Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines

Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines
اسم المؤلف
Dr. R. K. Bansal
23 مارس 2019

Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines 9th Ed
Dr. R. K. Bansal
Chapter Pages
Chapter 1. Properties of Fluids 1-34
1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Properties of Fluids
Density or Mass Density
Specific Weight or Weight Density
Specific Volume
Specific Gravity
Solved Problems 1.1
1.3. Viscosity
Units of Viscosity
Kinematic Viscosity
Newton’s Law of Viscosity
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature
Types of Fluids
Solved Problems 1.3
1.4. Thermodynamic Properties
Dimension of R
Isothermal Process
Adiabatic Process
Universal Gas Constant
Solved Problems 1.20
1.5. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus
Solved Problems 1.23
1.6. Surface Tension and Capillarity
Surface Tension on Liquid Droplet
Surface Tension on a Hollow Bubble
Surface Tension on a Liquid Jet
Solved Problems 1.25
Solved Problems 1.28
1.7. Vapour Pressure and Cavitation
Chapter 2. Pressure and Its Measurement
2.1. Fluid Pressure at a Point
2.2. Pascal s Law
2.3. Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest
Solved Problems
2.4. Absolute, Gauge, Atmospheric and Vacuum
Pressures 41
Solved Problem 2.8
2.5. Measurement of Pressure
Mechanical Gauges
2.6. Simple Manometers
U-tube Manometer
Solved Problems 2.9—2.13
Single Column Manometer
Solved Problem 2.14
2.7. Differential Manometers
U-tube Differential Manometer
Solved Problems 2.15
Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer
Solved Problems 2.18
2.8. Pressure at a Point in Compressible Fluid
Isothermal Process
Adiabatic Process
Temperature at any Point in
Compressible Fluid
Temperature Lapse-Rate (L)
Solved Problems 2.22
Chapter 3. Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 69-130
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure
3.3. Vertical Plane Surface Sub-merged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.1—3.12
3.4. Horizontal Plane Surface Sub-merged in Liquid
Solved Problem 3.13
3.5. Inclined Plane Surface Sub-merged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.14(a )
3.6. Curved Surface Sub-merged in Liquid
Solved Problems 3.22—3.31
3.7. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure on
Lock Gates
Solved Problems 3.32—3.33
3.8. Pressure Distribution in a Liquid Subjected to
Constant Horizontal/Vertical Acceleration
Liquid Containers Subject to Constant
Horizontal Acceleration
Solved Problems 3.34
Liquid Containers Subjected to Constant
Vertical Acceleration
Solved Problems 3.37
Chapter 4. Buoyancy and Floatation 131-162
4.1. Introduction 131
4.2. Buoyancy
4.3. Centre of Buoyancy
Solved Problems 4.1—4.6 131
4.4. Meta-centre
4.5. Meta-centric Height
4.6. Analytical Method for Meta-Centre Height
Solved Problems 4.7—4.11
4.7. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Floating and
Sub-merged Bodies
4.7.1. Stability of a Sub-merged Body
4.7.2. Stability of a Floating Body
Solved Problems 4.12
4.8. Experimental Method of Determination of
Meta-centric Height
Solved Problems 4.19—4.20
4.9. Oscillation (Rolling ) of a Floating Body
Solved Problems 4.21
Chapter 5. Kinematics of Flow and Ideal Flow 163-258
5.1. Introduction 163
5.2. Methods of Describing Fluid Motion
5.3. Types of Fluid Flow
Steady and Unsteady Flows
Uniform and Non-uniform Flows
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Compressible and Incompressible Flows
Rotational and Irrotational Flows
One, two and Three-Dimensional Flows
5.4. Rate of Flow or Discharge (Q )
5.5. Continuity Equation
Solved Problems 5.1
—5.5 166
5.6. Continuity Equation in Three-Dimensions
Continuity Equation in Cylindrical
Polar Co-ordinates
Solved Problems 5.5A
5.7. Velocity and Acceleration
Local Acceleration and Convective
Solved Problems
5.8. Velocity Potential Function and Stream Function
Velocity Potential Function
Stream Function
Equipotential Line
Line of Constant Stream Function
Flow Net
Relation between Stream Function and
Velocity Potential Function
Solved Problems
5.9. Types of Motion
Linear Translation 191
Linear Deformation
Angular Deformation
or Shear Deformation
Solved Problems
5.10. Vortex Flow
Forced Vortex Flow
Free Vortex Flow
Equation of Motion for Vortex Flow
Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
Solved Problems 5.20—5.25
Closed Cylindrical Vessels
Solved Problems 5.26
Equation of Free Vortex Flow
Solved Problem
5.11. Introduction
5.12. Important Cases of Potential Flow
5.13. Uniform Flow
5.13.1. Uniform Flow Parallel to x-Axis
5.13.2. Uniform Potential Flow Parallel toy-Axis
5.14. Source Flow
5.15. Sink Flow
Solved Problems 5.33—5.35
5.16. Free-Vortex Flow
5.17. Super-Imposed Flow
5.17.1. Source and Sink Pair
Solved Problems 5.36—5.37
5.17.2. Doublet
Solved Problem 5.38
5.17.3. A Plane Source in a Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Half-Body )
Solved Problems 5.39—5.41
5.17.4. A Source and Sink Pair in a Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Rankine Oval Body )
Solved Problem 5.42
5.17.5. A Doublet in a Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Circular Cylinder)
Solved Problems 5.43
Chapter 6. Dynamics of Fluid Flow 259-316
6.1. Introduction 259
6.2. Equations of Motion
6.3. Euler’s Equation of Motion
6.4. Bernoulli’s Equation from Euler’s Equation
6.5. Assumptions
Solved Problems 6.1
—6.6 261
6.6. Bernoulli’s Equation for Real Fluid
Solved Problems 6.7—6.9
6.7. Practical Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
6.7.1. Venturimeter
Solved Problems 6.10—6.21
6.7.2. Orifice Meter or Orifice Plate
Solved Problems
6.7.3. Pitot-tube
Solved Problems 6.24—6.28
6.8. The Momentum Equation
Solved Problems 6.29—6.35
6.9. Moment of Momentum Equation
Solved Problems
6.10. Free Liquid Jets 301
Solved Problems 6.38
—641 303
Chapter 7. Orifices and Mouthpieces 317-354
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Classifications of Orifices
7.3. Flow Through an Orifice
7.4. Hydraulic Co-efficients
Co-efficient of Velocity (C, )
Co-efficient of Contraction (Cc)
Co-efficient of Discharge ( C( / )
Solved Problems 7.1
7.5. Experimental Determination of Hydraulic
Determination of Co-efficient of Discharge (C( / )
Determination of Co-efficient of Velocity (C v )
Determination of Co-efficient of
Contraction (C c )
Solved Problems 7.3
7.6. Flow Through Large Orifices
Discharge Through Large
Rectangular Orifice
Solved Problems 7.11—7.13
7.7. Discharge Through Fully Sub-merged Orifice
Solved Problems 7.14
7.8. Discharge Through Partially Sub-merged Orifice
Solved Problem
7.9. Time of Emptying a Tank Through an Orifice
at its Bottom 332
Solved Problems 7.17
7.10. Time of Emptying a Hemispherical Tank
Solved Problems 7.19—7.21
7.11. Time of Emptying a Circular Horizontal Tank
Solved Problems 7.22
7.12. Classification of Mouthpieces
7.13. Flow Through an External Cylindrical Mouthpiece
Solved Problems 7.24—7.25
7.14. Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Mouthpiece
Solved Problems 7.26
7.15. Flow Through Internal or Re-entrant on
Borda’s Mouthpiece
Solved Problem 7.29
Chapter 8. Notches and Weirs 355-386
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Classification of Notches and Weirs
8.3. Discharge Over a Rectangular Notch or Weir
Solved Problems 8.1—8.3
8.4. Discharge Over a Triangular Notch or Weir
Solved problems 8.4—8.6
8.5. Advantages of Triangular Notch or
Weir over Rectangular Notch or Weir
8.6. Discharge Over a Trapezoidal Notch or Weir
Solved Problem 8.7
8.7. Discharge Over a Stepped Notch
Solved Problem 8.8
8.8. Effect on Discharge Over a Notch or Weir
Due to Error in the Measurement of Head
For Rectangular Weir or Notch
For Triangular Weir or Notch
Solved Problems
8.9. (a ) Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a
Tank w ith a Rectangular Weir or Notch
(b ) Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a
Tank writh a Triangular Weir or Notch
Solved Problems
8.10. Velocity of Approach 370
Solved Problems 8.15—8.19 370
8.11. Empirical Formulae for Discharge Over
Rectangular Weir 374
Solved Problems 8.20—8.22 374
8.12. Cipolletti Weir or Notch
Solved Problems
8.13. Discharge Over a Broad-Crested Weir
8.14. Discharge Over a Narrow-Crested Weir
8.15. Discharge Over an Ogee Weir
8.16. Discharge Over Sub-merged or Drowned Weir
Solved Problems 8.25—827
Chapter 9. Viscous Flow
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe
Solved Problems 9.1
9.3. Flow of Viscous Fluid between Two Parallel Plates
Solved Problems 9.7—9.12
9.4. Kinetic Energy Correction and Momentum
Correction Factors
Solved Problem 9.13
9.5. Power Absorbed in Viscous Flow
9.5.1. Viscous Resistance of Journal Bearings
Solved Problems 9.14—9.18
9.5.2. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearing
Solved Problems 9.19—9.20
9.5.3. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearing
Solved Problems 9.21
9.6. Loss of Head Due to Friction in Viscous Flow
Solved Problems 9.23—9.24
9.7. Movement of Piston in Dash-pot
Solved Problem 9.25
9.8. Methods of Determination of Co-efficient of Viscosity
9.8.1. Capillary Tube Method
Falling Sphere Resistance Method
Rotating Cylinder Method
Orifice Type Viscometer
Solved Problems
Chapter 10. Turbulent Flow
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Reynolds Experiment
10.3. Frictional Loss in Pipe Flow
10.3.1. Expression for Loss of Head Due
to Friction in Pipes
10.3.2. Expression for Co-efficient of Friction
in Terms of Shear Stress
10.4. Shear Stress in Turbulent Flow
10.4.1. Reynolds Expression for Turbulent
Shear Stress
10.4.2. Prandtl Mixing Length Theory for
Turbulent Shear Stress
10.5. Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow in Pipes
10.5.1. Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough
10.5.2. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Smooth Pipes
10.5.3. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Rough Pipes
Solved Problems 10.1
10.5.4. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Terms of Average Velocity
Solved Problems 10.5
10.5.5. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Smooth Pipes by Power Law
10.6. Resistance of Smooth and Rough Pipes
Solved Problems 10.7
Chapter 11. Flow Through Pipes 465-558
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Loss of Energy in Pipes
11.3. Loss of Energy (or head ) Due to Friction
Solved Problems 11.1
11.4. Minor Energy ( Head ) Losses
11.4.1. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Enlargement
11.4.2. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Contraction
Solved Problems 11.8—11.14
Loss of Head at the Entrance of a Pipe
Loss of Head at the Exit of Pipe
Loss of Head Due to an Obstruction
in a Pipe
Loss of Head Due to Bend in Pipe
Loss of Head in Various Pipe Fittings
Solved Problems 11.15—11.21
11.5. Hydraulic Gradient and Total Energy Line
11.5.1. Hydraulic Gradient Line
11.5.2. Total Energy Line
Solved Problems
11.6. Flow Through Syphon 498
Solved Problems 11.27
—11.29 498
11.7. Flow Through Pipes in Series or Flow Through
Compound Pipes 502
Solved Problems 11.30
—11.30A 503
11.8. Equivalent Pipe 507
Solved Problem 11.31 508
11.9. Flow Through Parallel Pipes
Solved Problems
11.10. Flow Through Branched Pipes
Solved Problems
11.11. Power Transmission Through Pipes
11.11.1. Condition for Maximum
Transmission of Power
11.11.2. Maximum Efficiency of Transmission
of Power
Solved Problems
11.12. Flow Through Nozzles
11.12.1. Power Transmitted Through Nozzle
11.12.2. Condition for Maximum Power
Transmitted Through Nozzle
11.12.3. Diameter of Nozzle for Maximum
Transmission of Power Through Nozzle
Solved Problems
11.13. Water Hammer in Pipes
11.13.1. Gradual Closure of VTalve
11.13.2. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Rigid
11.13.3. Sudden Closure of Valve and Pipe is Elastic
11.13.4. Time Taken by Pressure Wave to Travel
from the Valve to the Tank and from
Tank to the Valve
Solved Problems
11.14. Pipe Network
11.14.1. Hardy Cross Method
Solved Problem 11.56
Chapter 12. Dimensional and Model Analysis 559-610
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Secondary or Derived Quantities
Solved Problem 12.1
12.3. Dimensional Homogeneity
12.4. Methods of Dimensional Analysis
12.4.1. Rayleigh’s Method
Solved Problems
Buckingham’s Ji-Theorem
Method of Selecting Repeating Variables
Procedure for Solving Problems by
Buckingham’s rc-Theorem
Solved Problems
12.5. Model Analysis
12.6. Similitude-Types of Similarities
12.7. Types of Forces Acting in Moving Fluid
12.8. Dimensionless Numbers
Reynold’s Number ( Re )
Froude’s Number ( F r )
Euler’s Number (E u )
Weber’s Number ( IV )
Mach’s Number (Af)
12.9. Model Laws or Similarity Laws
12.9.1. Reynold’s Model Law
Solved Problems
12.9.2. Froude Model Law
Solved Problems 12.19—12.27
Eulers Model Law
Weber Model Law
Mach Model Law
Solved Problem 12.28
12.10. Model Testing of Partially Sub-merged Bodies
Solved Problems
12.11. Classification of Models
12.11.1. Undistorted Models
12.11.2. Distorted Models
12.11.3. Scale Ratios for Distorted Models
Solved Problem 12.33
Chapter 13. Boundary Layer Flow
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Definitions
13.2.4. Boundary Layer Thickness (6)
13.2.5. Displacement Thickness (6*)
13.2.6. Momentum Thickness (0 )
13.2.7. Energy Thickness (5**)
Solved Problems 13.1
13.3. Drag Force on a Flat Plate Due to Boundary Layer
Local Co-efYicient of Drag ICD*1
Average Co-efficient of Drag [CD1
13.3.3. Boundary Conditions for the
Velocity Profiles
Solved Problems 13.3—13.12
13.4. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
Solved Problem 13.13
13.5. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layer
13.6. Total Drag on a Flat Plate Due to Laminar and
Turbulent Boundary Layer
Solved Problems 13.14
13.7. Separation of Boundary Layer
13.7.1. Effect of Pressure Gradient on
Boundary Layer Separation
13.7.2. Location of Separation Point
Solved Problem
Laminar Boundary Layer
Turbulent Boundary Layer
Laminar Sub-layer
13.7.3. Methods of Preventing the Separation
of Boundary Layer
Chapter 14. Forces on Sub-merged Bodies
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Force Exerted by a Flowing Fluid on
a Stationary Body
14.2.1. Drag
14.2.2. Lift
14.3. Expression for Drag and Lift
14.3.1. Dimensional Analysis of Drag and Lift
Solved Problems
Pressure Drag and Friction Drag
Stream-lined Body
Bluff Body
14.4. Drag on a Sphere 671
Solved Problem 14.16 672
14.5. Terminal Velocity of a Body
Solved Problems
14.6. Drag on a Cylinder
14.7. Development of Lift on a Circular Cylinder
14.7.1. Flow of Ideal Fluid Over Stationary
14.7.2. Flow Pattern Around the Cylinder
when a Constant Circulation V is
Imparted to the Cylinder
14.7.3. Expression for Lift Force Acting on
Rotating Cylinder
Drag Force Acting on a Rotating Cylinder
Expression for Lift Co-efficient for
Rotating Cylinder
14.7.6. Location of Stagnation Points for a
Rotating Cylinder in a Uniform Flow-field
14.7.7. Magnus Effect
Solved Problems 14.21
14.8. Development of Lift on an Airfoil
14.8.1. Steady-state of a Flying Object
Solved Problems 14.24
Chapter 15. Compressible Flow
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Thermodynamic Relations
15.2.1. Equation of State
15.2.2. Expansion and Compression of Perfect Gas
15.3. Basic Equations of Compressible Flow
15.3.1. Continuity Equation
15.3.2. Bernoulli’s Equation
Solved Problems
15.3.3. Momentum Equations
15.4. Velocity of Sound or Pressure Wave in a Fluid
15.4.1. Expression for Velocity of Sound
Wave in a Fluid
15.4.2. Velocity of Sound in Terms of
Bulk Modulus
Velocity of Sound for Isothermal Process
Velocity of Sound for Adiabatic Process
15.5. Mach Number
Solved Problems
15.6. Propagation of Pressure Waves (or Disturbances )
in a Compressible Fluid
15.6.1. Mach Angle
15.6.2. Zone of Action
15.6.3. Zone of Silence
Solved Problems
15.7. Stagnation Properties
Expression for Stagnation Pressure ( pj
Expression for Stagnation Density ( p„ )
Expression for Stagnation Temperature ( T.)
Solved Problems
15.8. Area Velocity Relationship for Compressible Flow
15.9. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Orifices and
Nozzles Fitted to a Large Tank
15.9.1. Value of n or for Maximum Value
of Mass Rate of Flow
Value of V 2 for Maximum Rate of Flow
of Fluid
Maximum Rate of Flow of Fluid Through
Variation of Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible
Fluid with Pressure ratio
15.9.5. Velocity at Outlet of Nozzle for Maximum
Rate of Flow is Equal to Sonic Velocity
Solved Problems 15.13
15.10. Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid Through
Solved Problem 15.16
15.11. Pitot-Static Tube in a Compressible Flow
Solved Problem 15.17
Chapter 16. Flow in Open Channels 737-802
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Classification of Flow in Channels
16.2.1. Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow
16.2.2. Uniform Flow and Non-uniform Flow
Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
Sub-critical, Critical and Super-Critical
16.3. Discharge Through Open Channel by Chezy’s
Solved Problems
16.4. Empirical Formulae for the Value of Chezy’s
Solved Problems 16.8
16.5. Most Economical Section of Channels
16.5.1. Most Economical Rectangular Channel
Solved Problems 16.13—16.15
16.5.2. Most Economical Trapezoidal Channel
Solved Problems 16.16
16.5.3. Best Side Slope for Most Economical
Trapezoidal Section
Solved Problems 16.23
16.5.4. Flow Through Circular Channel
Solved Problems 16.25—16.29
16.5.5. Most Economical Circular Section
Solved Problems 16.30
16.6. Non-Uniform Flow through Open Channels
16.7. Specific Energy and Specific Energy Curve
16.7.1. Critical Depth (hc )
16.7.2. Critical Velocity ( V<.)
16.7.3. Minimum Specific Energy in Terms of
Critical Depth
Solved Problems 16.33—16.35
16.7.4. Critical Flow
16.7.5. Streaming Flow or Sub-critical Flow or
Tranquil Flow
16.7.6. Super-Critical Flow or Shooting Flow or
Torrential Flow
Alternate Depths
Condition for Maximum Discharge for a
Given Value of Specific Energy
Solved Problems 16.36
16.8. Hydraulic Jump or Standing Wave
16.8.1. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump
16.8.2. Expression for Loss of Energy Due to
Hydraulic Jump
16.8.3. Expression for Depth of Hydraulic Jump
in Terms or Upstream Froude Number
16.8.4. Length of Hydraulic Jump
Solved Problems 16.38
16.9. Gradually Varied Flow (G.V.F.)
16.9.1. Equation of Gradually Varied Flow
Solved Problems 16.43—16.44
16.9.2. Back Water Curve and Affux
16.9.3. Expression for the Length of Back
Water Curve
Solved Problem 16.45
Chapter 17. Impact of Jets and Jet Propulsion 803-852
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Force Exerted by the Jet on a Stationary
Vertical Plate
17.2.1. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary
Inclined Flat Plate
17.2.2. Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary
Curved Plate
Solved Problems 17.1
17.3. Force Exerted by a Jet on a Hinged Plate
Solved Problems 17.7
—17.10 (d)
17.4. Force Exerted by a Jet on Moving Plates
17.4.1. Force on Flat Vertical Plate Moving
in the Direction of Jet
17.4.2. Force on the Inclined Plate Moving in
the Direction of the Jet
Solved Problems
17.4.3. Force on the Curved Plate when the
Plate is Moving in the Direction of Jet
Solved Problems
17.4.4. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on an
Unsymmetrical Moving Curved Plate when
Jet Strikes Tangentially at one of the Tips
Solved Problems 17.18—17.23
17.4.5. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on a
Series of Vanes
17.4.6. Force Exerted on a Series of
Radial Curved Vanes
Solved Problems
17.5. Jet Propulsion
17.5.1. Jet Propulsion of a Tank with an Orifice
Solved Problems 17.27—17.28
17.5.2. Jet Propulsion of Ships
Solved Problems 17.29—17.33
Chapter 18. Hydraulic Machines—Turbines 853-944
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Turbines
18.3. General Layout of a Hydroelectric Power Plant
18.4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Turbine
18.5. Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
18.6. Pelton Wheel (or Turbine)
18.6.1. Velocity Triangles and Work Done for
Pelton Wheel
18.6.2. Points to be Remembered for Pelton Wheel
Solved Problems 18.1
18.6.3. Design of Pelton Wheel
Solved Problems 18.11—18.13
18.7. Radial Flow Reaction Turbines
18.7.1. Main Parts of a Radial Flow
Reaction Turbine
Inward Radial Flow Turbine
Degree of Reaction
Solved Problems 18.14—18.20
18.7.5. Outward Radial Flow Reaction Turbine
Solved Problems
18.8. Francis Turbine
18.8.1. Important Relations for Francis Turbines
Solved Problems 18.23—18.26
18.9. Axial Flow Reaction Turbine
18.9.1. Some Important Point for Propeller
( Kaplan Turbine)
Solved Problems
18.10. Draft-Tube
18.10.1. Types of Draft Tubes
18.10.2. Draft-Tube Theory
18.10.3. Efficiency of Draft-Tube
Solved Problems
18.11. Specific Speed
18.11.1. Derivation of the Specific Speed
18.11.2. Significance of Specific Speed
Solved Problems
18.12. Unit Quantities
18.12.1. Unit Speed
18.12.2. Unit Discharge
18.12.3. Unit Power
18.12.4. Use of Unit Quantities ( Nu, Qu, P )
Solved Problems 18.41 (a )—18.45
18.13. Characteristic Curves of Hydraulic Turbines
18.13.1. Main Characteristic Curves or
Constant Head Curves
18.13.2. Operating Characteristic Curves or
Constant Speed Curves
18.13.3. Constant Efficiency Curves or Muschel
Curves or Iso-Efficiency Curves 935
18.14. Governing of Turbines
Chapter 19. Centrifugal Pumps 945-992
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
19.3. Work Done by the Centrifugal Pump
(or by Impfller ) on Water
19.4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a
Centrifugal Pump 948
Solved Problems 19.1—19.12 951
19.5. Minimum Speed for Starting a Centrifugal Pump
Solved Problems 19.13
19.6. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps
19.6.1. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps
for High Heads
19.6.2. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps for
High Discharge
Solved Problems 19.16—19.17
19.7. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump ( N s )
19.7.1. Expression for Specific Speed for a Pump
19.8. Model Testing of Centrifugal Pumps
Solved Problems 19.18—19.22
19.9. Priming of a Centrifugal Pump
19.10. Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps
19.10.1. Main Characteristic Curves
19.10.2. Operating Characteristic Curves
19.10.3. Constant Efficiency Curves
19.11. Cavitation
19.11.1. Precaution Against Cavitation
19.11.2. Effects of Cavitation
19.11.3. Hydraulic Machines Subjected to Cavitation
19.11.4. Cavitation in Turbines
19.11.5. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps
Solved Problem 19.23
19.12. Maximum Suction Lift (or Suction Height )
19.13. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
19.14. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump
Solved Problem 19.24
Chapter 20. Reciprocating Pumps
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Main Parts of a Reciprocating Pump
20.3. Working of a Reciprocating Pump
Discharge Through a Reciprocating Pump
Work Done by Reciprocating Pump
Discharge, Work Done and Power
Required to Drive a Double-acting Pump
20.4. Slip of Reciprocating Pump
20.4.1. Negative Slip of the Reciprocating Pump
20.5. Classification of Reciprocating Pumps
Solved Problems 20.1—20.2
20.6. Variation of Velocity and Acceleration
in the Suction and Delivery Pipes Due to
Acceleration of the Piston
20.7. Effect of Variation of Velocity on Friction
in the Suction and Delivery Pipes
Solved Problem
20.8. Indicator Diagram
Ideal Indicator Diagram
Effect of Acceleration in Suction and
Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram
Solved Problems 20.4
Effect of Friction in Suction and Delivery
Pipes on Indicator Diagram
Effect of Acceleration and Friction in
Suction and Delivery Pipes on Indicator
Solved Problems 20.10—20.12
Maximum Speed of a Reciprocating Pump
Solved Problem 20.13
20.9. Air Vessels 1021
Solved Problems 20.14—20.18
20.10. Comparison between Centrifugal Pumps and
Reciprocating Pumps
Chapter 21. Fluid System 1041-1070
21.1. Introduction 1041
21.2. The Hydraulic Press
Mechanical Advantage
Leverage of the Hydraulic Press
Actual Heavy Hydraulic Press
Solved Problems 21.1—21.5
21.3. The Hydraulic Accumulator
21.3.1. Capacity of Hydraulic Accumulator
Solved Problems 21.6—21.11
21.3.2. Differential Hydraulic Accumulator
21.4. The Hydraulic Intensifier
Solved Problems 21.12
21.5. The Hydraulic Ram 1053
Solved Problems 21.14—21.15 1055(xxvi )
21.6. The Hydraulic Lift
Direct Acting Hydraulic Lift
Suspended Hydraulic Lift
Solved Problems 21.16—21.17
21.7. The Hydraulic Crane 1060
Solved Problems 21.18
—21.20 1060
21.8. The Fluid or Hydraulic Coupling
21.9. The Hydraulic Torque Converter
21.10. The Air Lift Pump
21.11. The Gear-Wheel Pump
Objective Type Questions
Subject Index
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