حل كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design Solutions Manual

حل كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design Solutions Manual
اسم المؤلف
Robert C. Juvinall
التاريخ
4 أغسطس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
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حل كتاب
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
Student Solutions Manual
3RD Edition
by
ROBERT C. JUVINALL
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Michigan
KURT M. MARSHEK
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Texas at Austin
Contents
PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS, 1
Chapter 1 Mechanical Engineering Design in Broad
Perspective, 3
1.1 An Overview of the Subject, 3
1.2 Safety Considerations, 4
1.3 Ecological Considerations, 10
1.4 Societal Considerations, 11
1.5 Overall Design Considerations, 14
1.6 Systems of Units, 15
1.7 Methodology for Solving Machine Component
Problems, 19
1.8 Work and Energy, 21
1.9 Power, 23
1.10 Conservation of Energy, 24
Chapter 2 Load Analysis, 45
2.1 Introduction, 45
2.2 Equilibrium Equations and Free-Body Diagrams, 45
2.3 Beam Loading, 57
2.4 Locating Critical Sections—Force Flow Concept, 60
2.5 Load Division Between Redundant Supports, 62
2.6 Force Flow Concept Applied to Redundant Ductile
Structures, 64
Chapter 3 Materials, 89
3.1 Introduction, 89
3.2 The Static Tensile Test—“Engineering” Stress–Strain
Relationships, 90
3.3 Implications of the “Engineering” Stress–Strain
Curve, 91
3.4 The Static Tensile Test—“True” Stress–Strain
Relationships, 94
3.5 Energy-Absorbing Capacity, 96
3.6 Estimating Strength Properties from Penetration
Hardness Tests, 97
3.7 Use of “Handbook” Data for Material Strength
Properties, 100
3.8 Machinability, 101
3.9 Cast Iron, 101
3.10 Steel, 102
3.11 Nonferrous Alloys, 105
3.12 Plastics and Composites, 106
3.13 Materials Selection Charts, 112
3.14 Engineering Material Selection Process, 116
Chapter 4 Static Body Stresses, 131
4.1 Introduction, 131
4.2 Axial Loading, 131
4.3 Direct Shear Loading, 133
4.4 Torsional Loading, 135
4.5 Pure Bending Loading, Straight Beams, 137
4.6 Pure Bending Loading, Curved Beams, 138
4.7 Transverse Shear Loading in Beams, 144
4.8 Induced Stresses, Mohr Circle Representation, 150
4.9 Combined Stresses—Mohr Circle Representation, 153
4.10 Stress Equations Related to Mohr’s Circle, 156
4.11 Three-Dimensional Stresses, 158
4.12 Stress Concentration Factors, Kt, 162
4.13 Importance of Stress Concentration, 165
4.14 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Axial Loading, 167
4.15 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Bending and
Torsional Loading, 171
4.16 Thermal Stresses, 173
4.17 Importance of Residual Stresses, 176
Chapter 5 Elastic Strain, Deflection, and Stability, 194
5.1 Introduction, 194
5.2 Strain Definition, Measurement, and Mohr Circle
Representation, 195
5.3 Analysis of Strain—Equiangular Rosettes, 197
5.4 Analysis of Strain—Rectangular Rosettes, 199
5.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relationships and Three-Dimensional
Mohr Circles, 202
5.6 Deflection and Spring Rate—Simple Cases, 204
5.7 Beam Deflection, 206
5.8 Determining Elastic Deflections by Castigliano’s
Method, 209
5.9 Redundant Reactions by Castigliano’s Method, 222
5.10 Euler Column Buckling—Elastic Instability, 227
5.11 Effective Column Length for Various End Conditions, 229
5.12 Column Design Equations—J. B. Johnson Parabola, 230
5.13 Eccentric Column Loading—the Secant Formula, 234
5.14 Equivalent Column Stresses, 236
5.15 Other Types of Buckling, 236
5.16 Finite Element Analysis, 238
Chapter 6 Failure Theories, Safety Factors, and
Reliability, 248
6.1 Introduction, 248
6.2 Types of Failure, 250
ixx Contents
6.3 Fracture Mechanics—Basic Concepts, 251
6.4 Fracture Mechanics—Applications, 253
6.5 The “Theory” of Static Failure Theories, 263
6.6 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory, 265
6.7 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory, 265
6.8 Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory (MaximumOctahedral-Shear-Stress Theory), 266
6.9 Mohr Theory and Modified Mohr Theory, 269
6.10 Selection and Use of Failure Theories, 270
6.11 Safety Factors—Concept and Definition, 272
6.12 Safety Factors—Selection of a Numerical Value, 274
6.13 Reliability, 276
6.14 Normal Distributions, 278
6.15 Interference Theory of Reliability Prediction, 280
Chapter 7 Impact, 288
7.1 Introduction, 288
7.2 Stress and Deflection Caused by Linear and Bending
Impact, 290
7.3 Stress and Deflection Caused by Torsional Impact, 298
7.4 Effect of Stress Raisers on Impact Strength, 301
Chapter 8 Fatigue, 312
8.1 Introduction, 312
8.2 Basic Concepts, 312
8.3 Standard Fatigue Strengths ( ) for Rotating Bending, 314
8.4 Fatigue Strengths for Reversed Bending and Reversed
Axial Loading, 320
8.5 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Torsional Loading, 321
8.6 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Biaxial Loading, 322
8.7 Influence of Surface and Size on Fatigue Strength, 323
8.8 Summary of Estimated Fatigue Strengths for Completely
Reversed Loading, 326
8.9 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength, 326
8.10 Effect of Stress Concentration with Completely Reversed
Fatigue Loading, 334
8.11 Effect of Stress Concentration with Mean Plus
Alternating Loads, 337
8.12 Fatigue Life Prediction with Randomly Varying
Loads, 344
8.13 Effect of Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength of a
Part, 348
8.14 Mechanical Surface Treatments—Shot Peening and
Others, 350
8.15 Thermal and Chemical Surface-Hardening Treatments
(Induction Hardening, Carburizing, and Others), 351
8.16 Fatigue Crack Growth, 351
8.17 General Approach for Fatigue Design, 356
Chapter 9 Surface Damage, 372
9.1 Introduction, 372
9.2 Corrosion: Fundamentals, 372
9.3 Corrosion: Electrode and Electrolyte Heterogeneity, 375

n
9.4 Design for Corrosion Control, 376
9.5 Corrosion Plus Static Stress, 380
9.6 Corrosion Plus Cyclic Stress, 383
9.7 Cavitation Damage, 384
9.8 Types of Wear, 384
9.9 Adhesive Wear, 385
9.10 Abrasive Wear, 387
9.11 Fretting, 388
9.12 Analytical Approach to Wear, 389
9.13 Curved-Surface Contact Stresses, 392
9.14 Surface Fatigue Failures, 399
9.15 Closure, 401
PART 2 APPLICATIONS, 409
Chapter 10 Threaded Fasteners and Power Screws, 411
10.1 Introduction, 411
10.2 Thread Forms, Terminology, and Standards, 412
10.3 Power Screws, 417
10.4 Static Screw Stresses, 425
10.5 Threaded Fastener Types, 430
10.6 Fastener Materials and Methods of Manufacture, 432
10.7 Bolt Tightening and Initial Tension, 432
10.8 Thread Loosening and Thread Locking, 437
10.9 Bolt Tension with External Joint-Separating Force, 439
10.10 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Static Loading, 444
10.11 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Fatigue Loading:
Fundamentals, 451
10.12 Bolt Selection for Fatigue Loading: Using Special Test
Data, 458
10.13 Increasing Bolted-Joint Fatigue Strength, 461
Chapter 11 Rivets, Welding, and Bonding, 472
11.1 Introduction, 472
11.2 Rivets, 472
11.3 Welding Processes, 474
11.4 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Axial and Direct Shear
Loading, 478
11.5 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Torsional and Bending
Loading, 481
11.6 Fatigue Considerations in Welded Joints, 486
11.7 Brazing and Soldering, 489
11.8 Adhesives, 489
Chapter 12 Springs, 497
12.1 Introduction, 497
12.2 Torsion Bar Springs, 497
12.3 Coil Spring Stress and Deflection Equations, 498
12.4 Stress and Strength Analysis for Helical Compression
Springs—Static Loading, 504Contents xi
12.5 End Designs of Helical Compression Springs, 507
12.6 Buckling Analysis of Helical Compression Springs, 508
12.7 Design Procedure for Helical Compression Springs—Static
Loading, 509
12.8 Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue
Loading, 513
12.9 Helical Extension Springs, 521
12.10 Beam Springs (Including Leaf Springs), 522
12.11 Torsion Springs, 528
12.12 Miscellaneous Springs, 529
Chapter 13 Lubrication and Sliding Bearings, 546
13.1 Types of Lubricants, 546
13.2 Types of Sliding Bearings, 546
13.3 Types of Lubrication, 547
13.4 Basic Concepts of Hydrodynamic Lubrication, 548
13.5 Viscosity, 550
13.6 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity, 555
13.7 Petroff’s Equation for Bearing Friction, 555
13.8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory, 557
13.9 Design Charts for Hydrodynamic Bearings, 561
13.10 Lubricant Supply, 568
13.11 Heat Dissipation and Equilibrium Oil Film Temperature, 571
13.12 Bearing Materials, 572
13.13 Hydrodynamic Bearing Design, 573
13.14 Boundary and Mixed-Film Lubrication, 579
13.15 Thrust Bearings, 581
13.16 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, 582
Chapter 14 Rolling-Element Bearings, 587
14.1 Comparison of Alternative Means for Supporting Rotating
Shafts, 587
14.2 History of Rolling-Element Bearings, 591
14.3 Rolling-Element Bearing Types, 592
14.4 Design of Rolling-Element Bearings, 596
14.5 Fitting of Rolling-Element Bearings, 600
14.6 “Catalogue Information” for Rolling-Element Bearings, 601
14.7 Bearing Selection, 604
14.8 Mounting Bearings to Provide Properly for
Thrust Load, 614
Chapter 15 Spur Gears, 620
15.1 Introduction and History, 620
15.2 Geometry and Nomenclature, 621
15.3 Interference and Contact Ratio, 629
15.4 Gear Force Analysis, 634
15.5 Gear-Tooth Strength, 637
15.6 Basic Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Stress
(Lewis Equation), 638
15.7 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Basic
Concepts, 640
15.8 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength:
Recommended Procedure, 642
15.9 Gear-Tooth Surface Durability—Basic
Concepts, 648
15.10 Gear-Tooth Surface Fatigue Analysis—Recommended
Procedure, 651
15.11 Spur Gear Design Procedures, 656
15.12 Gear Materials, 661
15.13 Gear Trains, 661
Chapter 16 Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears, 675
16.1 Introduction, 675
16.2 Helical-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature, 678
16.3 Helical-Gear Force Analysis, 681
16.4 Helical-Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue
Strengths, 684
16.5 Crossed Helical Gears, 685
16.6 Bevel Gear Geometry and Nomenclature, 686
16.7 Bevel Gear Force Analysis, 688
16.8 Bevel Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue
Strengths, 690
16.9 Bevel Gear Trains; Differential Gears, 692
16.10 Worm Gear Geometry and Nomenclature, 694
16.11 Worm Gear Force and Efficiency Analysis, 696
16.12 Worm-Gear-Bending and Surface Fatigue
Strengths, 701
16.13 Worm Gear Thermal Capacity, 703
Chapter 17 Shafts and Associated Parts, 716
17.1 Introduction, 716
17.2 Provision for Shaft Bearings, 717
17.3 Mounting Parts onto Rotating Shafts, 717
17.4 Rotating-Shaft Dynamics, 720
17.5 Overall Shaft Design, 725
17.6 Keys, Pins, and Splines, 730
17.7 Couplings and Universal Joints, 732
Chapter 18 Clutches and Brakes, 746
18.1 Introduction, 746
18.2 Disk Clutches, 746
18.3 Disk Brakes, 752
18.4 Energy Absorption and Cooling, 753
18.5 Cone Clutches and Brakes, 755
18.6 Short-Shoe Drum Brakes, 756
18.7 Exernal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes, 760
18.8 Internal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes, 767
18.9 Band Brakes, 769
18.10 Materials, 772xii Contents
C-4b Typical Uses of Plain Carbon Steels, 824
C-5a Properties of Some Water-Quenched and Tempered
Steels, 825
C-5b Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Carbon
Steels, 826
C-5c Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Alloy
Steels, 827
C-6 Effect of Mass on Strength Properties of Steel, 828
C-7 Mechanical Properties of Some Carburizing
Steels, 829
C-8 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought Stainless
Steels, 830
C-9 Mechanical Properties of Some Iron-Based
Superalloys, 831
C-10 Mechanical Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of
Some Wrought Aluminum Alloys, 832
C-11 Tensile Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of
Some Cast-Aluminum Alloys, 833
C-12 Temper Designations for Aluminum and Magnesium
Alloys, 834
C-13 Mechanical Properties of Some Copper Alloys, 835
C-14 Mechanical Properties of Some Magnesium Alloys, 836
C-15 Mechanical Properties of Some Nickel Alloys, 837
C-16 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought-Titanium
Alloys, 838
C-17 Mechanical Properties of Some Zinc Casting Alloys, 839
C-18a Representative Mechanical Properties of Some Common
Plastics, 840
C-18b Properties of Some Common Glass-Reinforced and
Unreinforced Thermoplastic Resins, 841
C-18c Typical Applications of Common Plastics, 842
C-19 Material Classes and Selected Members of Each Class, 843
C-20 Designer’s Subset of Engineering Materials, 844
C-21 Processing Methods Used Most Frequently with Different
Materials, 845
C-22 Joinability of Materials, 846
C-23 Materials for Machine Components, 847
C-24 Relations Between Failure Modes and Material
Properties, 849
Appendix D Shear, Moment, and Deflection Equations
for Beams, 850
D-1 Cantilever Beams, 850
D-2 Simply Supported Beams, 851
D-3 Beams with Fixed Ends, 853
Appendix E Fits and Tolerances, 854
E-1 Fits and Tolerances for Holes and Shafts, 854
E-2 Standard Tolerances for Cylindrical Parts, 855
E-3 Tolerance Grades Produced from Machining
Processes, 856
Chapter 19 Miscellaneous Machine Components, 782
19.1 Introduction, 782
19.2 Flat Belts, 783
19.3 V-Belts, 785
19.4 Toothed Belts, 789
19.5 Roller Chains, 789
19.6 Inverted-Tooth Chains, 792
19.7 History of Hydrodynamic Drives, 793
19.8 Fluid Couplings, 794
19.9 Hydrodynamic Torque Converters, 798
Chapter 20 Machine Component Interrelationships—
A Case Study (web-based chapter)
(www.wiley.com/college/juvinall), 20-1
20.1 Introduction, 20-1
20.2 Description of Original Hydra-Matic Transmission, 20-2
20.3 Free-Body Diagram Determination of Gear Ratios and
Component Loads, 20-5
20.4 Gear Design Considerations, 20-9
20.5 Brake and Clutch Design Considerations, 20-10
20.6 Miscellaneous Design Considerations, 20-11
Appendix A Units, 807
A-1a Conversion Factors for British Gravitational, English, and
SI Units, 807
A-1b Conversion Factor Equalities Listed by Physical
Quantity, 808
A-2a Standard SI Prefixes, 810
A-2b SI Units and Symbols, 811
A-3 Suggested SI Prefixes for Stress Calculations, 812
A-4 Suggested SI Prefixes for Linear-Deflection
Calculations, 812
A-5 Suggested SI Prefixes for Angular-Deflection
Calculations, 812
Appendix B Properties of Sections and Solids, 813
B-1a Properties of Sections, 813
B-1b Dimensions and Properties of Steel Pipe and Tubing
Sections, 814
B-2 Mass and Mass Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous
Solids, 816
Appendix C Material Properties and Uses, 817
C-1 Physical Properties of Common Metals, 817
C-2 Tensile Properties of Some Metals, 818
C-3a Typical Mechanical Properties and Uses of Gray Cast
Iron, 819
C-3b Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Malleable
Cast Iron, 820
C-3c Average Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Ductile
(Nodular) Iron, 821
C-4a Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy
Steels, 822Contents xiii
Appendix F MIL-HDBK-5J, Department of Defense
Handbook: Metallic Materials and Elements
for Aerospace Vehicle Structures, 857
F-1 Introduction, 857
F-2 Overview of Data in MIL-HDBK-5J, 857
F-3 Advanced Formulas and Concepts Used in
MIL-HDBK-5J, 859
F-4 Mechanical and Physical Properties of 2024 Aluminum
Alloy, 864
F-5 Fracture Toughness and Other Miscellaneous
Properties, 869
F-6 Conclusion 873
Appendix G Force Equilibrium: A Vectorial Approach, 874
G-1 Vectors: A Review, 874
G-2 Force and Momments Equilibrium, 875
Appendix H Normal Distributions, 878
H-1 Standard Normal Distribution Table, 878
H-2 Converting to Standard Normal Distribution, 881
H-3 Linear Combination of Normal Distributions, 881
Appendix I S-N Formula, 883
I-1 S-N Formula, 883
I-2 Illustrative Example, 884
Appendix J Gear Terminology and Contact-Ratio
Analysis, 885
J-1 Normal Spur-Gear Quantities, 885
J-2 Actual Quantities, 887
J-3 Illustrative Example, 888
Index 890
INDEX
ABEC, see Annular Bearing Engineers’
Committee
Abrasive wear, 387–388, 650
ABS (acrylonitrile–butatiene-styrene),
109
Acetal, 109
Acme threads, 415–416
Acrylic, 109
Acrylic adhesives, 491
Acrylonitrile-butatiene-styrene (ABS),
109
Addendum, 624
Adhesive bonding, 489–491
Adhesive wear, 385–387, 580
AFBMA (Anti-Friction Bearing
Manufacturers Association), 600
AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers
Association), 620
AISC (American Institute of Steel
Construction), 472
Alkyd, 110
Alloying, 108
Alloys
aluminum (see Aluminum alloys)
cast iron, 101–102
copper, 105, 320, 835
magnesium, 105–106, 319, 834, 836
nickel, 106, 320, 837
nonferrous, 105–106
steel (see Steel alloys)
superalloys, 105, 106, 831
titanium, 106, 838
zinc, 106, 839
Allyl (diallyl phthalate), 110
Alternating loads/stress, 337–341
Aluminum
anodized, 378
cavitation of, 384
connecting rod, 233–234
corrosion of, 376–377, 378
fretting of, 388
notch sensitivity of, 335
Aluminum alloys, 105
endurance limit of, 318
fatigue strength diagrams for, 318–319
mechanical properties/uses of, 832,
833
temper designations for, 834
American Blower Company, 794
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA), 620
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC), 472
American National Standards lnstitute
(ANSI), 7, 388, 389, 525
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 105–106, 478
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), 274, 414, 472,
791
American Welding Society (AWS), 478
Amino, 110
Anaerobic adhesives, 491
Anisotropic materials, 272
Annealing, 176, 382
Annular Bearing Engineers’ Committee
(ABEC), 600
Anode, sacrificial, 375, 378
Anodized aluminum, 378
Anodizing, 377
ANSI, see American National Standards
Institute
Anti·Friction Bearing Manufacturers
Association (AFBMA), 600
Approximations, 21
Ashby’s materials selection charts,
112–115
ASME, see American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
Asperity welding, 385–386
ASTM, see American Society for Testing
and Materials
Automobiles
load analysis, 46–52
performance analysis, 26–28
power train components, 48–49
transmission components, 50–52
AWS (American Welding Society), 478
Axial impact, 294–295
Axial loads/loading, 131–133
and Castigliano’s method, 209–212
with power screws, 425–426
and residual stresses, 167–171
reversed, 320–321
with roller bearings, 607–608
sign convention for, 135
with springs, 502
with threaded fasteners, 425–426
Ball bearings
and axial loading, 607–608
dimensions of, 601–603
history of, 591–592
life requirement for, 606
radial, 588
rated capacities of, 604, 605
reliability requirement for, 606–607
rings for, 594–595
selection of, 604–611
shields/seals for, 594
and shock loading, 608–609
special, 597–599
surface damage to, 395–401
thrust load, mounting for, 614–615
types of, 590, 593
Ball-bearing screws, 418–419
Band brakes, 769–771
Bars
compression/tension, impacted in,
298–299
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 210
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of
stress raiser on, 304–306
stress concentration factors of,
165–167
Base units, 16
Basic design objective, 10
Basic hole system, 854
Beach marks, 312–313
Beam loading, 57–60
Beams
bending impact, with compound
spring, 297–298
bent cantilever, deflection in, 215–216
centrally loaded, deflection in,
212–214
curved, bending of, 138–144
deflection in, 206–208, 850–853
deflection/stiffness formulas for,
204–205
extreme-fiber-bending stresses in,
142–144
straight, bending of, 137–138
transverse shear loading in, 144–150Index 891
Beam springs, 522–527
Bearing(s)
ball (see Ball bearings)
bearings for shafts, 717
definition of, 547
rolling-element (see Rolling-element)
sliding (see Sliding bearings)
thrust, 581–582, 614–615
Bell crank, load analysis of, 54–55
Belt drive, with spur gears, 623–624
Belts
flat, 783–785
toothed (timing), 789
V-, 785–788
Bending
of beams, 57–58, 137–144
bevel gears, 690–692
and Castigliano’s method, 206–208
and fatigue strength, 314–321,
342–344
of gear teeth, 638–648
helical gears, 684
and residual stress, 171–173
and shear stresses, 148–150
sign convention for, 58
worm gears, 701–703
Bending impact, 290–293, 297–298
Bevel gears, 675–676, 677, 686–694
bending stress with, 690–692
force analysis with, 688–689
geometry of, 686–688
large end of, 686
pitch cones of, 686
surface fatigue stress with, 690, 692
trains, gear, 692–694
and Tredgold’s approximation, 687
Zerol, 688
Biaxial effect (of stress raisers), 162
Biaxial loading, fatigue strength for
reversed, 326
Biaxial stresses, 158, 159, 202
modified Mohr theory for, 269
Bioengineering, 55
Blind rivets, 473–474
Body stress(es), 131–177
from axial loading, 131–133
combined, 153–156
concentration factors, 162–167
from direct shear loading, 133–134
induced, 150–152
from pure bending loading, 137–144
residual (see Residual stresses)
thermal, 173–176
three-dimensional, 158–161
from torsional loading, 135–136
from transverse shear loading, 144–150
Bolted joint, shear load capacity of,
446–448
Bolts, 430
bracket attachment, selection for,
448–451
design for impact strength of, 304–306
fatigue loading, selection for, 451–461
fatigue strength, increasing, 461–462
initial tightening tension, 432–437,
452–455
pressure vessel flange bolts, selection
of, 459–461
static loading, selection for, 444–451
tension of, with external jointseparating force, 439–444
and thread-bearing stress, 426–427
types of, 431
Bonderizing, 377
Bonding, adhesive, 489–491
Boundary lubrication, 548, 579–581
Bracket(s)
bolts for attachment of, 448–451
deflection of redundantly supported,
222–226
Brake(s), 746
band, 769–771
cone, 755–756
disk, 752–753
energy absorption/cooling with, 753–754
long-shoe drum, 760–768
materials for, 772–773
short-shoe drum, 756–760
Brasses, 105
Brazing, 489
Brinell hardness test, 97–100, 317
British Comets, 7
British Gravitational units, 16–18
British thermal unit, 22
British thermal units per second, 23
Brittle fracture, 250–251, 302
Brittle materials, 250, 276, 322
Bronzes, 105, 384
Buckingham, Earle, 650
Buckling, 227–238
columns, 227–236
eccentric loading, secant formula for,
234–236
of helical compression springs, 508
local, 237–238
of power screws, 429
Building codes, 274
Butt welds, 478, 488–489
Cadmium, 377, 402
Camshafts
power requirement, 25
torque requirement, 22–23
Cantilever beams, 215–216, 850
Carbide, 376
Carbon fiber reinforced
plastics, 108
Carbon steels, 103, 818, 822–824
Carburizing, 104, 351
Carburizing steel, 829
Cardan joint, 734
Case-hardening steels, 104
Castigliano, Alberto, 210
Castigliano’s method
elastic deflections determined by,
209–222
redundant reactions by,
222–226
Cast iron, 101–102
cavitation of, 384
endurance limit of, 318
fretting of, 388
mechanical properties/uses of (table),
819–820
surface factor for, 323–324
Cathode, 373
Cavitation, 384
Cellulosics, 109
Chains
inverted-tooth, 792–793
roller, 789–791
Change, 13–14
Charpy test, 97, 302
Chemical surface-hardening
treatments, 351
“Chilling,” 102
Chordal action, 790
Chrome plating, 349
Chromium, 376
Chrysler Corporation, 794
Clearance fits, 854
Clutch(es)
cone, 755–756
disk, 746–752
function of, 746
materials for, 772–773
Coating, 118, 121
Coining, 350
Cold rolling, 350892 Index
Column buckling, 227–238
end conditions, column length and,
229–230
equivalent stresses, 236
J.B. Johnson parabola for, 230–234
Column loading (of power screws),
429–430
Combined stresses, 153–156
Compatibility, of materials, 11
Completely reversed loading, fatigue
strength for, 326, 334–336
Components, mechanical, 4
Composite, 111–112
engineering, 111, 112, 843
material, 111–112
Compound springs, 297–298
Compression, 131, 133
Compression springs, helical, see Helical
compression springs
Concentration, stress, see Stress
concentration factors
Cone clutches/brakes, 755–756
Configuration factor, 253, 354
Conic threaded fasteners, 416
Connecting rods, determining diameter
of, 232–234
Conservation of energy, 24–28
Constant-force springs, 530
Constant-life fatigue diagram, 327,
330–331
Contact modulus, 393
Contact ratio (CR), 629–632, 885–889
Copolymerization, 108
Copper, corrosion of, 377
Copper alloys, 105, 320, 835
Corrosion, 372–383
crevice, 376
with cyclic stress, 383
design for control of, 376–379
and electrode/electrolyte heterogeneity,
375–376
with static stress, 380–382
Corrosion engineering, 372
Cost(s)
of machined parts, 101
of materials, 89
of safety factor, 275–276
Coulomb, C. A., 265
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 269
Countershaft, internal loads in
transmission, 58–60
Couplings
fluid, 794–798
shaft, 732–735
CR. see Contact ratio
Crack
length, 253, 351–356
propagation, 252, 254, 352, 358
Cracks, stress-corrosion, 380–382
Crevice corrosion, 376
Critical sections, 60–62
Critical stress intensity factor, 252
Crossed helical gears, 675, 685–686
Cross-linked plastics, 108
Curved surfaces, contact stresses with,
392–399
Cyaniding, 104
Cyclic stress, and corrosion, 383
Cylindrical threaded fasteners, 416
Damper, 288
Damping, 290
Dashpot, 288
Dedendum, 624
Deflection, 194
beam, 206–209
Castigliano’s method for determining,
209–222
caused by linear/bending impact,
290–298
caused by torsional impact, 298–301
formulas for, 204–206
and redundant reactions, 222–226
of springs, 498–503
torsional, 205
DeMoivre, 278
Density, and strength, 113–114
Design, 3–15
ecological objectives of, 10–11
overall considerations in, 14–15
process, 116
safety considerations in, 4–9
societal objectives of, 11–14
Design overload, 273
“Design stress,” 272
Diallyl phthalate (allyl), 110
Dimensionally homogeneous equations, 15
Dimensions, primary/secondary, 16
Direct shear loading, 133–134
Disk brakes, 752–753
Disk clutches, 746–752
Disk sander shaft, safety factor of,
342–344
Distortion (plastic strain), 250
Double shear, 62, 134
Drum brakes
long-shoe, 760–768
short-shoe, 756–760
Ductile (nodular) iron, 102, 821
Ductile materials, 250
fatigue strength of, 321–322, 325
machinability of, 102
Ductility, 93–94, 829, 849
Durability (of materials), 11
Duranickel alloys, 106
Dynamic loading. see Fatigue; Impact
Eccentricity ratio, 235
Eccentric loading
columns, 234–236
welds, 481–486
Ecological issues, 10–11, 376–377
Economic issues, 401–402
Efficiency (of power screws), 421–422
Elasticity, modulus of, 91
Elastic limit, notation convention for, 91
Elastic region (true stress–strain curve),
94–96
Elastic stability/instability, 227
Elastic strains, see Strain
Elastic stress–strain relationships,
202–203
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 582, 648
Electrical insulators, 378
Electrical resistance strain gages,
196–197
Electrochemical reaction, 372–375
Electrolytes, 373, 378–379
Electron beam welding, 476
Electroplating, 349, 375, 401
Electroslag welding, 476
Elongation (at fracture), 92
End-quench test, Jominy, 103
Energy
conservation of, 24
and work, 21–23
Energy absorption capacity
bolt design modification to increase,
304–306
of brakes, 753–754
effect of stress raisers on, 295–296
of materials, 96–97, 294–295
Engineering, 3
Engineering model, 20
Engineering stress–strain curve, 91–94
Engineering values, 90
English Engineering units, 16–18
Epoxies, 110, 490–491
Equations
characteristic, 160–161, 189–190
dimensionally homogeneous, 15
equilibrium, 45–48Index 893
Equiangular rosettes, 197–199
Equilibrium
and load determination, 45–48
and redundant reactions, 222
and residual stresses, 175
Euler, Leonhard, 227
Euler column buckling, 227–229
“Fail-safe” design, 7
Failure, 248–281, see also Fatigue;
Surface damage
analysis, 356, 857
and axial stress, 133
definition of, 250
distortion, 250
fracture, 251–263
mode, 849
theories of, 263–272
Fasteners, threaded, see Threaded
fasteners
Fatigue, 312–314
life prediction, 344–347
S-N formula, 333, 883–884
surface fatigue failures, 399–401
and surface treatments, 348–351
in welded joints, 486–489
Fatigue life prediction, 344–347
Fatigue loading
bolt selection for, 451–461
screw selection for, 451–457
spring design for, 513–520
Fatigue strength, 314–344
for completely reversed loading, 326,
334–336
concentrated stress, effect of, 334–344
definition of, 315
increasing bolted-joint, 461–462
mean stress, effect of, 326–334,
337–344
for reversed bending/reversed axial
loading, 320–321
for reversed biaxial loading, 322
for reversed torsional loading, 321–322
for rotating bending, 314–320
and safety factors, 272–273
and surface size, 323–326
surface treatments, effect of, 348–349
Fatigue zone, 312
FCAW (flux-cored arc welding), 476
Ferrite, 376
Ferrous materials, endurance limit of, 315
Fiber-reinforced plastics, 108
Fillet welds, 478–481
Finishing, 118, 121, 123
Finite element analysis, 238–240
steps in, 238–240
Fits, 854–856
Flame cutting, 176
Flame hardening, 104
Flat belts, 783–785
Fluid couplings, 794–798
Fluoroplastics, 109
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 476
Flywheels, 23
Foot-pound force, 22
Foot-pounds, 22
Force
units of, 18
work done by, 21
Force flow
critical sections, location of, 60–62
with redundant ductile structures,
64–67
Formability, 121
Föttinger, H., 793
Fracture mechanics, 251–263
of thick plates, 255–256
of thin plates, 253–255
Fracture(s), 250–251, 312–314
Fracture toughness, 252
Free-body analysis of loads, 45–48
acceleration, automobile undergoing,
47–48
constant speed, automobile at, 46–47
internal loads, determination of, 52–53
power train components, automotive,
48–49
with three-force member, 54–56
transmission components, automotive,
50–52
Free-spinning locknuts, 438
Fretting, 388
Friction
with power screws, 419
with rolling-element bearings, 589, 591
viscous, 555–557
Fusion (welding), 474
Galling, 385
Galvanic action, 372, 376–378
Galvanic corrosion, 377–378
Galvanic series, 374
Garter springs, 530
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 476
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 476
Gas welding, 476
Gears, 620
bevel (see Bevel gears)
helical (see Helical gears)
materials for, 661
spur (see Spur gears)
terminology, 885–889
worm (see Worm gears)
Glass fiber reinforced plastics, 108
GMAW (gas metal arc welding), 476
Goodman lines, 330, 331
Government standards, 7
Gray iron, 101–102, 819
Greases, 546
Grinder, torsional impact in, 299–301
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding), 476
Guest, J. J., 265–266
Guest’s law, 265–266
Hammer peening, 382
Hardness, and machinability, 101
Hardness tests
Brinell, 97–100
Jominy end-quench test, 103
penetration, 97–100
Rockwell, 97–100
Hastelloys, 106
Hazard, 8
Helical compression springs, 498–520
buckling analysis of, 508
end designs of, 507–508
fatigue loading, design procedure for,
513–520
static loading, design procedure for,
509–512
stress/strength analysis for, 504–507
Helical extension springs, 521–522
Helical gears, 675, 676, 678–685. See also
Spur gears
angle of, 678–679
bending stress with, 684
crossed, 675, 685–686
force analysis with, 681–684
geometry of, 678–681
meshing, 682–684
pitch of, 679–680
surface fatigue stress with, 684–685
Helical threads, 412
Hencky, H., 266
Hertz, Heinrich, 394, 395
Hertz contact stresses, 394, 396, 648,
650–651
Hierarchy of needs, 13
High-carbon steels, 103
High-molecular-weight polyelhylene, 108
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels,
104894 Index
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 248
Hooke’s joint, 734
Hooke’s law, 91
Hoop tension, 62
Horsepower, 23–24
HSLA (high-strength low-alloy)
steels, 104
Hubs, 719
Hueber, M. T., 266
Hydraulic springs, 497
Hydrodynamic bearings
design charts for, 561–568
design of, 573–579
Hydrodynamic drives, history of,
793–794
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 547–550,
557–561
Hydrodynamic torque converters, 782,
798–799
Hydrogen embrittlement, 349
Hydrostatic lubrication, 548
Impact, 288–306
bending, 290–293, 297–298
linear, 290–296
static loading vs., 288–290
torsional, 298–301
Impact factor, 276, 289, 291
Impact loading, wilh roller bearings,
607–608
Impulsive loading. see Impact
Incoloy alloys, 106
Inconel alloys, 106
Induced stresses, 150–152
Induction hardening, 104, 351
Industry standards, 7
Inertia, moments of, 813
Inertia welding, 476–477
Ingenuity, 5–6
Instability, elastic, 227
Insulators, 378
Interference fits, 854
Interference points, 629–632
Interference theory of reliability
prediction, 280–281
Internal loads
in free-body analysis, 52–53
in transmission countershaft,
50–52
International Standards Organization
(ISO), 412, 553
inverted-tooth chains, 792–793
Iron, 373, see also Cast iron
Iron-based superalloys, 105, 831
ISO, see International Standards
Organization
ISO screw threads, 412, 414
Izod test, 97, 302
Jacks, screw-type, 417
Johnson, J. B., 230–231
Johnson column formula, 230–234
Joinability, 121, 846
Joint(s)
increasing fatigue strength of bolted,
461–462
riveted, 64–67
shear load capacity of bolted, 446–448
universal, 732–735
welded (see Welded joints)
Jominy, Walter, 103
Jominy end-quench test, 103
Joule, 22
Joules per second, 23
Keyways (keyseats), 717, 731
Kilowatt, 23–24
Laplace, P., 278
Laser beam welding, 476
Leaf springs, 522–527
Leonardo da Vinci, 591, 620
Lewis, Wilfred, 638
Lewis equation, 638–640
Life cycle, total, 6
Life quality index (LQI), 12–14
Limit
elastic, 91
proportional, 91
Linear actuators. See Power screws
Linear cumulative-damage rule, 344–346
Linear impact, 293–296
Linearly elastic stress–strain
relationships, 202–203
Linear plastics, 108
Loads/loading, 45–67
axial (see Axial loads/loading)
with beams, 57–60
direct shear, 133–134
dynamic, 288–290
eccentric, 234–236, 481–486
fatigue, 451–461, 513–520
and force flow, 60–62
with free bodies (see Free-body
analysis of loads)
impact (see Impact)
pure bending, 137–144
and redundant ductile structures, 64–67
redundant supports, division between,
62–64
static, 288–290
torsional, Torsional loading
transverse shear, 144–150, 428
Local buckling, 237–238
Locknuts, 438–439
Lock washers, 438
Long-shoe drum brakes, 760–768
internal long shoe, 767–768
nonpivoted long shoe, 760–766
pivoted long shoe, 766–767
Low-carbon steels, 103
Low-molecular-weight polyethylene,
107–108
LQI (life quality index), 12–14
Lubricant(s)
supply of, 568–570
types of, 546
Lubrication. See also Viscosity
boundary, 548, 579–581
elastohydrodynamic, 582, 648
hydrodynamic, 547–550, 557–561
hydrostatic, 548
mixed-film, 548, 580
self-, 580
Machinability, 101
Machine component problems,
methodology for solving, 19–21
Magnesium, 378
fretting of, 388
notch sensitivity of, 336
Magnesium alloys, 105–106, 319
mechanical properties of, 836
temper designations for, 834
Magnesium bronze, 384
Malleable iron, 102
Manufacturing, 117–123
Margin of safety, 277
Maslow, Abraham, 13
Material properties, 116–123
Materials, 89–123. See also specific
materials
anisotropic, 272
for brakes/clutches, 772–773
brittle, 250, 269
classes of (table), 843–844
for clutches/brakes, 772–773
compatibility of, 11
composites, 106, 111
corrosion of (see Corrosion)
database, property, 89–90
ductile, 250Index 895
ecological factors in selection of, 11
energy-absorbing capacity of, 96–97,
294–295
engineering stress-strain curve for,
91–94
ferrous, 315
for gears, 661
“handbook” data on strength properties
of, 100
isotropic, 272
machinability of, 101
nonferrous (see Nonferrous
metals/materials)
penetration hardness tests of, 97–100
properties of, 117–118
relative durability of, 11
for rivets, 473
for screws/nuts/bolts, 432
selection charts for, 112–115
selection factor, 118–121
selection of, 116, 121–123
for sliding bearings, 572–573
for springs, 497
static tensile test for, 90–91, 94–96
strength charts for, 112–115
and stress concentration factors,
162–165
true stress-strain curve for, 94–96
value of, 89
Maximum-distortion-energy failure
theory (maximum-octahedralshearstress failure theory), 266–268
Maximum-normal-stress failure theory, 265
Maximum-shear-stress failure theory,
265–266
Maxwell, James Clerk, 267
Mean stress, and fatigue strength,
326–334, 337–344
Mechanical engineering, 3
Medium-carbon steels, 103
Melamine, 110
Metal–inert gas (MIG) welding, 476
Metal plates, corrosion of, 379–380
Metals. See also specific metals
corrosion of, 372–375
database for properties of, 89–90
physical properties of (table), 817
tensile properties of (table), 818
Microreyn, 551
MIG (metal-inert gas) welding, 476
MIL-HDBK-5J, 89, 129, 252, 320,
857–873
Millipascal-second, 551
Miner rule, 344
Mises, R. von, 266
Mixed-film lubrication, 548, 580
Mode I, 252
Model T Ford, 674
Modulus of elasticity, 91
Modulus of resilience, 96–97, 296
Modulus of rupture, 298
Modulus of toughness, 97, 296
Mohr, Otto, 152
Mohr circle
for combined stresses, 153–156
and failure prediction, 265, 266
for induced stresses, 150–152
for strain, 195–197, 202–203
stress state representation,
156–158
three-circle diagram, 161
three-dimensional, 202–203
for two parallel cylinders, 395
Mohr theory
and fatigue strength, 322
modified, 269–270
Monomers, 106, 107
Moore rotating-beam fatigue-testing
machine, 314–315
National Bureau of Standards, 372
“Necking,” 92
Needle roller bearings, 593, 595, 596
Newton-meter, 22
Newton’s law of viscous flow, 551
Newton’s second law, 16, 18
Nickel, corrosion of, 376
Nickel alloys, 106, 320, 837
Nickel-based superalloys, 106
Nickel plating, 348
Nitriding, 104, 351
Nodular (ductile) iron, 102
Nominal mean stress method, 339
Nonferrous alloys, 105–106
Nonferrous metals/materials
for columns, 236
electroplating, 349
endurance limit of, 318
Normal distribution, 278–279,
878–882
Notched impact tests, 302
Notches, 335, 593
Notch sensitivity factor, 335–336
Nuts
locknuts, 438–439
with power screws, 417–418
and thread-bearing stress, 426–427
Nylon (polyamide), 109
Ocvirk’s short bearing approximation,
561
Oil bath, 569
Oil collar, 568
Oil grooves, 569–570
Oil holes, 569–570
Oil lubricants, 546, 568–570
Oil pump, 570
Oil ring, 568
Oldham coupling, 733
“The One-Hoss Shay,” (Oliver Wendell
Holmes), 249–250
OSHA, 7
Overdesign, 248
Overhauling power screws, 420
Overload, design, 273
Oxide coatings, 377
Packaging, 11
Paints, 377
Palmgren rule, 344
Parallel loading (welds), 478–479, 481
Parkerizing, 377
Pascal-second, 551
Passivation, 376, 379
Pearlite, 376
Performance
requirement, 116–123
service, 116–123
Petroff equation, 555–557
Phase transformations, 176
Phenolic, 110
Phenylene oxide, 109
Phosphate coatings, 377
Photoelastic patterns, 637
Pillow block, 444–446
Pinion, 622
Piston ring, tangential deflection of,
217–222
Pitch cones, 686
Pitch diameter, 624, 679, 695
Pitting, 399, 648, 650
Plain carbon steels, 103
Planes, principal, 152
Plane strain/stress, 252
Plasma arc welding, 476
Plastic distortion, 250
Plastics, 106–111
applications of, 842
designation of, 108
mechanical properties of, 840
reinforcement of, 108
thermoplastics, 109–110, 841
thermosets, 110–111896 Index
Plastic strain-strengthening region (true
stress-strain curve), 95
Plates
corrosion of metal, 376–380
local buckling/wrinkling in, 237
stress concentration factors of, 168
thick, fracture mechanics of, 255–256
thin, fracture mechanics of, 253–255
Plating, 349, 373
Pneumatic springs, 497
Pole deflection, preventing, 222–224
Polyamide (nylon), 109
Polycarbonate, 109
Polyester, 109, 110
Polyethylenes, 107–108, 109
Polyimide, 109
Polymerization, 107
Polymers, 106–108
Polyphenylene sulfide, 110
Polypropylene, 110
Polystyrene, 110
Polysulfone, 110
Polyurethane, 110–111
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 110
Poncelet, 312
Power, 23–24
camshaft, 25
punch press motor, 42–43
Power screws, 417–425
axial load with, 425–426
column loading of, 429–430
efficiency of, 421–422
friction coefficients, values of, 419
overhauling, 420
purpose of, 417
rolling contact in, 422–423
self-locking, 420
with square thread, 419, 421
thread angle in normal plane, values of,
420
thread bearing stress with, 426–427
thread forms for, 415
thread shear stress with, 428
thread sizes for, 416
thrust collar with, 418
torque applied to nut in, 417–419
torsional stresses with, 425, 426
transverse shear loading with, 428
Power train, automotive, 48–49
Power transmission, 782–799
by belt, 783–789
by chain, 789–793
by gear (see Gears)
by hydrodynamic drive, 793–799
Press, screw, 429
Pressure, and viscosity, 384
Pressure vessel flange bolts, selection of,
459–461
Prevailing-torque locknuts, 438–439
Primary dimensions, 15–16
Primers, 377
Principal planes, 152
Processing, 11
Professional engineering, 3
Proportional limit, 91
Punch press flywheel, 42–43
Punch press motor
with flywheel, 42–43
without flywheel, 43
Pure bending loading, 137–144
with curved beams, 138–144
with straight beams, 137–138
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 110
Racks, 628
Radial tension, 144
Rectangular strain rosettes, 199–202
Recycling, designing for, 10–11
Redundant ductile Structures, 64–67
Redundant reactions, 222–226
Redundant supports, 62–64
Reinforcement
of plastics, 108
web, 64
Reliability, 248, 276–277
interference theory of reliability
prediction, 280–281
and normal distributions, 278–279
Rene alloys, 106
Residual stresses, 167–177
and axial loading, 167–171
and bending, 171–173
and heat, 173–176
in steel, 176
and torsional loading, 171–173
Residual stress method, 339
Resilience, 96–97
modulus of, 96–97, 296
Resistance welding, 476
Reversed bending, fatigue strength for,
334–336
Reversed loading
fatigue life prediction with, 344–347
fatigue strength for axial, 320–321
fatigue strength for biaxial, 326
fatigue strength for completely, 326,
334–336
fatigue strength for torsional, 321–322
Reyn, 551
Reynolds, Osborne, 551
Reynolds equation for two-dimensional
flow, 560
Rigidity, test for, 90
Riveted joints, 64–67
Rivets, 472–474
blind, 473–474
cost-effectiveness of, 473
materials for, 473
standards for, 472
threaded fasteners vs., 473
tubular, 473, 474
Rockwell hardness test, 97–100
Rods
connecting, 232–234
deflection/stiffness formulas for,
204
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of
stress raiser on, 295–296
straight, impacted in
compression/tension, 293–294
Roller chains, 789–791
Rolling-element bearings, 587–615.
See also Ball bearings
and axial loading, 607–608
catalogue information for,
601–604
cylindrical, 593, 594–595
design of, 596–600
dimensions of, 601–603
fitting of, 600–601
friction with, 589, 591
history of, 591–592
life requirement for, 606
needle, 593, 595, 596
rated capacities of, 605
reliability requirement for,
606–607
rings for, 594–596
selection of, 604–610
and shock loading, 608–609
sliding bearings vs., 587, 589
spherical, 593, 595
surface damage to, 395–401
tapered, 593, 594, 595
thrust load, mounting for,
614–615
types of, 592–586
Rotating bending, fatigue strength for,
314–321
Rotating machine components, power
transmitted by, 23–24
Rubber, energy absorption capacity of,
295
Rupture, modulus of, 298
Rust, 373Index 897
Sacrificial anode, 375, 378
Safety/safety factors, 4–9, 272–274
awareness of, 5
definition of, 272–274
estimation of, for steel pan, 270–272
and ingenuity, 5–6
and margin of safety, 276
nontechnical aspects of, 9
selection of numerical value for,
274–276
techniques/guidelines for ensuring, 6–8
SAW (submerged arc welding), 476
Saybolt seconds, 552
Scoring, 385
Screw press, 429
Screw(s), 430–431. See also Power
screws
ball-bearing, 418–419
fatigue loading, selection for, 451–457
fatigue strength, increasing, 461–462
static loading, selection for, 444–451
tamper-resistant, 431
types of, 431
Scuffing, 385
Secant formula, 234–236
Secondary dimensions, 15–16
Sections, properties of, 813–815
Self-locking power screws, 420
Self-locking screws, 437–439
Self-loosening (of screws), 437–439
Self-lubrication, 580
Sems, 430
Shaft(s), 716–735
bearings for, 717
definition of, 716
deflections in, 206–209
design considerations with, 725–729
dynamics of rotating, 720–724
fatigue with, 339–341
joining of, 730–732
mounting parts onto rotating, 717–720
rigid couplings for, 732–735
stresses in, 153–156
torque-transmitting connections with,
730–732
torsional stress/deflection of, 299–301
transmission countershaft, internal
loads, 58–60
universal joints with, 732
Shear modulus of elasticity, and viscosity,
550–551
Shear/shear loading
direct, 133–134
double, 62, 134
in load analysis, 57–60
and sign convention, 57–58
sign convention for, 135
Shear strains, 195–197
Shear stresses
in beams, 144–150
and bending stresses, 148–150
and distortion, 250
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 475
Shock, see Impact
Shock absorber, 288
Short-shoe drum brakes, 756–760
Shot peening, 350, 382
Significant strength, 273, 277
Significant stress, 273, 277
Silicone, 111
Sinclair, Harold, 793–794
SI units, 16–18, 771–776
Size
and corrosion, 377
and fatigue strength, 323–326
Slenderness ratio (of column), 228–229,
231
Sliding bearings
hydrodynamic bearings, 561–568,
573–575
materials for, 572–573
oil film temperature with, 571–572
rolling-element bearings vs., 587, 589
types of, 546–547
SMAW (shielded metal arc welding), 475
Snapfit assembly, 472
Snap rings, 719
S-N curves, 315–322, 330–336,869–870
formula, 883–884
Snowmobile track drive shaft, 726–729
Societal objectives, 11–14
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
414, 432 , 552
Soldering, 489
Solids, mass/moments of inertia of
homogeneous, 816
Solid-state welding, 476
Solutions, engineering, 3
Spalling, 399, 650
Spindles, 716
Spin welding, 477
“Splash,” 569
Splines, 720, 730–732
Split ring, tangential deflection of, 217–222
Spring rate (spring constant/spring scale),
204–206
Spring(s), 497–530. See also Helical
compression springs
beam, 522–527
compound, 297–298
constant-force, 530
definition of, 497
flat, 522
garter, 530
helical extension, 521–522
hydraulic, 497
leaf, 522–527
materials for, 497
pneumatic, 497
redundant supports using, 62–64
torsion, 528–529
torsion bar, 497–498
volute, 530
washers, spring, 529–530
wire forms, 530
Spur gears, 620–665. See also Helical
gears
belt drive with, 623–624
contact ratio for, 629–632, 885–889
design procedures for, 656–660
force analysis with, 634–637
geometry of, 621–629
interference with, 629–632
and law of conjugate gear-tooth
action, 621
manufacture of, 628–629
materials for, 661
with racks, 628
standards for, 626–629
strength, gear-tooth-bending,
637–646
stress, gear-tooth-bending, 638–640
surface durability, gear-tooth,
648–651
surface fatigue, gear-tooth,
651–656
trains, gear, 661–665
Square thread (power screws), 419, 421
S.S. Schenectady, 251
Stability, 194
elastic, 227
Stainless steels, 104
cavitation of, 384
corrosion of, 377
fretting of, 388
mechanical properties of, 830
Standards, government/industry, 7
Standard tensile test, 264
Static failure theories, 263–272
Static loading
bolt/screw selection for, 444–451
impact vs., 288–290
Static stress
and corrosion, 380–382
on springs, 498–503, 509–512898 Index
Static tensile test
and “engineering” stress-strain
relationships, 91–94
and true stress–strain relationships, 94–96
Statistics, normal distribution, 278–279,
878–882
Steel, 102–105. See also Stainless steels
brittle fracture in, 250–251
carburizing, 829
cathodic protection of, 374
cavitation of, 384
connecting rod, diameter of, 232–234
corrosion of, 372
electroplating, 349, 375, 401
energy absorption capacity of, 294
fatigue in, 331–334
hardness test for, 98–100, 101
mass and strength of, 828
notch sensitivity of, 335–336
oil-quenched, 826, 827
pipe/tubing sections, 814–815
residual stresses in, 176
stress-strain in, 93–94
water-quenched/tempered, 825
Steel alloys, 103–104
fatigue strength diagram for, 328
mechanical properties of, 817,
822–823
Stellite, 384
Stepped-shaft deflection, 206–209
Stiffness, 194
and redundant supports, 63–64
and strength, 111–112
Strain
elastic stress–strain relationships,
202–203
engineering vs. true, 94
equiangular rosette analysis, 197–199
measurement of, 195
Mohr circle for, 195–197, 203
notation convention for, 90
rectangular rosette analysis, 199–202
state of, Mohr circle for, 203
and stress (see Stress–strain
relationships)
Strain gages, 196–197
electrical resistance, 196
online guide to, 197
Strain peening, 350
Strength. See also Fatigue strength
ceramics, charts for, 112–115
composites, charts for, 112–115
and density, 113–114
elastomers, charts for, 112–115
gear-tooth-bending, 638–648
metals, charts for, 112–115
notation convention for, 90
penetration hardness tests of, 97–100
polymers, charts for, 112–115
significant, 273, 277
and speed of loading, 289
and stiffness, 112–113
and temperature, 114–115
tensile, and safety factors, 270–272
test data vs. “handbook” data for
calculation of, 100
test for, 90–91
ultimate, 289, 317–318
yield, 91, 290
Stress concentration factors, 162–171
completely reversed fatigue loading,
334–336
of cracks, 251–252
importance of, 165–167
mean plus alternating loads, 337–341
theoretical (geometric), 165
Stress–corrosion cracks, 380–382
Stress(es). See also Body stresses
average vs. maximum, 131–133
biaxial (see Biaxial stresses)
column, 236
combined, 153–156
fluctuating, 326
induced, 150–152
from linear/bending impact,
290–298
maximum/minimum, 326
measurability of, 194
notation convention for, 90, 95–96
principle normal, 159–161
principle shear, 160–161
residual (see Residual stresses)
reversed, 320–322, 326
shear (see Shear stresses)
significant, 273, 277
state of, Mohr circle for, 203
static (see Static stress)
from torsional impact, 298–301
three-dimensional, 158–161
uniaxial, 158
zero principal, 158, 159
Stress gradient, 162
Stress intensity factor, 257–263, 351–352,
357–358
Stress invariants, 160–161
Stress raisers, 162, 301–306
Stress–strain relationships
elastic, 202–203
“engineering,” 91–94
true, 94–96
Submerged arc welding(SAW), 476
Sudden loading, see impact
Superalloys
iron-based, 105, 831
nickel-based, 106
Superposition, method of, 206
Surface
and fatigue strength, 348–351
gear-tooth, 648–656
Surface damage, 372–402
from cavitation, 384
from corrosion (see Corrosion)
from curved-surface contact stresses,
392–399
fatigue failure, surface, 399–401
from wear, 384–392
Surface fatigue, 384
Surface fatigue stress
bevel gears, 690, 692
failure, surface fatigue, 399–401
helical gears, 684–685
worm gears, 701–703
Surface treatments, and fatigue strength,
348–351
Tamper-resistant screws, 431
Tangent modulus, 64
Tapered roller bearings, 593, 594, 595
Temperature
and corrosion, 378
and strength, 114–115
stresses, thermal, 173–176
transition, 250, 301–302
viscosity, effect on, 571–572
Temperature gradients, 175–176
Tensile loading, 252
Tensile strength, 272
Tensile test
standard, 264
static, 91–96
Tension, 131
hoop, 62
radial, 144
T-head, stress concentration factors of,
169
Thermal capacity (of worm gears),
703–708
Thermal stresses, 173–176
Thermal surface-hardening treatments, 351
Thermoplastics, 108–110, 477, 843
Thermosets, 108, 110–111
Thermosetting adhesives, 490–491
Thread angle (power screws), 420
Thread-bearing (compressive) stress,
426–427
Threaded fasteners, 411–417. See also
Bolts; Nuts; Screws
axial load with, 425–426Index 899
bearing stress, thread, 426–427
cylindrical vs. conic, 416
design considerations with, 411
design of threads for, 414–416
geometry of threads on, 412, 414
helical thread wound on, 412
initial tension of, 432–437
manufacture of, 432
materials for, 432
rivets vs., 473
self-loosening/locking of, 437–439
shear loading, transverse, 428
shear stress, thread, 428
standards for, 412–414
torsional stresses with, 425, 432, 434–437
types of, 430–431
Thread shear stress, 428
Three-dimensional stresses, 158–161
Three-force member, load analysis for,
54–56
“Through-hardening” steels, 104
Thrust bearings, 581–582, 614–615
Thrust collar (power screws), 418
TIG (tungsten-inert gas) welding, 476
Timing (toothed) belts, 789
Timoshenko, S. P., 266
Tin, 373
Titanium, 320
corrosion of, 377
fretting of, 388
Titanium alloys, 106, 838
Tolerances, 854–856
Toothed (timing) belts, 789
Torque
camshaft, 22–23
punch press motor, 42–43
transmission of (see Power
transmission)
Torsion
and Castigliano’s method, 211–213
notation convention for, 90
with power screws, 425, 426
with threaded fasteners, 425, 432,
434–437
Torsional deflection, formulas for, 205
Torsional impact, 298–301
Torsional loading, 135–136
fatigue strength for reversed, 321–322
and residual stress, 171–173
Torsion bar springs, 497–498
Torsion springs, 528–529
Total life cycle, 6
Toughness, 97
fracture, 252
modulus of, 97, 296
Tower, Beauchamp, 557–558
Trains, gear, 661–665, 692–694
Transitional fits, 854
Transition region (true stress-strain
curve), 96
Transition temperature, 250, 301–302
Translation screws, see Power screws
Transmission, 50–52. See also Power
transmission
countershaft, internal loads in, 58–60
Transverse shear loading, 144–150, 428
in beams, 144–150
and Castigliano’s method, 211–214
in welds, 478–481
Tredgold’s approximation, 687
Tresca theory, 265
Triaxial effect (of stress raisers), 162
Triple-riveted butt joint, 64–67
True stress–strain curve, 94–96
Tubes, local buckling in, 237
Tubular rivets, 473, 474
Tungsten-inert gas (T1G) welding, 476
Udimet alloys, 106
Ultimate strength
and fatigue strength, 318–319
and speed of loading, 289
Ultrasonic welding, 477
UNC thread, 413–414
UNF thread, 413–414
Uniaxial stresses, 158, 203
Unified screw threads, 413–414
Units, 15–18
conversion factors for, 807–810
SI prefixes, standard, 810–812
Universal joints, 732–735
Urea, 110
Urethane adhesives, 491
User needs, 9
Value, of materials, 89
V-belts, 785–788
Vectors, 874–877
Vibration, 289
with power screws, 420
Vibration welding, 477
Vidosic, Joseph, 276
Viscosity, 550–555
friction, viscous, 555–557
kinematic, 552–554
measurement of, 552
and shear modulus of elasticity, 550–551
standards for, 553
temperature/pressure effects on, 555
units of, 551
Volute springs, 530
Vulcan-Werke A. G., 793
Warning information, 7–8
Washers, 430
spring, 529–530
Watt, 23–24
Wear, 384–392
abrasive wear, 387–388, 651
adhesive wear, 385–387, 580
analytical approach to, 389–392
coefficients, 387, 389–392
discretization theory, 392
fretting, 388
surface similarity, 392
“Weathering” Steels, 377
Web reinforcement, 64
Welded joints, 478–489
fatigue considerations with,
486–489
static axial and direct shear loading,
subject to, 478–481
static torsional and bending loading,
subject, 481–486
Welding, 474–477
and adhesive wear, 385
asperity, 385–386
and residual tension, 176–177
White iron, 102
Wire forms, 530
Wood beams, 297–298
Work, 21–23
“Working stress,” 272
Worm gears, 676, 677–678, 694–708
bending stress with, 701–703
force/efficiency analysis with,
696–701
geometry of, 694–696
pitch diameter of, 695–696
“recess action” with, 696
surface fatigue strength for, 702
thermal capacity of, 703–708
Wrinkling, 237
Yield point, 91
Yield strength, 91
notation convention for, 90, 91
and speed of loading, 290
Yoke connections, 60–62
Young’s modulus, 91, 95, 112
Zerol bevel gears, 688
Zero principal stress, 158, 159
Zinc, 373–374
Zinc alloys, 106, 839
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