Engineering Metrology

Engineering Metrology
اسم المؤلف
Er. R.k. Jain
التاريخ
15 أبريل 2022
المشاهدات
538
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Engineering Metrology
Including Quality Management and Reliability Analysis
A Text Book for Engineering Students
Er. R.k. Jain
Formerly, Member
Central Electricity Authority
New Delhi.
Fellow
, Metrology Society of India.
(Formerly, Lecturer, Mech. Engg. Deptt .
Regional Engineering College,
Kurukshetra (Haryana)
Contents
Chapter Pages

  1. INTRODUCTION 1
    1.1. What is Metrology
    1.2. Need of Inspection
    1.3. Physical Measurement
    1.4. Measuring Instruments
    1.5. Selection of Instruments
    1.6. Classification of Methods of Measurements
    1.7. The Measurement Problem
    1.8. General Care of Metrological Equipment
    1.9. Objectives of Metrology
    1.10. Requirements of an Inspection Tool
    1.11. Standardisation and Standarding Organisation
    1.12. International System of Units (SI)
    1.13. Role of National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Metrology
    1.14. Sources of Errors
    1.15. Error Likely to Creep in Precision Measurements—Their Care
    1.16. Linearity
    1.17. Rigorous definitions of Accuracy and Precision
    1.18. Principles of High-Precision Measurements
    1.19. Precision Measurements, its requirement
    1.20. Establishing Calibration System
    1.21. Geometry of Form of Shape
    1.22. Optical Principles
    1.23. Quality Improvement Programmes
    1.24. Managing Measuring Equipment
    1.25. Measurements and Traceability
    1.26. Quality, Standardisation, Testing and Metrology (QSTM)
    Solved Problems
  2. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 87
    —225
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Line Graduated Measuring Instruments
    2.3. Steel Rule
    V4T2-
    . Calipers
    2.5. Surface Plates
    2.6. Tool Maker’s Flats and High Precision Surface Plates
    2.7. High Precision Surface Plates
    2.8. Glass Surface Plates
    2.9. Granite Surface Plates
    2.10. Angle Plates
    2.11. Cast Iron Surface Plates with Handles
    2.12. Cast Iron Cubes
    2.13. V-Block
    Chapter Pages
    2.14. Bench Centres 120
    2.15. Straight Edges
    2.16. Spirit Levels
    2.17. Combination Set
    2.18. Universal Surface Gauge
    2.19. Engineer’s Square
    2.20. Engineer’s Parallels
    2.21. Planner Gauges
    2.22. Radius Gauges
    2.23. Feeler Gauges
    2.24. Angle Gauges
    2.25. Engineers, Taper, Wire and Thickness Gauge
    2.26. Pitch Screw Gauge
    2.27. Precision Linear Measurements
    2.28. Vernier Instruments
    2.29. Distance Gauge
    2.30. Vernier Height Gauge
    2.31. Vernier Depth Gauge
    2.32. Digital Length Gauges
    2.33. Master Height Gauges
    2.34. Universal Height Micrometer
    2.35. Electronic Digital Readout Height Gauge
    2.36. Universal Measuring Instrument
    %.\s
  3. Micrometers
    2.38. Inside Mecrometer Calipers
    2.39. Inside Micrometers
    2.40. Stick Micrometers
    2.41. Method of Testing Internal Micrometers
    2.42. Micrometer Depth Gauge
    2.43. Thread Micrometer Caliper
    2.44. Outside Micrometer Caliper
    2.45. V-Anvil Micrometer Caliper
    2.46. Blade Type Micrometer
    2.47. Micrometer for Measuring Thickness of Cylinder Walls
    2.48. Dial Micrometer Caliper
    2.49. Bench Micrometer—
    2.50. Taper-screw Operated Internal Micrometer
    2.51. Groove Micrometers
    2.52. Digital Micrometers
    2.53. Differential Screw Micrometer
    2.54. Graduated Scales
    2.55. Other Instruments for Internal Measurements
  4. Pin Gauge for Larger Bores
    2.57. Four Balls Method for Measuring Diameter of Bore
    2.58. Small Bore Diameter Measurement by a Ball on a Wire
    2.59. Measurement of Small Bore by a Pivoted Stylus and Auto Collimator
    Chapter Pages
    2.60. Digital Measurement Equipment
    ^5*22.62 =61.. Slip Slip Gauges Gauge Accessories
    2.63. Reference Discs, Balls and Roller Gauges
    2.64. Step Gauge
    Worked Examples
    f 3. STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENTS 226—260
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Standards
    Line Standard
    3.4. Sub-division ofStandards
    End Standards
    ^33.7 <6.. Wavelength Relation of End Standard Standard and Line Standard to International
    (light waves) Standard
    3.8. Classification of Standards and Gauge Control Structure
    3.9. Gauge Control Structure
    3.10. Conditions of Comparison
    3.11. Environmental Control in Test Laboratory
    3.12. Elastic Deformation in the Gauging of Standards
    Measurement and Calibration Systems
    3.14. The Need and Function of Inspection
    3.15. Calibration Systems Requirements
    3.16. The Role of Metrology Laboratory
    3.17. Metrology in Quality Assurance (QA)
    3.18. Setting up a QASystem
    3.19. National Measurement System
    3.20. Calibration Service Programme
    3.21. Accreditation of Calibration Facilities
    3.22. Accreditation of Metrology (Calibration and Testing) Laboratories
    3.23. Support or Background Services in Metrology
    Worked Examples
  5. LIMITS, FITS AND GAUGES 261
    —362
    4.1. Introduction
    Tolerances
    Interchangeability
    VArC Limits of Size
    4.5. Indian Standard (IS 1919-1963)
    4.6. Terminology
    4.6. (a )Tolerance and Deviations for Sizes upto 500 mm
    4.7. Guide for Selection of Fits
    4.8. The Newall System
    4.9. British Standard 1916
    4.10. American Standards Association Tolerance System
    <11. ISO System of Limits and Fits
    Chapter y Pages
    kYl. Plain Gauges
    Gauge Design
    4.14. Indian Standards Gauging Practice for Plain Workpieces
    4.15. Gauges for Tapers
    Plug and Ring Gauges for Self-holding Tapers
    4.17. Tolerances and Geometry (Shape)
    4.18. Positional Tolerances
    4.19. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    4.20. Paper Layout Gauging
    Solved Problems
  6. COMPARATORS 363-417
    5.1. Introduction 363
    5.2. Characteristics of Comparators
    Uses of Comparators
    5.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Comparators
    \^5.6 5f. Mechanical Mechanical Comparators Optical Comparators
    Electrical and Electronic Comparators
    Pneumatic Comparators
    Fluid Displacement Comparators
    5.10. Multicheck Comparators
    5.11. Optical Projectors
    5.12. Recent Gauging Techniques
    Solved Problems
  7. MEASUREMENTBY LIGHT-WAVE INTERFERENCE 418—471
    6.1. Introduction 418
    6.2. Interference of Two Rays
    6.3. Light Sources for Interferometry
    6.4. Interferometry Applied to Flatness Testing
    6.5. Surface Contour Test
    6.6. Testing the Parallelism of any Surface with Reference to Standard
    Optically Flat Surface by Using Optical Flat
    6.7. Interferometers
    6.8. Laser Interferometers
    6.9. Heterodyne Interferometry Technique
    6.10. Optical Flats
    6.11. Scales and Gratings
    6.12. Moire Scales and Moire Fringes
    6.13. Contact-free Interferometric Inspection of Optical Components
    6.14. Precise, Real-time Interferometric Testing of Optical Surfaces
    6.15. Diffraction Measurement Technique
    Worked Examples
    Chapter Pages
    ¥ 7. STRAIGHTNESS, FLATNESS, SQUARENESS, PARALLELISM,
    CIRCULARITY AND ROTATION 472—516
    Straightn
    7.2. Straight Edge
    7.3. Test for Straightness by Using Spirit Level and Auto-collimator
    Flatness Testing
    7.5. Mathematical Treatment of Determination of Straightness and Flatness
    of Surfaces
    7.6. Laser Equipment for Alignment Testing
    Parallelism, Equidistance and Coincidence
    Squareness
    7*9^ Measurement of Circularity
    7.10. Tests for Checking Rotation
    7.11. Profile Measurements
    Worked Examples
    ¥ 8. ANGULAR MEASUREMENT AND CIRCULAR DIVISION 517—571
    8.1. Introduction
    \JJ<2T Vernier and Optical Bevel Protractor
    8.3. Divided Circles
    8.4. Optical Dividing Head
    \J^BT SinePrincipleandSine Bars
    \JL6T’ Angle Gauges
    Spirit Level
    \&r8r”‘ Clinometers
    8.9. Optical Instruments for Angular Measurement
    8.10. Circular Division
    8.11. Rotary Tables
    8.12. Dividing Heads and Circular Tables
    8.13. Precision Polygons
    8.14. Angle Gauge Dividing Head
    8.15. Caliper Principle
    8.16. Calibration of Polygons
    8.17. Calibration of Divided Circle
    8.18. Automatic Rotary Table Calibrator
    8.19. Taper Testing Machine
    Worked Examples
  8. MISCELLANEOUSMEASUREMENTS 572—601
    9.1. Checking the Angle of a Piece Tapered on One Side
    9.2. To Check the Angle of a Transverse Recess whose Angle of
    Taper is Very Small
    9.3. To Check the Angle of a Tapered Hole
    9.4. To Determine the Included Angle of an Internal Dovetail
    9.5. To Measure an Internal Taper in Blind Hole
    9.6. To Determine the Intersecting Dimension T of the V-shaped Slide
    Chapter Pages
    9.7. To Set two Straight Edges at a Desired Angle to Close Limits
    9.8. To Measure the Angle of a V-groove
    9.9. To Determine the Width of a V-groove
    9.10. To Check Interior Angle of a Profile Gauge
    9.11. To Measure the Angle of Small Work Located in a Difficult Position
    9.12. To Measure the Taper Angle of a Shallow Circular Groove
    9.13. To Find Out the Radius of Circle of any Job having a Portion of a Circle
    9.14. To Find Out the Radius of a Concave Surface
    9.15. To Measure the Diameter of a Recessed Hole
    9.16. To Measure the Diameter of a Large Hole Accurately
    Worked Examples
  9. TESTING AND CALIBRATION OF GAUGES AND DYNAMIC MEASUREMENT 602—637
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Calibration of Linear and Angular Measuring Instruments
    10.3. Measurement of Limit Gauges
    10.4. Checking of Slip Gauges
    10.5. Dynamic Measurement of Size, Form and Position
    10.6. Automatic Inspection Machines
    10.7. Measurement During Machining
    10.8. Electronic Gauging
    10.9. ContactlessThree Dimensional Measurement by Laser Based System
    10.10. Multi-Dimensions Automatic Gauging and Sorting Machines
    10.11. Electro-Optical Inspection
    10.12. Some Recent Developments in Optical Measurements
    10.13. Precision Instruments Based on Laser
    10.14. Laser Telemetric System
    10.15. Laser and LED Based Distance Measuring Instruments
    10.16. Intelligent Vision
    10.17. Optical Methods for Fast, Non Contact, On-line Measurements
    10.18. Management of Gauges and Instruments with Computer
  10. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE FINISH 638-666
    11.1. Introduction
    ‘l l M e a n i n g of Surface Texture and Some Definitions
    11.3. Surface Roughness
    11.4. Terminology as Per Indian Standards
    Methods of Measuring Surface Finish
    11.6. Direct Instrument Measurements
    11.7. Replica Method
    11.8. The Sample Length or Cut-off Length
    Analysis of Surface Traces
    11.10. Assessment of Surface Roughness as per Indian Standard
    11.11. Roughness Comparison Specimens
    11.12. Other Methods of Interest Used for Evaluating Surface Roughness
    11.13. Mechanical Roughness Indicator (MECRIN)
    11.14. Recent Advances in Measurement and Evaluation of Surface Roughness
    Solved Problems
    Chapter Pages
  11. DIAL INDICATORS AND INDICATING GAUGES 667—680
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Requirements of Good Dial Indicators
    12.3. Advantages of Dial Indicators
    12.4. Classifications
    12.5. Working Mechanism of Dial Indicators
    12.6. Range
    12.7. Description of Various Parts
    12.8. General Care and Use of Dial Gauges
    12.9. Accuracy of Dial Indicators
    12.10. Guide Lines in the use of Dial Indicators to Reduce the Effect
    of Calibration Errors
    12.11. Dial Indicator Components, Accessories and Attachments
    12.12. Test Type Indicators
    12.13. Test Indicators
    12.14. Dial Gauges as Per Indian Standards
    12.15. Indicators Gauges
    12.16. Application of Dial Gauges
    Worked Examples
    ¥ 13. METROLOGY OF SCREW THREAD
    13.1. Introduction
    \J-SrS7 Screw Threads Terminology
    13.3. Effect of Pitch Errors
    Measurements of Various Elements of Thread
    Worked Examples
  12. GAUGES FOR ISO METRIC SCREW THREADS
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Classification of Thread Gauges
    14.3. Various Forms of Thread Gauges
    14.4. Gauge Wear
    14.5. Tolerance for Screw Thread Gauges and Screw Threads
    14.6. Screw Thread Gauge Tolerance
    14.7. Adjustable Thread Gauges
    14.8. Basic Profile
    14.9. Diameter and Pitch Combinations
    14.10. Design Profile
    14.11. TolerancingSystem
    14.12. Gauging Practice for ISO Metric Screw Threads
    14.13. Thread Pitch Gauges for ISO Metric Screw Threads
    MEASUREMENT AND TESTING OF GEARS
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. Involute Curve
    \ytlx3. Terminology of Gear Tooth
    Chapter Pages
    v-t5?4. Sources of Errors in Manufacturing Gears
    Gear Measurement
    15.6. Rolling Tests
    15.7. Measurement of Individual Elements
    15.8. Composite Method of Gear Checking
    15.9. Worked Examples
  13. MACHINE TOOL METROLOGY 763—781
    16.1. Introduction 763
    16.2. Machine Tools Tests
    16.3. Alignment Tests on Lathe
    16.4. Alignment Tests on Milling Machine
    16.5. Alignment Tests on Pillar Type Drilling Machine
    16.6. Acceptance Tests for Shapers
    16.7. Acceptance Tests for Surface Grinders
    16.8. Mandrels
  14. MEASURING MACHINES 782—842
    17.1. Introduction 782
    17.2. Length Bar Measuring Machine
    17.3. Newall Measuring Machine
    17.4. Universal Measuring Machine
    \yr . OpticalProjectionComparator
    \J7r6. Engineering Microscopes
    17.7. Optical Measuring Instruments
    Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM)
    17.9. Three Dimensional Measuring Machine
    17.10. Universal Measuring Machine
    17.11. Numerical Controlled (NC) Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM)
    17.12. Electronic Inspection and Measuring Machines
    17.13. Feeler Microscope
    17.14. Probes
    17.15. Photo-electric Micrometer Microscope
    17.16. Fluidic Numerical Control (NC) System
    17.17. Isometric Viewing of Surface Defects
    17.18. Laser Viewers for Production Profile Checks
    17.19. The Image Shearing Microscope for Critical Dimension Measurement
    17.20. Opto-electronic Dimensional Gauging
    17.21. Computers in Metrology
    17.22. Machine Vision
    17.23. Digital Measurement Equipment
    17.24. Multiaxis Measuring Machines
    17.25. Co-ordinate Measuring Robots
    17.26. 2-D and 3-D Measurements
    17.27. Digital Height Gauge with Statistical Production Control
    17.28. Air Gauging with ElectronicSensors
    17.29. Multi Gauging Systems
    Chapter Pages
    17.30. Universal Measuring Machine
    17.31. Workshop Measuring Instrument for Dynamically Balanced Components
    17.32. Universal Measuring Instrument
    17.33. 3-D Optical Probe
    17.34. Automatic Shaft Inspection Machine
    17.35. Sub-micron Accuracy from Non-contact Gauge System
    17.36. Process Control Robot
    17.37. Nano-technology
    17.38. Microprocessors in Metrology
    17.39. Fiber Optic Probes for In-process Control
    17.40. Inspection of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)
    Worked Examples
  15. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE 843—887
    18.1. What is Quality ?
    18.2. Quality Characteristics
    18.3. Facets of Quality
    18.4. Quality—A Business Strategy
    18.5. Quality Control
    18.6. Areas of Application of Quality Control
    wierT Quality Control Concepts
    18.8. Quality Policy
    18.9. Quality Planning
    18.10. Quality Improvement and Quality Motivation
    18.11. Guidelines for Development of Q.C. Plan
    18.12. Steps to Quality Improvement
    18.13. Quality Motivation
    18.14. Quality Losses and Avoidance
    18.15. Quality Economics
    18.16. Quality Assurance
    v_^J8rT7. Attributes of Quality Control Manager
    18.18. Quality Auditing
    18.19. Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance Programmes
    18.20. Process of Introducing Quality Program in an Existing Organisation
    18.21. Quality Control and Breakthrough
    18.22. Chance and Assignable Causes of Variation
    18.23. Quality Management
    18.24. Japanese Quality Management
    18.25. Quality Circles-Understanding and Practicing
    Solved Questions
  16. STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL 888—1036
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Data Presentation
    19.3. Some Statistical Measures
    19.4. Summarisation and Pictorial Presentation of Data
    19.5. Variations in Quality
    19.6. Frequency Curve
    19.7. Shape of Frequency Distribution
    19.8. Some Simple Statistical Tools
    19.9. Theory of Quality Control
    19.10. Process Capability
    Chapter Pages
    19.11. Determining Confidence Limits for the Population Mean
    19.12. Confidence Limits for standard Deviation
    19.13. Tolerance Limits for Items in a Population
    19.14. Control Charts
    Control Chart for Variables
    19.16. Fraction Defective and the Binomial Distribution
    19.17. Control Charts for Fraction Defectives
    19.18. The C-Charts
    19.19. Sampling Inspection
    19.20. Theory of Probability
    19.21. Basic Principle of LotSampling
    19.22. Lot Sampling for Estimation of Lot Quality
    19.23. Lot Sampling for Lot Acceptance
    19.24. Sampling Plans for Inspection by Attributes and by Count of Defects
    19.25. Dodge-Rom Tables
    19.26. Dodge Plans for Continuous Sampling
    19.27. Philips Standard
    19.28. ABC Standard
    19.29. Sampling Plans for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective
    19.30. Reliability and Life Testing
    19.31. Statistical Tests of Significance
    19.32. Regression and Correlation
    19.33. Statistical Analysers
    19.34. Microprocessors in SQC
    19.35. Solved Problems
  17. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) 1037—1062
    20.1. Introduction
    20.2. Evolution of Total Quality Management
    20.3. What is TQM ?
    20.4. Principles of TQM
    20.5. Elements of TQM System
    20.6. Guidlines for TQM Implementation
    20.7. Quality Management and Quality System Requirements
    20.8. Tools and Techniques of TQM
    20.9. World Class Quality at Competitive Cost
    Solved Problems
  18. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
    (I.S.O. 9001-2000) 1063—1080
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Principles upon which ISO 9001: 2000 is Based
    21.3. Steps to be taken for Certification
    21.4. Implementing an ISO 9001 : 2000
    21.5. Systematic Requirements of ISO 9001 : 2000
    21.6. Management Requrements of ISO 9001 : 2000
    21.7. Resource Requirements
    21.8(a). Realization Requirements
    21.8(6). Remedial Requirements
    21.9. Quality System Decumentation
    21.10. Preparation of Quality Manual
    21.11. Preparation of Quality Plans
    Chapter Pages
    21.12. Internal Audit
    Solved Problems
  19. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF METALS AND ALLOYS 1081—1093
    22.1. Introduction
    22.2. Magnetic Particle Inspection
    22.3. Magnetic Crack Detection Method
    22.4. Penetrant Inspection Method
    22.5. X-ray Examination
    22.6. Radiography
    22.7. Fluoroscopy
    22.8. Photofluoroscopy
    22.9. Gamma Radiography
    22.10. Ultrasonic Inspection
    22.11. Electrical Method
    22.12. Electrical/Magnetic Methods
    22.13. Damping Test
    22.14. Non-magnetic Methods of Non-destructive Testing
    22.15. Optical Holography Method
    22.16. Hardness Test
  20. MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS 1094—1115
    23.1. Introduction
    23.2. What is a Machine Vision System ?
    23.3. Principle of Working
    23.4. How Machine Vision System Functions ?
    23.5. Fields of Machine Vision Systems
    23.6. Machine Vision System Applications
    23.7. Development Programmes
    23.8. Gray Scale vs Binary Imaging
    23.9. Gray Scale Image Processing Techniques
    23.10. Mathematical Morphology for Shape Analysis
    23.11. Circular Scanning
    23.12. Photogrammetry
    23.13. Industrial Computed Topography (CT) for Evaluation of Internal
    Structures of Large, Dense Parts
    23.14. Grazing Incident Technique to Evaluate Surface Flatness
    23.15. Visual Inspection
    23.16. Laser Inspection
    23.17. Robotic Gauging and Inspection Systems
    23.18. Computers in Metrology
    23.19. Software Control Hierarchy
    23.20. Automatic Inspection Machines
    23.21. Expert Knowledge Based Real Time Inspection System
    Worked Examples
  21. RELIABILITY 1116—1148
    24.1. System Reliability
    24.2. Probability and its Application to Series and Parallel Reliability
    (Redundancy)
    24.3. Reliability Analysis
    Chapter Pages
    24.4. Reliability Analysis of Systems 1118
    24.5. System Reliability for Series and Parallel Configuration
    24.6. Optimum Reliability
    24.7. Reliability Allocation
    24.8. Repairable System Allocation Method
    24.9. Reliability Analysis Techniques
    24.10. Probability Evaluation
    24.11. Fault Diagnostics and Trouble Shooting
    24.12. System Maintenance
    24.13. Trouble Shooting Systems
    24.14. Trouble Shooting Aids
    24.15. Maintainability
    24.16. Reliability
  22. EVALUATING UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT 1148—1173
    25.1. Introduction 1148
    25.2. Sources of Uncertainty in Measurements
    25.3. Method of Evaluation of Uncertainty
    25.3.1. Evaluating Uncertainty of Measurement
    25.3.2. Type A Evaluationof Uncertainty
    25.3.3. Type B Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty
    25.3.4. Expanded Uncertainty
    25.3.5. Statement of Uncertainty in Measurement
    25.3.6. Uncertainty Budget
    25.3.7. Degrees of Freedom
    25.3.8. Definitions
    25.4. Competence of Testing and Callibration Laboratories
    25.4.1. Apex Level Calibration 2nd NPL
    25.5. International Traceability
    25.6. Mass Metrology
    25.7. Coordinate Measuring Machine and Uncertainty in Measurements
    25.8. Length Measurement Uncertainty of CMM
    Solved Problems
  23. METROLOGY LABORATORIES —1183
    26.1. Metrology Laboratory Calibration Programme Management
    26.2. Quality Management System for Metrology Laboratories
    26.3. Role of Calibration Services
    26.4. Laboratory Accreditation
    26.5. Third-Party Accreditation of Testing and Calibration Laboratories
    26.6. International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML)
    26.7. Core Values and Concepts for Industries
    26.8. Automated Measurement Techniques
    26.9. Geometric Demensioning and Tolerancing
    Solved Problems
    Objective Type Questions and Answers
    Appendix I—Rules Relating to the Circle
    Appendix II—Indian Standard Specifications on Engineering Metrology
    Appendix III—References for Further Reading
    Index
    1236APPENDIX 1235
    APPENDIX-III
    REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READING
    Author
    A.S.T.M.E.
    A.C. Parkinson
    K.J. Hume
    K.J. Hume and
    G.H.Sharp
    Title of book
    Handbook of Industrial Metrology
    Engineering Inspection
    Engineering Metrology
    Practical Metrology
    Publishers
    Prentice Hall
    Pitman
    Macdonald
    Handbook No. 2 British
    Standards for Workshop Practice
    Engineering Precision Measurements
    Practical Engineering Metrology
    Metrology and Gauging
    Fundamentals of Mechanical Inspection
    Precision Workshop Methods
    Engineering Dimensional Metrology
    Fundamentals of Dimensional Metrology
    Engineering Inspection,
    Measurement and Testing
    Inspection and Gauging
    Symposium on Dimensional Metrology
    British Standards
    Institution
    Chapman and Hall
    Pitman
    Macdonald
    McGraw Hill
    Arnold
    Arnold
    Wilkie Bros.
    Odhams
    AW. Judge
    K.W.B. Sharp
    S.A.J. Parsons
    R. Jenkins
    H.J. Davis
    L. Miller
    T. Busch
    H.C. Town and
    R. Coleboume
    C.W. Kennedy
    N.P.L.
    Machinery Pub. Co.
    H.M.S.O. 1953Index
    Angle dekkor, 540, 687
    Angle gauge dividing head, 549
    Angle gauges, 134, 527
    Angle of a tapered hole, 573
    Angle of a V-groove, 576
    Angle plate, 112
    Angle straight edges, 121
    Angular measurement, 517
    Angular spacing of a spline shaft,
    Back pressure gauges, 384
    Backlash, 754
    Ball type plug gauge, 179
    Bar diagram, 891
    Barrel form, 52
    Base pitch, 744
    Base pitch measuring instrument, 744
    Basic dimension, 264
    Basic hole, 274
    Basic principle of lot sampling,
    A2-
    D and 3-D measurements, 824
    3-D optical probe, 831
    100-hour reliability, 1117
    ABBE principle, 215
    ABC standard, 989
    Acceptable quality level, 969
    Acceptance sampling, 905
    Acceptance sampling plans, 1016
    Acceptance tests for shapers, 779
    Acceptance tests for surface
    grinders, 779
    Acoustic image method, 1187
    600
    Angular tolerance, 323
    Anthropometric data, 1143 951
    Basic shaft, 274
    Basic size, 271
    Bausch and lomb projector, 785
    Beam comparator, 104
    Beam splitters, 439
    Bearing area, 117
    Bearing area, 643
    Bearing ratio, 645
    Bench centres, 120
    Bench micrometer, 171, 688
    Bench micrometer with dial comparator, 174
    Best size wire, 694, 700
    Bevel protractors, 518
    Bias, 9
    BIPM, 22
    Blade type micrometer, 170
    Block gauges, 318
    Bonomial distribution, 1013
    Bore gauges, 679
    Boreseope, 1075
    Bow form, 52
    Bow shaped straight edge, 121,
    125
    Brookes level comparator, 200,
    231
    Anvil and spindle, 156
    Accreditation, 249 Applications of CMM, 799
    Accreditation of calibration faci- AQL plans, 991
    Assessing circularity using a Vblock, 495
    lities
    , 248
    Accuracy, 10
    Accuracy and cost, 12
    Accuracy and precision, 46
    Accuracy class, 9
    Accuracy of surface plates, 98
    Accuracy of specifications for
    the coordinate measuring
    machines, 796
    Assessment of surface roughness, 653
    Assignable causes, 896
    Atomic force microscope, 791
    Attributes and variables, 889
    Autocollimator, 533
    Autocollimator accessories, 537
    Accurate spindle, 498 Autocollimator applications, 539
    Adaptations of surface plates, 114 Automated video system, 1115
    Adjustable slip gauges, 194 Automatic gauging, 619, 623
    Adjustable snap gauge, 300
    Adjustable thread gauges, 714
    Adjustable type gap gauges, 307
    Adjustable V-Block, 497
    Adjusting nut, 157
    Adjustment for wear, 159
    Air cartridge; 395
    Air gauging with electronic
    sensors, 396, 826
    Air-jet sensing, 409
    Airy points, 227
    Alignment tests on lathe, 766
    Alignment tests on pillar type
    drilling machine, 777
    Alignment tests on milling
    machine, 771
    Allowances, 271
    American standards association B
    tolerance system, 296
    Automatic gear measuring
    machine, 758
    Automatic inspection machines,
    622, 1112
    Automatic rotary table calibrator, 552
    Automatic shall; inspection
    machine, 831
    Automatic sizing, 624
    Automatic sizing instrument, 624
    Automobile cylinder bore gauge,
    178
    Average outgoing quality limit,
    971
    Axial runout, 54
    Axial slip, 767
    Axial slip of lead screw, 770
    C
    Calibration, 14
    Calibration by interferometry,
    201
    Calibration of angle gauges, 529
    Calibration of gauges, 602
    Calibration of measuring
    Back pressure circuit, 390 instruments, 602
    1236INDEX 1237
    Coincidence, 483 Cylinder gauges, 178
    Combination depth and angle
    gauge, 150
    Combination set, 129
    Combined limit gauge, 307
    Company-wide quality control,
    879
    Comparators, 363
    Competence of testing, 1160
    Composite errors, 738
    Composite method of gear checking, 754
    Compound levers, 366
    Compound sine tables, 116
    Compound tolerances, 267
    Compression correction, 704
    Computer controlled coordinate
    measuring machine, 800
    Computers in metrology, 816,
    1110
    Concentricity checking attachment, 114
    Confidence levels, 14
    Confidence limits, 910
    Constant chord method, 743
    Constant deviation prism, 543
    Consumer’s risk, 969
    Contact type pneumaic gauging,
    394
    Contactless three dimensional
    measurements, 628
    Continuous distributions, 900
    Contour gauges, 308
    Control chart for standard
    deviation, 918
    Control chart for variables, 915
    Control charts, 913, 1014
    Control charts for fraction
    defectives, 941
    Control charts for range, 919
    Control charts for X, 917
    Coordinate measuring machines,
    792, 808, 1166
    Calibration of polygons, 550
    Calibration of universal microscope, 607
    Calibration service programme,
    248
    Calibration system, 50, 241
    Calibration
    requirements, 242
    Calibration vs. Certification, 14
    Caliper gauge, 210, 710
    Caliper principle, 549
    Calipers, 91
    Camming, 500, 509
    Care of metrological equipment.
    D
    Damping test, 1088
    Data presentation, 889
    Datum control, 389
    David Borwn
    comparator, 744
    Deep bores, 178
    Demerit control chart, 947
    Design
    instruments, 221
    Deterministic metrology, 4
    Deviation, 273
    Dial calipers, 95
    Dial depth gauge, 679
    Dial Indicator, 366, 607
    Dial micrometer caliper, 171
    Dial pipe gauge, 679
    Diameter
    combinations, 717
    Diameter of a large hole
    accurately, 581
    Diameter of a recessed hole, 580
    Different distributions used in
    tangent
    systems
    of metrological
    19
    Cast iron cubes, 118
    Cast iron surface plates, 98
    Causes of out-of-roundness, 492
    C-chart, 943
    Centre line average, 653
    Ceramic slip gauges, 193
    CGPM, 22
    Chance and assignable causes of
    variation, 873
    Change causes, 896
    Characteristic error, 31
    Characteristics of measuring
    instrument, 83
    Characteristics of random errors,
    and pitch
    SQC, 899
    Differential comparators, 393
    Differential method of
    measurement, 72
    Differential screw micrometer.
    33
    175
    Check plug for new solid go screw
    ring gauge, 722
    Checking of involute shape of
    gear, 750
    Checking of profile of involute
    shape of gear, 749
    Checking of slip gauges, 615
    Checking rotation, 506
    Checking the flatness, 422
    CIPM, 22
    Circular division, 544
    Circular division by polygons, 548
    Circular pitch measuring
    machine, 752
    Circular scanning, 1102
    Circumferential confining gauge,
    Differential unit, 377
    Diffraction measurement technique, 458
    Diffraction pattern technique,
    1107
    Diffraction
    gauging, 635
    Digital caliper, 142
    Digital comparators, 378
    Digital height gauge with
    statistical production control,
    826
    Digital in-line scale readout
    device, 451
    Digital length gauges, 150
    Digital measurement equipment,
    184, 821
    Digital micrometers, 173
    Discrimination, 7
    Displacement method, 232
    Disposition of tolerances and
    deviations, 277
    Distance gauge, 144
    technique for
    — length
    uncertainty of, 1169
    Coordinate measuring robots,
    measurement
    494 823
    Correction, 6
    Correction and correction factor,
    Clamping pallets for CNC
    machines, 115
    Classification of thread gauges, 72
    Corrective maintenance, 1135
    Cosine error, 213
    Cross strip hinge, 370
    Cross-wind, 218
    708
    Clearance, 281
    Clearance fit, 272, 289
    Clinometers, 532r
    1238 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
    Divided circles, 620
    Dividing heads, 546
    Dixon test, 33
    Documentary standards, 258
    Electro-optical inspection, 629
    Elements of thread, 687
    End bars, 229
    End standards, 229
    Fillet gauges, 134
    Firm joint calipers, 92
    Firm joint divider, 92
    Fishbone chart, 850
    Fits, 271
    Fixed gauges, 299, 351
    Flat surface generation, 99
    Flatness, 53
    Documenting the quality policy, Engineer’s parallels, 132
    Engineer’s square, 131
    Dodge plan for continuous Engineer’s square tester, 488
    sampling, 986
    Dodge-romig tables, 984
    Double ended solid snap gauge,
    854
    Engineer’s steel rule, 88
    Engineer’s taper, wire and Flatness testing, 421
    Flexible fiberscopes, 1076
    Flexible strips, 214
    Flow responsive system, 390
    Fluid displacement comparators,
    thickness gauge, 134
    300 Engineering microscopes, 787
    Environmental control, 238
    Environmental error, 31, 65
    Equidistance, 482
    Error distribution, 35
    Error reduction and
    compensation, 795
    Errors accumulation, 36
    Double microscope, 660
    Dowell prism, 544
    Drunken thread, 684
    Dual
    397
    frequency laser
    interferometer, 441
    Dynamic error, 32
    Dynamic measurement, 617
    Dynamic probe, 1137
    Dynamical method to determine Errors due to vibrations, 39
    the radius of ARC, 596
    Fluidic numerical control, 810
    error Fluoroscopy, 1106
    Focusing telescope, 489
    Focusing telescope system, 490
    Folding steel rule, 90
    Formulae for tolerances and
    deviations, 282
    Four balls method, 181
    precision Fraction defective and the
    binomial distribution, 938
    Free flow air gauge, 383
    Errors due to deflection, 40
    Errors due to wear in gauges, 41
    Errors in circularity, 491
    Errors
    measurements, 37
    EEden-rolt millionth comparator, in
    199
    Eden-rolt millionth comparator, Errors in threads, 684
    373 Evaluating surface roughness, Frequency bar chart, 895
    Effect of alignment, 37 658
    Effect of eccentricity of pitch Evaluation of surface roughness, Frequency distribution, 896
    Frequency histogram, 895
    Frequency curve, 898
    error, 753 660
    Effect of pitch error, 686 Expanded scale, 210
    Effect of supports, 37
    Effective
    measurements, 690
    Effective diameter of tapered
    threads, 694
    Effects of environment, 37
    Elastic deformation, 239
    Electrical comparator, 374, 621
    Electrical level, 128
    Electrical/magnetic
    1087
    Frequency polygon, 895
    Expanded uncertainty, 1153, Fringe pattern, 423
    F-test, 1002
    Fundamental deviation, 273
    Fundamental deviations for
    holes
    , 284
    Fundamental deviations of
    shafts, 283
    1159
    — degrees of freedom, 1154,
    1159
    Expert knowledge based real
    time inspection system, 1113
    Exponential distribution, 1013
    Expressing tolerances, 265
    diameter
    G
    F
    Gamma radiography, 1085
    Gas lasers, 420
    Gauge card specifications, 605
    Gauge control structure, 235
    Gauge design, 310
    Gauge error, 189
    Gauge maker’s tolerance, 311
    Gauge making tolerances, 714
    Gauge wear, 711, 714
    Gauges for internal threads, 724
    Gauges for ISO metric screw
    threads, 708
    Gauges for major diameter, 723
    Gauges for tapers, 318 – —
    methods, Facets of quality, 844
    Failure density, 1122
    Failure mode analysis, 1045,
    1119
    Electricheck, 619
    Electricheck gauges, 377
    Electronic comparator, 378, 618
    Electronic digital caliper, 143
    Electronic digital machine scales, Fault diagnostics and trouble
    150 shooting, 1134 ,
    Electronic digital readout height Fault-free analysis, 1119
    gauge, 151
    Electronic gauging, 376, 627
    Electronic indicator, 377
    Failure rate, 1122
    Failure tree analysis, 1045
    Feeler gauges, 134
    Feeler microscope, 809
    Fiber optic probes for in-process
    control, 834
    Fiducial value, 15
    Electronic precision levels, 128
    Electronic sizing device, 624INDEX 1239
    International committee of
    weights and measures, 22
    International metrology, 258
    International organisation of
    weights and measures, 22
    Image processing, 1096
    Image shearing miscroscope, 811
    Imperial standard yard, 227
    Implementation of quality, 853
    Gauging force, 343
    Gauging of taps, 715
    Gauging practice, 315
    Gauging thin strips, 620
    Gear errors, 737
    Gear involute
    machine, 750
    Gear measurement, 739
    Inaccuracy, 9
    measuring Included angle by three discs International system of units, 24
    International tolerance grade,
    274
    method, 587
    Indian standard (IS 91901993),
    International traceability, 1161
    Involute curve, 731
    Gear testing centre, 759, 760 270
    Gear tooth calliper, 742 Indicating snap gauge, 380
    Gearing operation requirements, Indicating thread comparator. Involute function, 732
    735 728 Involute profile testing machine,
    General conference of weights Indicator gauges, 677 751
    and measures, 22
    Generation of straight edge, 124
    Geniometers, 540
    Geometric characteristics and
    Irregular errors, 685
    Irregularities of a circular part,
    Indirect pneumatic
    devices, 396
    gauging
    Industrial computed tomography, 491
    1103 ISO, 22
    ISO 9001: 2000,
    — advantages of, 1077
    — concepts of, 1060
    — disadvantages of, 1077
    — documentation preparation for, 1077
    — elements of, 1075
    — implementation of, 1064
    — introduction, 1063
    — principles of, 1064
    — realization requirements
    in, 1067
    — remedial requirements,
    1069
    — requirements of, 1065,
    1066, 1079
    — resource requirements in,
    1067
    ISO system of limits and fits, 298
    Isometric viewing of surface
    defects, 810
    symbols, 324 In-process measurement, 626
    Geometric dimensioning and Inside calipers, 94
    tolerancing, 323
    Geometric tolerance, 324
    Geometrical values, 52
    Glass surface plates, 111
    Globalisation, 85
    Go screw caliper gauge, 722
    Grades of tolerance, 281
    Graduated rule accessories, 90
    Graduated scales, 176
    Inside micrometer, 163
    Inside micrometer calipers, 163
    Inspection, 4, 242
    Inspection by the manufacturer,
    315
    Inspection by the purchaser, 315
    Inspection gauging, 299
    Inspection of flaw in materials,
    1086
    Inspection of printed circuit
    boards (PCB), 836
    Inspection tool, 20
    Installation of ISO 9001 quality
    system, 1079
    Instrument range, 18
    Integrity, 1142
    Intelligent vision, 632
    Interchangeability, 267
    Interference fit, 272, 292
    Interference of two rays, 418
    Interferometers, 425
    Interferometric calibration of
    Granite straight edges, 124
    Granite surface plates, 111
    Gratings in metrology, 451
    Gray scale analysis, 1115
    Gray scale vs. binary imaging,
    Grazing incident technique,
    Groove micrometers, 172
    Grooving for lapping plates, 102
    HHand lapping, 101
    Hardness test, 1091
    Hemispherical gauge, 177
    Hermophrodite calipers, 95
    Heterodyne
    technique, 441
    High precision surface plates, 111
    Histogram, 892
    Hole, 274, 292
    Holographic recording, 1089
    Horizontal optimeter, 790
    Hysteresis, 7
    Japanese quality management,
    879
    angle gauge, 539
    interferometry Interferometry, 421 K
    Keilpart gauge, 178
    Kinematic Kinematic slide accuracy , 215, 7^6
    Kinematics, 221
    Roster’s prism, 429
    Interior angle of a profile gauge,
    577
    Internal audit, 1073
    Internal dial gauge, 678
    Internal dovetail, 574
    Internal estimates of lot quality, Krypton 86, 420
    963
    Internal measurements, 177
    Internal taper in blind hole, 574
    Lack of control, 1024
    Laser inspection, 1106
    Intemation standard on quality Laser interferometer, 435, 535
    management system, 1063
    IEC, 22
    ILAC, 221240 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
    Laser scanning gauge, 1108
    Laser telemetric system, 631
    Laser triangulation sensors, 1077 Major diameter, 687
    Laser viewers, 810
    Lay, 655
    Lead measurement, 754
    Least count of vernier scale, 211
    Least material limit, 282
    Least squares circles, 492
    Led based distance measuring
    instruments, 632
    Legal metrology, 3
    Leitz system, 455
    Length bars, 194
    Levelling depth, 665
    Levelling of the machine, 766
    Light cross-section method, 659
    Light sources for interferometry,
    419
    Magnification, 13
    Maintainability, 1132, 1137
    Measuring contacts, 136
    Measuring heads, 391
    Measuring instruments, 7, 17, 82
    Management requirements of Measuring machine, 782, 804
    ISO 9000 : 2000, 1066 Measuring means, 5
    Management of gauges with Measuring probe head, 801
    computers, 636 Measuring range, 7
    Managing measuring equipment, Measuring roundness, 499
    59
    Measuring surface finish, 646
    Mechanical Accuracy, 807
    Mechanical bevel protractor, 519
    Mechanical comparator, 365, 370
    Mechanical lapping, 195
    Mechanical optical comparator,
    Mandrels, 780
    Manufacture of slip gauges, 194
    Mass metrology, 1162
    — instruments mass , 1164
    — measuring procedure,
    1165
    measuring
    371
    Mechanical roller thickness
    gauge, 620
    Mechanical roughness indicator,
    660
    Methods of data presentation,
    890
    — selection of weighing
    instruments, 1164
    — standards of mass, 1164
    — unit of mass, 1163
    Master gears, 755
    Master height gauge, 150
    Materialisation of the meter, 234
    Light-wave interference, 418
    Limit caliper gauge, 300
    Limit for gauges for tapers, 319
    Limit plug gauge, 300
    Limit system, 278
    Limitations of line graduated
    rules, 210
    Limits of size, 270
    Limits, fits and gauges, 261
    Line graduated measuring
    instruments, 87
    Line standard
    , 226
    Linear diode array, 635
    Linearity, 42
    Loading errors, 31
    Lobed surface, 515
    Lobedness, 52
    Lobing, 491
    Logistics, 1143
    Long series slip gauges, 194
    Methods of measurement, 16, 71
    Methods of random sampling, 957
    Mathematical Morphology for Metre, 227
    shape analysis, 1102 Metrological characteristics, 18
    Metrology, 1
    Metrology laboratory, 243
    Metrology of screw thread, 681
    Michelson interferometer, 426
    Micro interferometer, 647
    Micro-alignment telescope, 490
    Micrometer depth gauge, 168
    Micrometer
    comparator, 174
    Micrometers, 156
    Matrix internal diameter
    measuring machine, 784
    Matrix pitch measuring machine,
    698
    Maximum and minimum metal
    conditions, 282
    Maximum height of irregularity,
    642
    Maximum inscribed circle, 492 with dial
    Maximum material limit, 282
    Measure radius on a part, 591
    Measurement and testing of
    grears, 730
    Microprocessors in metrology.
    833
    Microprocessors in SQC, 1009
    Microptic autocollimator, 538
    Microscopic inspection, 646
    ^ Minimum 493 circumscribed circle,
    Minimum radial separation
    circles, 492
    Minor diameter, 688
    Misalignment, 53
    Misalignment error, 66
    Miscellaneous measurements,
    572
    Modem gear measuring
    machines, 756
    Modular fixturing system, 116
    Moire fringes, 451, 469
    Measurement during machining,
    624
    Lot sampling for estimation of lot Measurement of circularity, 491
    quality, 961 Mesurement of error
    circularity, 502
    Measurement of gear pitch, 751
    Measurement of gears using
    gratings, 757
    Measurement of limit gauges, 609
    Measurement of pitch, 696
    Measurement of roundness, 494
    Measurement of surface finish,
    638
    Lot sampling for lot acceptance,
    966
    Lower deviation, 273
    LVDT, 375
    MMachine tools tests, 766
    Machine vision, 818
    Machine vision systems, 1094
    Magnetic crack detection method,
    1083
    Magnetic particle inspection, Measuring a taper plug gauge by
    rollers, 585
    Measurement problem, 19
    !
    1081INDEX 1241
    Optical methods for on-line
    measurements, 634
    Optical micrometer, 220, 565
    Optical principles, 54
    Multiaxis measuring machines, Optical probe, 809
    Optical projection comparator,
    Pictorial presentation of data pie
    diagram, 890
    Moire scales, 452
    Moire technique, 540
    Pilot plug gauge, 300
    Pin gauge for larger bores, 179
    Pitch accuracy oflead screw, 770
    Pitch errors, 684
    Pitch measuring machines, 699
    Pitch screw gauge, 135
    Pitter-NPL gauge interferometer,
    M-system, 662
    Multi sample test, 64
    822
    Multicheck comparators, 398 784
    Multi-dimension
    gauging, 628
    Multi-gauging systems, 396, 827
    Multi-path systems, 1140
    Multipurpose angle plates, 114
    automatic Optical projectors, 399
    Optical rotary table, 545
    Optical system of optimeter, 789
    Optimum reliability, 1126
    Organisation for quality, 878
    Organising quality, 851
    Originating surface plate, 101
    Ornamenting scraped surfaces,
    432
    Pitter screw measuring machine,
    698
    Plain gauges, 298
    Plain index centre, 533
    Plain plug gauges, 301
    Plain ring gauges, 303
    Planer gauge, 133
    Planning sample selection, 958
    Plate snap gauges, 306
    Plug and ring gauges for selfholding tapers, 319
    Plug gauge, tanged, 320
    Plug gauges, plain, 319
    Plus screw gauges, 708
    Pneumatic comparators, 382
    Pneumatic gauges, 382
    Pneumatic sensitivity, 386
    Pneumatic sizing device, 625
    Pneumatic test indicator, 396
    Pneumatic thickness gauge, 621
    Polar graph, 498
    Position gauge, 308
    Positional tolerances, 323
    Practical tests, 771
    Precision and accuracy, 9
    Precision index table, 545
    Precision instruments based on
    laser, 631
    Precision linear measurements,
    NN.P.L. flatness interferomter,
    430
    Nanometrology, 49
    Nanotechnology, 833
    National measurement system,
    246
    National physical laboratory, 29
    National service of legal metrology, 23
    Nature of light, 418
    Newall measuring machine, 783
    Newall system, 294
    NMI, 22
    No go screw caliper gauge, 723
    Nominal size, 6
    Non-destructive testing of
    metals, 1081
    Normal curve
    , 901
    Normal distribution, 1013
    Normal inspection, 977
    Normal reduced and tightened
    inspection, 977
    NPL-higher
    interferometer, 201
    100
    Out of round, 507
    Out-of-roundness, 491
    Outside calipers, 94
    Outside micrometer caliper, 169
    Ovality, 52, 491
    Overall uncertainty, 35
    P
    Paired T-test, 1001
    Paper layout gauging, 327
    Parallax, 18
    Parallax effect, 41
    Parallax error, 66
    Parallel motion, 481
    Parallel reliability, 1117
    Pareto analysis of rejections, 875
    Parkinson gear tester, 755
    Passmeter, 677
    Peak to valley height, 652
    Penetrant inspection method,
    1083
    Performance of CMM, 798
    Periodic pitch error, 685
    Periodical axial slip, 508
    Perpendicularity of motion, 484
    Philips standard, 986
    Philosophy of Probability, 1116
    Photo diode array imaging, 1107
    Photo-electric
    microscope, 809
    Photoelectric microptic autocollimator, 536
    Photoelectric scale viewing
    system, 454
    gauge
    o
    Objectives of metrology, 20
    OGIVE, 895
    OIML, 22
    Online calibration, 203
    One’s own plans, 991
    One-wire method, 691
    Operating characteristics curve,
    135
    Precision microptic clinometer,
    532
    Precision ploygons, 547
    Precision scale, 228
    Precision sine vice, 117
    Preventive maintenance, 604,
    1135
    Primary standards, 229
    Primary texture, 641
    Principle of alignment, 136, 221
    Principle of kinematics, 136
    Principles of least squares, 35
    micrometer
    967
    Optical bevel protractor, 517
    Optical dividing head, 520
    Optical flats, 443
    Optical holographymethod, 1089 Photofluoroscopy, 1085
    Photogrammetry, 1103
    Physical measurement, 5
    Optical inspection system, 634
    Optical measuring instruments,
    7881242 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
    Principles of sample selection, Quality target, 855
    Quality-a business strategy, 844
    Quantum physics, 49
    Qulaity plans
    — preparation of, 1072
    Retro-reflectors, 439
    Reversal method, 514
    Rib type snap gauges, 305
    Rigidity, 221
    Ring gauge, plain, 321
    Ring gauge, tanged, 321
    Ring screw gauges, 710
    Robotic gauging, 1109
    Rocking prism, 370
    Roller type adjustable thread
    gauge, 715
    Rolling tests, 740
    Rotary table, 544, 551
    Roughness average, 663
    Roughness comparison specimens, 658
    Roundness and circularity, 494
    Roundness measuring machines,
    504
    956
    Prismatic gratings, 453
    Probability distributions, 1020
    Probes, 809
    Process capability, 908, 1015
    Process control robot, 832
    Producer’s risk, 969
    Profile filters, 504
    Profile gauges, 309
    Profile measurements, 510
    Profile projector, 402
    Profilometer, 648
    Progressive pitch error, 684
    Protector, 219
    Protector blocks, 192
    R.R
    M.S. value, 652
    Radial throw. 507
    Radical runout, 53
    Radiography, 1084
    Radius gauges, 133
    Radius of a concave surface, 579
    Rake correction, 703
    Random errors, 32, 73
    Ratchet driver, 157
    Ratchet stop mechanism, 158
    Reading a micrometer, 161
    Readout systems for scales, 447
    Receiver gauges, 309
    Rectilinear chart, 892
    QQ.
    C. plan, 859
    QSTM, 60
    Quality assurance system, 854 Roundness 499 measuring spindles,
    Quality assurance, 244, 866
    Quality at competitive cost, 1047 Reducing
    Quality auditing, 869
    Reduced inspection, 978′
    the volume
    Runout, 506, 753
    Run-sum test, 927
    inspection, 925
    Reed comparator, 413
    Reed type
    comparator, 367
    Reference circules, 492
    Quality control and quality Reference discs, balls, 208
    assurance, 843
    Quality control concepts, 849
    Quality control manual, 853
    Quality control, 845
    Quality costs assessment, 864
    Quality economics, 863
    Quality improvement programmes, 58
    Quality improvement techniques,
    1046
    Quality characteristics, 843 S
    Quality circles, 880
    Quality control and breakthrough, 873
    mechanical Sample length, 651
    Sample size to estimate the
    average quality, 964
    Sampling inspection, 948
    Sampling length, 642
    Sampling method, 958
    Sampling plans for inspection by
    attributes, 975
    Sampling plans for inspection by
    variables, 991
    Scale, 88
    Scale division value, 18
    Scale interval, 7
    Scales and gratings, 446
    Scanning laser beam, 635
    Scanning laser gauge, 1107
    Scanning laser gauges, 1114
    Schematic representation of the
    position of fundamental
    deviations, 279
    Schewart control charts, 1022
    Scientific quality control, 877
    Scrapping of flat surfaces, 100
    Scratch inspection, 646
    Screw check plugs for new sold no
    go screw rings gauge, 723
    Screw measuring machine, 689
    Screw thread gauge tolerance, –
    Reference gauges, 318
    Reference standards, 47
    Regression and correlation, 1004
    Regular scale, 210
    Rejectable quality level, 969
    Reliability, 1138
    — trouble shooting aids, 1136
    — trouble shooting systems,
    1135
    Reliability allocation, 1127
    Reliability analysis, 1117
    Reliability analysis of systems,
    1117
    Reliability analysis techniques,
    1118
    Quality improvement,
    — by Crosby, 1059
    — by Deming, 1058
    Quality management, 876, 1041
    Quality manual,
    — preparation of, 1070
    Quality motivation, 857, 860
    Quality planning, 855
    Quality policy, 854
    Quality system requirements, Repeatability, 8, 13, 18, 73
    1041 Replica method, 651
    Quality system,
    Reliability and life testing, 993
    Reliability testing, 1120
    Repairable system allocation
    method, 1127
    Representation of surface finish,
    640
    — , certifiestion/regestration,
    079 Reproducibility, 73
    ocumentation, 1070, 1077 Response time, 8 713INDEX 1243
    Sources of errors, 30
    Sources of
    manufacturing gears, 735
    Spacing parameters, 665
    Spatial frequency, 452
    Spherical coordinate measuring
    machine, 793
    Spin table, 498
    Spindle locking arrangement,159
    Spirit level, 126, 530
    Spring calipers, 93
    micro- Squareness, 484
    Squareness error, 190, 488
    Squareness testing, 484
    Standard tolerance, 281
    Standard tolerance factor, 281
    Standardisation, 20
    Standards, 226
    Standards of measurements, 81
    Static errors, 30
    Statistical analysers, 1006
    Setting plug for adjustable go Statistical determination of
    capability, 909
    Setting plug for go screw caliper Statistical process control, 1044
    gauges, 723
    Setting up a QA system, 245
    Shaft, 274
    Shewhart control charts, 903
    Sigma comparator, 369
    Simple statistical tools, 903
    Sine centre, 527
    Sine principle, 520
    Sine table, 115, 526
    Single angle sine tables, 116
    Single frequency
    interferometer system, 427
    Single path systems, 1139
    Single sample test, 64
    Slip gauge accessories, 205
    Slip gauges, 185
    Small bore diameter, 182
    Smoothness of gear operation, Stylus probe instruments, 648
    Sub-division of standards, 229
    Sub-micron accuracy, 832
    System maintenance, 1134
    in System reliability, 1116
    Systematic errors, 32,73
    Systematic sampling, 957
    Screw thread projection, 786
    Screw threads terminology, 681
    Scribing and centre points, 207
    Second order response, 8
    Secondary standards, 229
    Secondary texture, 641
    Selection of engineering
    tolerances, 264
    Selection of fits, 289
    Selection of instruments, 15
    Selective Assembly, 268
    Self-centering inside
    meter, 166
    Sensitivity, 7
    Sensitivity and range, 61
    Sensitivity and readability, 14
    Sensitivity of a level, 217
    Sensitivity threshold, 18
    Sequential analysis, 980 _
    Series parallel reliability, 1117
    Series reliability, 1117
    errors
    Talysurf, 650
    Tangential gear tooth calliper,
    746
    Taper testing machine, 553
    Taper-screw operated internal
    micrometer, 172
    Taylor principle, 315
    Taylor’s principle applied to
    screw thread gauges, 711
    Taylor’s principle in design of
    limit gauges, 341
    Taylor-Htffcson Talysurf, 649
    Telescojjajntemal gauge, 177
    Ten point heightr of irregtrfari.-
    ties, 643
    Ten point peak to valley average
    height, 664
    screw ring gauge, 722 Terminology for surface
    roughness, 641
    Statistical production control. Terminology of gear tooth, 731
    151 Tertiary standards, 229
    Statistical quality control, 888 Test indicators, 674
    Statistical quality tools, 1015
    Statistical tests of significance, Test type indicators, 673
    Testing flatness, 103
    Testing parallelism, 425
    Theory of probability, 948
    Theory of quality control, 905
    Thermal effects in dimensional
    Test plug method, 746
    996
    Statistical treatment of errors, 34
    Steel rule, 88
    Step gauge, 208
    Stick micrometers, 167
    DC Straight edges, 120
    Straightness, 53, 764
    Straightness measuring gauge, Thread comparator, 694
    metrology, 237
    Thimble and barrel, 157
    395 Thread form, 696
    Thread measuring machine, 692
    Thread micrometer, 690
    Thread micrometer caliper, 169
    Threads pitch gauges for ISO
    metric screw threads, 727
    Three point shaft gauging, 618
    Three wire method, 692
    Three-point probe, 497
    Tightened inspection, 978
    Tilting tables, 117
    Tolerance and geometry, 322
    Tolerance for screw thread
    gauges and screw threads, 711
    Tolerance limits, 912
    Tolerance zone, 281
    Stratified sampling, 956
    Stylus, 650
    Stylus and skid, 657
    736
    Snap gauges, 305
    Societe genevoise
    measuring machine, 784
    Software control hierarchy, 1112
    Solex pneumatic gauge, 391
    universal Suppressed-zero scale, 210
    Surface contour test, 423
    Surface metrology, 661
    Surface plates, 96
    Solid or.adjustable go screw ring Surface roughness, 640, 662
    gauge, 722
    Solid or adjustable
    ring gauge, 723
    Surface texture, 639
    no go screw Swyman-green
    457
    System effectiveness, 1132
    interferometer,
    Solid state cameras, 10961244 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
    Tolerance zones for pitch dia- Trigger type probe system, 801
    meter, 723
    Vernier height gauge, 145
    Vernier instruments, 137
    Vertical optimeter, 789
    Video metrology, 1114
    Virtual effective diameter, 686
    laser Vision methodology, 633
    Vision systems, 820
    Twyman-Green specilisation, 428 Visual inspection, 646, 1105
    Types of errors, 927
    True running, 767
    Tolerance zones for plain gauges T-tests, 997
    for screw threads, 726 Twisted taut strip, 366
    Tolerances, 263, 271 Two wire method, 691
    Tolerancing system for screw Two-frequency
    threads, 719 interferometer, 1108
    Tomlinson surface meter, 649
    Tool maker’s flats, 110
    Tool maker’s microscope, 787
    Tool maker’s straight edges, 120
    Tool maker’s microscope, 790
    Tooth bearing contact, 737
    Tooth thickness, 741
    Total quality control, 1043
    — Kaizen rules, 1057
    — Taguchi approach, 1045,
    1051
    Total quality culture, 1050, 1052
    Total quality management
    (TQM), 1036, 1038, 1049
    — evolution of, 1037
    — guidelines for implementation of, 1040, 1053
    — Juran’s veiw in, 1059
    — need of, 1051
    — objectives of, 1050
    — principles of, 1039
    — terms used in, 1061
    — tools and techniques for,
    1043 .
    Volumetric length measuring
    U accuracy, 797
    Ultrasonic gauges, 402
    Ultrasonic inspection, 1085
    Uncertainty, 15
    WWavelength standard, 232
    Wear allowance, 311
    Uncertainty in measurement, Wear check plug for solid and
    adjustable go ring gauge, 722
    Wear
    -out, 1139
    Weibull distribution, 1013
    Wickman adjustable thread
    gauge, 714
    — method of evaluation of, Width of a V-groove, 577
    Working standards, 229
    Workship and inspection gauges,
    311
    1148
    — budget, 1159
    — components, 1156, 1157
    — definitions, 1155
    — equation, 1156
    1149
    -— sources of, 1148
    Unilateral and bilateral
    tolerances, 339
    Universal bevel protractor, 518
    Universal height micrometer, 151 Wringing, 190
    Universal measuring instrument, Wringing and enforced adhesion;
    152, 830
    Workshop
    instrument, 829
    measuring
    190
    Universal measuring machine, Wringing slip-gauges, 219
    502, 783, 806, 828
    Universal surface gauge, 130
    Upper deviation, 273
    Use of computers, 817
    X
    TQM system, 1039
    — requirements, 1041
    Touch inspection, 646
    Touch trigger probe, 823
    Traceability, 15, 60
    X-ray examination, 1083
    Yard, 226
    Validation system, 1140 z
    Zeiss optotest comparator, 372
    Zeiss slip gauge interferometer,
    617
    Zeiss ultra-optimeter, 372
    Zero line, 271
    Zero setting, 389
    Traceability of accuracy, 247 V-anvil micrometer caliper, 170
    Traceability within world metro- Variability, 889
    logy, 259 Variance of error distribution, 36
    Tracer type profilogram, 659
    Transfer calipers, 94
    Transfer from line standard to V-block, 118, 497
    end standard, 230
    Variation gauge, 108
    Variations in quality, 896
    Verification, 6
    Transition fit, 273, 291 Vernier depth gauge, 149

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