Fluid Power Training Manual

Fluid Power Training Manual
اسم المؤلف
غير معروف
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4 ديسمبر 2020
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Fluid Power Training Manual
Naval Education and July 1990
Training Command
Contents
Chapter
1. Introduction to Fluid Power. .
2. Forces in Liquids .
3. Hydraulic Fluids
4. Pumps
5. Fluid Lines and Fittings
6. Valves .
7. Sealing Devices and Materials .
8. Measurement and Pressure Control Devices
9. Reservoirs, Strainers, Filters, and Accumulators
10. Actuators
11. Pneumatics .
12. Basic Diagrams and Systems
APPENDIX
I. Glossary .
II. Mechanical Symbols Other than Aeronautical
for Fluid Power Diagrams
III. Aeronautical Mechanical Symbols for Fluid
Power Diagrams
INDEX . INDEX-1
INDEX
A
Accumulators, 9-3 to 9-7
Actuators, 10-1 to 10-12
cylinders, 10-1 to 10-7
piston-type cylinders, 10-3 to 10-6
double-acting cylinder, 10-4 to
10-5
single-acting cylinder, 10-4
tandem cylinders, 10-5 to 10-6
rack-and-pinion piston-type rotary
actuators, 10-6 to 10-7
ram-type cylinders, 10-1 to 10-3
double-acting ram, 10-2
dual rams, 10-3
single-acting ram, 10-1 to 10-2
telescoping rams, 10-2 to 10-3
motors, 10-8 to 10-11
gear-type motors, 10-8
piston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
axial-piston motor, 10-10 to
10-11
radial-piston motor, 10-10
vane-type motors, 10-9
turbines, 10-11 to 10-12
impulse turbine, 10-11 to 10-12
reaction turbine, 10-12
Aeronautical mechanical symbols for fluid
power diagrams, AIII-1 to AIII-2
Air-pressurized reservoirs, 9-2 to 9-3
Atmospheric pressure, 2-2 to 2-3
Axial piston pumps, 4-12 to 4-15
Axial-piston motor, 10-10 to 10-11
B
Backup rings, 7-12 to 7-15
Ball valves, 6-1 to 6-2
Basic diagrams and systems, 12-1 to 12-13
diagrams, 12-1 to 12-5
symbols, 12-1 to 12-2
types of diagrams, 12-2 to 12-5
combination diagrams, 12-5
cutaway diagrams, 12-2 to 12-3
graphic diagrams, 12-4 to 12-5
pictorial diagrams, 12-2
fluid power systems, 12-5 to 12-13
hydraulic power drive system, 12-6 to 12-8
control, 12-7
operation, 12-7 to 12-8
jet blast deflectors, 12-10 to 12-13
landing gear emergency system, 12-8
to 12-10
Bellows elastic elements, 8-3 to 8-5
Bernoulli’s principle, 2-14
Bimetallic expansion thermometer, 8-7
Bladder-type accumulators, 9-6
Bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
Boyle’s law, 11-4 to 11-5
Brazed connectors, 5-13
C
C-shaped bourdon tube, 8-2 to 8-3
Centered internal gear pump, 4-6
Charles’s law, 11-5
Check valve, 6-16 to 6-18
Combination diagrams, 12-5
Compressed air, 11-7 to 11-8
Compressibility and expansion of gases, 11-3
to 11-7
Connectors for flexible hose, 5-17 to 5-19
Cork, 7-2
Cork and rubber, 7-2
Counterbalance valve, 6-14 to 6-15
Cup packings, 7-16
Cutaway diagrams, 12-2 to 12-3
Cylinders, 10-1 to 10-7
piston-type cylinders, 10-3 to 10-6
rack-and-pinion piston-type rotary
actuators, 10-6 to 10-7
ram-type cylinders, 10-1 to 10-3
INDEX-1D
Diagrams, 12-1 to 12-5
Diaphragm accumulators, 9-7
Direct-contact gas-to-fluid accumulators, 9-6
to 9-7
Directional control valves, 6-15 to 6-25
check valve, 6-16 to 6-18
classification, 6-15 to 6-16
four-way valves, 6-20 to 6-25
shuttle valve, 6-18
three-way valves, 6-19 to 6-20
two-way valves, 6-18 to 6-19
Dirt exclusion seals (wipers and scrapers), 7-17
Distant-reading thermometers, 8-7 to 8-8
Dual bellows indicators, 8-4 to 8-5
F
Filtration, 9-7 to 9-13
filters, 9-8 to 9-12
pneumatic gases, 9-12 to 9-13
strainers, 9-8
Flange connectors, 5-12
Flange packings, 7-16 to 7-17
Flared connectors, 5-13 to 5-14
Flareless-tube connectors, 5-15 to 5-17
Flexible hose, 5-8 to 5-12
Flow control valves, 6-1 to 6-6
ball valves, 6-1 to 6-2
gate valves, 6-3
globe valves, 6-3 to 6-5
hydraulic and pneumatic globe valves, 6-5
to 6-6
needle valves, 6-5
Fluid lines and fittings, 5-1 to 5-21
flexible hose, 5-8 to 5-12
application, 5-9 to 5-10
fabrication and testing, 5-10
identification, 5-10
installation, 5-11 to 5-12
PFTE, 5-9
synthetic rubber hose, 5-8 to 5-9
cure date, 5-8 to 5-9
sizing, 5-8
pipes and tubing, 5-1 to 5-8
preparation of pipes and tubing, 5-3
to 5-8
tube bending, 5-5 to 5-7
tube cutting and deburring, 5-4
to 5-5
tube flaring, 5-7 to 5-8
Fluid lines and fittings—Continued
pipes and tubing—Continued
selection of pipes and tubing, 5-1 to
5-3
materials, 5-2 to 5-3
sizing of pipes and tubing, 5-1
to 5-2
precautionary measures, 5-20 to 5-21
types of fittings and connectors, 5-12 to
5-20
brazed connectors, 5-13
connectors for flexible hose, 5-17 to
5-19
hose connection side of hose
fitting, 5-18 to 5-19
piping connection side of hose
fitting, 5-18
flange connectors, 5-12
flared connectors, 5-13 to 5-14
flareless-tube connectors, 5-15 to
5-17
final assembly, 5-17
inspection, 5-16 to 5-17
presetting, 5-15 to 5-16
manifolds, 5-19 to 5-20
quick-disconnect couplings, 5-19
threaded connectors, 5-12
welded connectors, 5-12 to 5-13
types of lines, 5-1
Fluid power, introduction to, 1-1 to 1-4
Fluid power systems, 12-5 to 12-13
hydraulic power drive system, 12-6 to
12-8
jet blast deflectors, 12-10 to 12-13
landing gear emergency system, 12-8 to
12-10
Fluid-pressurized reservoir, 9-2
Forces in liquids, 2-1 to 2-17
liquids at rest, 2-1 to 2-9
pressure and force, 2-1 to 2-3
atmospheric pressure, 2-2 to 2-3
computing force, pressure, and
area, 2-1 to 2-2
transmission of forces through
liquids, 2-3 to 2-9
density and specific gravity, 2-4
Pascal’s law, 2-5 to 2-6
pressure and force in fluid
power systems, 2-6 to 2-9
liquids in motion, 2-9 to 2-15
Bernoulli’s principle, 2-14
factors involved in flow, 2-11 to 2-13
inertia and force, 2-11 to 2-12
kinetic energy, 2-12 to 2-13
INDEX-2Forces in liquids—Continued
liquids in motion—Continued
minimizing friction, 2-14 to 2-15
relationship of force, pressure, and
head, 2-13
static and dynamic factors, 2-13 to
2-14
streamline and turbulent flow, 2-10
to 2-11
volume and velocity of flow, 2-9 to
2-10
volume of flow and speed, 2-10
operation of hydraulic components, 2-15
to 2-17
hydraulic brakes, 2-16 to 2-17
hydraulic jack, 2-15 to 2-16
Four-way valves, 6-20 to 6-25
Gate valves, 6-3
Gauge snubbers,
G
8-8 to 8-9
Gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
Gear-type motors, 10-8
General gas law, 11-6 to 11-7
Globe valves, 6-3 to 6-5
Glossary, AI-1 to AI-8
Graphic diagrams, 12-4 to 12-5
H
Hand pumps, 4-9
Helical gear pump, 4-5
Herringbone gear pump, 4-4
Hydraulic and pneumatic globe
6-6
Hydraulic brakes, 2-16 to 2-17
Hydraulic fluids, 3-1 to 3-11
contamination, 3-6 to 3-10
valves, 6-5 to
classification, 3-7 to 3-8
fluid contamination, 3-7 to 3-8
particulate contamination, 3-7
contamination control, 3-9 to 3-10
origin of contamination, 3-8 to 3-9
hydraulic fluid sampling, 3-10 to 3-11
properties, 3-1 to 3-5
chemical stability, 3-3 to 3-4
cleanliness, 3-5
density and compressibility, 3-4
fire point, 3-4
flashpoint, 3-4
foaming tendencies, 3-4 to 3-5
freedom from acidity, 3-4
Hydraulic fluids-Continued
properties—Continued
lubricating power, 3-3
minimum toxicity, 3-4
viscosity, 3-1 to 3-3
measurement of viscosity, 3-1 to
3-3
viscosity index, 3-3
types of hydraulic fluids, 3-5 to 3-6
petroleum-based fluids, 3-5
synthetic fire-resistant fluids, 3-5 to
3-6
lightweight synthetic fireresistant fluids, 3-6
phosphate ester fire-resistant
fluid, 3-5 to 3-6
silicone synthetic fire-resistant
fluids, 3-6
water-based fire-resistant fluids, 3-6
Hydraulic jack, 2-15 to 2-16
Hydraulic power drive system, 12-6 to 12-8
Hydraulics, 1-2 to 1-3
I
Impulse turbine, 10-11 to 10-12
Introduction to fluid power, 1-1 to 1-4
advantages of fluid power, 1-2
hydraulics, 1-2 to 1-3
development of hydraulics, 1-2 to 1-3
use of hydraulics, 1-3
special problems, 1-2
states of matter, 1-3 to 1-4
J
Jet blast deflectors, 12-10 to 12-13
K
Kinetic energy, 2-12 to 2-13
Kinetic theory of gases, 11-4
L
Landing gear emergency system, 12-8 to 12-10
Leather, 7-2
Lightweight synthetic fire-resistant fluids, 3-6
Liquids in motion, 2-9 to 2-15
Lobe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
INDEX-3M
Manifolds, 5-19 to 5-20
Matter, states of, 1-3 to 1-4
Measurement and pressure control devices, 8-1
to 8-9
gauge snubbers, 8-8 to 8-9
pressure gauges, 8-1 to 8-5
bellows elastic elements, 8-3 to 8-5
dual bellows indicators, 8-4 to
8-5
simple bellows elements, 8-4
bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
C-shaped bourdon tube, 8-2 to
8-3
spiral and helical bourdon tubes,
8-3
pressure switches, 8-5 to 8-6
temperature switches, 8-8
temperature-measuring instruments, 8-6 to
8-8
bimetallic expansion thermometer,
8-7
distant-reading thermometers, 8-7 to
8-8
Mechanical symbols other than aeronautical
for fluid power diagrams, AII-1 to AII-4
Metal, 7-2 to 7-3
Motors, 10-8 to 10-11
gear-type motors, 10-8
piston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
vane-type motors, 10-9
N
Needle valves, 6-5
Nitrogen, 11-8
Nonpressurized reservoirs, 9-1 to 9-2
O
Off-centered internal gear pump, 4-6
O-rings, 7-6 to 7-12
P
Pascal’s law, 2-5 to 2-6
Petrolium-based fluids, 3-5
PFTE hose, 5-9
Phosphate ester fire-resistant fluid, 3-5 to 3-6
Pictorial diagrams, 12-2
Pipes and tubing, 5-1 to 5-8
Piston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
Piston-type accumulators, 9-5 to 9-6
Piston-type cylinders, 10-3 to 10-6
Piston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
Pneumatic gases, 9-12 to 9-13
Pneumatics, 11-1 to 11-9
characteristics of gases, 11-1 to 11-3
density, 11-1 to 11-2
pressure, 11-3
temperature, 11-2 to 11-3
compressibility and expansion of gases,
11-3 to 11-7
Boyle’s law, 11-4 to 11-5
Charles’s law, 11-5
general gas law, 11-6 to 11-7
kinetic theory of gases, 11-4
contamination control, 11-8 to 11-9
development of pneumatics, 11-1
pneumatic gases, 11-7 to 11-8
compressed air, 11-7 to 11-8
high-pressure air systems, 11-7
to 11-8
low-pressure air, 11-8
medium-pressure air, 11-8
nitrogen, 11-8
qualities, 11-7
potential hazards, 11-9
safety precautions, 11-9
Pressure control valves, 6-6 to 6-15
counterbalance valve, 6-14 to 6-15
pressure regulators, 6-9 to 6-10
pressure-reducing valves, 6-12 to 6-14
relief valves, 6-6 to 6-9
sequence valves, 6-11 to 6-12
Pressure gauges, 8-1 to 8-5
bellows elastic elements, 8-3 to 8-5
bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
Pressure switches, 8-5 to 8-6
Pressurized reservoirs, 9-2 to 9-3
Proportional-flow filter, 9-10
Pumps, 4-1 to 4-15
classification of pumps, 4-1 to 4-2
operation, 4-1
performance, 4-1
purpose, 4-1
reciprocating pumps, 4-8 to 4-15
hand pumps, 4-9
piston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
axial piston pumps, 4-12 to 4-15
radial piston pumps, 4-10 to
4-11
INDEX-4Pumps—Continued
rotary pumps, 4-2 to 4-8
gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
centered internal gear pump, 4-6
helical gear pump, 4-5
herringbone gear pump, 4-4
off-centered internal gear pump,
4-5
spur gear pump, 4-3 to 4-4
lobe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
vane pump, 4-8
Q
[email protected] seals, 7-15
Quad-Rings, 7-15
Quick-disconnect couplings, 5-19
R
Rack-and-pinion piston-type rotary actuators,
10-6 to 10-7
Radial-piston motor, 10-10
Radial piston pumps, 4-10 to 4-11
Ram-type cylinders, 10-1 to 10-3
Reaction turbine, 10-12
Reciprocating pumps, 4-8 to 4-15
hand pumps, 4-9
piston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
Relief valves, 6-6 to 6-9
Reservoirs, strainers, filters, and
accumulators, 9-1 to 9-13
accumulators, 9-3 to 9-7
bladder-type accumulators, 9-6
diaphragm accumulators, 9-7
direct-contact gas-to-fluid
accumulators, 9-6 to 9-7
piston-type accumulators, 9-5 to 9-6
filtration, 9-7 to 9-13
filters, 9-8 to 9-12
filter elements, 9-11 to 9-12
filter rating, 9-11
full-flow filter, 9-8 to 9-10
proportional-flow filter, 9-10
pneumatic gases, 9-12 to 9-13
removal of moisture, 9-12 to
9-13
removal of solids, 9-12
strainers, 9-8
Reservoirs, strainers, filters, and
accumulators—Continued
reservoirs, 9-1 to 9-3
nonpressurized reservoirs, 9-1 to 9-2
pressurized reservoirs, 9-2 to 9-3
air-pressurized reservoirs, 9-2 to
9-3
fluid-pressurized reservoir, 9-2
Rotary pumps, 4-2 to 4-8
gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
lobe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
vane pump, 4-8
Rubber, 7-3
S
Screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
Sealing devices and materials, 7-1 to 7-18
seal materials, 7-1 to 7-3
cork, 7-2
cork and rubber, 7-2
leather, 7-2
metal, 7-2 to 7-3
rubber, 7-3
types of seals, 7-3 to 7-18
backup rings, 7-12 to 7-15
installation, 7-12 to 7-15
packaging and storing, 7-12
cup packings, 7-16
dirt exclusion seals (wipers and
scrapers), 7-17
flange packings, 7-16 to 7-17
O-rings, 7-6 to 7-12
cure date, 7-8
dimensions, 7-8
identification, 7-7
replacement, 7-9 to 7-12
shelf life and expiration date,
7-8
sizes, 7-8
specifications, 7-8
Quad-O-Dyn” seals, 7-15
Quad-Rings, 7-15
storage of seals, 7-17 to 7-18
T-seals, 7-3 to 7-5
U-cups and U-packings, 7-16
leather U-packings, 7-16
U-cups, 7-16
V-rings, 7-5 to 7-6
Sequence valves, 6-11 to 6-12
Shuttle valve, 6-18
Silicone synthetic fire-resistant fluids, 3-6
Spiral and helical bourdon tubes, 8-3
INDEX-5Spur gear pump, 4-3 to 4-4
Synthetic fire-resistant fluids,
Synthetic rubber hose, 5-8 to
T
T-seals, 7-3 to 7-5
Temperature switches. 8-8
Valves—Continued
3-5 to 3-6 directional control valves—Continued
5-9 shuttle valve, 6-18
three-way valves, 6-19 to 6-20
cam-operated three-way valves,
6-19 to 6-20
pilot-operated three-way valves,
6-20
Temperature-measuring instruments, 8-6 to two-way valves, 6-18 to 6-19
8-8 flow control valves, 6-1 to 6-6
bimetallic expansion thermometer, 8-7
distant-reading thermometers, 8-7 to 8-8 ball valves, 6-1 to 6-2
Threaded connectors, 5-12 gate valves, 6-3
Three-way valves, 6-19 to 6-20 globe valves, 6-3 to 6-5
Tube bending, 5-5 to 5-7 hydraulic and pneumatic globe
Tube cutting and deburring, 5-4 to 5-5 valves, 6-5 to 6-6 –
Tube flaring, 5-7 to 5-8
Turbines, 10-11 to 10-12
Two-way valves, 6-18 to 6-19
U
U-cups and U-packings, 7-16
V
V-rings, 7-5 to 7-6
Valves, 6-1 to 6-25
classifications, 6-1
directional control valves, 6-15 to 6-25 pressure-controlled sequence
check valve, 6-16 to 6-18 valve, 6-11 to 6-12
classification, 6-15 to 6-16 Vane pump, 4-8
poppet, 6-15 to 6-16 Vane-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
rotary spool, 6-16
sliding spool, 6-16
four-way valves, 6-20 to 6-25
poppet-type four-way valves, W
6-20 to 6-22
rotary spool valve, 6-22 Water-based fire-resistant fluids, 3-6
sliding spool valve, 6-22 to 6-25 Welded connector
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