Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy

Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy
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15 أكتوبر 2016

Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy
Wayne R. Moore
With an Introductory by Dr. George R. Harrison,
Dean-emeritus of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Moore Special Tool Company * Bridgeport, Connecticuttable of Contents
The Four Mechanical Arts
5. The Mooren of Design
Quill Housing
Final Geometry
The Master Laps
The Electronic Indicator and the Autocollimator . . . . 68
Final Inspection (After Table Fitted )
Environmental Effectson Castiron
Foundry Techniques
Machining of Cast Iron
Elastic Deflection
Temperature & Instability
1. The F L a T P L a N E
Creating a Master Flat Plane
15 Minute Check for Flatness
Granite Surface Plate
Granite & Moisture
Comparison Between Cast Iron & Granite . . .
2. Straight Edges
Case History No. 1
Case History No. 2
Creating a Master Straightedge
3. The Female Double V Master
Center Distance
Vertical & Horizontal Straightness
Horizontal Parallelism
Vertical Parallelism
4. M a C H I N E D E S I G N
Coordinate Location
Geometry as a Function of Machine Accuracy
Straightline Travel
Squareness of Travel
Temperature Effects
Machine Configuration
The Planer-type Jig Borer
The Horizontal Spindle Jig Borer
The Compound-type Jig Borer
Machine Way Design
The V and Flat
The Gibbed Way
The Central V
The Double V
The 90° Form V-way
28 Standards of Length 91
28 Functions of the World’s Foremost Standards’ Bureaus,
Contributed by an Official of Each:
Bipm Bureau International Des Poids Et Mesures,
Sevres, France. By P. Carre, for the
Director, J. Terrien
National Physical Laboratory,
Teddington, England.
By L. W. Nickols, Head, Metrology Centre
Physikaliseh-technische Bundesanstalt,
Braunschweig, West Germany. By Prof.
Dr. E. Engelhard, Leitender Direktor
U. S. National Bureau of Standards,
Washington, D.c. By a. G. Strang, Chief
Engineering Metrology Section, Metrology
Division, Nbs
1. H I S T O R Y O F O F F I C I a L L E N G T H
S T a N D a R D S
In the Beginning
The Egyptian Heritage
Babylonian Contribution
The Ancients and Proportion
Roman Empire Unified Standards
Early Standards in France
Early Standards in England
The Metric System
Later English Standards
Early Standards in America
International Standard
Light Waves – an Absolute Standard
35 Ptb
40 Nbs
42. Physical Standards as Measured
In the Bureaus
The Precision Scale
The End Standard
Relative Merit of the Precision Scale and
The End Standard
Relation to the International Standard,
Light Waves
Conditions of Comparison
Material of the Standard
Micro-geometry: Its Relationship to the
Measurement of Length
Elastic Deformation in the Gaging of Standards
3. Measurement in Science
And Industry
Significance of Machine Tools
What Delayed the Development of Machine Tools? . . 137
Evolution of Cannon Boring Machines .
James Watt
Wilkinson’s Cannon-boring Machine .
Machine Tool Development in England
Henry Maudslay
Joseph Whitworth
Measurement in American Industry –
Eli Whitney
Arms-making, Interchangeability, Machine Tools 147
The Development of Standard Machine Tools
The Development of Accurate Measuring
Instruments and Machine Tools in
American Industry
Brown & Sharpe
Pratt & Whitney
Carl Edvard Johansson
Eskilstuna Rifle Factory
Evolution of Coordinate-locating Machine Tools –
Jig Borer
Switzerland – Machines a Pointer
(Sip Company & Dixi Company)
Pratt & Whitney Jig Borer, 1917
Naugatuck Valley
Moore Jig Borer 1932
Moore Jig Grinder 1940
Introduction of the Universal Measuring Machine. . . . 162
Taper Probe Measuring Machine (Cmm)
Establishment of Moore Linear Standards.
4. Temperature Control
Measuring Machine Laboratory
Problem of Stratification
Design Features
Temperature-controlled Floor
Standards Room
Importance of 68°f [20°c] Temperature
5. Transferal of Accuracy 180
Temperature Precautions
Method of Transferal
Subdividing the Step Gage
Step Gages Inspected by the Bureaus
Second Generation Step Gages
Moore Step Gage
6. Choice of Length-measuring Element
For Moore Measuring Machine
End Measure
Precision Scale
Lead Screw
Laser Interferometer
7. Moore Master Lead Screw 187
Material of the Lead Screw
Thread-grinding of the Lead Screw . .
Lapping of the Thread
Lead Screw Nut
Lineup of the Lead Screw
Step Gage Calibration of Lead Screw
Periodic Error
Moore Lapping Specialists
Dividing the Circle
1. The Nature of the Third
Mechanical Art
Dividing the Circle Versus the Sine Principle
Derivation of Present System of
Relating Angular Magnitudes
Mathematical Inconvenience of the
Sexagesimal System
5table of Contents – Continued
2. T H E P R I N C I P L E O F S E L F-p R O V I N G T H E
D I V I S I O N O F a C I R C L E
Establishing the Divisions of a
Circle Using Dividers
The Theory of Calibrating a Divided Circle
3. T H E S I N E P R I N C I P L E
The Right Triangle
The Practical Application of the Sine Principle . .
T H E Sine Bar
Limitations of the Sine Principle
The Sine Table
1. W H Y C O N S I D E R R O U N D N E S S?
Nature of Out-of-roundness
2. M E a S U R I N G R O U N D N E S S 2 5 6
2 0 8 Diametral
Circumferential Confining Gage
Rotating on Centers
Three-point Probe
Accurate Spindle
3. Two T Y P E S O F M E a S U R I N G S P I N D L E S
Measuring Spindles Compared
Rotating Table
Overhead Spindle
4. M O O R E U N I V E R S a L M E a S U R I N G
M a C H I N E S P I N D L E
Need for an Accurate Spindle
Measuring Machine Spindle Housing Design . . . .
Spindle and Quill
The Yoke
Rotation of the Spindle
Spindle Housing Travel
5. Not J U S T R O U N D N E S S, B U T G E O M E T R Y . . . 2 6 8
Measuring Machine for the Inspection
Of Hole Geometry
6. H O W T O D E F I N E R O U N D N E S S ?
Relation to Surface Finish
Definitions of Roundness Compared
4. C I R C L E-d I V I D I N G I N S T R U M E N T S 2 1 6
The Rotary Table
Optical Rotary Tables
Mechanical, Cam-compensated Rotary Table .
Accurate Worm-and-gear Rotary Table
The Importance of Accuracy of Rotation
In a Rotary Table
5. P R I N C I P a L a N G L E S T a N D a R D S
Angle Gage Blocks
The Polygon
Calibration of the Polygon
Criteria Effecting Polygon Accuracy
Polygons Applied to the Calibration of
Rotary Tables
Interferometric Calibration of the Rotary Table
Serrated-tooth Circle-divider
Moore 1440 Precision Index
6. The 1 4 4 0 S M a L L a N G L E D I V I D E R
Design Principles
Setting an Angle With the 1440
Small Angle Divider
Method of Calibration of the
1440 Small Angle Divider
Use of the 1440 Small Angle Divider
Precision Index Center
63. A P P L I C a T I O N S O F T H E U N I V E R S a L
M E a S U R I N G M a C H I N E
U S E O F Angular-measuring Instruments on the
Universal Measuring Machine
The Rotary Table
The Precision Index Center
The Micro-sine Table
Rotary Table Mounted on the Micro-sine Table
1440 Small Angle Divider
Use of the Strip Recorder
Special Machines Employing the No. 3 or
No. 1j/2 Base Construction
4. The No. 4 and No. 5 U N I V E R S a L
M E a S U R I N G M a C H I N E S
Applications of Large Universal
Measuring Machines
Special Designs
72-inch Measuring Machine
Numerical Control of Measuring Machines
5. R U L I N G E N G I N E S – D I F F R a C T I O N
G R a T I N G S
Diffraction Gratings
Ruling Engines for Diffraction Gratings –
Henry a. Rowland – Johns Hopkins University, 1882 . . 327
John a. Anderson – Johns Hopkins University, 1901. . 327
John a. Anderson, Harold D. Babcock –
Mount Wilson Observatory, 1916
Albert a. Michelson, Early 1900’s
John Strong – Johns Hopkins University, 1950
George R. Harrison – M.i.t., 1948
The Ruling Engine and the Lead Screw
M.i.t. “b” Engine With the No. 3 Measuring
Machine Base
M.i.t. “c” Engine With the No. 4 Measuring
Machine Base
George W. Stroke
Expectations of the M.i.t. “c” Engine
Universal Measuring Machine
Techniques and Applications .
1. The P H I L O S O P H Y O F T H E U N I V E R S a L
M E a S U R I N G M a C H I N E U S E
Benefit to the Manufacturing Process
Example No. 1 – Workpiece Flatness
Example No. 2 – Clamping Distortion
Example No. 3 – Grinding Techniques
Example No. 4 – Temperature Distortion
Example No. 5 – Inspection and
Machining Techniques
Example No. 6 – Roundness in Relation
To Location
Example No. 7 – Close Measurement and
Mass Production
Example No. 8 – Economies Achieved by
Close Measurement
2. U N I V E R S a L M E a S U R I N G M a C H I N E
Basics of Measuring Hole-location Through
The Use of Coordinates
Example No. 1 – Center of a Part as a Datum
Example No. 2 – Two Line-up Holes as a Datum . . . . 291
Example No. 3 – Rotary Table Techniques . .
Example No. 4 – Measuring Coordinates
Of Small Holes
The Standard Microscope
Other Optical Arrangements
Example No. 5 – Measuring Radius Size
(Edge-finder Method)
Example No. 6 – Pick-up Block Method
Measure Diameter of Ring Gage – 3 Methods
The Model No. 1j4 Universal Measuring Machine . .. 308
Readout on the Universal Measuring Machine
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