Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories

Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
اسم المؤلف
R. C. Gupta
التاريخ
20 سبتمبر 2022
المشاهدات
524
التقييم
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Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
R. C. Gupta
Former Professor and Head
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology–BHU
Varanasi
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments

  1. Fuels, Furnaces, and Refractories Need and Their Significance
    1.1 Fuels
    1.1.1 Definition
    1.1.2 Classification of Fuels
    1.1.3 Use of Fuels by Metallurgical Industries
    1.1.4 Merits and Limitations of Fuels
    1.1.5 Fuel Requirements by Some Major Metallurgical Units
    1.2 Furnaces: Need and Type
    1.2.1 Definition
    1.2.2 Basic Features
    1.2.3 Methods of Furnace Classification
    1.2.4 Basic Components of Furnace
    1.2.5 Factors Responsible for Selection of Furnace
    1.3 Refractories
    1.3.1 Definition and Function of Refractory
    1.3.2 Classification of Refractory based on Chemical Nature
    1.3.3 Classification of Refractory based on Other Considerations
    1.3.4 Forms of Refractories: Shaped and Monolithic
    1.3.5 Applications
    1.3.6 Performance of Refractory
  2. Solid FuelsCoal and Coke
    2.1 Origin of Coal
    2.1.1 Peat Formation (Biochemical Period)
    2.1.2 Conversion of Peat into Coal (Dynamochemical Period)
    2.2 Type, Rank, Class and Grade of Coal
    2.3 Coal Constituents2.3.1 Petrological Constituents in Coal
    2.3.2 Elemental Constituents in Coal
    2.3.3 Constituents Important for Coal Use
    2.4 Coal Classification
    2.5 Properties of Coal and its Testing
    2.5.1 Ultimate Analysis of Coal
    2.5.2 Proximate Analysis of Coal
    2.5.3 Caking Property of Coal and Test Methods
    2.5.4 Fusion Behaviour of Coal (Coal Rheology or Plasticity)
    2.5.5 Coal Ash Fusion Behaviour
    2.5.6 Coal Calorific Value
    2.5.7 Coal Grindability Test (HGI)
    2.6 Coal Preparation and Cleaning
    2.6.1 Impurities in Coal
    2.6.2 Liberation of Impurities
    2.6.3 Principles for Separation of Coal from Impurities
    2.6.4 Coal Breaking Equipment
    2.6.5 Coal Sizing Equipment
    2.6.6 Coal Cleaning Methods
    2.6.7 Hand Picking of Coal Impurities
    2.6.8 Wet Gravity Separation
    2.6.9 Dry Gravity Separation
    2.6.10 Float and Sink Method
    2.6.11 Froth Floatation Method
    2.7 Coal Storage
    2.7.1 Aim of Coal Storage
    2.7.2 Problems with Coal Storage
    2.7.3 Factors Promoting Natural Oxidation of Coal
    2.7.4 Precautions Required during Storage
    2.8 Coke Making
    2.8.1 Coke Making Methods
    2.8.2 Beehive Coke Making Method
    2.8.3 Non-recovery Coke Oven Method2.8.4 By-product Coke Oven Method
    2.9 Coke Properties and Testing
    2.9.1 Coke Appearance
    2.9.2 Cell Size
    2.9.3 Coke Size
    2.9.4 Coke Porosity
    2.9.5 Coke Analysis
    2.9.6 Coke Strength
    2.9.7 Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR)
    2.9.8 Coke Reactivity
    2.10 Carbon Structure and its Reactivity
    2.10.1 Carbon and its Structure
    2.10.2 Carbon Structure and its Gasification Rate
    2.10.3 Carbon Reactivity Determination Techniques
    2.11 Coke Oven Emissions
    2.12 Applications of Coal in Metallurgical Plants
    2.12.1 Coke Making
    2.12.2 Sponge Iron Making in Rotary Kilns
    2.12.3 Smelting Reduction (SR) Process (COREX)
    2.13 Use of Coke for Various Applications
    2.13.1 Blast Furnace
    2.13.2 Cupola
    2.13.3 Water Gas
    2.14 Numerical Problems
    2.14.1 Surface Moisture
    2.14.2 Proximate Analysis
    2.14.3 Coal Blending and Coke Making
    2.14.4 Coke Oven Design
  3. Liquid Fuels
    3.1 Origin of Liquid Fuels
    3.2 Sources of Liquid Fuel
    3.2.1 Crude Petroleum
    3.2.2 Oil Shale3.2.3 Coal Tar Fuel (CTF)
    3.2.4 Coal Liquefaction
    3.3 Commonly Used Petroleum Products
    3.3.1 Petrol (Gasoline)
    3.3.2 White Spirit
    3.3.3 Naphtha
    3.3.4 Kerosene
    3.3.5 Diesel
    3.3.6 Furnace Oil
    3.4 Properties and Testing Techniques for Liquid Fuels
    3.4.1 Viscosity
    3.4.2 Flash Point and Fire Point
    3.4.3 Specific Gravity
    3.4.4 Calorific Value
    3.4.5 Sulphur in Oils
    3.4.6 Carbon Residue
    3.4.7 Ash Content
    3.4.8 Cloud Point
    3.4.9 Pour Point
    3.4.10 Sludge and Sediments in Oil
    3.4.11 Water in Oil
  4. Gaseous Fuels
    4.1 Natural Gas
    4.2 Reformed Natural Gas
    4.2.1 Technique Used by HyL III
    4.2.2 Technique Used by MIDREX Process
    4.3 LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) or Bottled Gas
    4.4 Blast Furnace Gas
    4.5 Coke Oven Gas
    4.6 LD Steel Gas
    4.7 COREX Gas
    4.8 Producer Gas
    4.8.1 Properties of Producer Gas4.8.2 Manufacturing Process of Producer Gas
    4.8.3 Flexibility of Use of Fuel for Generating Producer Gas
    4.8.4 Applications
    4.9 Water Gas (or Blue Gas)
    4.9.1 Water Gas Generation Unit
    4.9.2 Fuel Quality for Water Gas Generation
    4.9.3 Applications of Water Gas
    4.10 CarburetTed Water Gas
    4.11 Oil Gas
    4.12 Testing of Gaseous Fuels
    4.12.1 Gas Analysis Methods
    4.12.2 Gas Analysis by Orsat Apparatus
    4.12.3 Gas Calorimeter
    4.13 Storage and Safety of Gaseous Fuels
    4.13.1 Gas Holder
  5. Combustion of Fuels
    5.1 Definitions and Terminology
    5.2 Combustion Systems
    5.2.1 Combustion Process Requirements
    5.2.2 Air for Combustion
    5.2.3 Combustion System Design Factors
    5.3 Combustion Mechanism for Solid Fuels
    5.3.1 Solid Fuel Bed Combustion on Hearth or Grate
    5.3.2 Pulverised Fuel Combustion through Burner
    5.3.3 Solid Fuel Combustion in Fluidised Bed
    5.4 Liquid Fuel Combustion and Liquid Fuel Burners
    5.4.1 Methods for Atomising Liquid Fuel
    5.4.2 Types of Burner
    5.4.3 Oil Ignition Systems
    5.4.4 Flame Detection
    5.4.5 Oil Combustion Mechanism
    5.4.6 Flame Properties
    5.5 Gaseous Fuel Combustion5.5.1 Flame Propagation
    5.5.2 Gas Burner Types
    5.6 Numerical Problems
    5.6.1 Combustion of Solid Fuel
    5.6.2 Gaseous Fuel Combustion
  6. Furnaces and its Accessories
    6.1 Commonly Used Furnaces
    6.1.1 Solid Fuel based Furnaces
    6.1.2 Liquid Fuel based Furnaces
    6.1.3 Gaseous Fuel based Furnaces
    6.1.4 Furnaces based on Electricity
    6.1.5 Chemical Energy based Furnaces
    6.2 Basic Principles of Furnace Design
    6.2.1 Chamber Design
    6.2.2 Burners
    6.2.3 Fans and Blowers
    6.2.4 Chimney
    6.3 Furnace Instruments
    6.3.1 Temperature Measuring Devices
    6.3.2 Pressure Measuring Equipment
    6.3.3 Flow Rate
    6.4 Major Furnace Accessories
    6.4.1 Waste Gas Cleaning Systems
    6.4.2 Waste Gas Collecting Systems for Melting Units
    6.4.3 Thermal Shields
    6.4.4 Acoustic Chambers
  7. Refractories
    7.1 Properties of Refractory
    7.1.1 High Temperature Behaviour
    7.1.2 Corrosion Resistance
    7.1.3 Erosion Resistance
    7.1.4 Thermal Conductivity
    7.1.5 Porosity7.1.6 Density
    7.1.7 Cold Crushing Strength (CCS)
    7.2 Raw Materials for Refractory Manufacture
    7.2.1 Clay based Refractory Raw Materials
    7.2.2 Non-clay based Refractory Raw Materials
    7.3 Refractory Manufacturing Process
    7.4 Commonly Used Equipment in Refractory Industry
    7.4.1 Crushing and Grinding Equipment
    7.4.2 Sizing Equipment
    7.4.3 Mixing Machines
    7.4.4 Kneading Machines
    7.4.5 Shaping Machines
    7.4.6 Firing Kilns
    7.4.7 Finishing Equipment
    7.5 Preparation of Commonly Used Refractory Bricks
    7.5.1 Silica Bricks
    7.5.2 Fireclay Bricks
    7.5.3 Burnt Magnesite Bricks
    7.5.4 Dolomite Bricks
    7.5.5 Chromite Bricks
    7.5.6 Chrome Magnesite Bricks
    7.5.7 Insulation Bricks
    7.5.8 Graphite based Refractory
    7.5.9 Zirconia Bricks
    7.5.10 Silicon Carbide Bricks/Blocks
    7.6 Common Monolith Refractories
    7.6.1 Grog
    7.6.2 Dead Burnt Magnesite
    7.6.3 Ramming Mass
    7.6.4 Alumina Powder
    7.6.5 Fireclay
    7.6.6 Fire Cement
    7.7 Casting Pit Refractories7.7.1 Ladle Components
    7.7.2 Tundish
    7.7.3 BF Runner
  8. Heat Transfer and Energy Management
    8.1 Modes of Heat Transfer
    8.1.1 Thermal Conduction
    8.1.2 Numerical Problems
    8.1.3 Heat Convection
    8.1.4 Thermal Radiation
    8.2 Thermal Efficiency of Furnaces
    8.3 Sources of Heat Loss in a Furnace
    8.3.1 Heat Stored in Furnace Structure and its Loss
    8.3.2 Thermal Losses from the Furnace Outer Walls or Structure
    8.3.3 Heat Loss through Furnace Components
    8.3.4 Thermal Loss from Furnace Walls and Openings
    8.3.5 Heat Carried Away by the Cold Air Infiltration in the Furnace
    8.3.6 Heat Loss by Hot Flue Gases and Excess Air Used for
    Combustion in the Burners
    8.3.7 Heat Loss by Cooling Water
    8.4 Waste Heat Recovery
    8.4.1 Classification of Waste Heat Source
    8.4.2 Merits and Limitations in Heat Recovery
    8.4.3 Waste Heat Recovery Devices
    8.5 Energy Audit
    8.5.1 Definition
    8.5.2 Aim of Audit
    8.5.3 Audit Procedure
    8.5.4 Presentation of Energy Audit
    8.5.5 Numerical Problems
  9. Furnace Atmosphere Control and Environmental Issues
    9.1 Furnace Atmosphere—Nature and Application
    9.1.1 Definition
    9.1.2 Properties of Different Gases9.1.3 Classification of Atmospheric Gases
    9.1.4 Vacuum as Atmosphere
    9.2 Methods to Generate Furnace Atmosphere
    9.2.1 In-situ Methods of Atmosphere Generation
    9.2.2 External Atmosphere Generators
    9.3 Selection of Atmosphere in the Furnace
    9.3.1 Alloy under Treatment and its Requirement
    9.3.2 Chemical Properties of the Atmosphere
    9.3.3 Reactions with Respect to Temperature and Heat Transfer
    9.3.4 Restriction with Regard to the Furnace
    9.3.5 Restrictions with Regard to Product Quality
    9.4 Monitoring Furnace Atmosphere
    9.4.1 Indicating Panel of Instruments
    9.4.2 Auto Control System
    9.4.3 Visual Observations
    9.5 Safety during using Gas
    9.6 Fuels, Furnaces and Environmental Issues
    9.6.1 Impact Area of Pollutants
    9.6.2 Airborne Pollutants
    9.6.3 Waterborne Pollutants
    9.6.4 Solid Pollutants
    9.6.5 Thermal Radiation
    9.6.6 Noise
    9.7 Pollution Abatement Devices
    9.7.1 Devices to remove Airborne Pollutants
    9.7.2 Devices to Treat Waste Water
  10. Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories Indian Scenario
    10.1 Natural Resources of Coal in India and its Availability
    10.1.1 Coal Reserves in India
    10.1.2 Coal Demand and Supply in India
    10.1.3 Coal Producing Companies in India
    10.2 Natural Resources of Oil in India and its Availability
    10.2.1 Production and Consumption of Crude Oil10.2.2 Oil Refineries in India
    10.2.3 Export of Oil Products by India
    10.2.4 Consumers of Petroleum Products
    10.3 Resources of Natural Gas in India and its Availability
    10.3.1 Production and Demand of Natural Gas
    10.3.2 Natural Gas Consumers in India
    10.4 Status of Electrical Energy in India
    10.4.1 Installed Power Plant Capacity
    10.4.2 Demand and Supply Status
    10.4.3 Users of Electrical Energy
    10.4.4 Major Companies in Power Sector
    10.5 Furnace Design and Manufacturing in India
    10.5.1 History of Furnace Development
    10.5.2 Types of Furnaces Used in India by Steel Industry
    10.5.3 Iron Making Furnaces
    10.5.4 Steel Making Furnaces
    10.5.5 Heating Furnaces
    10.5.6 Furnaces for Foundries
    10.5.7 Furnaces for Electrical Power Plants
    10.6 Refractory Industries in India
    10.6.1 History of Refractory Industry
    10.6.2 Current Scenario of Refractory Industries
    10.6.3 Consumption Rate of Refractory by Steel Industry
    10.6.4 Major Refractory Industries in India
    Appendix I: Mathematical Formulae
    Appendix II: Useful Data
    Appendix III: Unit Conversion Tables
    Bibliography
    Index
    Index
    Absolute pressure, 275
    Acoustic chambers, 288
    Airborne, 422
    Airborne pollutants, 411
    Air for combustion, 169
    Air to fuel ratio (l), 171
    Alumina powder, 355
    Ammonia, 415
    Amorphous graphite, 349
    Applications, 328 , 332 , 337 , 340 , 342 , 345 , 348 , 350 , 352 , 354
    Audit procedure, 391
    Auto control system, 407
    Axial flow fans, 265
    Backward curved fans, 265
    Baffle chambers, 283
    Ball mill, 318
    Basic laws, 266
    Basic laws governing conduction, 365
    Basic oxygen furnaces ( LD converters), 444
    Basic principles, 274
    Basic principles of furnace design, 262
    Batch type re-rolling, 226
    Benzene, 415
    B F runner, 361
    Bio-degradable organics, 424
    Black body, 375
    Blast furnaces, 442
    Blowers and its types, 265
    Bottom centre fired, 232Bourdon gauge, 277
    Burner, 176 , 264
    Burner design, 178
    Burnt magnesite bricks, 332
    Calorimetric flowmeter, 282
    Carbon dioxide, 397, 415
    Carbon monoxide, 397 , 413
    Carbon refractories, 350
    Carburising, 399
    Casing material, 264
    Centrifugal blowers, 265
    Centrifugal flow fans, 265
    Chamber, 262
    Chamber shape, 262
    Chamber size, 263
    Charcoal using furnaces, 221
    Chemical energy based furnaces, 253
    Chemical properties, 405
    Chimney, 267
    Chromite bricks, 340
    Chrom magnesite bricks, 344
    Circuit breakers, 249
    Circular kiln, 323
    Classification, 275 , 383
    Classification of atmospheric gases, 399
    Classification of electrical furnaces, 236
    Clay based, 312
    Coal based DRI rotary kilns, 443
    Coal based furnaces, 213
    Coal preparation, 177
    Coal selection, 180
    Coke dry quenching, 390
    Coke oven, 229
    Cold air infiltration in the furnace, 380
    Cold Crushing Strength ( CCS ), 311
    Cold Isostatic Press ( CIP ), 321Combustion, 167
    Combustion mechanism, 180
    Combustion mechanism for solid fuels, 172
    Combustion on hearth or grate, 172
    Combustion process, 169
    Combustion system design, 171
    Combustion systems, 169
    Commonly used equipment in refractory industry, 316
    Companies in power sector, 438
    Complete combustion, 168
    Cone crusher, 318
    Consumers, 435 , 436
    Consumption, 450
    Continuous pusher type re-rolling mill furnace, 227
    Copper converters, 257
    COREX furnace, 443
    COREX iron making, 214
    Corrosion resistance, 304
    Counter current recuperators, 387
    Cracked ammonia gas, 405
    Creep at high temperature, 297
    Crushing, 317
    Crystalline graphite, 349
    Cupola, 219
    Current scenario, 450
    Cyclone dust catcher, 283
    Dead burnt magnesite, 354
    Decarburising, 399
    Definition, 391 , 396
    Demand, 430 , 438
    Density, 309
    Design, 216
    Devices, 385
    Devices to treat waste water, 423
    Differential pressure, 275
    Diffusive mixing, 195Dimensions, 263
    Dog house, 248
    Dolomite bricks, 338
    Draw furnace, 235
    Dri plants, 443
    Dry scrubbing, 286
    Dust catchers, 283 , 422
    Electrical power plants, 446
    Electric arc furnace, 246 , 445
    Electric pig iron furnace, 222
    Electrode holder, 248
    Electrode regulators, 250
    Emperature, 366
    Endogas, 404
    Energy audit, 391
    Environmental issues, 410
    Erosion resistance, 305
    Excess air used for combustion in the burners, 380
    Exogas, 404
    Explosion, 168
    Export, 434
    External atmosphere generators, 402
    Extruding machines, 322
    Finishing, 323
    Fire cement, 355
    Fireclay, 355
    Fireclay bricks, 329
    Firing kilns, 322
    Flake graphite, 349
    Flame detection, 191
    Flame length, 192
    Flame propagation, 193
    Flame properties, 191
    Flame stability, 192
    Flash smelting furnace, 255
    Flow rate, 279Flue-gas desulphurisation, 423
    Fluid flow origin, 372
    Fluid flow type, 372
    Fluidised bed, 182
    Forced convection, 372
    Forced draft, 195
    Forging furnace, 226
    Forward curved fans, 265
    Foundry pit furnace, 221
    Fourier’s law, 367
    Fuel, 217
    Furnace accessories, 283
    Furnace atmosphere, 396
    Furnace components, 379
    Furnace cover, 247
    Furnace design, 440
    Furnace instruments, 268
    Furnaces based on electricity, 235
    Furnaces for foundries, 446
    Furnace shell, 246
    Furnace tilting, 247
    Gas, 443
    Gaseous fuel based furnaces, 228
    Gases, 397
    Gasification, 168
    Gauge pressure, 275
    Graphite based refractory, 348
    Graphite bricks, 350
    Graphite electrode, 350 , 248
    Grease, 424
    Grinders, 318
    Grinding, 317
    Grog, 354
    Heat convection, 372
    Heat flow, 366
    Heat flow through furnace wall, 368Heating furnaces, 445
    Heat loss by cooling water, 381
    Heat stored in furnace structure, 378
    Heat transfer, 406
    Heat treatment, 234
    Helium, 398
    High Temperature Modulus of Rupture ( HMOR ), 299
    History, 447
    History of furnace development, 440
    Hot flue gases, 380
    Hydraulic press, 321
    Hydrocarbons, 397
    Hydrogen, 398
    Impact area of pollutants, 411
    Incident radiation, 375
    Indicating panel, 407
    Induction furnaces, 445
    Induction melting furnace, 239
    Inert or neutral atmosphere, 399
    Installed power plant capacity, 437
    Insulation bricks, 346
    Integral quench, 235
    Iron making furnaces, 442
    Kirchhoff’s law, 376
    Kneading machines, 320
    Ladle components, 356
    Lambert’s law, 376
    Laminar flow, 372
    Laws governing thermal radiation, 375
    Ld converter, 259
    Limitations, 177 , 384
    Liquid fuel burners, 187
    Liquid fuel combustion, 187
    Low NO
    x , 196Low NO
    x burners, 423
    Low pressure air atomising burners, 190
    Luminosity, 192
    Machines for finishing green refractory shapes,
    322
    Major refractory industries in India, 451
    Making process, 327
    Manufacturing in India, 440
    Mechanical press, 321
    Merits, 176 , 235 , 384
    Methods for atomising, 187
    Methods to generate furnace atmosphere, 400
    Mixer unit, 223
    Mixing, 319
    Modes of heat transfer, 364
    Moisture, 397
    Monitoring furnace atmosphere, 407
    Monogas, 405
    Monolith refractories, 354
    Mullar mixer, 320
    Multiple hearth roasting furnace, 253
    Natural, 334
    Natural graphite, 349
    Natural resources of coal in India, 429
    Natural resources of oil in India, 431
    Nitriding atmosphere, 399
    Nitrogen, 397
    Noise, 421
    Non-ferrous heat treatment furnaces, 235
    Nozzle, 280, 358
    Oil combustion mechanism, 191
    Oil ignition systems, 190
    Oil refineries in India, 433
    One way fired, 232Open hearth furnaces, 224
    Optical pyrometer, 271
    Orifice plates, 280
    Outokumpu flash smelting, 255
    Oxidation, 167
    Oxides of Nitrogen ( NO x ), 398, 413
    Oxidising, 193
    Oxidising atmosphere, 399
    Oxidising filter, 424
    Oxygen, 398
    Ozone, 414
    Parallel flow recuperators, 387
    Particulate matter ( D ust), 412
    Penning gauge, 278
    Physics of heat transfer, 365 , 374
    Pirani gauge, 277
    Pitot tubes, 282
    PLC test, 303
    Pneumatic atomisation with air or steam, 189
    Pneumatic steel making converters, 258
    Pollution abatement devices, 422
    Pollution control, 221
    Porosity, 307
    Positive displacement blowers, 265
    Positive displacement flowmeters, 282
    Pre-mixing, 195
    Preparation method, 342 , 345 , 350 , 352 , 353
    Preparation of commonly used refractory bricks, 323
    Pressing machines, 320
    Pressure atomisation with orifice, 188
    Pressure atomisation with swirling nozzle, 189
    Pressure measuring devices, 275
    Pressure measuring equipment, 274
    Primary air, 171
    Process of heat transfer, 372
    Producing companies, 430Production and consumption, 432
    Production and demand, 436
    Propeller fans, 265
    Properties, 397
    Properties of graphite, 349
    Properties of refractory, 291
    Properties of silicon carbide bricks, 353
    Properties of zirconia bricks, 351
    Pulverised fuel, 176
    Quality control, 328
    Quality of bricks, 324 , 329 , 338 , 341 , 346
    Quench tank furnace, 235
    Radial fans, 265
    Radiant power, 375
    Ramming mass, 355
    Rate of heat flow, 366
    Raw material, 338 , 349 , 351 , 353
    Raw materials for refractory manufacture, 312
    Raw materials needed, 334 , 342 , 346
    Reactors, 249
    Recuperator, 386
    Reducing atmosphere, 399
    Reducing flame, 193
    Refractory industries in India, 447
    Refractory lining, 247
    Refractory manufacturing process, 315
    Refractory thickness and nature, 264
    Regenerator, 385
    Reheating furnaces, 234
    Removal of oil, 424
    Requirement, 405
    Reserves, 429
    Resources of natural gas, 436
    Restrictions with regard to product quality, 407
    Restriction with regard to the furnace, 407Reverse osmosis, 426
    Ribbon blender, 319
    Rod mill, 318
    Roll crusher, 318
    Rotameter, 281
    Rotary cup burner, 190
    Rotary hearth furnace for sponge iron, 214
    RUL, 295
    Safety during using gas, 409
    Sealed, 275
    Sea water, 335
    Secondary air, 171
    Secondary crushers, 318
    Selection, 266
    Selection of atmosphere in the furnace, 405
    Settling chambers, 283
    Settling tanks, 424
    Shape, 192
    Shaping machines, 320
    Shuttle kiln, 323
    Siemens-martin furnace, 224
    Silica bricks, 324
    Silicon carbide, 352
    Sinter coolers, 390
    Sizing equipment, 319
    Skelner furnace, 223
    Slide gate, 247 , 358
    Small iron blast furnace, 222
    Soaking pit, 231
    Solid pollutants, 417
    Sources of heat loss in a furnace, 378
    Spark ignition, 190
    Special direct heat exchanging devices, 390
    Special issues, 329 , 342 , 345
    Specific rate of heat flow, 366
    Sponge iron rotary kilns, 213Status of electrical energy in India, 437
    Steady state or stationery temperature, 366
    Steam raising boilers, 215
    Steel industry, 450
    Steel making furnaces, 444
    Stopper, 358
    Stopper rod sleeve, 358
    Sulphur dioxide, 397 , 413
    Supply, 430 , 438
    Synthetic graphite, 350
    Tangentially fired circular soaking pits, 232
    Tapping spout, 247
    Temperature measuring devices, 268
    Tempering, 235
    Tertiary air, 171
    Thermal conduction, 365
    Thermal conductivity, 306 , 366
    Thermal efficiency of furnaces, 377
    Thermal expansion, 301
    Thermal loss from furnace walls, 380
    Thermal radiation, 374 , 421
    Thermal shields, 288
    Thermal shock resistance, 300
    Top two way fired soaking pits, 232
    Total or actual air, 170
    Transformer, 250
    Transient or non-stationery temperature, 366
    Transitional flow, 372
    Tribal iron making furnace, 222
    Tube axial fans, 265
    Tundish, 359
    Tunnel kiln, 322
    Turbine flowmeter, 282
    Turbulent flow, 373
    Turndown ratio, 169
    Two stage, 196Two way fired, 232
    Types of burner, 188
    Types of furnaces used, 441
    Users, 438
    Vacuum as atmosphere, 399
    Value, 295
    Vane axial fans, 265
    V-blender, 320
    Velocity flow meters, 282
    Vented, 275
    Venturi tubes, 280
    Vertically fired soaking pits, 232
    Vibrating press, 321
    Visual observations, 409
    Volatile organic compound, 414
    Waste gas cleaning systems, 283
    Waste gas collecting systems, 286
    Waste heat boilers, 388
    Waste heat recovery, 381
    Water borne pollutants, 417
    Water distillation, 425
    Wet scrubbing, 286
    Wobbe number, 168
    Working, 217
    Zirconia bricks, 351

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