Flat-Rolled Steel Processes – Advanced Technologies

Flat-Rolled Steel Processes – Advanced Technologies
اسم المؤلف
Vladimir B. Ginzburg
التاريخ
17 سبتمبر 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Flat-Rolled Steel Processes
Advanced Technologies
CRC Press is an imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
Boca Raton London New York
Edited by Vladimir B. Ginzburg
Contents
Preface .vii
Editor .ix
Contributors .xi
SECTION I New Concepts and Modernization of Rolling Mills
Chapter 1 A History of Minimills Producing Flat-Rolled Steel 3
John Stubbles
Chapter 2 Review of Casting and Rolling Lines with Thin- and Medium-Slab Casters . 15
Vladimir B. Ginzburg
Chapter 3 Methodology and Results of Major Hot Strip Mill Modernization Projects 35
Wlodzimierz Boleslaw Filipczyk
Chapter 4 Plate Mill Upgrades for High-Strength Products 55
J. F. Evans and P. Sopp
Chapter 5 Roughing Mill Work Rolls for Hot Strip Production 63
Michael Windhager and Karl Heinz Ziehenberger
Chapter 6 High-Speed Steel Rolls: The Last Frontier in Hot Steel Rolling 71
Alberto Tremea, Angelo Biggi, Massimo Pellizzari, and Alberto Molinari
Chapter 7 Tunnel Furnace Roll Options and Energy Considerations 83
Robert J. Echlin, Daniel V. Miller, and Roman I. Pankiw
Chapter 8 Descaling of Hot-Rolled Strip . 91
John B. Tiley and Per A. Munther
SECTION II Modeling of Flat Rolling Processes
Chapter 9 Modeling for Reheat Furnace Practices 99
Shaojie Chen
Chapter 10 Improvement of Schedules for Hot Rolling of Thin Wide Strips 115
Eduard Garber, Alexander Traino, and Irina Kozhevnikova
Chapter 11 Width Variation Behavior during Hot Rolling 127
Qiulin Yuiv Contents
Chapter 12 Parameter Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification in Rolling .141
Arif S. Malik and Ramana V. Grandhi
Chapter 13 Simulation for the Dynamic Behavior of Strips Running on Hot Run-Out Tables . 155
Yuji Ohara, Shin-ichiro Aoe, Hiromasa Hayashi, and Kazushige Ishino
Chapter 14 Laminar Flow-Cooling of Wide Heavy-Thickness Strip in a Hot Rolling Mill 161
Qiulin Yu
Chapter 15 Consideration of Microstructure Evolution in Hot Strip Mill Automation 171
Hans-Ulrich Löffl er, Klaus Weinzierl, and Rüdiger Döll
Chapter 16 Novel Mathematical Models for Cold-Rolling Process 179
Eduard Garber, Alexander Traino, and Irina Kozhevnikova
Chapter 17 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Cold-Rolling Lubricants and Its
Mechanism in Nonconformal Rolling Contacts .191
Ian Burton
SECTION III Measurement, Automation, and Process Control
Chapter 18 Multivariable Hot Strip Mill Control 209
Gerald Hearns, T. Bilkhu, and Peter Reeve
Chapter 19 Finishing Mill Predictive Temperature Control .219
Gerald Hearns, Chris Fryer, and Peter Reeve
Chapter 20 Digital Visual Inspection of Coils . 229
Mohammad B. Assar, Larry Romanauski, Matt Kremer, Margaret Krolikowski, Joe Franklin,
Mike L. Elliott, and Randy A. Stankie
Chapter 21 Yield Improvement through Better Crop Optimization 239
Robert L. Ricciatti
Chapter 22 State-of-the-Art, Noncontact Infrared, Laser, and Microwave Intelligent
Sensors and Systems for Steel Mills . 245
François Reizine, Bingji Li, and John Nauman
Chapter 23 Cold-Rolling Mill Vibration and Its Impact on Productivity and Product Quality 255
Tom Farley
Chapter 24 IMPOC©: An Online Material Properties Measurement System . 265
Klaus Herrmann and Matthias IrleContents v
Chapter 25 Technologies for the Prediction and Control of Microstructural Changes and
Mechanical Properties . 271
Kazuhiro Ohara
Chapter 26 Metallurgical, Modeling, and Software Engineering Issues in the Further
Development of the Steel Mill Level 2 Models . 277
Bingji Li and John Nauman
SECTION IV Strip Profile and Flatness Control
Chapter 27 Methods of Describing, Assessing, and Infl uencing Shape Deviations in Strips . 287
Gert Mücke, Paul Dieter Pütz, and Frank Gorgels
Chapter 28 Local Shape Defects in Cold Rolling: Simulation, Causes Identification, and Reduction . 299
Yuli Liu, Jian Fan, and Mike Levick
Chapter 29 Fundamentals of Online Flatness Measuring Devices 319
Fabio Miani and Paolo Patrizi
Chapter 30 Recent Developments in Strip-Profile Calculation . 329
Arif S. Malik and Ramana V. Grandhi
Chapter 31 Hot Band Profile Irregularities Related to Thermal Contour of Work Rolls 341
Eugene Nikitenko
Chapter 32 Analysis of the Transverse Temperature Distribution in the Hot Strip Mill of a
Compact Strip Production Plant 349
Jie Zhang, Lili Tian, Paolo Patrizi, and Fabio Miani
Chapter 33 Innovations in Shape Measurement and Control for Cold-Rolled
Flat Strip Products . 355
Mark E. Zipf
Index .
1 A History of Minimills
Producing Flat-Rolled Steel
John Stubbles
CONTENTS
1.1 The First Minimill . 3
1.2 Ken Iverson 4
1.3 Crisis in Big Steel 4
1.4 Breakthrough . 6
1.5 Expansion 6
1.6 Thin Strip Casting . 9
1.7 Iron Unit Supply 9
1.8 The International Scene . 11
1.9 The Future . 12
References
2 Review of Casting and Rolling Lines
with Thin- and Medium-Slab Casters
Vladimir B. Ginzburg
CONTENTS
2.1 Introduction . 15
2.2 Optimum Slab Thickness and the Number of Mill Stands . 16
2.3 Main Components of the CR lines 17
2.4 The CR Lines of the First Group . 20
2.5 The CR Lines of the Second Group 20
2.6 The CR Lines of the Third Group . 26
2.7 The CR Lines of the Fourth Group . 28
2.8 Supercompact CR Lines 30
2.9 Summary . 31
References
3 Methodology and Results of Major
Hot Strip Mill Modernization Projects
Wlodzimierz Boleslaw Filipczyk
CONTENTS
3.1 Introduction . 36
3.2 Upgrades of Electrical and Automation Systems 36
3.2.1 The Scope and Justification . 36
3.2.2 The Features of the Modern Control System 36
3.2.3 Electrical Drives Upgrade Solutions . 36
3.2.4 Sensors and Input/Output Upgrade Solutions 38
3.2.5 Level 1 Equipment Control Upgrade Solutions . 38
3.2.6 Operator’s Interface Upgrade Solutions 39
3.2.7 Supervisory Process Control (Level 2) Upgrade Solutions . 40
3.2.8 The Basic Rules of Electrical and Automation Systems Upgrade . 41
3.2.8.1 Identification of Critical Interfaces and Connectivity Solutions 41
3.2.8.2 Detailed Engineering and Factory System Test 41
3.2.8.3 Process and Control Shadowing on Site . 41
3.2.8.4 Ghost Bar Rolling and Switchover Trials . 42
3.3 China Steel Hot Strip Mill Modernization Project 43
3.3.1 1730-mm Hot Strip Mill #1 History 43
3.3.2 Actual Mill Configuration and Basic Data 43
3.3.3 The Scope of the Mill Modernization . 44
3.3.4 The Downcoilers and Strip Cooling Modernization . 44
3.3.4.1 Mechanical Equipment . 44
3.3.4.2 Electrical Equipment and Control System 45
3.3.5 Slab Sizing Press Installation 47
3.3.5.1 Mechanical Equipment . 47
3.3.5.2 Electrical Equipment and Control System 47
3.3.6 Project Implementation 48
3.3.7 General Project Schedule 48
3.3.7.1 Coilers Area 48
3.3.7.2 Slab Sizing Press . 49
3.3.7.3 Main Shutdown for Both Projects . 50
3.3.8 Mill Start-Up . 50
3.3.9 Project Highlights and Milestones 50
3.3.10 Results 50
3.3.10.1 Cast Slab Width Range . 50
3.3.10.2 Coil Width Performance . 50
3.3.10.3 Material Properties for New Products and CTC Performance . 50
3.3.10.4 Coil Presentation . 51
3.3.10.5 Coil Shape Defects 52
3.3.10.6 Coil Surface Defects . 52
3.3.10.7 Decrease in Mill Delays 52
3.4 Summary . 52
Reference
4 Plate Mill Upgrades for
High-Strength Products
J. F. Evans and P. Sopp
CONTENTS
4.1 Overview 55
4.2 Introduction . 55
4.3 Aspects of the Marketplace for High-Strength Plate . 55
4.3.1 Linepipe . 55
4.3.2 Ship Plate . 56
4.4 Key Features of the Upgraded Mill . 56
4.5 Upgrading of Motors and Drives . 60
4.6 Conclusion . 60
References .
5 Roughing Mill Work Rolls for
Hot Strip Production
Michael Windhager and Karl Heinz Ziehenberger
CONTENTS
5.1 Evolution of Roll Materials 63
5.1.1 Early Developments . 63
5.1.2 From Chrome Steel to High-Speed Steel 64
5.2 Roll Performance . 65
5.2.1 Operational Safety . 66
5.2.2 Residual Stress . 66
5.2.3 Microstructural Integrity . 67
5.2.4 Core Material . 67
5.2.5 Testing of Large-Sized Compound Rolls 68
5.3 Basic Requirements for the Safe and Cost-Efficient Use of Semi-HSS and HSS Rolls 68
5.3.1 Mill Practices . 68
5.3.2 Roll Shop Practices 69
5.4 Conclusions 69
References
6 High-Speed Steel Rolls: The Last
Frontier in Hot Steel Rolling
Alberto Tremea, Angelo Biggi, Massimo Pellizzari, and Alberto Molinari
CONTENTS
6.1 Introduction . 71
6.2 High-Speed Steels for Rolls . 71
6.3 Roll Surface Deterioration . 73
6.4 HSS Behavior in Lab Test 73
6.4.1 Wear Tests 73
6.4.2 Thermal Fatigue Test . 75
6.5 Results and Considerations from the Mills . 76
6.5.1 Roughing Stands in a Continuous HSM 76
6.5.2 Roughing Stands in a Minimill . 77
6.5.3 Reversing Roughing Stands . 78
6.5.4 General Considerations about Roughing Stands . 78
6.5.5 Early Finishing Stands . 78
6.6 Conclusions 80
References
7 Tunnel Furnace Roll Options
and Energy Considerations
Robert J. Echlin, Daniel V. Miller, and Roman I. Pankiw
CONTENTS
7.1 Introduction . 83
7.2 Tunnel Furnace Rolls—Energy Use Overview . 84
7.3 Tunnel Furnace Roll Options . 84
7.4 Water-Cooled Roll Heat Loss 86
7.5 Dry Roll Heat Losses . 87
7.6 Dry Roll Conversion—Natural Gas Savings . 88
7.7 Conclusions 88
Appendix—Heat Transfer Calculations and Heat . 89
References .
8 Descaling of Hot-Rolled Strip
John B. Tiley and Per A. Munther
CONTENTS
8.1 Introduction . 91
8.2 Formation of Scale . 91
8.3 Impingement Pressure . 92
8.3.1 Sample Calculation for Maximum Entry Temperature to Avoid Critical Tertiary Scale Thickness 94
8.4 Descale Spray Nozzle Interference 94
8.5 System Design . 95
References
9 Modeling for Reheat Furnace Practices
Shaojie Chen
CONTENTS
9.1 Introduction . 99
9.1.1 Background 99
9.1.2 Categories of Reheat Furnace Modeling . 100
9.2 Slab Target Furnace Exit Temperature Determination .101
9.2.1 Background .101
9.2.2 Mechanical Requirements 101
9.2.3 Metallurgical Requirements 103
9.2.3.1 Dissolution of the Relevant Microalloy Precipitates . 103
9.2.3.2 Avoidance of Excessive Austenite Grain Coarsening . 104
9.2.3.3 Consideration of No-Crystallization Temperature and Finishing Rolling Temperature 104
9.3 Slab Temperature Modeling 105
9.3.1 Calculation Domain . 105
9.3.2 Numerical Formulation 106
9.3.3 Heating Criteria for Skid Marks . 107
9.3.4 Impact of Curved Skid Riders on Skid Marks . 108
9.4 Slab Thermal Stress Modeling 108
9.5 Residence Time Determination 110
9.6 A Case Application of Practice Modeling 110
9.6.1 Background .110
9.6.2 Modeling Package and Calibration .111
9.6.3 Heating Practice Modifications 112
9.6.4 Model Implementation Results .112
9.7 Summary 112
Acknowledgments 113
References .
10 Improvement of Schedules for
Hot Rolling of Thin Wide Strips
Eduard Garber, Alexander Traino, and Irina Kozhevnikova
CONTENTS
10.1 Introduction 115
10.2 Formulation of the Problem and Assumptions .115
10.3 Main Points of the Calculation Procedure 118
10.4 Application of the Calculation Procedure to Analyze Contact Stresses in the Working Stands of Wide-Strip Mills 121
10.5 Calculation of Main Drive Power and Moment for Wide-Strip Mills . 122
10.5.1 Calculation of Rolling Power . 122
10.5.2 Calculation of Moment and Power of Working Stand Main Drive . 122
10.6 Conclusion . 125
References
11 Width Variation Behavior
during Hot Rolling
Qiulin Yu
CONTENTS
11.1 Introduction . 127
11.2 Mechanical Model . 128
11.3 Transverse Distribution of Tensile Stresses of Strip 129
11.4 Measurement of Lateral and Longitudinal Displacements . 130
11.5 Rolling Parameters 133
11.6 Simulation of Width Necking Using FEM 136
11.7 Discussion 137
11.8 Summary . 138
Acknowledgments . 139
References .
12 Parameter Optimization and
Uncertainty Quantification in Rolling
Arif S. Malik and Ramana V. Grandhi
CONTENTS
12.1 Introduction 141
12.2 Optimization .141
12.2.1 Traditional versus Modern Approach to Optimization . 142
12.2.2 Formulation of Mathematical Optimization Statements . 142
12.2.2.1 Design Variables and Cost Function . 142
12.2.2.2 Optimization Constraints 144
12.3 Uncertainty Quantification and Reliability Analysis 144
12.3.1 Random Variables 144
12.3.2 Probability Calculation for Reliability Analysis . 145
12.3.3 The Role of Uncertainty Quantifi cation in Optimization 146
12.4 Application 1: Productivity Optimization on a Four-High Temper Mill 147
12.4.1 Objective for Temper Mill Optimization 147
12.4.2 Formulating an Optimization Problem for Temper Mill Productivity .147
12.4.2.1 Design Variables 147
12.4.2.2 Cost Function 148
12.4.2.3 Constraints 148
12.4.2.4 Side Bounds 148
12.4.3 Results and Discussion for Temper Mill Productivity Optimization 148
12.4.3.1 Optimization Case 1 (Unassigned Roll Crowns) 148
12.4.3.2 Optimization Case 2 (Fixed-Roll Crowns) . 149
12.5 Application 2: Estimating the Probability of Achieving Target Strip Crown and
Flatness in Rolling (Uncertainty Quantification) 150
12.5.1 Objective in Determining Strip Flatness Probability 150
12.5.2 Formulating the Strip Flatness Probability Problem . 151
12.5.3 Limit State Functions for Flatness Reliability . 152
12.5.4 Results and Discussion for Strip Flatness Probability . 152
12.5.4.1 Reliabilities of g1 and g2 152
12.5.4.2 System Reliability . 152
12.6 Summary . 153
Acknowledgments . 153
References .
13 Simulation for the Dynamic Behavior of
Strips Running on Hot Run-Out Tables
Yuji Ohara, Shin-ichiro Aoe, Hiromasa Hayashi, and Kazushige Ishino
CONTENTS
13.1 Introduction . 155
13.2 Theory 156
13.2.1 Theoretical Derivation of Maximum Stable Threading Speed on ROT . 156
13.2.1.1 Steady-State Equation of Motion for Strip Traveling on ROT . 156
13.2.2 Theorem of Equivalence Between Dynamic Characteristics of Strip on ROT and
Buckling Phenomenon (Theory of Maximum Stable Threading Speed for ROT) . 156
13.3 Experiments . 157
13.3.1 Experimental Verification of Maximum Stable Threading Speed Using Run-Out Simulator 157
13.3.1.1 Run-Out Simulator and Similarity Law . 157
13.3.1.2 Experimental Conditions and Experimental Results 157
13.4 Numerical Simulation 158
13.4.1 ROT Strip Travel Simulation . 158
13.5 Discussion 159
13.5.1 Current Status of Maximum Threading Speed at Actual ROT and Discussion . 159
13.6 Conclusions 159
References
14 Laminar Flow-Cooling of Wide
Heavy-Thickness Strip in a
Hot Rolling Mill
Qiulin Yu
CONTENTS
14.1 Introduction 161
14.2 Background 162
14.3 Mill Layout and Equipment 162
14.3.1 Laminar Cooling System 162
14.3.2 Modification of Hardware . 163
14.4 Formulation of Energy Balance . 163
14.4.1 Increment of Internal Energy 164
14.4.2 Heat of Phase Transformation . 164
14.4.3 Heat Loss by Radiation . 164
14.4.4 Heat Loss by Convection . 165
14.5 Temperature Model 165
14.5.1 Two-Dimensional Analytical Model . 165
14.5.2 Boundary Conditions 165
14.5.3 Solutions 165
14.6 Mechanical Properties . 166
14.7 Critical Temperature Differences of Strip Canoeing . 166
14.8 Laminar Flow Distribution 167
14.8.1 Crossbow at Cut-to-Length Line . 167
14.8.2 Strip Dimension versus Crossbow . 168
14.8.3 Ratio of Bottom Flow to Top Flow . 168
14.8.4 Yield Strength 169
14.9 Examination of Heat Removal . 169
14.10 Discussion .170
14.11 Summary 170
Acknowledgments 170
References
15 Consideration of Microstructure
Evolution in Hot Strip Mill Automation
Hans-Ulrich Löffler, Klaus Weinzierl, and Rüdiger Döll
CONTENTS
15.1 Introduction 171
15.2 A Brief History of Microstructure Modeling and Cooling Section Control .171
15.3 Microstructure Model 172
15.4 From Microstructure to Material Properties 174
15.5 Model Predictive Control to Keep Material Properties Constant over Strip Length .175
15.6 Different Strategies for Different Steel Grades 176
15.7 Conclusions 177
References .
16 Novel Mathematical Models
for Cold-Rolling Process
Eduard Garber, Alexander Traino, and Irina Kozhevnikova
CONTENTS
16.1 Introduction . 179
16.2 New Cold-Rolling Theory Basics 180
16.3 Practical Implementation of New Theory for Cold-Rolling Technology Improvement 188
16.4 Conclusion . 189
References .
17 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of ColdRolling Lubricants and Its Mechanism
in Nonconformal Rolling Contacts
Ian Burton
CONTENTS
17.1 Introduction 191
17.2 Discussion 192
17.2.1 Tribocontact Geometries in Cold Rolling and Their Influence upon Film Thickness h . 192
17.2.2 Cold-Rolling Lubricants 193
17.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Interferometry 193
17.2.4 Determination of Film Thickness h of Fully Formulated Cold-Rolling Lubricants . 195
17.2.5 Nonlinear Film Growth . 198
17.2.6 Modeling the Boundary and Elastohydrodynamic Films . 199
17.2.7 Pressure–Viscosity Coefficients α . 200
17.2.8 Mill Validation Testing 202
17.3 Conclusion . 204
17.4 Experimental Protocol . 204
17.4.1 Determination of Film Thickness h by Elastohydrodynamic Interferometry . 204
17.4.2 Determination of the Pressure–Viscosity Coefficient α . 204
17.4.3 Determination of the Temperature–Viscosity Coefficient β 204
Acknowledgments . 205
References
18 Multivariable Hot Strip Mill Control
Gerald Hearns, T. Bilkhu, and Peter Reeve
CONTENTS
18.1 Introduction . 209
18.2 System Modeling 210
18.3 Conventional Gauge and Mass Flow Control 213
18.4 Multivariable Controller Design 213
18.4.1 State Feedback . 213
18.4.2 State Estimation 214
18.4.3 Performance Optimization 215
18.5 Mill Trials 215
18.6 Conclusions .217
References .
19 Finishing Mill Predictive
Temperature Control
Gerald Hearns, Chris Fryer, and Peter Reeve
CONTENTS
19.1 Introduction 219
19.2 Setup Calculations 219
19.3 Dynamic Control . 220
19.4 Finishing Mill Interactions 220
19.5 Finishing Mill Predictive Temperature Control 221
19.5.1 Finishing Mill Temperature Modeling 222
19.5.2 Temperature State Estimation . 223
19.5.3 The Control Algorithm 224
19.5.4 Application of the Control Algorithm . 225
19.5.5 Velocity Feedforward from the Setup . 227
19.6 Temperature Control Results . 227
References .
20 Digital Visual Inspection of Coils
Mohammad B. Assar, Larry Romanauski, Matt Kremer, Margaret
Krolikowski, Joe Franklin, Mike L. Elliott, and Randy A. Stankie
CONTENTS
20.1 Introduction . 229
20.2 Objectives 230
20.3 Technical Description 230
20.4 Solution 231
20.5 Applications and Results . 233
20.5.1 Temper Mill System 233
20.5.2 Pickle Line System 234
20.5.3 Weld-Tracking Analysis and Verification 236
20.5.4 Tandem Mill System 236
20.6 Conclusions 238
References
21 Yield Improvement through
Better Crop Optimization
Robert L. Ricciatti
CONTENTS
21.1 Introduction . 239
21.2 Crop Optimization . 239
21.2.1 Imaging 241
21.2.2 Cut Line Determination . 241
21.2.3 Tracking . 241
21.2.4 Shear Control . 242
21.2.5 How Far to Go? 242
21.3 Laser Velocimeters 242
21.4 Summary . 243
References .
22 State-of-the-Art, Noncontact Infrared,
Laser, and Microwave Intelligent
Sensors and Systems for Steel Mills
François Reizine, Bingji Li, and John Nauman
CONTENTS
22.1 Current Sensor Technologies . 245
22.2 Principles of Selected Applications .246
22.2.1 Continuous Caster Optimization of Cut 246
22.2.2 Width Measurement of Slab 248
22.2.2.1 Strip Centering/Camber and Width Measurement . 248
22.3 Sensor Systems 248
22.3.1 Systems Developments 248
22.3.2 Systems Techniques . 251
22.3.3 System Examples in Slab Casting . 252
22.3.4 System Examples in Hot Rolling . 253
22.3.5 System Examples in Finishing
23 Cold-Rolling Mill Vibration and Its Impact
on Productivity and Product Quality
Tom Farley
CONTENTS
23.1 Introduction . 255
23.2 Background Vibration Theory . 255
23.3 Modeling Natural Resonant Vibrations of a Rolling Mill Stand 256
23.4 Low-Frequency Forced Vibrations 256
23.5 Torsional Chatter Vibration . 256
23.6 Third Octave Gauge Chatter Vibration . 257
23.7 Fifth Octave Chatter (Roll and Strip Chatter Marks) 259
23.8 Summary . 262
References
24 IMPOC©: An Online Material
Properties Measurement System
Klaus Herrmann and Matthias Irle
CONTENTS
24.1 Introduction . 265
24.2 Principle of Operation . 265
24.3 System Components and System Operation 265
24.3.1 IMPOC Sensor . 266
24.3.2 IMPOC Data Processing Unit . 266
24.4 Data Modeling and System Performance . 266
24.5 Technical and Economic Benefits . 268
24.5.1 Process Optimization . 268
24.5.2 Reduction of Coil Logistics Expenses 268
24.5.3 Reduction of Destructive Testing Costs . 268
24.5.4 Skin Pass Mill Control 269
24.6 Summary 269
References .
25 Technologies for the Prediction and
Control of Microstructural Changes
and Mechanical Properties
Kazuhiro Ohara
CONTENTS
25.1 The Need for Prediction and Control of Microstructural Changes and Mechanical Properties . 271
25.2 Overall Structure of the Calculation for Microstructural Changes and Mechanical Properties . 271
25.3 Details of the Models for Predicting Microstructural Changes and Mechanical Properties 272
25.3.1 Grain Growth during Slab Reheating 272
25.3.2 Hot Deformation Model . 272
25.3.2.1 Recovery . 273
25.3.2.2 Recrystallization . 273
25.3.2.3 Grain Growth after Deformation 273
25.3.3 Transformation Model . 273
25.4 Mechanical Properties Prediction Model (Structure–Mechanical Properties Relationship) 274
25.5 Trends in the Development of Material Properties Models . 274
25.5.1 Material Properties Model for Ultra-Low-Carbon Steel . 275
25.5.2 Material Properties Model for Ultra-Fine-Grain Microstructure Steel 275
25.5.3 Mesoscopic Model . 275
References
26 Metallurgical, Modeling, and
Software Engineering Issues in
the Further Development of the
Steel Mill Level 2 Models
Bingji Li and John Nauman
CONTENTS
26.1 Level 2 Model 277
26.1.1 Force and Flow Stress 277
26.1.2 Force Learning 278
26.2 Metallurgical Issues in Level 2 278
26.2.1 Retained Strain 278
26.2.2 Rolling in the Two-Phase Region 279
26.2.3 Metallurgical Aspect of the Flow Stress . 279
26.2.4 Others . 279
26.3 Modeling Issues in Level 2 279
26.3.1 Limitation of the Adaptive Learning . 279
26.3.2 The Guided Two-Parameter Learning (FIT2G) 280
26.3.3 Flow Stress Valid Range 281
26.3.4 Temperature-Dependent Properties . 281
26.3.5 Intelligent Learning . 281
26.4 Software Engineering Issues in Level 2 281
26.4.1 System Architecture Based on the Interactive Relationship of Mill Process Models . 281
26.4.2 Web-Based Level 2 Systems 282
26.4.3 Others . 282
26.5 Next-Generation Level 2 Systems . 283
References
27 Methods of Describing, Assessing, and
Influencing Shape Deviations in Strips
Gert Mücke, Paul Dieter Pütz, and Frank Gorgels
CONTENTS
27.1 Shape Deviations in Strips . 287
27.1.1 Flatness Deviations 288
27.1.2 Straightness Deviations . 290
27.2 Measurement of Strip Flatness under Strip Tension 290
27.2.1 Methods for Measuring Strip Shape: Strip Flatness 291
27.2.1.1 Radial Force Measuring Systems . 291
27.2.1.2 Strip Displacement Measuring Systems . 291
27.2.1.3 Strip Waviness Measuring Systems 292
27.2.1.4 Strip Permeability Measurement 293
27.2.2 Requirements on Flatness-Measuring Systems . 293
27.2.2.1 Measuring Accuracy . 293
27.2.2.2 Influence of Measuring Zone Width . 293
27.2.2.3 Influence of Temperature Deviations across the Strip Width . 293
27.3 Quantitative Evaluation of Flatness Deviations, with Specific Regard to Waviness . 294
27.4 Strip Flatness Control Methods . 297
27.4.1 Strip Flatness Control Inside the Rolling Mill 297
27.4.2 Strip Flatness Control Outside the Rolling Stand . 297
27.4.2.1 Conventional Strip Leveling Methods 297
27.4.2.2 New Strip Leveling Process 298
References
28 Local Shape Defects in Cold Rolling:
Simulation, Causes Identification,
and Reduction
Yuli Liu, Jian Fan, and Mike Levick
CONTENTS
28.1 Introduction . 299
28.2 Strain Rate–Based Strip 3D Deformation Model 300
28.2.1 Analysis Model of Deformation Zone .300
28.2.2 Strip Thickness Distribution in the Roll Bite 300
28.2.3 Strain Rate and Velocity Field Model .300
28.2.4 Yield Criterion and Plastic Flow Equation 301
28.2.5 Surface Friction Model 301
28.2.6 Longitudinal Equilibrium Equation 301
28.2.7 Entry and Exit Tension Stress Model 302
28.2.8 Transverse Equilibrium Equation 302
28.2.9 Numerical Scheme . 302
28.3 Work-Roll Thermal Crown Model . 303
28.4 Roll Stack Deformation Model 303
28.4.1 Roll Separating Forces . 303
28.4.2 Roll Equilibrium Equations . 303
28.4.3 Roll Deflection Equations 303
28.4.4 Roll Deformation Compatibility Equation 304
28.4.5 Roll Gap Profile . 304
28.4.6 Calculation Procedure . 304
28.5 Stresses Unloading Model . 305
28.6 Flowchart of the Main Program 305
28.7 Model Tuning and Verification 305
28.8 User Interface 306
28.9 Base Case for Local Shape Defects Simulation 306
28.10 Effects of Entry Strip Profile Ridge 308
28.11 Effect of Local Yield Stress Drop 311
28.12 Roll-Cooling Nozzle Clog or Work-Roll Crown Ridge Effect .314
28.13 Identification of Causes and Reduction of Local Shape Defects 316
Acknowledgments 316
References
29 Fundamentals of Online
Flatness Measuring Devices
Fabio Miani and Paolo Patrizi
CONTENTS
29.1 Introduction 319
29.2 Causes of Flatness Deviation . 320
29.3 Contact Flatness Measuring Devices 320
29.3.1 Contact Shapemeter for Cold Strip Mills 320
29.3.1.1 Strengths . 321
29.3.1.2 Weaknesses . 321
29.3.2 Contact Shapemeter for Hot Strip Mills 321
29.3.2.1 Strengths . 321
29.3.2.2 Weaknesses . 321
29.3.3 Shapemeter–Looper . 322
29.3.3.1 Strengths . 322
29.3.3.2 Weaknesses . 322
29.3.4 Contactless Flatness Measuring Devices 322
29.3.5 Linear Laser Method . 323
29.3.5.1 Strengths . 324
29.3.5.2 Weaknesses . 324
29.3.6 Laser Points Method 324
29.3.6.1 Strengths . 325
29.3.6.2 Weaknesses . 325
29.3.7 Fringe Method . 325
29.3.7.1 Strengths . 326
29.3.7.2 Weaknesses . 326
29.3.8 Moirè’s Topography Method 326
29.3.8.1 Strengths . 327
29.3.8.2 Weaknesses . 327
29.3.9 Contactless Nonoptical Shapemeter 327
29.3.9.1 Strengths . 327
29.3.9.2 Weaknesses . 327
29.4 Conclusions 327
References
30 Recent Developments in
Strip-Profile Calculation
Arif S. Malik and Ramana V. Grandhi
CONTENTS
30.1 Introduction . 329
30.2 Strip Profile and Crown . 329
30.3 Strip Flatness or Shape 330
30.4 Strip-Profile Prediction and Control Models . 330
30.4.1 Tasks Requiring Accurate and Rapid Strip-Profile Calculation .331
30.4.1.1 A New Simplifi ed Mixed Finite Element Method for Strip-Profile Calculation .331
30.4.2 Strip-Profile Model Development 332
30.4.2.1 Modeling Strip-Profile Control Devices . 334
30.4.2.2 Strip-Profile Calculation . 334
30.5 Strip-Profile Model Applications . 335
30.5.1 Four-High Cold Plate Mill . 335
30.5.1.1 Comparison with Large-Scale Finite Element Analysis . 336
30.5.2 20-High Sendzimir Mill 337
30.6 Summary . 339
Acknowledgments . 339
References
31 Hot Band Profile Irregularities Related
to Thermal Contour of Work Rolls*
Eugene Nikitenko
CONTENTS
31.1 Introduction . 341
31.2 Roll Cooling Pattern 341
31.3 Improving Flatness and Crown Performance 342
31.4 Impact of Rolling Strip with Offset from Mill Centerline 344
31.5 Conclusions 346
References
32 Analysis of the Transverse Temperature
Distribution in the Hot Strip Mill of
a Compact Strip Production Plant
Jie Zhang, Lili Tian, Paolo Patrizi, and Fabio Miani
CONTENTS
32.1 Hot-Rolled Strip Transverse Temperature Distribution: State of the Art 349
32.2 Experimental Setup . 350
32.2.1 Experimental Devices 350
32.2.2 Measured Data . 350
32.3 Experimental Results 351
32.3.1 Temperature Distribution in the Strip Central Area 352
32.3.2 Temperature Distribution in the Strip Edge Regions 352
32.3.3 The Relationship Between Transverse Temperature Distribution and Strip Width 352
32.3.4 The Relationship Between Transverse Temperature Distribution and Strip Temperature 353
32.4 Conclusion . 353
References .
33 Innovations in Shape Measurement
and Control for Cold-Rolled
Flat Strip Products
Mark E. Zipf
CONTENTS
33.1 Introduction . 355
33.2 Innovations in Shape Measurement Technologies . 358
33.2.1 Noncontact Shape Measurement . 358
33.2.2 Seamless Roll Technologies 359
33.3 New Methods in Mill Modeling and Simulation . 360
33.4 Advancements in Shape Control Technologies . 362
33.4.1 Singular Value Decomposition Method . 363
33.4.2 Model Predictive Control Methods . 364
33.5 Conclusion . 364
References
x368 Index
Control systems
downcoilers, 45
features of, 36
slab sizing press installation, 47
Convection heat flux, 106
Conventional gauge control, 213
Conventional looper angle, 216
Cooling systems
accelerated, 56–57
water, 18–19
Cooling temperature control, 172
Cost function, 142–143, 148
Coupled Pickle-Line and Cold Mill
(CPCM), 303
Crawfordsville plant, 6
Creep-strength alloys, 83, 85, 89
CR lines, See Casting and rolling lines
Crop optimization system, 239–242
cut line determination, 241
imaging, 241
shear control, 242
tracking, 241–242
Cropping system, 239
Crossbow, 161, 166, 290
at cut-to-length line, 167
elimination, 167
vs. strip dimension, 168
Cross-strip temperature variations, 293
CSC, See China Steel Corporation
CSP, See Compact Steel Plant; Compact strip
production
CTC model, See Coiling temperature control
model
Cumulative distribution function, 151
Cumulative frequency, 295
Curved skid riders
and boundary conditions, 107
impact on skid marks, 108
temperature comparison between straight
and, 108
CVP, See Carbide volume percentage
D
Data-acquisition systems, 262
Database management system (DBMS), 281
Data modeling, 266
Datapaq’s Furnace Tracker®, 112
Data processing unit (DPU), 266
Deflection roll, 321
Deformation model
3D, 300–302, 305
roll stack, 303
calculation procedure, 304
Deformation zone, 180, 300
analysis model of, 300
calculation formulas for rolling values, 123
elastic-plastic model of, 181, 187
elastic region of, basic expressions for, 118
plastic region of, basic expressions for, 119
stick zone in, 115–116
tangential stresses in, 116–117
versions of structural schemes for, 187–188
working stands, structural
parameters of, 122
Descalers of CR lines, 18
Descale systems, 91–95
design, 95
header stations, 95
impingement pressure, 92–94
spray nozzle interference, 94–95
Digital front ends (DFEs), See Firing circuits
replacement
Direct current (DC) drives, 37
Direct strip production complex (DSPC), 23
Doppler principle, 243
Double-stand Steckel mill, 29
Downcoilers, 17–18, 44–45
Dry rolls, 84
conversion, 88
heat losses for, 87–88
DSPC, See Direct strip production complex
Dual-phase steel, 171
Dynamically linked library (DLL), 283
Dynamic control, 220
E
EAF, See Electric arc furnace
Eccentric bottom tapholes (EBTs), 5
Eccentricity analysis, 253
Eddy current sensors, 359
EHD interferometry, See Elastohydrodynamic
interferometry
EHD lubrication, See Elastohydrodynamic
lubrication
Elastic deformation of work rolls, 193
Elastic foundation elements, 332
Elastic instability phenomenon, 156
Elastic-plastic model, 187
Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry,
193–195
Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication, 191–205
Elastoplastic deformation zone, contact stresses
in, 181
Electrical drives upgrade solutions, 36–38
Electrical equipment, 45–48
Electrical motors, 37
Electrical systems upgrades, 36–43
Electric arc furnace (EAF), 5
flat-rolled minimills, cumulative
production of, 7
reduction in chemical and electrical
energy in, 13
Energy balance formulation, 163
Entry tension stress model, 302, 310, 313
Equipment control upgrade solutions, 38–39
Exit tension stress model, 302, 311, 313
Expert systems, 251–252, 283
F
Fabrication technology, developments in, 56
Factor-of-safety design, 144
Factory system test, 41
FDM, See Finite differences method
FEM, See Finite element method
Ferrite-pearlite-bainite steels, 274
Ferrite–pearlite steels, 274
Ferritic rolling, 26
Ferromagnetic core, 266
Ferrous martensitic matrix, 71
Fifth octave chatter, 259–262
Finishing mills
of CR lines, 18
design parameters of, 21–22, 28
exit temperature of, 226
interactions in, 220–221
predictive temperature control in, 221–227
temperature modeling for, 222–223
velocity feedforward in, 227
Finishing rolling temperature, 104–105
Finite differences method (FDM), 282, 349
Finite-element computer model, 256
Finite element method (FEM), 349, 361–362
for computing mill deflection, 334
for 20-High Sendzimir mill, 337–339
for strip profile calculation, 331–332
width necking simulation using, 136–137
Firecracks, 75, 78
Firing circuits replacement, 37
FIT2G, See Guided two-parameter learning
Flatness, 355
control, 19
measuring devices, 319–328
of rolled steel, 277
Flatness deviations, 287–290
bowshaped faults, 287, 289
causes of, 320
cumulative frequency, 295
defect patterns, 287
strip waviness, 287–288
Flatness index, 295
Flatness reliability, 151–152
Flat-rolled steel minimills, 3–13
Flat-rolled products, 253
Flow stress, 277
learning, fitting mechanisms for, 278
metallurgical aspect of, 279
valid range, 281
FLUENT®, 100
Four-high cold plate mill
FEA model of, 336
geometry parameters for, 335
model parameters for, 335
simplified mixed FEM of, 332, 335–337
Four-high mill
force and moment calculation scheme for, 123
quarter symmetric model of, 333
Four-high temper mill, 147–150
Fourier indexes, 166
Frequency modulated continuous wave
(FMCW), 246
Friction law, 115–116
Friction stress model, 117
Fringe method
stereoscopic view, 325
strengths and weaknesses, 326
Furnace design models, 100
Furnace dynamic control models, 100–101
Furnace heating practice models, 100–113
case application of, 110–112
implementation results, 112–113
G
Gauge control, 209
Ghost bar rolling, 42–43
Gibbs’ free enthalpy, 173–174
Global stiffness matrix, 332
Grain coarsening temperature, 104
Grain growth, 104
after deformation, 273
during slab reheating, 272
Grain refinement mechanisms, 56
Guided two-parameter learning (FIT2G), 280
H
Hall–Petch equation, 174
Hasofer–Lind method, 152
Heat checks, 75
Heat conductivity, 165Index 369
Heat conservation devices of CR lines, 17–19
Heat diffusion, 163
Heating curves
fast and slow, 108–110, 112
of slab, 108–110, 112
Heat loss
by convection, 165
by radiation, 164
Heat removal, 169–170
Heat-resisting alloys, 87
Heat transfer, 106, 161, 165, 253
Hertz–Belyaev formula, 123, 185
Hertz formula, 182
High carbon steel grades, 173
High chromium irons, 71, 78
High chromium steel, 71, 76–78
High-speed steel (HSS) rolls, 64–65, 71–72
applications of, 76–78
behavior in lab test, 73–76
considerations of, 78
results of
in continuous roughing stands, 76–77
in early finishing stands, 78–79
in reversing roughing stands, 78–79
safe and cost-efficient use of, 68–69
wear and damaging of, 78
High strength low alloy (HSLA) steel, 100, 104,
161, 169, 279
High-strength plate, aspects of marketplace for,
55–56
HIsmelt direct iron process, 11
HMD, See Hot metal detector
HMI systems, See Human-machine interface
systems
Hooke’s law, 130
Hot band profile irregularities, 341–347
Hot band ridges, 316
Hot deformation model, 272–273
Hot metal detector (HMD), 245, 247
Hot rolling, 253–254
mode of St1PS strip, 124–125
plastic deformation in, 130
of thin wide strips, 115–125
width variation behavior during, 127–139
Hot rolling mills, 24
arrangements of, 29
Hot strip mill (HSM), 16, 239, 242
basic mill data, 44
modernization projects, 43–52
configuration, 43
contact shapemeters for, 321–322
CSC HSM 1, configuration, 44
roughing stands in continuous, 76–77
transverse temperature distribution of,
349–353
upgrades of, 43
Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM), 102
Hot-tandem rolling, 272
HSLA, See High strength low alloy
HSM, See Hot strip mill
HSS rolls, See High-speed steel rolls
Human–machine interface (HMI) systems,
39, 42
Hydraulic oscillators, 252
Hysteresis, nonlinear ferromagnetic, 266
I
Impingement pressure, 92–94
IMPOC© (Impulse Magnetic Process Online
Controller), 265–269
data modeling and system performance,
266–267
data processing unit, 266
operating principles, 265
sensor, 266
system components and system operation,
265–266
technical and economic benefits, 268–269
Impulse Magnetic Process Online Controller,
See IMPOC©
Induction welding, 31
Infrared sensors, 245, 248, 253
software setup for, 251
Inline Strip Production (ISP) plant, 27
Integrated system, 42
Intelligent learning, 281
Intermediate variables, 220
Internal energy, 164
International Association of Steckel Mill
Operators (IASMO), 128
Iron, strength of, 271
Iron-base castings, solidification of, 67
Iron oxide (scale) layer, 91–92
Iron unit supply, 9–11
Irvine and Pickering formula, 274
Irvine’s equations, 103
Iverson, Ken, 4
J
JFE Steel Corporation, 159
Johnson–Mehl–Avrami approach, 173
K
Kalman filter, 214
Kelk Corporation (KELK), 239, 241–243
L
Laminar cooling systems, 45–46
Laminar flow
bottom flow to top fl ow ratio, 168
distribution, 167–169
heat removal by, 169–170
yield strength, 169
Laminar flow-cooling system, 161
composed of, 162
hardware modification, 163
layout of, 162
Laser-based sensors, 245
Laser Doppler velocimeters (LVDs), 243,
245–248
Lasermeters, 246–247; See also Triangulation
lasermeters
Laser points method, 324–325
Laser velocimeters, 241–242
Laser velocity, analysis of, 253
Ledeburitic steel, 71
Level 2 model, 277–283
AI learning techniques, 283
force and flow stress, 277–278
force learning, 278
issues in
metallurgical, 278–279
modeling, 279–281
software engineering, 281
next-generation, 283
rolling in two-phase region, 279
temperature-dependent properties, 281
web-based, 282
Light cutting method, 325
Light section method, 325
Limit state functions, 152
Linear design model, 212
Linear dynamic model of looper and stand, 211
Linear laser method, 323–324
Linear temperature model, 224
Linepipe, 55–56
Local shape defects, 299, 314
identification of causes, 316
reduction of, 316
simulation, 306
Longitudinal equilibrium equation, 301
Looper angle, 212, 215
control of, 213
multivariable, 216
Low-frequency forced vibrations, 256
Lubricants
dynamic viscosity, 202
film, 195–198
Lubrication mode, 192
LVDs, See Laser Doppler velocimeters
M
MAB-3000, 249
Mandrel power, 44
Martensitic products, 51
Mass flow control, 213, 215
Material properties models
trends in development of, 274–275
for ultrafine-grain microstructure steel, 275
for ultra-low-carbon steel, 275
Mathematical optimization, 142
cost function, 142–143
design variables, 142–143
MBPC, See Model-based predicted controller
Mechanical equipment, 44–45, 47
Mechanical properties prediction model, 274
Medium-slab casters, 15–32
Melt shop, design parameters of, 21
Mesoscopic model, 275
Microalloying, 56, 172
Microalloy precipitates, dissolution of, 103–104,
107
Microporosities, 67
Microstructure modeling, 172–174
and cooling section control, 171–172
evolution, 172
Microstructure Monitor system, 176
Microstructure simulation, 283
Microwave sensors, 245
Mill modeling and simulation, 357
analytic models, 361
empirical/heuristic models, 361
methods in, 360–362
pass scheduling, 362
process models, interactive relationship of,
281
setup calculations, 219–220
shape control actuators, 360–361
shape target selection, 362
Mill stands, 16–17
Mill wrecks, 229, 234, 236
Minimills, history of, 3–13
Minimill sector, restructuring of, 12
Model-based predicted controller (MBPC),
219, 224
Model predictive control (MPC), 172, 175–176
structure of, 177
techniques, 364370 Index
Modern rolling practice, 278
Moirè’s topography method, 326–327
Mono-cast rolls, 63–64
Monte–Carlo method, 275
Monte–Carlo simulations, 145–146, 275
MO-RE®-2150, 85, 88
MPC, See Model predictive control
MULPIC (Multi-purpose interrupted cooling)
system, 56–58
Multibody dynamics simulation, 158
Multivariable control gauge change, 216
Multivariable controller design, 213–217
advantage of, 215, 217
application of, 209
of gauge and looper angle, 210
performance optimization, 215
state estimation and feedback, 214
statistical performance analysis of, 217
Multivariable disturbance estimates, 216
Multivariable hot strip mill control, 209–218
Multivariable looper angle, 216
Multivariable shape control techniques, 360, 362
N
Neural-network models, 251
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, 100
No-crystallization temperature, 104–105
Nonconformal rolling contacts,
elastohydrodynamic lubrication in,
191–205
Noncontact optical systems, 254
Noncontact sensors, 245, 251–254
Noncontact shape measurement, 357–359
Nonlinear ferromagnetic hysteresis, 266
Nonlinear film growth, 198–199
Normal distribution, 145
Nova Hut steel, design parameters of CR line at, 30
Nucleophilic association/dissociation
mechanism, 198
Nucor Steel, 4, 6–13
plants, 16, 19–21
O
Octave gauge chatter vibrations
fifth, 259–262
third, 257–259
Operator’s interface upgrade solutions, 39–40
Optical inspection systems, 254
Optical triangulation, 322–323
Optimization, 141–142, 268
caster, 246–248
constraints, 144
crop, See Crop optimization system
formulations, 142
of steel-rolling process, 142
of temper mill productivity, 147
traditional vs. modern approach, 142–143
uncertainty quantification role in, 146
Optimum slab thickness of CSP, 16–17
Oxidation of iron, 91
Oxide scale
descaling of, 93
formation of, 91–92
impact pressures to, 94
P
Pass schedule set-up models, 330–331
PDF, See Probability density functions
Pearlitic nodular core material, 67
Phase-field method, 275
Phase transformation, heat of, 164
Phenomenological models, 266
PHOENICS®, 100
Pickle line system, 234–236
camera setup, 232, 235
defect spreadsheet, 236
PID controller, See Proportional integral
derivative controller
Piezoviscous Effect, 196, 200, 204
Pincher defect, 52
Plastic deformation
in hot rolling, 130
of strip, 135–136
Plastic flow equation, yield criterion and, 301
Plastic strain, 138
Plate mill upgrades, 55–60
Plate-Steckel configuration, 60
PLCs, See Programmable logic controllers
Prediction model, 271
mechanical properties, 274
microstructure and material properties, 272
Pressure-viscosity coefficients, 200–202
determination of, 204–205
for lubricants and esters, 202
Pre-temper mill stain, 233
Probability density functions (PDF), 145–146
Process models, 42, 281–283
Process shadowing, 41–42
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs), 230
Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller,
213, 215
Pulse radar sensors, 246
Pusher-type furnaces, 100
Pyrocracking factor, 75
Pyrometers, 245, 253, 350
R
Radial force measuring systems, 291
Radiation heat flux, 106
Random variables, 144–145
capacity, 145–146
demand, 145–146
distributions, 145
Raw steel production, U.S., 5
RBDO, See Reliability-based design
optimization
Recrystallization, 273
Reheat furnaces, 99–100
computer modeling, 100–101, 271; See also
specifi c models
discharge temperature
mechanical requirements, 101–102
metallurgical requirements, 103–105
exit temperature, 101–102
slab temperature at exit from, 101–105
Reheat tunnel furnace
of CR lines, 17
design parameters of, 21
Reliability analysis
probability calculation for, 145–146
uncertainty quantification and, 144
Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO),
141, 146, 150
Reliability index, 151
Residence time determination, 110
Residual austenite content, 171
Residual stresses of strip, 129–130, 135–136,
305, 311, 314
Retained strain, 278–279
Reversing finishing mills, See Steckel mills
Riccati equation, 214
RM setup (RSU) functionality, 47
Roll bite, 128
pressure distribution in, 129
strip-thickness profiles in, 300
Roll deflection equations, 303
Roll deformation compatibility equation, 304
Roll elements
coatings, 322
cooling nozzles, 314
core material, 67–68
crowns, 148
Roll equilibrium equations, 303
Roll gap model, 256
Roll gap profile, 304–305
Roll pitch, 157
Rolling force, 120
learning, 278
reduction in, 202–204
Rolling friction, 122–124, 185, 187
Rolling mills
with automatic gauge and width control, 19
with flatness control, 19
operation of, 49–50
with strip profile, 19
Rolling parameters, 133–136
Rolling strip with offset from mill centerline,
344–346
Rolling temperature, 125
Roll separating forces, 303
Roll stack
deformation model, 303–304, 360
dimensions of, 134
Roll surface deterioration, 73
ROMETER, 324–325
ROS, See Run-out simulator (ROS)
ROT strip travel, See Run-out table strip travel
Roughing mill work rolls
compound rolls, testing of, 68
materials, evolution, 63–65
from chrome steel to high-speed steel,
64–65
early developments, 63–64
microstructural integrity, 65, 67
operational safety of, 66
performance of, 65–67
residual stress, 66–67
Run-out simulator (ROS), 157
Run-out table (ROT) strip travel
dynamic characteristics of, 155–159
equivalent theorem of, 156–157
folded defect in, 155
maximum stable threading speed on,
156–159
similarity law for, 157–158
simulation model, 158
steady-state equation of motion for, 156
Runout tables (ROT) spray system
characteristics, 44–45
S
Scrap prices, 10
Seamless roll technologies, 357, 359–360
Self-excited vibration, 256
Semi-endless rolling, 26
Semi-high-speed steel (Semi-HSS), 65
production of, 67
safe and cost-efficient use of, 68Index 371
mill practices, 68–69
roll shop practices, 69
Sendzimir mill, 360–361; See also 20-High
Sendzimir mill
Sensors, 38, 245–246, 321, 358–359
continuous caster optimization of cut,
246–248
developments, 248–251
infrared, 245, 248, 253
and input/output upgrade solutions, 38
laser-based, 245
microwave, 245
noncontact, 245, 251–254
pulse radar, 246
scanning and positioning, 245
strip centering/camber and width
measurement, 248
system examples in
finishing, 254
hot rolling, 253–254
slab casting, 252–253
techniques, 251–252
temperature measurement, 245
width measurement of slab, 248
Service-oriented architecture (SOA), 282
SeverCorr, 7–8, 20–22
Shadowing verification tools, 42
Shape
definition, 355
measurements, 357
innovations in, 358–360
noncontact, 357–359
seamless roll technologies, 357,
359–360
simulation program, 305
Shape and Crown Simulator, 342
Shape control, 357–358
actuators, 360–362
advancements in, 362–364
for cluster mill configuration, 363
multivariable techniques, 360, 362
for vertical stack mill configuration, 363
Shape factor (Q-factor), 277–278
Shapemeter–loopers, 322
Shearing
of boundary film, 198
of CR lines, 17
Ship plate, 56
SI-Flat system, 327, 358–359
Singular value decomposition (SVD) method,
363–364
Skid marks
curved skid riders impact on, 108
heating criteria for, 107
slice-to-slice method for, 107
Skid shadow effects, 107
Slab
2-D longitudinal section of, 105
heat flux into, 106
heating curves of, 108–110, 112
reheating, 16
relative thickness and length differences of,
133–134
surface scaling, 16
thermal stress modeling, 108–110
transfer furnaces, 17
Slab casters, 252–253, See also Medium-slab
casters; Thin-slab casters
Slab sizing press (SSP)
installation, 47, 49–50
shutdown, 50
Slab temperature
at exit from furnace, 101–105
modeling, 105–108
calculation domain, 105–106
numerical formulation, 106–107
and rolling forces, 101–102
Slip zone, 125, 180, 182, 187
Solid solution mechanisms, 56
Speed regulators, digitization of, 37
Speer’s theory, 103
Spin casting, 64
Spray flows, 221, 226
Spun-cast compound roll, principle of, 63
SSP, See Slab sizing press
Stainless pins in slab
lateral and longitudinal displacements of,
130–133
location and dimension of, 131
transverse distribution patterns of, 131–132
Statistical performance analysis for
multivariable controller, 217
Steckel coiling furnace, 18
Steckel drums, tensile stresses of, 129–130,
134–135, 137
Steckel mills, 18, 128–129, 166
double-stand, 28–29
hot-rolling process of, 134–137
Steel
mechanical properties of, 271
tetrahedral phosphate molecule reaction on
surface of, 198
Steel grades
different strategies for, 176–177
high carbon, 173
Steel rolling
contact geometries in, 192
optimization, 142
Stefan–Boltzmann law, 164
St1PS steel strip
energy–force and technological hot-rolling
parameters for, 120
hot rolling mode of, 124–125
Straightness deviations, 287, 290
Strain rate and velocity field model, 300–301
Strengthening mechanisms, 56, 166, 169
Stresses unloading model, 305
Stressometer system, 320–321, 360
Strip
camber, 133, 136, 290
casting, 9
centerline offset of, 133
displacement measuring systems,
291–292
exit gauge, 211
heat transfer on surface of, 165
leveling methods, 297–298
measured characteristics, 351
permeability measurement, 293
plastic deformation of, 135–136
residual stresses of, 129–130, 135–136
temperature, 134–135
temperature slices, evolution of, 223
thickness, 118–119
transverse temperature distribution of,
349–352
transverse tension distribution of,
129–130, 359
width variation in, 127, 131–133
Strip canoeing, critical temperature differences
of, 166–167
Strip cooling modernization, 44
Strip crown, 334
of coils, 342–345
and strip thickness profile, 329–330
Strip deflection, vacuum suction force
inducement of, 359
Strip flatness, 290, 330
of coils, 342–344
control methods, 297–298
inside rolling mill, 297
outside rolling stand, 297
deadband, 330
defect types, 330
measuring systems
radial force, 291
requirements on, 293–294
Strip flatness probability, 150–153
Strip length, material properties constant over, 175
Strip manifest shape, 320
Strip modulus, 332
Strip profile, 19
calculation, 334–335
methods, 331
prediction and control models, 330–335
simplified mixed finite element method
for, 331–332
tasks requiring accurate and rapid, 331
comparison of predicted and measured, 343
and flatness control, 335
model applications, 335–339
model development, 332–334
modeling control devices, 334
with offsets from mill centerline, 346
and strip crown, 329–330
thickness, 300, 308, 329–330, 334
with uniform and nonuniform roll cooling,
342–343
Strip pull force, 185–186
Strip-roll contact surfaces, 115–116
Strip shape deviations, 287
causes of, 287
classification of, 288
qualitative and quantitative assessment of, 294
Strip shape/flatness control problem, 356;
See also Strip flatness
Strip speeds, 133, 135
Strip-strain resistance model, 117
Strip velocity, 116
Strip waviness, 287–288
bounded by curved or straight lines, 289
calculating, 321
measuring systems, 292
reasons for, 320
Strip width, 293, 352
Structure–mechanical properties relationship
model, 274
Super 22H®, 85
Supervisory process control upgrade solutions,
40–41
Surface friction model, 301
Surface inspection benefits, 52
SVD method, See Singular value decomposition
method
Switchover trials, 42–43
System modeling, 210–213
T
Tandem-finishing mill, 16, 19
Tandem mill system, 236–238
camera setup, 232, 236–237
wreck analysis, 238372 Index
Tandem rolling, 272
Tangential stress model, 117
Tangshan Guofeng minimill, design parameters
of CR line, 26, 28
Telescoping, 238
Temperature control
coiling, 45–47
cooling, 172–173
finishing mill predictive, 219–228
Temperature model
boundary conditions, 165
finishing mill, 222–223
two-dimensional, 165
Temperature state estimation, 223–224
Temper mill productivity optimization
formulating optimization problem, 147–148
objective for, 147
results and discussion, 148–150
Temper mill system, camera setup, 233–234
Tensile stresses
of Steckel drums, 129–130, 134–135, 137
of strip, 129–130, 135, 137
Tension stress model, 302, 310–311, 313
Thermal cracks, 75
Thermal fatigue (TF) tests, 75–76, 78
Thermo-mechanical controlled rolling (TMCR),
56–58
Thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP), 100
Thin-slab casters, 15–32
Thin wide strips
contact stresses of, 118, 121
hot-rolling forces and power for, 116
hot rolling of, 115–125
state of stress in, 116–117
Third octave gauge chatter vibration, 257–259
Timoshenko beam elements, 332, 334–336
TMCP, See Thermo-mechanical control process
TMCR, See Thermo-mechanical controlled
rolling
TopPlan system, 325
Torsional chatter vibration, 256
Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)
steel, 171
Transformation model, 273–274
Transverse equilibrium equation, 302
Triangulation lasermeters, 248
applications of, 250
principle of, 249
Tribocontact geometries, 192–193
Trico Steel-Decatur design parameters, 24–25
Triple-layer technology, 67
Tunnel furnace rolls
energy considerations, 84
options, 84–86
Tuscaloosa Steel CR line, 28–29
Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP)
steel, 171
Two-dimensional temperature model, 165
U
Ultrafast water cooling systems, 18
Ultrafine-grain microstructure steel, material
properties models for, 275
Ultra-low-carbon steel, material properties
models for, 275
Ultrasonic test (UT), 68–69
Ultra-thin cold rolled sheets, 179
Ultrathin strip production (UTSP) line, design
parameters of, 26
Uncertainty quantification (UQ), 141, 144
random variables, 144–145
and reliability analysis, 144
role in optimization, 146
Upstream drive model, 212
User interface and simulation options, 306
UT, See Ultrasonic test
UTSP line, See Ultrathin strip production line
V
Variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF)
drives, 36–37
VCR/tape systems, 229, 231
VCS, See Video capture system
Velocity field model, 300–301
Vertical stack mill configuration, 363
VHS tapes, 229–230
Vibrational analysis systems, 253
Vibrations, mill
fifth octave chatter, 259–262
low-frequency forced, 256
modeling natural resonant, 256
third octave gauge chatter, 257–259
torsional chatter, 256
Vibration theory, 255–256
Video capture system (VCS)
applications, 234, 238
camera setup and specifications, 231–233
features of, 230
network architecture of, 231
technical description, 230–231
von Mises stress, 137–138, 301
VVVF drives, See Variable voltage variable
frequency drives
W
Walking-beam-type furnaces, 100
Water-cooled rolls, 84
heat balances for, 89–90
heat losses for, 86–87
Water cooling systems, 18–19
Wear tests, 73–75
Web-based Level 2 systems, 282
Weld-tracking analysis and verification, 236
Wide heavy-thickness coils, 162, 167
Wide-strip mills
contact stresses in working stands of,
analysis of, 121–122
hot rolling of steel strips in, 116
moment and main drive power calculation
of, 122–125
rolling power calculation of, 122
Width necking, 133
mechanical models analyzing, 128–129
simulation using FEM, 136–137
Width variation during hot rolling, 127–139
Wilson–Walowit model, 193
Work roll (WR)
cooling pattern, 341–342
on strip profile, 342–343
exaggerated elastic deformation of, 193
flattening stiffness, 332
roughing mill, See Roughing mill
work rolls
temperature, 341–342
temperature field, 303
thermal crown model, 303
uniform cooling of, 343
Work roll bending (WRB), 147, 343, 345
Work roll-strip interface, 192
WR, See Work roll
Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation
(WISCO), 175
Y
Yield strength, 67, 134–136, 144–145, 169, 267
Yield stress drop, 311, 314

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