54
planar indices, 57–58
Hexagonal ferrites, S–274
Hexane, 78
High carbon steels, 403, 405
High-cycle fatigue, 259–260
High polymers, 87, 485
High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA)
steels, 404–405, 485
High-temperature reusable surface
insulation (HRSI), S–347,
S–348, S–350
High-temperature superconductors, S–289—S–290
Hip joint, anatomy, S–339—
S–341512 ● Index
Interstitials:
in ceramics, 105
self-, 104, 491
Interstitial solid solutions, 108,
109, 486
Intrinsic conductivity, 379
temperature variation, 383–386
Intrinsic semiconductors, 377–379,
486
Invar, S–251, S–253
Invariant point, 294, 486
Inverse lever rule, 298–290, 487
Inverse spinel structure, S–273
Ion cores, 23
Ionic bonding, 20–22, 486
in ceramics, 38
Ionic character (percent), 23, 38
Ionic conduction, 368, 389–390
Ionic polarization, S–105, S–106,
489
Ionic radii, 38, 41
Iridium, 421
Iron, see also Ferrous alloys;
Steels
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
Curie temperature, S–276
diffraction pattern, S–10
electrical conductivity, 374
ferrite (), 302–304, 484
as ferromagnetic material,
S–270, S–271
magnetic properties, S–281
polymorphism, 49
recrystallization temperature,
217
slip systems, 204
stress-strain behavior, 166
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Iron-carbon alloys, see Ferrous
alloys
Iron-iron carbide alloys, 302–305
Iron-silicon alloys, magnetic properties, S–281
Isobutane, 79
Isobutylene, 93
Isomerism, 78, 486
geometrical, S–12—S–13, 91
stereoisomerism, S–12, 91
Isomorphous systems, 286, 486
binary, see Binary isomorphous
alloys
Isoprene, S–12
Isostatic powder pressing, S–146
Isostrain, in fiber-reinforced composites, S–173
Isostress, in fiber-reinforced composites, S–176
Isotactic configuration, S–12, 486
Isothermal transformation diagrams, 328–339, 486
4340 alloy steel, 337
0.45 wt% C steel, 360
0.76 wt% C steel, 336
Isotopes, 10, 486
Isotropic materials, 63–64, S–179,
486
Izod impact test, 251–252, 486
J
Jominy end-quench test, S–127,
S–128, 487
Junction transistors, S–95—S–96,
487
K
Kaolinite clay, S–1—S–3, S–142
Kevlar, see Aramid
Kinetics, 325–326, 487
crystallization of polymers,
353–354
oxidation, S–236—S–237
phase transformations, 325–326
Knoop hardness, 178, 180
Kovar, S–253
thermal properties, S–251
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–354, S–355
L
Lamellae, 95
Laminar composites, S–179,
S–195—S–196, 487
Large-particle composites,
S–165—S–169, 487
Larson-Miller parameter, S–65
Lasers, S–313—S–315, S–316,
S–317, 487
semiconductor, S–315, S–316,
S–317, S–318
types, characteristics, and applications, S–317
Laser beam welding, S–123—
S–124
Lattice parameters, 49, 50, 487
Lattices, 32, 487
Lattice strains, 201–202, 208–210,
351, 487
Lattice waves, S–248—S–249
Layered silicates, S–1—S–3
Lay-up, in prepreg processing,
S–191
Lead, 421
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
recrystallization temperature,
217
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
Leadframe design, S–353—S–354,
S–356
Lead-tin phase diagram, 294–296,
S–70—S–77
Lead zirconate, S–109
Lead-zirconate-titanate, S–109
Leak-before-break design, 246,
S–51
Leathery region, polymers,
S–25—S–26
LEDs (light emitting diodes),
S–312
Lever rule, 289–290, 487
Life cycle analysis/assessment,
S–373
Light:
absorption, S–305—S–308
reflection, S–304—S–305
refraction, S–303—S–304
scattering, S–310—S–311
transmission, S–308
Light-emitting diodes, S–312
Lime, 425, 427
Linear atomic density, S–4—S–5
Linear coefficient of thermal
expansion, S–62, S–250—
S–253, S–258, 493
values for leadframe materials,
S–355
values for selected materials,
S–251, 455–458
Linear defects, 111–114
Linear polymers, 89, 487
Liquid crystal polymers, S–113—
S–115, 487
Liquidus line, 286, 287, 294, 295,
487
Liquidus temperatures, Ge-Si
system, 317
Lodestone (magnetite), S–264,
S–273
Longitudinal direction, S–172, 487
Longitudinal loading, composites,
S–173—S–174
Lost-wax casting, S–122Index ● 513
Materials science, 2–3
Materials selection, S–325
case studies:
artificial hip replacement,
S–339—S–345
integrated circuit packaging,
S–351—S–361
Space Shuttle thermal protection, S–345—S–351
valve spring design, S–332—
S–339
torsionally stressed cylindrical shaft, S–325—S–332
Materials selection charts, S–327,
S–328—S–329
Matrix phase, 487
definition, S–164
fiber-reinforced composites,
S–180—S–181
Matthiessen’s rule, 374, 487
Mean stress, 256, 263
Mechanical properties, see also
specific mechanical properties
grain size and, 219
variability, 183, S–28—S–30
Mechanical twin, 117, S–35. See
also Twinning
Mechanics of materials, 153
Medium carbon steels, 405
Meissner effect, S–289
Melamine-formaldehyde, mer
structure, 475
Melting (polymers), 354
Melting point (temperature),
S–138
and bonding energy for selected
materials, 22
factors that affect (polymers),
S–87, S–89—S–90
glasses, 487
polymers, 354–355, 356, 479
Melt spinning, S–155
Mercury:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
Mer units, 79, 487
bifunctional and trifunctional,
82
table of, 83–84, 475–478
Metal alloys, see Alloys
Metallic bonding, 23–24, 487
Metallic glasses, 394, S–367
Metallographic examination, S–17
samarium-cobalt alloys,
S–283—S–284
soft, S–280—S–281
Magnetic moments, S–267—
S–268
cations, S–274
Magnetic permeability, S–266,
S–267, S–299, S–303
Magnetic storage, S–284—S–286
Magnetic susceptibility, S–267, 487
selected diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials, S–270
various units for, S–267, S–293
Magnetic units, conversion factors, S–267
Magnetism:
basic concepts, S–264—S–268
electron spin and, S–268
Magnetite (lodestone), S–264,
S–273
Magnetization, S–266—S–267,
487
saturation, S–271, S–275, 491
Majority charge carriers, 381
Malleability, see Ductility
Malleable cast iron, 411, 414, 487
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
Manganese oxide, as antiferromagnetic material, S–272
Manufacturing techniques, economics, S–370
Martensite, 334–337, S–85, 347,
487
alloying to favor formation of,
S–86, S–88
crystal structure, 335
hardness, 342–343
hardness vs. carbon content, 343
tempering of, 344–345
Martensitic stainless steels,
407–408
Materials:
advanced, 6
classification of, 5–6
costs, S–193, S–331, 469–474
current and future needs, 6–7
disposal of, S–372—S–373
economic considerations, S–370
engineered, S–371
historical development of, 2
nonrenewable sources of, 7,
S–372
total cycle, S–371—S–372
Materials engineering, 2–4, 149,
S–325
Low-angle grain boundaries, 115–
116, 207
Low-carbon steels, 403
Low-cycle fatigue, 259
Lower critical temperature,
S–125, 487
Lower yield point, 160, 161
Low-temperature reusable surface
insulation (LRSI), S–347,
S–348, S–350
Luminescence, S–311—S–312,
487
M
Macromolecules, 79, 487
Magnesia, see Magnesium oxide
Magnesium:
elastic and shear moduli, 154
Poisson’s ratio, 154
slip systems, 204
Magnesium alloys, 418, 419
Magnesium fluoride, optical properties, S–305
Magnesium-lead phase diagram,
300
Magnesium oxide:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
flexural strength, 165
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
thermal properties, S–251
Magnesium oxide-aluminum oxide
phase diagram, S–78
Magnetic ceramics, S–273—S–275
Magnetic dipoles, S–264—S–265
Magnetic domains, see Domains
Magnetic energy product, S–282
Magnetic field strength, S–265,
S–267, 487
Magnetic field vectors, S–265—
S–267
Magnetic flux density, S–265,
S–267, 487
critical values for superconductors, S–290
Magnetic hysteresis, S–277—
S–279
soft and hard magnetic materials, S–280—S–282
Magnetic induction, see Magnetic
flux density
Magnetic materials:
hard, S–282—S–284
neodymium-iron-boron alloys,
S–284514 ● Index
Metal-matrix composites, S–185—
S–186, 487
Metals, see also Alloys; Crystalline materials
corrosion, see Corrosion
costs, 469–471
crystal structure, see Crystal
structures
defined, 5, 487
density values, 441–443
elastic modulus values, 154,
444–446
as electrical conductors, 367
electrical resistivity values,
464–466
electron band structure, 370
fabrication, S–119—S–124
fracture toughness for selected,
244, S–49, 454
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion values, S–251,
455–456
optical properties, S–302—
S–303
oxidation, S–234—S–237
Poisson’s ratio for selected, 154,
448
shear moduli, 154
specific heat values, S–251,
462–463
strengthening, see Strengthening
of metals
thermal conductivity values,
S–251, 459–460
Metastability, 487
of microstructures, 327
Metastable states, 285
Methane, 22, 78
Methyl alcohol, 80
Methyl group, 81
Mica, S–2
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
Micelles, 95
Microconstituents, see also specific
microconstituent phases:
definition, S–74, 487
in eutectic alloys, S–74—S–77
in steel alloys, 306–311
Microcracks, 239, 241,
S–39—S–40
in ceramics, 248–249
Microelectronics, S–97—S–99
materials selection for, S–351—
S–361
Microhardness tests, 180
Micron, 119
Microscopy, 118–119, S–17—
S–21, 487
Microstructure, 119, 487
austenite, 304
bainite, 333
bonded ceramic abrasive, 426
brass during recrystallization
and grain growth, 214–215
carbon-black-reinforced rubber,
S–167
cast irons, 411, 413
cemented carbide, S–167
coarse and fine pearlite, 331
craze in polyphenylene oxide,
251
development in eutectic alloys,
S–70—S–77
development in iron-carbon
alloys, 305–312
development in isomorphous
alloys:
equilibrium cooling, S–67,
S–68
nonequilibrium cooling,
S–67—S–70
eutectic (lead-tin), S–73
ferrite (), 304
glass-ceramic, 401
gray cast iron, 411
hypereutectoid steel alloy, 311
hypoeutectoid steel alloy, 281,
309
influence of cooling rate, S–129
integrated circuit, 365, S–98
magnetic storage disk, S–286,
S–287
martensite, 336
metastable, 285
microscopic examination, 118–
119, S–17—S–21
pearlite, 307, 331
pearlite partially transformed to
spheroidite, 335
polycrystalline metal before and
after deformation, 205
porcelain, S–146
precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy, 323
silica fibers, Space Shuttle tile,
S–349
single-phase iron-chromium
alloy, S–19
sintered ceramic, S–148
spheroidite, 334
spherulite (natural rubber), 76
stress corrosion in brass, S–230
tempered martensite, 344
Microvoids, S–39, 250
Miller-Bravais index system,
53–54
Miller indices, 54–57, 488
Minority charge carriers, 381
Mixed dislocations, 112, 114, 199,
488. See also Dislocations
Mobility, of charge carriers, 372–
373, 488
ionic, 390
values for selected semiconductors, 377
Modulus of elasticity, 153–156,
488
anisotropy, 64, 188
artificial hip alloys, S–344
atomic bonding and, 155–156,
189
copper reinforced with tungsten, S–166
dependence of cohesive
strength on, S–38
directionality dependence for cubic crystals, 188–189
influence of porosity on, in ceramics, S–22, S–23
relation to shear modulus, 158
selected ceramics, 154, 446
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, S–181, 447
selected metals, 154, 444–446
selected polymers, 154, 446–447
temperature dependence, 156
and thermal fatigue, S–62
and thermal stresses, S–257,
S–258
values for various materials,
444–447
Modulus of resilience, 166
Modulus of rupture, 172. See also
Flexural strength
Mohs hardness scale, 176, 181
Molarity, S–208, 488
Molding, plastics, S–153—S–155,
488
Mole, 11, 488
Molecular chemistry, polymers,
80–82, 488
Molecular configurations, polymers, S–11—S–13
Molecular mass, 82Index ● 515
Nonstoichiometry, 106
Normalizing, S–87, S–125—
S–126, 488
Notches, effect of, 241, S–40
Notch toughness, 167, 251
n-p-n Junction transistors,
S–95—S–96
n-Type semiconductors, 380–381,
488
Nucleation, 325, 488
Number-average molecular
weight, 84–86
Nylon, fatigue behavior, 260
Nylon 6,6: 83
degradation resistance, S–239
density, 101, 443
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
mechanical properties, 154, 165
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
thermal properties, S–251
Nylons, trade names, characteristics, and applications, 429
O
Octahedral position, 60–61,
S–273—S–274, 488
Ohm’s law, 366, 367, 488
Oil, as quenching medium,
S–132—S–133
Opacity, S–300, 488
in insulators, S–310—S–311
in semiconductors, S–306—
S–307
Optical fibers, S–318—S–320
Optical flint glass, composition
and properties, 423, S–304
Optical microscopy, S–17, S–18,
S–19
Optical properties, S–298
of metals, S–302—S–303
of nonmetals, S–303—S–311
Ordered solid solution, 298, 415
Orientation polarization, S–105—
S–106, 489
Orthorhombic crystal system, 49, 50
Osmium, 421
Overaging, 349, 488
Overvoltage, S–214, S–215—
S–218
Oxidation, S–206—S–207, 488
kinetics, S–236—S–237
metals, S–234—S–237
NBR, see Nitrile rubber (NBR)
Necking, 161
complex stress state in, 168
criterion for, 193
in ductile fracture, 236–237
polymers, 176
Ne´el temperature, S–276
Neodymium-aluminum phase
diagram, 319
Neodymium-iron-boron magnets,
S–284
Neoprene rubber, 431, S–239
Nernst equation, S–211
Network formers (glass), 65
Network modifiers (glass), 66
Network polymers, 89, 90, 488
Network solids, S–4
Neutrons, 10
Nichrome, 376
Nickel, 421
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
Curie temperature, S–276
elastic and shear moduli, 154
as ferromagnetic material,
S–270, S–271—S–272
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization temperature, 217
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
thoria-dispersed (TD), S–169
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Nickel ferrite, S–274
Niobium, 419
Niobium alloys, as superconductors, S–289, S–290
Nitrile rubber (NBR), 92, 93
characteristics and applications,
431, 432
degradation resistance, S–239
Noble metals, 421
Nodular iron, see Ductile iron
Noncrystalline materials, 31, 64–
65, 488
Nondestructive testing, 245,
S–49—S–50
Nonequilibrium cooling, 312–313
Nonequilibrium solidification,
S–67—S–70
Nonferrous alloys, 414–422, 488.
See also specific nonferrous
alloys
Nonsteady-state diffusion, 132–
135, 488
Molecular materials, 26–27
Molecular shape, polymers, 87–88
Molecular structure, polymers,
88–90, 488
Molecular weight, 488
influence on polymer melting/
glass transition temperatures, S–89—S–90
influence on mechanical behavior, polymers, 224, S–36,
S–37
number-average, 84, 86–87
weight-average, 84, 86–87
Molecular weight distribution,
84–85
Molecules:
definition, 26, 488
polar, 25–26, 489
Molybdenum, 419
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
density, 442
modulus of elasticity, 445
Poisson’s ratio, 448
properties as wire, S–181
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, 456, 460,
463
yield strength, tensile strength,
ductility, 165, 451
Moment of inertia, 172, 193,
S–193, S–326
Monel, 421
Monoclinic crystal system, 49, 50
Monomers, 79, 488
MOSFET transistors, S–95,
S–96—S–97, 488
Mullite, S–80, S–111
flexural strength, 165
modulus of elasticity, 154
Poisson’s ratio, 154
Multiphase transformations, see
Phase transformations
Muntz metal, 415
Muscovite (mica), S–2
N
Natural aging, 351, 488
Natural rubber (polyisoprene),
S–12—S–13, 431
degradation resistance, S–239
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
stress-strain behavior, 226
thermal properties, S–251516 ● Index
Ozone, degradation of polymers,
S–240
P
Palladium, 131, 421
Paraffins, 78
Paramagnetism, S–270, 488
Parisons, S–139, S–155
Particle-reinforced composites,
S–165—S–170, 488
Particulate magnetic recording
media, S–285
Pascal-seconds, 220
Passivity, S–221—S–222, 488
Pauli exclusion principle, 15, 488
Pearlite, 306, 488
coarse, 331, 482
colonies, 306
as composite, S–163
fine, 331, 341, 485
formation, 306–307, 328–331,
S–85, S–87, 347
hardness vs. transformation temperature, 343
mechanical properties, 340, 341,
342, 343
Pentane, 78
Performance (materials), 3
Performance index, S–327—
S–331
Periclase, 424, S–110, see Magnesium oxide
Periodic table, 17–18, 488
Peritectic reaction, 298, 488
Permalloy (45), magnetic properties, S–281
Permanent dipoles, 25–26, S–106
Permeability, S–266, S–267,
S–299, S–303, 488
Permittivity, 21, S–100, S–299,
S–303, 488
Perovskite structure, 43–44,
S–108, S–289
PET, see Polyester(s)
Phase boundaries, 117
Phase diagrams, 285–291, 489
binary eutectic systems, 292–
297, S–70—S–77
binary isomorphous systems,
286–287, 292, S–67—S–70
ceramic systems, S–77—S–81
congruent phase transformations, 301
definitions/basic concepts,
282–285
eutectoid and peritectic reactions, 298, 300–301
intermediate phases in, 297–298
interpretation, 288–291
specific:
aluminum-copper, 350
aluminum-neodymium, 319
aluminum oxide-chromium oxide, S–78
cast iron, 413
copper-beryllium, 363
copper-nickel, 287
copper-silver, 293, S–82
copper-zinc, 299, 300
iron-carbide (graphite), 409
iron-iron carbide, 303
lead-tin, 295, S–70—S–77
magnesium-lead, 300
magnesium oxide-aluminum
oxide, S–78
nickel-titanium, 302
silica-alumina, S–80
sugar-water, 283
titanium-copper, 319
water (pressure-temperature),
316
water-sodium chloride, 315
zirconia-calcia, S–79—S–80
ternary, 301
Phase equilibria, 284–285, 489
Phases, 283–284, 489
Phase transformation diagrams:
continuous cooling, S–85—
S–87, 361, 482
isothermal, 328–339, 360, 486
Phase transformation rate,
325–326
martensitic transformation,
335–336
temperature dependence, 326
Phase transformations, 489
athermal, 337
classification, 325
multiphase, 327
Phenol, 80
Phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite):
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
mechanical properties, 154, 165
mer structure, 83, 475
thermal properties, S–251
Phenolics, trade names, characteristics, applications, 430
Phenyl group, 80
Phonons, S–249, S–254, S–255,
489
Phosphorescence, S–312, 489
Photoconductivity, S–312, 489
Photoelasticity, S–297
Photomicrographs, 119, 489
Photonic signal, S–315
Photons, S–249, S–300, 489
Pickling, of steels, S–231
Piezoelectricity, S–109, 489
Piezoelectric materials, S–109
Pilling-Bedworth ratio, S–235—
S–236, 489
selected metals, S–236
Pitting corrosion, S–226—S–227,
S–342, 489
Plain carbon steels, 338, 403, 489
Planar atomic density, S–4—S–6
Planck’s constant, S–301, 489
Planes, see Crystallographic planes
Plane strain, 243, S–44, 489
Plane strain fracture toughness,
243, S–46, S–48, 489
ceramic-matrix composites,
S–188
selected materials, 244, S–49,
454–455
Plane stress, S–44
Plaster of paris, S–122, S–143, 425
Plastic deformation, 160–166, 489
ceramics, 220–221
dislocation motion and, 199–
206, S–31—S–34
in fracture, S–42
influence on electrical conductivity, 375
polycrystalline materials,
204–206
semicrystalline polymers,
221–223
twinning, S–34—S–35
Plasticizers, S–152, 489
Plastics, 489
characteristics and applications,
428–431
in composites, S–166
forming techniques, S–153—
S–155
Platinum, 421
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 33
electrical conductivity, 374
Plexiglas, see Polymethyl
methacrylate
Plywood, S–195Index ● 517
Polyisoprene, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
Polymer-matrix composites,
S–182—S–185, 489
Polymerization, 81, S–150—S–151
degree of, 84
Polymers, 5, 79, 489. See also
Plastics
as additives, 433
classification, molecular characteristics, 91
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, S–251, 457
conducting, 390
costs, 473
crosslinking, see Crosslinking
crystallinity, 92–95, 482
crystallization, 353–354
crystals, 95–97
defined, 5, 79
deformation:
elastic, 221
plastic, 221–223
degradation of, S–237—S–241
density, 94
density values, 443–444
ductility values, 165, 452–453
elastic modulus values, 154,
446–447
elastomers, 431–432
electrical properties, 389, 390,
S–101, 466
fibers, 432–433
fracture mechanics, 250
fracture toughness values, 244,
S–49, 455
glass transition, 354
glass transition temperatures,
356, 479
as insulators, 389, S–107—
S–108
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–359
liquid crystal, S–113—S–115
mechanical properties, 173–175,
181–182
factors that affect, 223–224,
S–35—S–37
values of, 446–447, 448,
452–453
melting, 354
melting temperatures, 356, 479
miscellaneous applications,
433–434
molecular chemistry, 80–82
melting and glass transition temperatures (PET), 356, 479
mer structure (PET), back
cover, 84, 476
in polymer-matrix composites,
S–185
recycle code and products
(PET), S–375
trade names, characteristics,
applications, 430
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK),
S–185
degradation resistance, S–239
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
mer structure, 476
Polyetherimide (PEI), S–185
Polyethylene, 81, 83
crystal structure of, 93
degradation resistance, S–239
density, 443
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
fatigue behavior, 260
index of refraction, S–304
mechanical properties, 154, 165
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
recycle codes and products,
S–375
single crystals, 96
thermal properties, S–251
trade names, characteristics,
applications, 429
ultrahigh molecular weight, see
Ultrahigh molecular weight
polyethylene
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
see Polyester(s)
Polyhexamethylene adipamide, see
Nylon 6,6
Polyimides:
glass transition temperature,
479
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–360
mer structure, 477
polymer-matrix composites,
S–185
Polyisobutylene:
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
mer structure, 93, 477
relaxation modulus, 195
p-n-p Junction transistors,
S–95—S–96
p-n Rectifying junctions, S–93—
S–95, 490
Point defects, 103–111, 489
Poise, 220
Poisson’s ratio, 158–160, 489
values for various materials,
154, 448–449
Polarization, S–101—S–103, 489.
See also Electronic polarization; Ionic polarization; Orientation polarization
Polarization (corrosion), S–214—
S–218, 489
corrosion rates from, S–218—
S–221
Polar molecules, 25–26, 489
Polar moment of inertia, S–326
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN):
mer structure, 93, 475
carbon fibers, S–183
Polyamide-imide (PAI), mer structure, 475
Polybutadiene, see Butadiene
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
mer structure, 476
Polycarbonates:
density, 443
degradation resistance, S–239
mechanical properties, 154, 165
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
mer structure, front cover, 84,
476
reinforced vs. unreinforced properties, S–179
trade names, characteristics, applications, 429
Polychloroprene, see Chloroprene;
Chloroprene rubber
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, mer
structure, 476
Polycrystalline materials, 62, 489
plastic deformation, 204–206
Polydimethylsiloxane, 431–432
degradation resistance, S–239
mer structure, 432, 476
Polyester(s):
degradation resistance (PET),
S–239
density (PET), 444
fatigue behavior (PET), 260
mechanical properties (PET),
154, 165518 ● Index
molecular configurations,
S–11—S–13
molecular shape, 87–88
molecular structure, 88–90
molecular weight, 82–87
natural, 77
opacity and translucency, S–311
Poisson’s ratio values, 154, 448
radiation effects, S–240
refraction indices, S–304
semicrystalline, 94–96, 221–223,
224, S–36
specific heat values, S–251,
463–464
spherulites in, 76, 95–97, 223
stereoisomerism, S–12, 91
stress-strain behavior, 173–176
swelling and dissolution, S–238
tensile strength values, 165,
452–453
thermal conductivity values,
S–251, 460–461
thermal properties, S–253, S–256
thermoplastic, see Thermoplastic polymers
thermosetting, see Thermosetting polymers
types of, 77
viscoelasticity, S–22—S–27
weathering, S–241
yield strength values, 165,
452–453
Polymethyl methacrylate:
density, 444
electrical conductivity, 389
fatigue behavior, 260
fixation agent for artificial hip,
S–345
index of refraction, S–304
mechanical properties, 447, 453
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
mer structure, 83, 477
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 455
stress-strain behavior as function of temperature, 175
trade names, characteristics, applications, 429
Polymorphic transformations, in
iron, 302–303
Polymorphism, 49, 489
Polyparaphenylene terephthalamide, see Aramid
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), mer
structure, 477
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS),
S–185
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
mer structure, 477
Polypropylene, 81–82
degradation resistance, S–239
density, 444
fatigue behavior, 260
index of refraction, S–304
kinetics of crystallization, 353
mechanical properties, 447, 453
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
mer structure, 83, 478
recycle code and products,
S–375
thermal properties, S–251
trade names, characteristics, applications, 430
Polystyrene:
degradation resistance, S–239
density, 444
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
fatigue behavior, 260
index of refraction, S–304
mechanical properties, 447, 448,
453
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
mer structure, 83, 478
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 455
thermal properties, S–251
trade names, characteristics, applications, 430
viscoelastic behavior,
S–26—S–27
Polysulphides, for integrated circuit fabrication, S–360
Polytetrafluoroethylene, 81
degradation resistance, S–239
density, 444
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
fatigue behavior, 260
index of refraction, S–304
mechanical properties, 447, 448,
453
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
mer structure, 83, 478
thermal properties, S–251
Polyurethane, for integrated circuit fabrication, S–360
Polyvinyl acetate, mer structure,
478
Polyvinyl alcohol, mer structure,
478
Polyvinyl chloride:
density, 444
mechanical properties, 447, 448,
453
melting and glass transition temperatures, 356, 479
mer structure, 83, 478
recycle code and products,
S–375
Polyvinyl fluoride:
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
mer structure, 478
Polyvinylidene chloride:
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
mer structure, 478
Polyvinylidene fluoride:
glass transition temperature,
479
mer structure, 478
Porcelain, 424
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
microstructure, S–146
Porosity:
formation during sintering,
S–147—S–148
influence on flexural strength,
ceramics, S–22—S–23
influence on modulus of elasticity, ceramics, S–22—S–23
influence on thermal conductivity, S–255
optical translucency and opacity, S–311
refractory ceramics, 425
Portland cement, 426
fracture strength distribution,
249
Portland cement concrete, S–168
Posttensioned concrete, S–169
Potassium chloride, 29
Powder metallurgy, S–122, 489
Powder pressing, ceramics,
S–145—S–147
Polymers (Continued)Index ● 519
Relative permittivity, see Dielectric constant
Relaxation frequency, S–106,
490
Relaxation modulus, S–24—
S–27, 490
Relaxation time, 194
Remanence (remanent induction),
S–279, 490
Repeated stress cycle, 255, 256
Residual stresses, S–125, 490. See
also Thermal stresses
glass, S–140
martensitic steels, 344
Resilience, 166, 490
Resin, polymer, S–182
Resistance (electrical), 366
Resistivity, see Electrical resistivity
Resolved shear stresses, S–31—
S–32, 490
Retained austenite, 335
Reverse bias, S–94, 490
Reversed stress cycle, 255, 256,
S–335
Rhodium, 421
Rhombohedral crystal system, 49,
50
Rochelle salt, S–109
Rock salt structure, 41, 42
Rockwell hardness tests, 147,
177–179
Rolling, of metals, 120, 121, 490
Rouge, 425
Rovings, S–189
Rubbers, 90, 92, 93
natural, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
synthetic, 92, 93, 431–432
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 431
Rubbery region, polymers, S–26
Ruby, see also Aluminum oxide
lasers, S–313
optical characteristics, S–310
Rule of mixtures, 490
composites, S–165—S–166,
S–174, S–176, S–177,
S–178, S–194
electrical resistivity, 375
Rupture, 266, 490
Rupture lifetime, 267
extrapolation of, S–65—S–66
Rust, S–207
Ruthenium, 421
index of refraction, S–304
as piezoelectric material, S–109
Quenching media, S–132—S–133
R
Radiation effects, polymers,
S–240
Random copolymers, 91, 92, 490
Range of stress, 256
Reaction cured glass, S–350
Recombination, electron-hole,
S–94, S–306, S–307
Recovery, 213, 490
Recrystallization, 213–218, S–124,
490
effect on properties, 216
kinetics for copper, 326
Recrystallization temperature,
215–217, 490
dependence on percent cold
work, 216
selected metals and alloys, 217
Rectification, S–93—S–95
Rectifying junctions, S–93—S–94,
490
Recycling:
issues in materials science and
engineering, S–373—S–376
of composite materials, S–376
of glass, S–374
of metals, S–373—S–374
of plastics and rubber, S–374—
S–376
Recycling codes and products,
S–375
Reduction (electrochemical),
S–206, 490
Reduction in area, percent, 164
Reflection, S–304—S–305, 490
Reflectivity, S–300, S–305
Refraction, S–303—S–304, 490
index of, S–303, 486
Refractories (ceramics), 422, 424–
425, S–110—S–111, 490
corrosion, S–237
Refractory metals, 419
creep resistance, 269
Reinforced carbon-carbon composites, S–347, S–348, S–351
Reinforced concrete, S–168—
S–169, 490
Reinforcement efficiency, table of,
S–179
Relative permeability, S–266,
S–267, 490
Powder x-ray diffraction techniques, S–8—S–9
Precipitation-hardenable stainless
steels, 408, 409
Precipitation hardening, 347–352,
489
heat treatments, 347–349
mechanism, 349–351
Prepreg production processes,
S–190—S–191, 489
Pressing:
glass, S–139
powder ceramics, S–145—S–146
Prestressed concrete, S–169, 489
Primary bonds, 20–24, 490
Primary creep, 266
Primary phase, S–74, 490
Principal quantum number, 12
Principle of combined action,
S–163, 490
Process annealing, S–124, 490
Processing, materials, 3
Proeutectoid cementite, 310, 311,
490
Proeutectoid ferrite, 308, 309, 490
Propane, 78
Properties, 490
categories of, 3
Proportional limit, 161, 490
Protons, 10
PTFE, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
p-Type semiconductors, 381–383,
490
Pultrusion, S–189—S–190
Purple plague, S–358
Pyrex glass:
composition, 423
index of refraction, S–304
mechanical properties, 446, 448,
452
thermal properties, S–251
thermal shock, S–258
Pyroceram:
composition, 423
density, 443
flexural strength, 452
modulus of elasticity, 446
Poisson’s ratio, 448
Q
Quantum mechanics, 11, 490
Quantum numbers, 12–14, 490
magnetic, 14, S–268
Quartz, 47, S–142
hardness, 182520 ● Index
S
Sacrificial anodes, S–233, 490
Safe stress, 184, 491
Safety factors, 184, 246, S–51,
S–326
Samarium-cobalt magnets, S–283
Sand casting, S–121—S–122
Sandwich panels, S–196, 491
Sapphire, see also Aluminum
oxide
optical transmittance, S–310
Saturated hydrocarbons, 78, 491
Saturation, extrinsic semiconductors, 386
Saturation magnetization, S–271,
S–275, S–278, 491
temperature dependence,
S–277
SBR, see Styrene-butadiene
rubber
Scaling, S–234
Scanning electron microscopy,
S–20, 491
Scanning probe microscopy,
S–20—S–21, 491
Schmid factor, 229
Schottky defect, 106, 491
Scission, S–238, 491
Scleroscope hardness, 180
Screw dislocations, 112, 113, 199,
200, 491. See also Dislocations
Seawater, as corrosion environment, S–231
Secant modulus, 155
Secondary bonds, 24–26, 491
Secondary creep, 266
Segregation, S–70
Selection of materials, see Materials selection
Selective leaching, S–228, 491
Self-diffusion, 127, 491
Self-interstitials, 104, 491
SEM, see Scanning electron microscopy
Semiconductor devices,
S–93—S–99
Semiconductor lasers, S–315,
S–316, S–317
Semiconductors:
band structure, 370
in computers, S–97—S–99
costs, 472
defined, 6, 370, 491
extrinsic, 379–383, 484
fullerenes as, S–4
intrinsic, 377–379, 486
light absorption, S–305—S–308
n-type, 380–381, 488
p-type, 381–383, 490
temperature dependence of conductivity, 383–387
of germanium, 397
Semicrystalline polymers, 94–95
deformation mechanisms:
elastic, 221
plastic, 221–223
Severity of quench, S–132
Shape memory effect, S–367
Shear deformation, 150, 170–171
Shear modulus, 156–157
performance of torsionally
stressed shaft, S–332
relationship to elastic modulus,
158
selected metals, 154
spring design, S–333
Shear strain, 152, 491
Shear strength, S–326
Shear stress, 152, 491
resolved, S–31—S–32
resolved from tensile stress,
152–153
springs, S–332—S–333
Shear tests, 152
Shot peening, 264, S–338
Shrinkage, clay products, S–144—
S–145
Silica, 47
crystalline and noncrystalline
structures, 65
fibers, Space Shuttle tiles,
S–348—S–349
fibers for optical communications, S–318—S–320
fused, see Fused silica
as refractory, S–110
Silica-alumina phase diagram,
S–80
Silica glasses, 65–66
viscosity, S–138
Silicates:
glasses, 65–66
layered, S–1—S–3
tetrahedral structure, 47
types and structures, 46–47,
S–1—S–3, 65–66
Silicon:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
carrier concentration vs. temperature, 385
conduction in, 378
conductivity vs. temperature,
384
cost, 472
electrical characteristics, 377
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion, S–354
wafer, S–352
Silicon carbide:
as abrasive, 425
as advanced ceramic, S–111—
S–112
flexural strength, 165, 452
hardness, 182
modulus of elasticity, 154, 446
oxidation protection, Space
Shuttle, S–351
properties as whiskers and
fibers, S–181
as refractory, S–111
Silicon dioxide, see Silica
Silicone rubber, 432
characteristics and applications,
431
degradation resistance, S–239
Silicones:
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–360
use on Space Shuttle, S–347—
S–348, S–350
Silicon nitride:
as advanced ceramic, S–111
flexural strength, 165, 452
modulus of elasticity, 154, 446
properties as a whisker, S–181
Silicon tetraboride, S–350
Silly putty, S–24
Silver, 421
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
electrical conductivity, 374, 376
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
Simple cubic crystal structure, 68
Single crystals, 62, 491
slip in, S–31—S–33
Sintered aluminum powder
(SAP), S–170
Sintering, S–147—S–148, 491
SI units, 439–440
Ski, cross-section, S–162
Slip, 160, 200, 491
compared to twinning, S–35Index ● 521
Standard deviation, 183,
S–28—S–29
Standard emf series, S–209—
S–210
Standard half-cells, S–209, 492
Static fatigue, S–53
Steady-state creep rate, 266
Steatite, dielectric properties,
S–101
Steels, 305. See also Alloy steels;
Stainless steels
AISI/SAE designation scheme,
405–406
classification, 338, 402–403
costs, 469–470
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374
fatigue behavior (1045), 276
heat treatments, S–125—S–133
impact energy, 255
magnetic properties, S–283
overview of types, 402–407
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
Poisson’s ratio, 154
properties as wires (fiber reinforcement), S–181
for springs, S–337, S–366
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility (1020), 165
Step reaction polymerization,
S–151, 482
Stereoisomerism, 492
polymers, S–12
Sterling silver, 107, 421
Stiffness, see Modulus of elasticity
Stoichiometry, 106, 492
Strain, 151. See also Stress-strain
behavior
engineering, 149, 492
lattice, 201, 208–210, 351, 487
shear, 152, 491
true, 168, 493
Strain energy release rate, S–42
Strain hardening, 171, 210–212,
S–120, 482, 492
corrosion and, S–223
influence on electrical resistivity, 375
influence on mechanical properties, 211, 212
recrystallization after, 213–216
Strain-hardening exponent, 169,
212
Space Shuttle Orbiter, S–324,
S–345
Space Shuttle thermal protection,
S–247
materials selection, S–345—
S–351
Specific heat, S–248, 492
values for selected materials,
S–251, 462–464
Specific modulus, 418, S–170, 492
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, S–181
Specific strength, 416, 418, S–170,
492
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, S–181
Sphalerite structure, 42, 44
Spheroidite, 334, 492
hardness and ductility, 342
Spheroidization, S–126, 492
Spherulites, in polymers, 76, 95–
96, 492
alteration during deformation,
223
photomicrograph of polyethylene, 97
transmission electron micrograph, 76
Spinel, 61, S–77
flexural strength, 165
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
structure, 61
thermal properties, S–251
Spin magnetic moment, 14, S–268
Spinnerettes, S–155
Spinning, polymer fibers, S–155,
492
Spring design, materials selection,
S–332—S–339
Stabilized zirconia, S–80, S–187
Stabilizers, S–152, 492
Stacking faults, 117
Stainless steels, 407–408, 492. See
also Ferrous alloys; specific
steels
for artificial hips, S–343—S–344
compositions, properties, and
applications for selected,
408
creep resistance, 269
electrical conductivity, 374
passivity, S–221
thermal properties, S–251
weld decay, S–227—S–228
polycrystalline materials,
204–205
single crystals, S–31—S–33
Slip casting, S–143—S–144, 491
Slip direction, 203
Slip lines, 204–205
Slip plane, 200, 203
Slip systems, 203–204, 491
selected metals, 204
Small-angle grain boundaries,
115–116, 207
Societal considerations, materials
science, S–371—S–376
Soda-lime glasses:
composition, 423
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
thermal properties, S–251
thermal shock, S–258
viscosity, S–138
Sodium chloride:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
ionic bonding, 21
structure, 41, 42
Sodium-silicate glass, 65
Softening point, S–139, 491
Soft magnetic materials, S–280—
S–281, 491
properties, S–281
Soils, as corrosion environments,
S–231—S–232
Solder bumps, S–361
Soldering, S–123, 491
integrated circuit packaging,
S–354, S–361
Solid-solution strengthening, 208–
210, 292, 343, 491
Solid solutions, 107–109, 491
in ceramics, 109–110
intermediate, 298, 486
interstitial, 108–109, 486
ordered, 298, 415
terminal, 297, 493
Solidus line, 286, 287, 293, 491
Solubility limit, 283, 491
factors that influence for solid
phase, 108
Solutes, 491
defined, 107
Solution heat treatment, 348, 491
Solvents, 492
defined, 107
Solvus line, 293, 492
Slip (Continued)522 ● Index
determination of, 193
selected metal alloys, 169
Strain isolator pads, S–350
Strain point (glass), S–139, 492
Strength, 161
flexural, 171–172, 485
fracture, 162
shear, S–326
for a torsionally stressed shaft,
S–326—S–331
Strengthening of metals:
grain size reduction, 206–208
mechanism, 206
solid-solution strengthening,
208–210
strain hardening, see Strain hardening
Stress, see also Stress-strain
behavior
critical, 242, S–42
effect on creep, 267–268,
S–63—S–64
engineering, 149, 492
mean (fatigue), 256, 263
normal (resolved from pure tensile), 152–153
range (fatigue), 256
residual, see Residual stresses
safe, 184, 491
shear, 152, 153, S–31, 491
shear (resolved from pure tensile), 152–153
thermal, see Thermal stresses
true, 167–168, 493
working, 184
Stress amplitude, 256–257, S–338
Stress analysis of cracks,
S–43—S–45
Stress concentration, 239–241,
S–38—S–41, 251, 263, 492
polymers, 249
Stress concentration factor, 241,
S–40, S–41
Stress corrosion cracking, S–204,
S–229—S–230, S–342, 492
in ceramics, S–53
Stress intensity factor, S–44, S–45,
S–48, 492
and fatigue crack propagation
rate, S–58—S–59
Stress raisers, 241, S–40, 263, 492
in ceramics, 248, S–22
Stress ratio, 257
Stress relaxation measurements,
S–24
Stress relief annealing, S–125, 492
Stress state, geometric considerations, 152–153
Stress-strain behavior:
ceramics, 173
composite, fibrous (longitudinal), S–173
elastic deformation, 153–157
natural rubber, vulcanized and
unvulcanized, 226
nonlinear, 155
plain carbon steel, 188
plastic deformation, 160–166
polymers, 173–176
true, 168
Striations (fatigue), 261–262,
S–55—S–56
Structural clay products, 422, 424,
S–142, 492
Structural composites, S–195—
S–196, 492
Structure, 3
atomic, 10–16
definition, 492
Structures, crystal, see Crystal
structures
Styrene, 93
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR),
92, 93
characteristics and applications,
431–432
degradation resistance, S–239
Styrenic block copolymers,
S–115—S–116
Styrofoam, S–256
Substitutional impurity defects, 108
Substitutional solid solutions, 108,
109, 492
Superalloys, 421
creep resistance, 269
fiber reinforcement, S–185—
S–186
Superconductivity, S–287—S–291,
492
applications, S–290—S–291
Superconductors, S–287
critical properties, S–290
high-temperature, S–289—S–290
types I and II, S–289
Supercooling, 327, 492
Superficial Rockwell hardness
tests, 177, 179
Superheating, 327, 492
Super Invar, S–251, S–253
Supermalloy, magnetic properties,
S–281
Surface energy, 115
Susceptibility, magnetic, S–267
Symbols, list, xix–xxi
Syndiotactic configuration, S–12,
492
Synthetic rubbers, 92–93, 431–
432, S–239
Systems:
definition, 282, 492
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous, 284
T
Talc, S–2
Tangent modulus, 155
Tantalum, 419, 421
Tape automated bonding,
S–360—S–361
Tape casting, S–149
Tarnishing, S–234
Tear strength, polymers, 181–182
Teflon, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
TEM, 30, 115, S–19—S–20, 493
Temperature gradient, S–253
thermal stresses, S–257
Temper designation, 416, 492
Tempered martensite, 344–345,
492
hardness vs. carbon content, 343
mechanical properties vs. tempering temperature,
345–346
Temper embrittlement, 345–346
Tempering:
glass, 249, S–141, S–160
steels, 344–346
Tensile strength, 161–163, 493
artificial hip materials, S–342,
S–344
correlation with hardness, 180,
182
fibrous composites, S–177
fine pearlite, 341
influence of recrystallization on,
216
precipitation hardened aluminum alloy, 352
selected fiber-reinforcement materials, S–181
tempered martensite, 345
values for various materials,
165, 449–453
wire, as a function of diameter,
S–337
Tensile test apparatus, 149, 151
Tensile tests, 149–151. See also
Stress-strain behavior
Strain-hardening exponent (Continued)Index ● 523
Transdermal patch, S–367
Transducers, S–109
Transfer molding, plastics,
S–153—S–154
Transformation rate, 493
Transformation toughening, S–187
Transgranular fracture, 238, 240,
493
Transient creep, 266
Transistors, S–95—S–99
Transition metals, 17
Transition temperature, ductilebrittle, see Ductile-to-brittle
transition
Translucency, S–300, 493
insulators, S–310—S–311
Transmission, S–308
Transmission electron microscopy,
30, 115, S–19—S–20, 493
Transmissivity, S–300
Transparency, S–300, 493
Transverse bending test, 171–172
equation for maximum deflection, 193
Transverse direction, S–172,
S–176, 493
Transverse loading, composites,
S–176, S–177
Triclinic crystal system, 49, 50
anisotropy in, 63
Tridymite, 47
Trifunctional mers, 82, 493
True stress/strain, 167–168, 493
T-T-T diagrams, see Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tungsten, 419
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
elastic and shear moduli, 154
Poisson’s ratio, 154
properties as wire, S–181
recrystallization temperature,
217
slip systems, 204
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
thermal properties, S–251
Tungsten carbide:
as abrasive, 425
hardness, 182
Turbine blades, 269
Twin boundaries, 117
Twinning, S–34—S–35
compared to slip, S–35
forming techniques, S–153—
S–155
Thermosetting polymers, 90–91,
493
characteristics and applications,
430
degradation resistance, S–239
forming techniques, S–153—
S–155
Thin film magnetic recording media, S–284—S–287
Thoria-dispersed (TD) nickel,
S–169
Tie lines, 288, 493
Tilt boundaries, 115–116
Time-temperature-transformation
diagrams, see Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tin, 421
recrystallization temperature,
217
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
Tin cans, S–245
Titanium:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
elastic and shear moduli, 154
Poisson’s ratio, 154
slip systems, 204
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Titanium alloys, 418–419, 420
for artificial hips, S–343—S–344
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
properties and applications of,
420
Titanium-copper phase diagram,
319
Titanium diboride, S–112
Tool steels, 405, 407
Torque, 149–150, S–326
Torsion, 152
Torsional deformation, 150
Torsional tests, 170
Torsionally stressed shaft, case
study, S–325—S–332
Toughness, 167, 493
Tows, S–189
Trade names:
selected elastomers, 431
selected plastics, 429–430
trans, S–13, 493
Terminal solid solutions, 297, 493
Ternary phase diagrams, 301
Tertiary creep, 266
Tetragonal crystal system, 49, 50
Tetrahedral position, 60–61,
S–273—S–274, 493
Textile fibers, 432–433
Thermal conduction, S–249,
S–254
Thermal conductivity, S–253—
S–256, 493
influence of impurities, S–255
of leadframe materials, S–355
selected materials, S–251,
459–461
Thermal diffusivity, S–261
Thermal expansion,
S–250—S–253
linear coefficient of, S–62,
S–250, S–256—S–258, 493
relation to bonding, S–252
selected materials, S–251,
S–355, 455–458
volume coefficient of, S–251
Thermal fatigue, S–62, 493
Thermal insulation, for Space
Shuttle thermal protection
system, S–345—S–351
Thermally activated processes,
327, 493
Thermal properties, S–248. See
also specific thermal properties
selected materials, S–251,
455–464
Thermal protection system (Space
Shuttle), S–247
materials selection for, S–345—
S–351
Thermal shock, S–140—S–141,
S–253, 493
brittle materials, S–257—S–258
maximum temperature change
without, S–262
Thermal shock resistance, S–258
Thermal stresses, S–62, S–256,
493
glass, S–140
Thermal tempering (glass), S–141,
493
Thermoplastic elastomers,
S–115—S–117, 493
Thermoplastic polymers, 90, 493
characteristics and applications,
429–430
degradation resistance, S–239524 ● Index
Twins, 117
Twisting moment, S–326
U
UHMWPE (Ultrahigh molecular
weight polyethylene),
S–113, 493
for artificial hips, S–344
properties as a fiber, S–181
Uniaxial powder pressing, S–146,
S–147
Unidirectional solidification, 269
Uniform corrosion, S–223—S–224
Unit cells, 32, 493. See also Crystal structures
crystal systems, 49, 50
Units:
electrical and dielectric parameters, S–104
magnetic parameters, S–267
SI, 439–440
Unsaturated hydrocarbons, 78,
494
UNS designation scheme, 405, 406
Upper critical temperature,
S–125, 494
Upper yield point, 160, 161
V
Vacancies, 103–104, 494
in ceramics, 105
diffusion, 129, 494
equilibrium number, 104
Valence band, 370, 494
Valence electrons, 15, 494
Valve spring design, S–332—
S–339
van der Waals bonding, 24–26,
494
in clays, S–1
hydrocarbons, 78
in polymers, 89, 221, 223, S–36
Vibrational heat capacity,
S–248—S–249
Vibrations, atomic, 118, S–248—
S–249
Vickers hardness tests, 178, 180
Video cassette recorders, 284,
S–367
Vinyl esters, polymer-matrix composites, S–185
Vinyls, 430
Viscoelastic creep, S–27
Viscoelasticity, 157, S–22—S–28,
494
Viscoelastic relaxation modulus,
S–24—S–27, 490
Viscosity, 220–221, S–159, 494
temperature dependence for
glasses, S–138—S–139
Viscous flow:
in ceramics, 220
in polymers, S–26
Visible spectrum, S–299
Vision (glass ceramic), 423
Vitreous silica, see Fused silica
Vitrification, S–145, 494
Volume defects, 118
Volume expansion coefficient,
S–251—S–252
Volume fraction (phase), 291
Vulcanization, 90, 226, 494
Vycor, 423
W
Water:
as corrosion environment, S–231
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
hydrogen bonding in, 26
phase diagram, 316
as quenching medium, S–132—
S–133
Wave-mechanical atomic model,
12, 494
Weathering, of polymers, S–241
Weight-average molecular weight,
84
Weight percent, 110–111, S–14—
S–17, 494
Weld decay, S–227—S–228, 494
Welding, S–123—S–124, 494
Whiskers, 242, S–41, S–180,
S–181, 494
White cast iron, 410, 411, 413, 494
Whitewares, 424, 494
Wiedemann-Franz constant,
S–254, S–260
values of, for metals, S–251
Wiedemann-Franz law, S–254
Wire bonding, S–353, S–356, S–358
Wires, S–180, S–181
Wood:
as composite, S–163
cost, 474
density, 444
electrical resistivity, 467
modulus of elasticity, 447
specific heat, 464
tensile strength, 453
thermal conductivity, 461
thermal expansion coefficient,
458
Work hardening, see Strain hardening
Working point (glass), S–138, 494
Working range, S–138
Working stress, 184
Wrought alloys, 414, 494
Wu¨ stite, 106, 397, 399
X
X-ray diffraction, S–6—S–10
X-rays, 298, 299
Y
Yielding, 161, 494
Yield point phenomenon, 160, 161
Yield strength, 160, 161, 174, 494
artificial hip materials, S–342,
S–344
dependence on grain size
(brass), 208
fine pearlite, 341
in shear, spring design, S–333
tempered martensite, 345
values for various materials,
165, 449–453
Young’s modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Yttrium barium copper oxide,
S–289, S–290
Yttrium iron garnet (YIG),
S–275, S–294
Z
Zinc:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
recrystallization, 217
slip systems, 204
Zinc alloys, 421–422
Zinc blende structure, 42, 43
Zinc telluride, electrical characteristics, 377
Zirconia, S–111
flexural strength, 165
modulus of elasticity, 154
stabilized, S–80
transformation toughening,
S–187
Zirconia-calcia phase diagram,
S–79
Zirconium:
alloys, 422
slip systems, 204
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