Fluid Power with Applications

Fluid Power with Applications
اسم المؤلف
Anthony Esposito
التاريخ
27 أكتوبر 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Fluid Power With Applications Fourth Edition
Anthony Esposito
Professor Emeritus
Department of Manufacturing Engineering
Miami University
Oxford, Ohio
Preface Xv
1 Introduction to Fluid Power 1
Learning Objectives
1.1 What is Fluid Power?
1.2 History of Fluid Power
1.3 Advantages of Fluid Power
L.4 Applications of Fluid Power
1.5 Components of a Fluid Power System
1.6 Types of Fluid Power Control Systems
1.7 the Fluid Power Industry
1.8 Environmental Issues
Exercises
2 Properties of Hydraulic Fluids 36
Learning Objectives 36
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Fluids: Liquids and Gases 38
Viiviii Contents
Weight, Density , and Specific Gravity 40
Pressure, Head, and Force 44
The Si Metric System 50
Pascal’s Law 54
Bulk Modulus 59
Viscosity and Viscosity Index 60
Oxidation and Corrosion Prevention 69
Fire-resistant Fluids 70
Foam-resistant Fluids 74
Lubricating Ability 74
Neutralization Number 77
General Types of Fluids 80
Maintaining and Disposing of Fluids 81
Illustrative Examples Using the Si Metric System
Exercises
3 Energy and Power in Hydraulic Systems 90
Learning Objectives 90
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Review of Mechanics 91
3.3 Applications of Pascal’s Law 95
3.4 Conservation of Energy 103
3.5 the Continuity Equation /05
3.6 Hydraulic Horsepower 107
3.7 Bernoulli’s Equation Ill
3.8 Torricelli’s Theorem 117
3.9 the Siphon 119
3.10 Energy, Power, and Flow Rates in the Si Metric System 121
3.11 Illustrative Example Using the Si Metric System 123
Exercises 125
4 the Distribution System 133
Learning Objectives 133
4.1 Introduction 133
4.2 Conductor Sizing for Flow-rate Requirements 134contents Ix
4.3 Pressure Rating of Conductors 136
4.4 Steel Pipes 139
4.5 Steel Tubing 142
4.6 Plastic Tubing 148
4.7 Flexible Hoses 148
4.8 Quick Disconnect Couplings 152
4.9 Metric Steel Tubing 155
Exercises 157
Basics of Hydraulic Flow in Pipes 160
Learning Objectives 160
Introduction 161
Laminar and Turbulent Flow 161
Reynolds Number 163
Darcy’s Equation 165
Frictional Losses in Laminar Flow 166
Frictional Losses in Turbulent Flow 167
Losses in Valves and Fittings 171
Equivalent Length Technique 176
Hydraulic Circuit Analysis 178
Flow Measurement 180
Pressure Measurement 184
Hydraulic Circuit Analysis Using the Si Metric System
Computer Analysis of Hydraulic Systems 190
Exercises
6 the Source of Hydraulic Power: Pumps 202
Learning Objectives 202
6.1 Introduction 203
6.2 Pumping Theory 204
6.3 Pump Classification 206
6.4 Gear Pumps 208
6.5 Vane Pumps 216
6.6 Piston Pumps 222
6.7 Pump Performance 230x Contents
6.8 Pump Noise 237
6.9 Pump Selection 242
6.10 Pressure Intensifies 243
6.11 Pump Performance Ratings in Metric Units
Exercises
7 Fluid Power Actuators 254
Learning Objectives 254
7.1 Introduction 255
7.2 Linear Hydraulic Actuators ( Hydraulic Cylinders)
7.3 Mechanics of Hydraulic Cylinder Loadings
7.4 Limited Rotation Hydraulic Actuator 273
7.5 Gear Motors 278
7.6 Vane Motors 280
7.7 Piston Motors 280
7.8 Hydraulic Motor Performance 289
7.9 Hydrostatic Transmissions 292
7.10 Electrohydraulic Stepping Motors 296
7.11 Low-speed , High-torque Motors 301
7.12 Hydraulic Motor Performance Rating in Metric Units
Exercises
8 Control Components in Hydraulic Systems 315
Learning Objectives 315
8.1 Introduction 316
8.2 Directional Control Valves 317
8.3 Pressure Control Valves 330
8.4 Flow Control Valves 340
8.5 Servo Valves 343
8.6 Cartridge Valves 347
8.7 Hydraulic Fuses 350
8.8 Pressure and Temperature Switches
8.9 Shock Absorbers 358
Exercises 363
354contents Xi
9 Hydraulic Circuit Design and Analysis 365
Learning Objectives .?65
Introduction 365
Control of a Single-acting Hydraulic Cylinder 366
Control of a Double-acting Hydraulic Cylinder 366
Regenerative Circuit 370
Pump-unloading Circuit
Double-pump Hydraulic System 374
Pressure Intensifier Circuit 375
Counterbalance Valve Application 377
Hydraulic Cylinder Sequencing Circuit 377
Automatic Cylinder Reciprocating System 378
Locked Cylinder Using Pilot Check Valves 379
Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit
Fail-safe Circuits 381
Speed Control of a Hydraulic Motor 384
Hydraulic Motor Braking System 385
Hydrostatic Transmission System 387
Air-over-oil Circuit 388
Air-over-oil Intensifier System 389
Accumulators and Accumulator Circuits 391
Mechanical-hydraulic Servo System 402
Exercises
Pneumatics: Air Preparation and Components 413
Learning Objectives 413
10.1 Introduction 414
10.2 Properties of Air 416
10.3 the Perfect Gas Laws 418
10.4 Compressors 423
10.5 Fluid Conditioners 431
10.6 Control With Orifices 439
10.7 Air Control Valves 440
10.8 Pneumatic Actuators 449
Exercises 454xii Contents
Pneumatics: Circuits and Applications 459
Learning Objectives 459
Ii . I Introduction 460
11.2 Pneumatic Circuit Design Considerations 460
11.3 Air Pressure Losses in Pipelines 462
11.4 Economic Cost of Energy Losses in Pneumatic Systems
11.5 Basic Pneumatic Circuits 467
11.6 Pneumatic Vacuum Systems 472
11.7 Accumulator Systems Analysis 476
11.8 Pneumatic Circuit Analysis Using Metric Units 478
Exercises
Fluid Logic Control Systems 488
Learning Objectives 488
12.1 Introduction 488
12.2 Moving-part Logic (Mpl) Control Systems 494
12.3 Mpl Control of Fluid Power Circuits 499
12.4 Principles of Fluidic Logic Control 502
12.5 Basic Fluidic Devices 504
12.6 Fluidic Sensors 510
12.7 Fluidic Control of Fluid Power Systems 515
12.8 Introduction to Boolean Algebra 519
12.9 Illustrative Examples Using Boolean Algebra 524
Exercises 529
Electrical Controls for Fluid Power Circuits 535
Learning Objectives 555
13.1 Introduction 556
13.2 Electrical Components 559
13.3 Control of a Cylinder Using a Single Limit Switch 542
13.4 Reciprocation of a Cylinder Using Pressure or Limit Switches
13.5 Dual Cylinder Sequence Circuits 545
13.6 Box-sorting System 547
13.7 Electrical Control of Regenerative Circuit 547
545contents Xiii
13.8 Counting. Timing, and Reciprocation of Hydraulic Cylinder
13.9 Electrohydraulic Servo System
13.10 Analysis of Electrohydraulic Servo Systems
13.11 Programmable Logic Controllers (Plcs)
Exercises
Fluid Power Maintenance and Safety 577
Learning Objectives 577
14.1 Introduction 578
14.2 Sealing Devices 580
14.3 the Reservoir System 590
14.4 Filters and Strainers 593
14.5 Beta Ratio of Filters 599
14.6 Wear of Moving Parts Due to Solid-particle Contamination of the
Fluid 602
14.7 Problems Caused by Gases in Hydraulic Fluids 603
14.8 Temperature Control 606
14.9 Troubleshooting Fluid Power Circuits 610
14.10 Safety Considerations 615
Exercises 616
Appendixes 619
A Sizes of Steel Pipe (English Units) 620
B Sizes of Steel Pipe (Metric Units) 622
C Sizes of Steel Tubing (English Units) 624
D Sizes of Steel Tubing (Metric Units) 626
E Unit Conversion Factors 627
F Nomenclature 629
G Fluid Power Symbols 632
H Answers to Selected Odd-numbered Exercises
Fluid Power
Learning Objectives
Upon Completing This Chapter, You Should He Able to:
1. Explain What Fluid Power is.
2. Differentiate Between the Terms Hydraulics and Pneumatics.
3. Understand the Difference Between Fluid Power Systems and Fluid Transport
Systems.
4. Appreciate the History of the Fluid Power Industry.
5. Discuss the Advantages of Fluid Power.
6. Describe Key Applications of Fluid Power.
7. Specify the Basic Components of Fluid Power Systems.
8. Recognize the Various Types of Fluid Power-control Systems.
9. Appreciate the Size and Scope of the Fluid Power Industry.
10. Identify the Categories of Personnel Who Are Employed in the Fluid Power
Industry.
11. Describe the Environmental Issues Dealing With Developing Biodegradable
Fluids, Reducing Oil Leakage, and Reducing Noise Levels.
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