Engineering Principles in Everyday Life for Non-Engineers

Engineering Principles in Everyday Life for Non-Engineers
اسم المؤلف
Saeed Benjamin Niku
التاريخ
30 يونيو 2022
المشاهدات
43
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Engineering Principles in Everyday Life for Non-Engineers
Saeed Benjamin Niku
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo
Contents
Prologue xv
1 Entropy: Natural Orders, Thermodynamics, Friction, Hybrid Cars, and
Energy 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Entropy and Efficiency 5
1.3 Is it Possible to Defy Entropy? 5
1.4 Why Do We Get Older? 6
1.5 Entropy as Described by an Equation: Thermodynamics . 7
1.5.1 The First Law . 7
1.5.2 The Second Law 10
1.6 Hybrid Cars Anyone? 12
1.7 Common Misconceptions 19
2 Natural Frequencies: Vibrations, Hearing, Biomechanics, and Guitars . 23
2.1 Introduction . 23
2.2 System Response to External Forces at Different Frequencies 26
2.3 Natural Frequency of Other Common Systems . 30
2.3.1 Pendulum . 31
2.3.2 Cantilevered Beams 32
2.3.3 Strings 34
2.4 Applications and Examples . 34
2.4.1 Guitars, Pianos, and Other Stringed Instruments 35
2.4.2 Speaking and Vocal Cords 42
2.4.3 Tuning to a Radio or TV Channel 42
2.4.4 Hearing . 49
2.4.5 Walking and Running, Hearts and Lungs 53
2.5 Bibliography . 55
3 Coriolis Acceleration and its Effects: Bikes, Weather Systems, Airplanes,
and Robots 57xii
3.1 Introduction . 57
3.2 Definitions 58
3.2.1 Vectors 58
3.2.2 Vector Multiplication 59
3.2.3 Rotations 62
3.2.4 Acceleration 62
3.2.5 Reference Frames . 64
3.2.6 Rotating Frames 65
3.3 Coriolis Acceleration 69
3.4 Inertial Reaction to Acceleration . 70
3.5 Air and Water Circulations (Convections) Due to Heat . 72
3.6 Coriolis Acceleration and Weather Systems 75
3.7 Accelerations Due to Combined Motions 81
3.7.1 Riding Bicycles . 81
3.7.2 Oscillating Fans . 84
3.7.3 Airplanes 85
3.7.4 Robots 91
3.7.5 Movements of a Spacecraft in Space 91
4 Thermodynamic Cycles: Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Engines, and
Power Cycles 95
4.1 Introduction . 95
4.2 Refrigeration Cycle . 98
4.3 Spark-Ignition Power Cycle 105
4.3.1 4-stroke Engines . 106
4.3.2 2-stroke Engines . 113
4.4 Thermodynamic Representation of the Spark-Ignition Power Cycle 114
4.5 Compression-Ignition Diesel Engine Power Cycle 118
4.6 Thermodynamic Representation of Compression-Ignition Power Cycle . 119
4.7 Rotary (Wankel) Engines . 121
4.8 Power Generation 121
4.9 Conclusion . 124
4.10 Bibliography 124
5 Moments of Inertia: Mass and Area Moments of Inertia, Accelerations,
Inertial Forces, Strengths, and Strains . 125xiii
5.1 Introduction 125
5.2 Second Moment of the Area (Area Moment of Inertia) 126
5.3 Deflections of a Beam 128
5.4 Parallel Axis Theorem . 134
5.5 Polar Moment of Inertia (Polar Moment of the Area) . 138
5.6 Strength of Materials: Stress, Strain, and Modulus of Elasticity . 142
5.7 Role of Moments of the Area in Stress Calculations . 146
5.8 Mass Moment of Inertia 147
6 Electromotive Force: Motors, Transformers, AC and DC Currents . 155
6.1 Introduction 155
6.2 Introductory Terms: Voltage, Current, and Resistance 155
6.3 Magnetic Fields . 157
6.4 Electromotive Force 160
6.5 DC Motors . 162
6.6 AC Motors . 163
6.7 Stepper Motors 166
6.7.1 Canstack Stepper Motors 169
6.7.2 Hybrid Stepper Motors 174
6.8 Transformers 176
6.9 DC Generators 181
6.10 AC Generators 182
6.11 Back-emf Issues in Motors and Transformers: Laminated Iron Cores . 182
6.12 Back-emf in DC Motors: Servomotors . 185
6.13 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Motors . 186
Author’s Biography 191
Index .
Index
absolute zero, 7
AC current, 159, 164, 176, 181, 189
AC motor, 163, 188
acceleration, 25, 57, 62, 84, 91, 147
acceleration, angular, 148, 151
acceleration, centripetal, 28
aileron, 87
altitude, 57
amplitude modulation, AM, 45
angular acceleration, 148, 151
angular deflection, 137, 139
angular momentum, 83
Arctic Circle, 75
asynchronous motor, 165
auditory canal, 51
auditory nerve, 52
Autumnal Equinox, 75
back-emf, 155, 161, 182, 185, 188
basilar membrane, 52
Bernoulli, 85
Bismuth, 3
bottom-dead-center, 107, 110
brushless motor, 188
caliper, 174
Caloric intake, 6
Calorie, 8, 54
canstack stepper motor, 169
cantilevered beam, 32, 42
capacitance, 44
capacitor, 15, 43, 182
center-tapped, 165
centripetal acceleration, 28, 64, 71
centroid, 131
chemical energy, 7
coefficient of drag, 18
coefficient of friction, 156
cold working, 145
combined cycle, 124
commutator, 162
compression ratio, 108, 118
condenser, 9, 101
connecting rod, 106
conservation of energy, 85
convection, 72
Coriolis acceleration, 57, 69, 75, 91
crankshaft, 106
critical damping , 27
cross product, 59
current, AC, 14
current, DC, 14
damping, 23
damping ratio, 26
DC current, 159, 177, 181
DC motor, 188
deceleration, 63, 185
deflection, 128, 142
detonation, 107
Diesel, 118
dot product, 59194 INDEX
ear, 50
eccentric shaft, 121
eddy current, 183
Edison, omas, 180
efficiency, 5, 10, 16, 97, 117, 158, 173, 176
elastic energy, 24
elastic limit, 144
elastic strength, 144
electric car, 16
electric energy, 179
electric power, 160
electromotive force, 13, 155, 161
elongation, 142
EMF, 13, 18, 155
energy conversion, 11
entropy, 1, 97, 115
epitrochoid, 121
equilibrium, 23
Eustachian tube, 51
evaporator, 9
exergy, 11
Faraday’s Law, 160, 182
feedback control, 186
Ferrel cell, 74-81
filter, low pass, 47
first law, 7, 11
flux, 157, 176
flywheel, 90, 150
Fourier series, 53
Freon-12, 99
frequency modulation (FM), 45
friction, 11, 19, 25, 37, 97
fuel-air, 6, 107, 118
Gemini Agena, 92
generator, AC, 182
generator, DC, 181
grag, 86
gyroscope, 90
gyroscopic motion, 81
Hadley cell, 74-81
halfback array magnet, 169
half-stepping, 168
hardening, 145
harmonics, 42
hearing, 23
heat exchanger, 10, 102
heat loss, 8
heat rejection, 186
helix angle, 40
hybrid, 12
hybrid stepper motor, 174
hydroelectric powerplant, 16
ideal gas, 96
inductance, 44
induction heating, 183
induction motor, 165
internal combustion engine, 12, 105, 151
Joseph Henry, 160
Kelvin, 118
kinetic energy, 11, 15, 23, 31, 72, 120, 179
knock sensor, 109
knocking, 107
larynx, 42
latitude, 57
life expectancy, 188
longitude, 57
low-pass filter, 182
LVDT, 158
magnetic field, 157
magnetic field current, 13
magnification factor, 26INDEX 195
mass moment of inertia, 147, 151, 153
mechanical energy, 7
metabolic rate, 8
micro stepping, 188
microprocessor, 172
modulus of elasticity, 33, 128, 141, 144
modulus of rigidity, 139
moment of inertia, 53, 61, 125
motor, AC, 163, 188
motor, asynchronous, 165
motor, brushless, 188
motor, canstack stepper, 169
motor, DC, 188
motor, hybrid stepper, 174
motor, induction, 165
motor, reversible AC, 165
motor, servo, 185, 188
motor, squirrel cage, 165
motor, stepper, 166
motor, synchronous, 165
motor, universal, 166
natural frequency, 23, 31, 42, 49, 53
nature, 6, 73, 133
neutral axis, 131, 146
non-interference engine, 113
North Pole, 57
nuclear powerplant, 16
Octane number, 108
ossicle, 51
oval window, 51
Ozone layer, 100
parallel axis theorem, 133, 153
pendulum, 31, 44, 53, 161
Petra Valley, 3
pinna, 50
pitch axis, 85
pitot tube, 85
plastic deformation, 144
PLC, 166
Polar cell, 74-81
polar moment of inertia, 137, 138
potential energy, 23, 31, 61, 179
power plant, 10, 16, 121, 179
prevailing winds, 57
programmable logic controller, 166
proportional stress limit, 143
radiation, 7
Rankin, 118
rectifier, 182
reliability, 188
reluctance, 167
residual stress, 12
resolver, 178
resultant, 58
reversible AC motor, 165
right-hand-rule, 60
robot, 68, 91
roll axis, 85
rotary engine, 105, 121
rotating frame, 65, 69
rotor, 162, 175, 183, 187
rudder, 89
scalar, 58
second law, 7, 10, 12
second moment of the area, 125, 146
self locking , 41
servomotor, 185, 188
shear, 130, 146
Siberian Express, 57
slider crank mechanism, 106
solenoid, 158
sound energy, 51
spark-ignition, 105196 INDEX
specific gas constant, 96
specific volume, 96
specific weight, 149
spring constant, 23, 142
squirrel cage motor, 163, 165, 182, 187
stabilator, 88
stabilizer, 88
stainless steel, 4
stall condition, 187
stator, 162, 164, 175, 182, 187
stepper motor, 166
strain, 141
stress, 141, 146
Summer Solstice, 75
synchronous motor, 165
tachometer, 33
Tacoma Narrows bridge, 54
Tesla Motor, 16
thermal energy, 7, 12, 20
thermodynamics, 7, 11, 95, 116
thruster, 93
top-dead-center, 106, 110
torque, 61, 87, 139, 182, 188
torque, holding, 188
torsion, 137
transformer, 162, 176, 179, 183
translation, 68
tremolo, 36
tuning fork, 33
tympanic membrane, 51
ultimate strength, 145
ultra capacitor, 13
ultraviolet light, 4
universal motor, 166
vector, 58, 70
vehicle, battery, 13
vehicle, electric, 16
vehicle, plug-in hybrid, 16
vehicle, zero emission, 13
venturi, 85
Vernal Equinox, 75
vibration, 23
vocal cords, 42
Wankel engine, 105, 121
Westinghouse, George, 181
wind induced flutter, 54
Winter Solstice, 75
work, 7, 61, 96, 109
worm gear, 37
yaw axis, 85
yield strength, 144
zener diode, 188
zero emission, 13
zeroth law, 7
zone of mixing, 74

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