Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment
اسم المؤلف
Louis Theodore , R. Ryan Dupont
التاريخ
20 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment
Principles and Calculations
Louis Theodore
R. Ryan Dupont
Contents
Preface . xvii
Introduction xxiii
Part I Introductory Comments
1 About the Book 3
1.1. Introduction 3
1.2. Why.Use.Risk-Based.Decision.Making? .4
1.3. Book.Contents .6
1.4. Definitions .7
1.5. Risk.Terms . 13
1.6. Financial.Risk . 16
References 22
2 History of Environmental Health Problems 23
2.1. Introduction 23
2.2. First.Humans 25
2.3. Development.of.Agriculture 26
2.4. Colonization.of.the.New.World .28
2.5. Industrial.Revolution .29
References 33
3 History of Environmental Hazard Problems .35
3.1. Introduction 35
3.2. Early.Accidents .36
3.2.1. Great.Chicago.Fire 36
3.2.2. South.Fork.Dam:.Johnstown,.Pennsylvania . 37
3.2.3. Oppau,.Germany 37
3.2.4. East.Ohio.Gas.Company:.Cleveland,.Ohio .38
3.2.5. Texas.City,.Texas .39
3.3. Recent.Major.Accidents .40
3.3.1. Flixborough,.England 40
3.3.2. Seveso,.Italy . 41
3.3.3. Three.Mile.Island,.Pennsylvania 42
3.3.4. Chernobyl,.Russia .43
3.3.5. Bhopal,.India 45
3.3.6. Ashland.Oil,.Pennsylvania 47
3.3.7. Trans.World.Airlines:.Long.Island,.New.York .48x Contents
3.4. Major.Accidents.in.the.Twenty-First.Century .53
3.4.1. Y2K 54
3.4.2. The.Indian.Ocean.Earthquake.and.Tsunami .54
3.4.3. Katrina 54
3.4.4. 2010.Earthquakes 55
3.4.5. Chilean.Mine.Accident 56
3.4.6. BP.Disaster .56
3.5. Advances.in.Safety.Features 60
References 63
4 Health Risk versus Hazard Risk 65
4.1. Introduction 65
4.2. Introduction.to.the.Health.Risk.Assessment.Process . 67
4.3. Introduction.to.the.Hazard.Risk.Assessment.Process .68
4.4. Qualitative.Risk.Scenarios 70
4.5. What.Are.the.Differences? 72
4.6. Uncertainty.Factors 73
4.7. Future.Trends.in.Environmental.Risk.Assessment 74
References 75
5 Environmental Regulatory Framework 77
5.1. Introduction 77
5.2. Regulatory.System .78
5.3. Laws.and.Regulations:.The.Differences . 81
5.4. Role.of.the.States 83
5.5. Resource.Conservation.and.Recovery.Act .83
5.6. Major.Toxic.Chemical.Laws.Administered.by.the.U.S EPA .85
5.7. Legislative.Tools.for.Controlling.Water.Pollution .89
5.7.1. Clean.Water.Act 89
5.7.2. Safe.Drinking.Water.Act 92
5.7.3. Marine.Protection,.Research,.and.Sanctuaries.
Act.(Title.1) .94
5.8. Oil.Pollution.Act .94
5.9. Superfund.Amendments.and.Reauthorization.Act.(SARA).
of.1986 95
5.10. Clean.Air.Act 99
5.10.1. Provisions.for.Attainment.and.Maintenance.of.
National.Ambient.Air.Quality.Standards . 100
5.10.2. Provisions.Relating.to.Mobile.Sources 101
5.10.3. Air.Toxics . 101
5.10.4. Acid.Deposition.Control 102
5.10.5. Operating.Permits . 103
5.10.6. Stratospheric.Ozone.Protection 103Contents xi
5.10.7. Provisions.Relating.to.Enforcement . 103
5.10.8. Provisions.Relating.to.Chemical.Accidents.
and.Hazards 105
5.11. Occupational.Safety.and.Health.Act . 106
5.12. EPA’s.Risk.Management.Program . 108
5.13. Pollution.Prevention.Act.of.1990 113
References 114
6 Emergency Planning and Response 117
6.1. Introduction 117
6.2. Need.for.Emergency.Response.Planning . 118
6.3. Planning.Committee . 119
6.4. Hazards.Survey 123
6.5. Plan.for.Emergencies . 126
6.6. Training.of.Personnel 130
6.7. Notification.of.Public.and.Regulatory.Officials 131
6.8. Plan.Implementation . 133
6.8.1. General.Questions 134
6.8.2. Emergency.Organization . 134
6.8.3. Emergency.Action . 135
6.8.4. Alarms 135
6.8.5. Communications . 135
6.8.6. Evacuation 135
6.8.7. Accounting.for.Personnel 135
6.8.8. First.Aid 136
6.8.9. Transportation . 136
6.8.10. Security . 136
6.8.11. Firefighting 136
6.8.12. Outside.Agencies 136
6.8.13. Training 136
6.9. Other.State.Regulatory.Initiatives . 137
6.9.1. New.Jersey.Toxic.Catastrophe.Prevention.Act . 138
6.10. Illustrative.Examples . 140
References 148
Part II Health Risk Assessment
7 Introduction to Health Risk Assessment 153
7.1. Introduction 153
7.2. Health.Risk.Evaluation.Process . 155
7.3. Health.Problem.Identification 157
7.4. Toxicology.and.Dose–Response . 158xii Contents
7.5. Exposure.Assessment 160
7.6. Health.Risk.Characterization . 161
References 164
8 Health Problem Identification 165
8.1. Introduction 165
8.2. Toxicology.Principles . 168
8.3. Epidemiology.Principles . 169
8.4. Molecular/Atomic.Structural.Analysis . 171
8.5. Material.Safety.Data.Sheets 172
8.6. Engineering.Problem.Solving 184
8.7. Fate.of.Chemicals.in.the.Environment.Related.to.
Health.Problems . 185
8.8. Carcinogens.versus.Noncarcinogens 188
8.8.1. Noncarcinogens 188
8.8.2. Carcinogens . 189
References 189
9 Toxicity and Dose–Response 191
9.1. Introduction 191
9.2. Definitions . 192
9.3. Toxicology .200
9.4. Epidemiology 203
9.5. Noncarcinogens 207
9.5.1. Concept.of.Threshold .208
9.5.2. Derivation.of.an.Oral.RfD .209
9.5.3. Derivation.of.an.Inhalation.RfD . 210
9.5.4. Derivation.of.a.Subchronic.RfD 211
9.5.5. Derivation.of.Developmental.Toxicant.RfD 212
9.5.6. Calculation.Scheme.for.Noncarcinogens 213
9.5.7. Dose–Response.Relationships 213
9.6. Carcinogens 214
9.6.1. Concept.of.Nonthreshold.Effects 215
9.6.2. Assigning.a.Weight.of.Evidence . 215
9.6.3. Generating.a.Slope.Factor 216
9.6.4. Identifying.the.Appropriate.Data.Set 216
9.6.5. Dose–Response.Relationships 219
9.7. Uncertainties/Limitations 222
9.7.1. Uncertainties.Related.to.Toxicity.Information . 224
References 233
10 Exposure Assessment .235
10.1. Introduction 235
10.2. Components.of.an.Exposure.Assessment 239
10.2.1. Step.1:.Characterization.of.Exposure.Setting . 239Contents xiii
10.2.2. Step.2:.Identification.of.Exposure.Pathways . 239
10.2.3. Step.3:.Quantification.of.Exposure . 240
10.2.4. Step.4:.Quantification.of.Intakes . 241
10.3. Dispersion.in.Water.Systems 242
10.3.1. Rivers.and.Estuaries .244
10.3.2. Lakes.and.Impoundments . 246
10.3.3. Groundwater . 247
10.4. Dispersion.in.Soils .250
10.5. Dispersion.in.the.Atmosphere .253
10.5.1. Effective.Height.of.Atmospheric.Emissions .253
10.5.2. Atmospheric.Dispersion.Equations.for.
Continuous.Sources 258
10.5.3. Atmospheric.Dispersion.Equations.for.
Instantaneous.Sources . 276
References 282
11 Health Risk Characterization .283
11.1. Introduction 283
11.2. Qualitative.Health.Risk.Scenarios .285
11.3. Quantitative.Risk:.Noncarcinogens 289
11.3.1. Risks.for.Multiple.Substances .290
11.3.2. Noncarcinogenic.Effects:.Chronic.Exposures 290
11.3.3. Noncarcinogenic.Effects:.Subchronic.Exposures . 291
11.3.4. Noncarcinogenic.Effects:.Less.than.
2.Week.Exposures 291
11.3.5. Segregation.of.Hazard.Indices 292
11.3.6. Combining.Risks.across.Exposure.Pathways . 292
11.4. Quantitative.Risk:.Carcinogens . 295
11.4.1. Risks.for.Multiple.Substances . 296
11.4.2. Combining.Risk.across.Exposure.Pathways . 297
11.5. Risk.Uncertainties/Limitations . 301
11.5.1. Uncertainty.and.Variability 302
11.5.2. Assessment.and.Presentation.of.Uncertainty .304
11.6. Risk-Based.Decision.Making 305
11.7. Public.Perception.of.Risk 306
11.7.1. Everyday.Risks 307
11.7.2. Outrage.Factors .307
References 317
Part III Hazard Risk Assessment
12 Introduction to Hazard Risk Assessment 321
12.1. Introduction 321
12.2. Risk.Evaluation.Process.for.Accidents 323xiv Contents
12.3. Hazard.Identification 326
12.4. Probability.and.Causes.of.Accidents . 329
12.5. Consequences.of.Accidents 331
12.6. Hazard.Risk.Characterization . 331
References 334
13 Hazard/Event Problem Identification 335
13.1. Introduction 335
13.2. Process.Equipment .336
13.2.1. Reactors 336
13.2.2. Heat.Exchangers .336
13.2.3. Mass.Transfer.Equipment 337
13.2.3.1. Distillation.Columns 337
13.2.3.2. Adsorbers . 337
13.2.3.3. Absorbers 338
13.2.4. Ancillary.Equipment 339
13.2.5. Environmental.Control.Equipment .340
13.2.6. Utilities . 341
13.2.7. Protective.and.Safety.Systems 342
13.2.8. Process.Diagrams .343
13.2.9. Plant.Siting.and.Layout 344
13.3. Classification.of.Accidents 347
13.3.1. Equipment.Failures 348
13.3.2. Human.Errors.and.Occupational.Mishaps .350
13.3.2.1. Human.Element .350
13.3.2.2. Task.Variables 351
13.3.2.3. Environmental.Element . 351
13.3.3. Transport.Accidents . 352
13.3.4. Electrical.Failures 353
13.3.5. Nuclear.Accidents .354
13.3.6. Natural.Disasters 356
13.4. Fires,.Explosions,.Toxic.Emissions,.and.Hazardous.Spills 359
13.4.1. Fire.Fundamentals 359
13.4.2. Plant.Fires 363
13.4.3. Causes.of.Plant.Fires 365
13.4.4. Explosion.Fundamentals .366
13.4.5. Unconfined.Vapor.Cloud.Explosions.(UVCEs) 370
13.4.6. Plant.Explosions 370
13.4.7. Toxic.Emissions . 373
13.4.8. Hazardous.Spills . 374
13.5. Hazard.Event.Evaluation.Techniques .377
13.5.1. System.Checklists .380
13.5.2. Safety.Reviews/Safety.Audits 381
13.5.3. “What.If”.Analyses . 382Contents xv
13.5.4. Preliminary.Hazard.Analyses.(PHAs) 383
13.5.5. Hazard.and.Operability.(HAZOP).Studies 384
References 392
14 Hazard/Event Probability 395
14.1. Introduction 395
14.2. Accident.Causes . 395
14.3. Series.and.Parallel.Systems 398
14.4. Probability.Distributions 403
14.4.1. Binomial.Distribution 406
14.4.2. Poisson.Distribution .408
14.4.3. Exponential.Distribution . 410
14.4.4. Normal.Distribution . 412
14.4.5. Log-Normal.Distribution . 416
14.5. Weibull.Distribution 424
14.6. Fault.Tree.Analysis 430
References 438
15 Hazard/Event Consequences .439
15.1. Introduction 439
15.2. Accident.Minimization/Prevention 440
15.3. Consequence.Estimation . 452
15.4. Failure.Modes,.Effects,.and.Criticality.Analysis.(FMECA) .458
15.5. Vulnerability.Analysis 461
15.6. Event.Tree.Analysis .468
References 475
16 Hazard Risk Characterization 477
16.1. Introduction 477
16.2. Risk.Characterization 480
16.3. Public.Perception.of.Risk 482
16.4. Risk.Communication .482
16.5. Cause–Consequence.Analysis .487
16.6. Qualitative.Hazard.Risk.Assessment .489
16.7. Uncertainties/Limitations 494
16.8. Quantitative.Hazard.Risk.Assessment . 497
References 507
Part IV Case Studies
17 The Case for Case Studies . 511
17.1. Introduction 511
17.2. Case.Study.Criteria:.Is.It.Logical,.Relevant,.and.Reasonable? 512xvi Contents
17.3. Preparing.a.Case.Study.Solution . 512
Reference 513
18 Monte Carlo Simulation . 515
18.1. Introduction 515
18.2. Case.Study.1:.Time.to.Pump.Failure . 516
18.3. Case.Study.2:.Time.to.Failure.of.Two.Electrical.Components . 518
18.4. Case.Study.3:.Nuclear.Plant.Temperature.Gauge.Lifetime . 521
18.5. Case.Study.4:.Bus.Section.Failures.in.Electrostatic.
Precipitators 525
References 528
19 Emergency Planning and Response 529
19.1. Introduction 529
19.2. Case.Study.1:.Terrorist.Attack.of.a.Pharmaceutical.
Company’s.Plant.in.Greenpoint,.Brooklyn,.New.York . 529
19.3. Case.Study.2:.Terrorist.Attack.of.the.Brooklyn.
Navy.Yard.in.Greenpoint,.Brooklyn,.New.York 531
19.4. Case.Study.3:.Plans.to.Counter.the.Possibility.of.a.Process.
or.Plant-Related.Accident.at.the.“Wedo”.Chemical.Facility.
in.Suffolk.County,.Long.Island,.New.York 533
19.5. Case.Study.4:.Dilution.Ventilation.Models 538
References 548
20 Natural Disasters .549
20.1. Introduction 549
20.2. Case.Study.1:.Hurricanes 550
20.3. Case.Study.2:.Floods 559
20.4. Case.Study.3:.Earthquakes . 562
20.5. Case.Study.4:.Meteorites .566
20.6. Case.Study.5:.Combined.Hurricanes.and.Flooding . 569
References 571
21 Industrial Accidents 573
21.1. Introduction 573
21.2. Case.Study.1:.Nanochemical.Plant.Accident . 573
21.3. Case.Study.2:.Caustic.Tank.Preliminary.Hazard.Analysis . 579
21.4. Case.Study.3:.Transportation.of.Hazardous.Chemicals 583
21.5. Case.Study.4:.Offshore.Rig.Accident 586
References 589
Afterword
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