Engineering Drawing and Design

Engineering Drawing and Design
اسم المؤلف
David A. Madsen, David P. Madsen
التاريخ
10 يونيو 2022
المشاهدات
55
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Engineering Drawing and Design
Fifth Edition
David A. Madsen, David P. Madsen
David A. Madsen
President, Madsen Designs Inc., www.madsendesigns.com
Faculty Emeritus, Former Department Chairperson, Drafting Technology, Autodesk Premier Training Center
Clackamas Community College, Oregon City, Oregon
Director Emeritus, American Design Drafting Association
David P. Madsen
President, Engineering Drafting & Design, Inc.
Vice President, Madsen Designs Inc.
Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Consultant and Educator
C O N T E N T S
Introduction . 40
Manual Drafting Equipment and Supplies 41
Drafting Furniture 41
Drafting Pencils and Leads 41
Technical Pens, Pen Cleaning, and Ink 42
Erasers and Erasing . 42
Dividers 43
Parallel Bar 43
Triangles 43
Templates . 44
Irregular Curves 45
Drafting Machines 45
Scales 46
Drafting Media . 50
Sheet Size and Format . 53
Diazo Reproduction . 62
Photocopy Reproduction . 62
Properly Folding Prints 62
Microfi lm . 62
CADD Applications . 64
Professional Perspective 64
Math Applications . 65
Web Site Research 65
Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction
Methods Test . 65
Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction
Methods Problems 66
Chapter 3—Computer-Aided Design
and Drafting (CADD) 69
Learning Objectives . 69
The Engineering Design Application 69
Introduction to Computer-Aided Design
and Drafting (CADD) 70
The CADD Workstation 71
CADD Software Products . 71
CADD Formats . 75
Industry and CADD . 79
CADD Applications 3-D 89
Preface .xii
Acknowledgments . xxiv
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION TO
ENGINEERING DRAWING
AND DESIGN 1
Chapter 1— Introduction to Engineering
Drawing and Design 2
Learning Objectives 2
The Engineering Design Application . 2
Introduction 8
A History of Engineering Drawing 10
The Drafter 14
Drafting Fields . 14
Education and Qualifi cations 22
Drafting Job Opportunities 25
Searching for a Drafting Position . 26
Drafting Salaries and Working Conditions . 27
Professional Organization 28
Drafting Standards 29
Workplace Ethics . 30
Copyrights 31
Trademarks 32
CADD Applications . 33
Professional Perspective 34
Web Site Research 37
Introduction to Engineering Drawing
and Design Test . 38
Introduction to Engineering Drawing
and Design Problems 38
Chapter 2— Drafting Equipment, Media,
and Reproduction Methods 39
Learning Objectives . 39
The Engineering Design Application 39
Virtual Reality 89
Basic CADD Techniques 93
Surface Modeling Techniques . 102
Solid Modeling Techniques 104
CADD Applications 3-D . 110
CADD Standards 111
Productivity with CADD 112
Green Technology Application 115
Professional Perspective . 118
Web Site Research . 118
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD) Test . 119
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD) Problems 119
Chapter 4— Manufacturing Materials
and Processes 121
Learning Objectives 121
The Engineering Design Application . 121
Introduction 122
Manufacturing Materials 122
Green Technology Application 126
Metallurgy . 126
Plastics and Polymers . 126
Plastic Resin Identifi cation Codes . 129
Plastics Material Selection Applications . 129
Green Technology Application 130
Material Selection 131
CADD Applications 3-D . 133
Manufacturing Processes 135
Machine Processes . 140
CADD Applications 146
Machined Feature and Drawing
Representations . 147
Manufacturing Plastic Products . 153
Thermoset Plastic Fabrication Process 157
Manufacturing Composites 158
Rapid Prototyping (RP) . 160
Tool Design . 160
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) . 161
Application Examples 162
Integration of Computer-Aided Design
and Computer-Aided Manufacturing
(CAD/CAM) 164
Statistical Process Control (SPC) 165
CADD Applications 3-D . 166
Green Technology Application 168
Professional Perspective . 168
Math Application 169
Web Site Research . 169
Manufacturing Materials and
Processes Test . 170
Manufacturing Materials and
Processes Problems . 170
SECTION 2
FUNDAMENTAL
APPLICATIONS 173
Chapter 5— Sketching Applications 174
Learning Objectives 174
The Engineering Design Application . 174
Sketching 174
Sketching Tools and Materials 175
Sketching Straight Lines . 175
Sketching Circular Lines 176
Sketching Arcs 179
Sketching Ellipses 180
Measurement Lines and Proportions . 180
Introduction to the Block Technique . 181
Creating Multiview Sketches . 183
Creating Isometric Sketches 184
CADD Applications 3-D . 187
Professional Perspective . 191
Sketching Applications Test 191
Sketching Applications Problems 192
Chapter 6 — Lines and Lettering 193
Learning Objectives 193
The Engineering Design Application . 193
Lines 193
Types of Lines . 194
CADD Applications 204
Lettering . 207
Lettering on Engineering Drawings 207
Lettering Numbers . 207
Other Lettering Styles . 208
Lettering Legibility . 209
CADD Applications 210
CADD Applications 3-D . 212
Professional Perspective . 212
Math Applications 214
Web Site Research . 214
Lines and Lettering Test . 214
Lines and Lettering Problems . 214
Chapter 7—Drafting Geometry 218
Learning Objectives 218
The Engineering Design Application . 218
CADD Applications 219
Drafting Geometry . 219
Characteristics of Lines . 219
Geometric Shapes 220
Common Geometric Constructions 224
Constructing Polygons 230
Constructing Tangencies 233
Constructing an Ellipse . 236
Professional Perspective . 237
Math Applications 238
Web Site Research . 238
Drafting Geometry Test . 238
Drafting Geometry Problems . 239
SECTION 3
DRAFTING VIEWS
AND ANNOTATIONS 247
Chapter 8—Multiviews 248
Learning Objectives 248
The Engineering Design Application . 248
Multiviews . 250
Third-Angle Projection 252
First-Angle Projection 254
View Selection 254
Projection of Contours, Circles, and Arcs . 262
Line Precedence . 266
Multiview Analysis and Review . 266
Recommended Review 267
Multiview Layout 267
CADD Applications 2-D . 267
CADD Applications 3-D . 270
CADD Applications 275
Professional Perspective . 275
Math Applications 277
Web Site Research . 277
Multiviews Test 277
Multiviews Problems . 277
Chapter 9—Auxiliary Views 292
Learning Objectives 292
The Engineering Design Application . 292
Auxiliary Views . 292
Auxiliary View Visualization . 295
Drawing Curves in Auxiliary Views 297
View Enlargements . 297
Drawing a Removed Auxiliary View 297
Locating Views on Different Sheets 298
Drawing a Rotated Auxiliary View . 298
Secondary Auxiliary Views . 299
Auxiliary View Analysis and Review . 300
Descriptive Geometry . 302
Auxiliary View Layout 302
CADD Applications 304
CADD Applications 2-D . 305
CADD Applications 3-D . 306
Professional Perspective . 307
Math Applications 307
Web Site Research . 307
Auxiliary Views Test 308
Auxiliary Views Problems . 308
Chapter 10— Dimensioning and
Tolerancing 315
Learning Objectives 315
The Engineering Design Application . 315
Introduction to Dimensioning 319
Dimensioning Basics . 320
Dimensioning Characteristics and Definitions 320
Fundamental Dimensioning Rules . 323
Dimensioning Components 324
Dimensioning Symbols 325
Dimensioning Systems 326
Dimensioning Fundamentals . 327
Preferred Dimensioning Practices . 334
Notes for Machined Features . 338
Placing Location Dimensions . 342
Specifying Dimension Origin . 344
Dimensioning Auxiliary Views 344
CADD Applications 2-D . 345
Using General Notes . 349
Tolerancing Applications 351
CADD Applications 3-D . 360
Dimensions Applied to Platings and
Coatings . 361
Maximum and Minimum Dimensions 361
Casting Drawing and Design . 361
Machining Allowance . 362
Casting Drawings 363
Forging, Design, and Drawing 363
Drawings for Plastic Part Manufacturing 369
Machined Surfaces . 370
Design and Drafting of Machined Features 373
Tool Design 373
CADD Applications 378
Introduction to ISO 9000 378
Professional Perspective . 379
CADD Applications 381
Recommended Review 382
Math Applications 383
Web Site Research . 383
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Test 384
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Problems . 384
Chapter 11—Fasteners and Springs 392
Learning Objectives 392
The Engineering Design Application . 392
Screw Thread Fasteners . 393
Thread-Cutting Tools . 395
Thread Forms . 395
Thread Representations . 397
vi CONTENTS
Revolved Sections 453
Removed Sections 454
Locating Sectional Views on Different Sheets 455
Recommended Review 457
Professional Perspective . 457
Math Applications 459
Web Site Research . 459
Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional
Breaks Test . 459
Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional
Breaks Problems . 460
Chapter 13— Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing 475
Learning Objectives 475
The Engineering Design Application . 475
Introduction 476
GD&T Symbols . 477
Datums 477
Applying Material Condition and Material
Boundary Symbols . 492
Limits of Size Application . 494
Perfect Form Boundary . 494
Applying Regardless of Feature Size and
Regardless of Material Boundary 494
Applying Maximum Material Condition 496
Applying Least Material Condition 498
Application of RMB on a Primary Datum
Feature 499
Application of RMB on a Secondary and
Tertiary Datum Feature . 499
The Effect of Datum Precedence and
Material Condition . 499
Introduction to Geometric Characteristic
and Related Symbols 501
Form Geometric Tolerances 504
Orientation Geometric Tolerances . 507
Applying Profi le Geometric Tolerances . 532
Runout Geometric Tolerance . 544
Specifying Independency 546
CADD Applications 547
CADD Applications 2-D . 548
Professional Perspective . 553
Math Applications 555
Web Site Research . 555
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Test . 556
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Problems . 556
Chapter 14— Pictorial Drawings
and Technical Illustrations 562
Learning Objectives 562
The Engineering Design Application . 562
Drawing Thread Representations 398
Drawing Detailed Threads . 400
Thread Notes . 403
Measuring Screw Threads . 406
CADD Applications 2-D . 406
CADD Applications 3-D . 407
Threaded Fasteners 408
Thread Design Guidelines . 410
Lag Screws and Wood Screws . 414
Self-Tapping Screws 414
Thread Inserts . 415
Self-Clinching Fasteners . 415
How to Draw Various Types of Screw
Heads . 416
Drawing Nuts . 417
Drawing Washers 418
Drawing Dowel Pins 418
Taper Pins and Other Pins . 418
Retaining Rings . 419
Keys, Keyways, and Keyseats . 419
Rivets . 420
Designing and Drawing Springs . 421
CADD Applications 421
Spring Representations and Specifi cations . 426
Recommended Review 428
CADD Applications 2-D . 428
CADD Applications 3-D . 429
Professional Perspective . 429
Math Applications 431
Web Site Research . 431
Fasteners and Springs Test . 432
Fasteners and Springs Problems . 432
Chapter 12— Sections, Revolutions,
and Conventional Breaks 439
Learning Objectives 439
The Engineering Design Application . 439
Introduction to Sectional Views . 440
Cutting-Plane Lines and Sectional View
Identifi cation . 440
Section Lines . 442
Full Sections 444
Half Sections 444
Offset Sections 445
Aligned Sections . 446
Unsectioned Features . 446
Intersections in Section . 447
Conventional Revolutions . 447
Broken-Out Sections 448
Auxiliary Sections 448
CADD Applications 2-D . 449
CADD Applications 3-D . 450
Conventional Breaks . 452
CADD Applications 453CONTENTS vii
Introduction to Pictorial Drawing and
Technical Illustration Pictorial Drawings 563
Pictorial Drawings . 563
Isometric Projections and Drawings . 566
Types of Isometric Drawings . 568
Isometric Construction Techniques 568
Dimetric Pictorial Representation . 574
Trimetric Pictorial Representation . 574
Exploded Pictorial Drawing 575
Oblique Drawing 576
Perspective Drawing 578
Drawing a One-Point Perspective . 578
Drawing a Two-Point Perspective 580
Drawing a Three-Point Perspective 580
Drawing Circles and Curves in Perspective 582
Using Basic Shading Techniques 583
Pictorial Drawing Layout Techniques 584
CADD Applications 3-D . 585
Professional Perspective . 589
Math Applications 590
Web Site Research . 590
Pictorial Drawings and Technical
Illustrations Test . 590
Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations
Problems . 591
SECTION 4
WORKING DRAWINGS 595
Chapter 15—Working Drawings 596
Learning Objectives 596
The Engineering Design Application . 596
Introduction to Section Four . 597
Introduction to Working Drawings 597
Detail Drawings . 598
CADD Applications 2-D . 601
CADD Applications 3-D . 601
Assembly Drawings 603
Types of Assembly Drawings . 604
Identifi cation Numbers . 607
Parts Lists 608
Purchase Parts 612
Engineering Changes . 614
CADD Applications 2-D . 614
CADD Applications 3-D . 615
Drawing From a Prototype . 620
Analysis of a Set of Working Drawings . 620
CADD Applications 3-D . 627
Professional Perspective . 628
Math Application 629
Web Site Research . 629
Working Drawings Test . 629
Working Drawings Problems . 630
Chapter 16— Mechanisms: Linkages,
Cams, Gears, and
Bearings 678
Learning Objectives 678
The Engineering Design Application . 678
Mechanism . 679
Linkages . 679
Linkage Symbols 679
Types of Linkages 680
Cam Design 682
CADD Applications 683
Cam Displacement Diagrams . 684
Construction of an Inline Follower Plate
Cam Profi le . 687
Preparing the Formal Plate Cam Drawing . 688
Construction of an Offset Follower Plate
Cam Profi le . 688
Drum Cam Drawing 690
CADD Applications 691
Introduction to Gears . 691
Gear Structure 692
Splines 692
Gear Types . 693
Spur Gear Design 696
Drawing Specifi cations and Tolerances . 696
Designing and Drawing Spur Gears 696
Designing Spur Gear Trains 702
Designing and Drawing the Rack
and Pinion . 703
Designing and Drawing Bevel Gears . 703
Designing and Drawing Worm Gears . 705
Plastic Gears 706
CADD Applications 708
Bearings . 709
Drawing Bearing Symbols . 710
Bearing Codes . 710
Bearing Selection 710
Gear and Bearing Assemblies . 715
Professional Perspective . 717
Math Application 718
Web Site Research . 718
Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and
Bearings Test 718
Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and
Bearings Problems . 719
Chapter 17—Belt and Chain Drives 727
Learning Objectives 727
The Engineering Design Application . 727
Introduction 728
Advantages of Gear Drives . 728
Advantages of Belt Drives 728
Advantages of Chain Drives 728
Belts and Belt Drives 728viii CONTENTS
CADD Applications 2-D . 783
Flanges 787
Seams and Hems . 788
Roll Forming . 788
CADD Applications 3-D . 789
Material Applications in Sheet Metal Drafting 791
Precision Sheet Metal Dimensioning Applications . 792
Sheet Metal Punch Applications . 796
Professional Perspective . 798
Math Applications 798
Web Site Research . 798
Precision Sheet Metal Drafting Test 799
Precision Sheet Metal Drafting Problems 799
Chapter 20— Electrical and Electronic
Drafting 809
Learning Objectives 809
The Engineering Design Application . 809
Introduction to Electrical and Electronic
Drafting . 810
Fundamentals of Electrical Diagrams . 811
Generation, Transmission, and Distribution
of Electricity 814
Electric Power Substation Design Drawings . 814
Residential and Commercial Electrical Plans . 819
Green Technology Application 825
Professional Perspective . 827
Electronic Drafting . 827
Electronic Diagrams 827
Printed Circuit Technology 838
Pictorial Drawings . 846
CADD Applications 848
Professional Perspective . 850
Math Applications 851
Web Site Research . 851
Electrical and Electronic Drafting Test 852
Electrical and Electronic Drafting Problems . 852
Chapter 21—Industrial Process Piping 868
Learning Objectives 868
The Engineering Design Application . 868
Introduction 869
Where Industrial Piping Is Used 869
Pipe Drafting . 870
Pipe Drawings 872
Types of Pipe . 876
Pipe Sizes and Wall Thickness 878
Pipe Connection Methods . 879
Pipe Fittings 881
Flanges 885
Valves . 887
Pipe Drafting . 891
CADD Applications 2-D . 901
Belt Types 728
Typical Belt Drive Design 730
Belt Drive Selection 730
Chain Drives 734
Chain Drive Sprockets 734
Chain Classifi cation and Types . 734
Precision Chains . 734
CADD Applications 735
Nonprecision Chains . 736
Light-Duty Chain 736
Chain Drive Design 737
Roller Chain Drive Selection . 737
Professional Perspective . 741
Math Applications 741
Web Site Research . 742
Belt and Chain Drives Test . 742
Belt and Chain Drives Problems . 742
Chapter 18— Welding Processes
and Representations 745
Learning Objectives 745
The Engineering Design Application . 745
Welding Processes . 746
Elements of Welding Drawings . 748
Types of Welds 751
Weld Symbol Leader Arrow Related to
Weld Location 755
Additional Weld Characteristics . 759
Welding Tests . 762
Welding Specifi cations 765
Prequalifi ed Welded Joints . 765
Weld Design 765
CADD Applications 2-D . 766
Professional Perspective . 768
Math Application 768
Web Site Research . 769
Welding Processes and Representations Test . 769
Welding Processes and Representations
Problems . 769
SECTION 5
SPECIALTY DRAFTING
AND DESIGN 775
Chapter 19— Precision Sheet Metal
Drafting 776
Learning Objectives 776
The Engineering Design Application . 776
Introduction to Precision Sheet Metal Drafting . 776
Precision Sheet Metal Layout Options 777
Precision Sheet Metal Material Bending . 782CONTENTS ix
Introduction to HVAC Systems 1016
HVAC Systems and Components . 1016
Green Technology Application . 1021
HVAC Symbols . 1022
HVAC Drawings 1022
Drawing Revisions 1038
Duct Sizing 1039
CADD Applications . 1041
CADD Applications 2-D 1041
CADD Applications 3-D 1044
Sheet Metal Design and Drafting . 1045
Pattern Development 1045
Establishing Intersections 1055
CADD Applications 2-D 1061
CADD Applications . 1063
Professional Perspective 1064
Math Applications . 1064
Web Site Research 1065
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
(HVAC), and Pattern Development Test . 1065
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
(HVAC), and Pattern Development
Problems 1066
Chapter 24—Civil Drafting 1072
Learning Objectives . 1072
The Engineering Design Application 1072
Introduction to Survey: Direction 1073
Surveying . 1075
Plotting Traverses . 1077
Distance and Elevation . 1078
Property Descriptions in Civil
Engineering . 1082
Beginning a Civil Engineering Drafting Project 1084
Introduction to Site Plans . 1092
Introduction to Grading Plans . 1095
Subdivision Plans . 1095
Metrics in Site Planning 1100
Introduction to Site Plan Layout . 1100
Site Design Considerations 1101
Laying Out Property Lines 1103
CADD Applications 2-D 1106
Drawing Contour Lines 1107
Drawing Site Profi les 1109
Drawing the Grading Plan 1110
CADD Applications 2-D 1113
CADD Applications 3-D 1115
CADD Applications . 1116
Green Technology Application . 1117
Professional Perspective 1119
Math Applications . 1120
Web Site Research 1120
Civil Drafting Test 1121
Civil Drafting Problems 1121
Piping Details . 910
Drawing Sheets 910
Drawing Revisions . 914
CADD Applications 3-D . 914
CADD Applications 2-D . 916
Pipe Drafting Layout Techniques 916
CADD Applications 917
Professional Perspective . 919
Math Applications 919
Web Site Research . 920
Industrial Process Piping Test 920
Industrial Process Piping Problems 920
Chapter 22—Structural Drafting 928
Learning Objectives 928
The Engineering Design Application . 928
Introduction 929
Structural Engineering 930
Line Work on Structural Drawings 930
Lettering on Structural Drawings 933
Coordination of Working Drawings 933
Structural Drafting Related to Construction
Systems 936
Concrete Construction 936
Concrete Block Construction . 945
Wood Construction 947
Steel Construction . 960
Common Connection Methods . 966
Green Technology Application 969
Components in a Set of Structural Drawings . 972
Drawing Revisions . 979
CADD Applications 983
CADD Applications 3-D . 983
General Construction Specifi cations . 986
Specifi cations for Commercial Construction . 986
Green Technology Application 988
Basic Drawing Layout Steps 988
Pictorial Drawings . 991
Green Technology Application 992
CADD Applications 997
Professional Perspective . 998
Math Applications 998
Web Site Research . 999
Structural Drafting Test 1000
Structural Drafting Problems 1000
Chapter 23— Heating, Ventilating, and
Air-Conditioning (HVAC),
and Pattern Development 1015
Learning Objectives . 1015
The Engineering Design Application 1015
Introduction . 1016x CONTENTS
Appendix F— Wire Gages (Inches) 1171
Appendix G— Sheet Metal Gages (Inches) 1172
Appendix H— Sheet Metal Thicknesses (Millimeters) . 1173
Appendix I— Standard Allowances, Tolerances, and Fits . 1174
Table 5— Allowances and Tolerances
Preferred Hole Basis Fits . 1174
Allowances and Tolerances
Preferred Shaft Basis Fits . 1174
Allowances and Tolerances
Description of Preferred Fits 1175
Table 6— American National Standard Fits—
Running and Sliding Fits . 1176
American National Standard Fits—
Clearance Locational Fits 1178
American National Standard Fits—
Transition Locational Fits 1180
American National Standard Fits—
Interference Locational Fits . 1181
American National Standard Fits—
Force and Shrink Fits . 1182
Table 7— Metric Limits and Fits—Preferred
Hole Basis Clearance Fits . 1184
Metric Limits and Fits—
Preferred Shaft Basis
Clearance Fits . 1186
Table 8— Metric Tolerance Zones—Metric
Tolerance Zones for Internal
(Hole) Dimensions . 1188
Metric Tolerance Zones—
Tolerance Zones for
External (Shaft) Dimensions 1189
Appendix J— Unifi ed Screw Thread Variations . 1190
Table 9— Unifi ed Standard Screw
Thread Series 1191
Appendix K— Metric Screw Thread Variations . 1192
Appendix L— ASTM and SAE Grade Markings for Steel
Bolts and Screws . 1193
Appendix M— Cap Screw Specifi cations 1194
Table 10— Dimensions of Hex Cap Screws
(Finished Hex Bolts) . 1194
Table 11— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Head Cap Screws
(1960 Series) . 1195
Table 12— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Flat Countersunk
Head Cap Screws 1196
Table 13— Dimensions of Slotted Flat
Countersunk Head Cap
Screws 1197
Table 14— Dimensions of Slotted Round
Head Cap Screws 1198
Table 15— Dimensions of Slotted Fillister
Head Cap Screws 1198
SECTION 6
ENGINEERING DESIGN 1129
Chapter 25— The Engineering
Design Process 1130
Learning Objectives . 1130
The Engineering Design Application 1130
Introduction . 1131
Engineering Design and Industry
Management Models 1131
An Engineering Design Process 1134
The Phase Gate Design Process 1137
After Full Production 1147
Creativity and Innovation in Design 1147
Change and the Impact on the Design
Process . 1149
Design Deliverables . 1150
The Design Process Responds to Changes
in Engineering . 1150
Green Technology Application . 1151
Professional Perspective 1151
Web Site Research 1153
The Engineering Design Process Test 1153
The Engineering Design Process Problems . 1153
SECTION 7
ENGINEERING
DRAWING AND
DESIGN STUDENT CD 1157
Descriptive Geometry I 1158
Descriptive Geometry II 1158
Engineering Charts and Graphs 1158
Engineering Drawing and
Design Math Applications 1158
Fluid Power . 1158
APPENDICES
Appendix A— Abbreviations . 1163
Appendix B— Conversion Charts:
Table 1—Inches to Millimeters 1166
Table 2—Millimeters to Inches 1166
Table 3—Inch/Metric Equivalents . 1166
Table 4— Inch/Metric—Conversion—Length,
Area, Capacity, Weight . 1167
Appendix C— Mathematical Rules Related
to the Circle 1168
Appendix D— General Applications of SAE Steels 1169
Appendix E— Surface Roughness Produced by Common
Production Methods 1170CONTENTS xi
Appendix X— Valve Specifi cations . 1226
Table 32— Wrought Steel Pipe and Taper
Pipe Threads—American
National Standard. . 1229
Table 33— Cast Iron Pipe Screwed Fittings,
125 LB—American National
Standard . 1230
Appendix Y— PVC Pipe Dimensions in Inches . 1231
Appendix Z— Rectangular and Round HVAC Duct
Sizes 1233
Appendix AA— Spur and Helical Gear Data . 1234
Appendix BB— CADD Drawing Sheet Sizes, Settings,
and Scale Factors . 1235
CD Appendices: There is a CD available at the back of
Engineering Drawing and Design, 5e. The CD contains a
variety of valuable features for you to use as you learn
engineering drawing and design. The CD icon, placed throughout
this textbook, directs you to features found on the CD.
CD Appendix A— American National Standards of Interest to
Designers, Architects, and Drafters
CD Appendix B— ASME Standard Line Types
CD Appendix C— Dimensioning and Tolerancing Symbols
and ASME Dimensioning Rules
CD Appendix D— Designation of Welding and Allied
Processes by Letters
CD Appendix E— Symbols for Pipe Fittings and Valves
CD Appendix F— Computer Terminology and Hardware
CD Instructions: Access the CD to view the CD chapters,
appendices, chapter tests, and selected chapter problems:
• Place the CD in your CD drive.
• The CD should open (start) automatically.
• If the CD does not start automatically, pick the Start button in
the lower left corner of your screen, and select Run, . followed by accessing the CD drive on your computer.
• Pick the desired chapter, appendix, test, or problem application button on the left side of the CD window.
Glossary . 1239
Index . 1273
Appendix N— Machine Screw Specifications . 1199
Table 16— Dimensions of Slotted Flat
Countersunk Head Machine
Screws 1199
Appendix O— Set Screw Specifications . 1200
Table 17— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Set Screws 1200
Appendix P— Hex Nut Specifi cations 1202
Table 18— Dimensions of Hex Nuts
and Hex Jam Nuts . 1202
Appendix Q— Key and Keyseat Specifi cations . 1203
Table 19— Woodruff Key Dimensions 1203
Table 20— Woodruff Keyseat Dimensions . 1205
Table 21— Key Size Versus Shaft Diameter 1207
Table 22— Key Dimensions and Tolerances 1208
Table 23— Gib Head Nominal Dimensions 1208
Table 24— Class 2 Fit for Parallel and
Taper Keys . 1209
Appendix R— Tap Drill Sizes . 1210
Table 25— Decimal Equivalents and Tap
Drill Sizes (Letter and
Number Drill Sizes) 1210
Appendix S— Concrete Reinforcing Bar (Rebar)
Specifi cations 1211
Appendix T— Common Welded Wire Reinforcement
Specifi cations . 1212
Table 26— Wire Size Comparison 1212
Table 27— Common Styles of Metric
Welded Wire Reinforcement
(WWR) . 1214
Appendix U— ASTM A500 Square and Rectangular
Structural Tubing Specifi cations . 1215
Appendix V— Structural Metal Shape Designations . 1216
Table 28— W, M, S, and HP Shapes —
Dimensions 1216
Table 29— Channels American
Standard and
Miscellaneous—Dimensions 1221
Appendix W— Corrosion-Resistant Pipe Fittings . 1223
Table 30— Weldings, Fittings, and Forged
Flanges—Dimensions 1223
Table 31— Threaded Fittings and
Threaded Couplings,
Reducers, and Caps 1225
I N D E X
Air-duct sizing formulas, 1045, 1064
Airflow analysis, 994
Air-handling unit (AHU), 1044
Air supply registers, 1016–17
Air terminals, 1044
Air-to-air heat exchangers, 1020
AISC. See American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC)
AISC/AWS standards
prequalifi ed welded joints, 765
AISI. See American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI)
AISI/SAE steel numbering system,
123–24, 132
AL. See Application list (AL)
Alberta Energy Utility Board, 874
Alberti Battista, Leon, 11
Alcoa, 1021
Algor® software, 116
Alibre, Inc., 73
Alibre Design, 73
Alibre Personal Edition, 73
Aligned dimensioning, 326
and piping drawings, 900
Aligned sections, 446
Alkyds, 128
All around dimensioning symbol, 325
All over dimensioning symbol, 325
Allowance, 355. See also Tolerances
defined, 321
for metric threads, 404
Alloy cast iron, 123
Alloys
commonly used in manufacturing,
123, 124–25
section lines for, 202
selection of, 131–32
Unifi ed Numbering System for,
125–26
All-weather driveway surfaces, 1103
Alternate view placement, 259
Aluminum
basic features, 124–25
in green construction, 971
section lines for, 202
selection of, 131–32
Aluminum for Future Generations, 126
American Chemistry Council (ACC)
plastic resin identifi cation codes, 129
plastics selection guidelines, 129–31
American Design Drafting/Digital Design
Association (ADDA), 28
chapters, 28
employment center, 29
history of, 28
professional certification, 28
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA), 692, 696
American Institute of Architects (AIA),
94, 1016
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC), 765
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 123
American National screw thread, 393
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 1144
American National Standard taper pipe
threads, 396–97, 403
American National thread form, 395
American Society for Quality (ASQ), 1134
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) standards. See ASME standards
American Water Works Association
(AWWA), 877
American Welding Society (AWS), 765
drafting standards, 30
AMP. See Amplifier (AMP)
Amplifi er (AMP), 836, 838
Analysis of EDA software tools, 850
Analytic geometry, 11
Analyzing working drawings, 620–27
Anchor bolts, 942, 972, 975
Anchors, wood to masonry, 947, 956
Angle of projection block, 58, 59
Angle of repose, 1091, 1110, 1111
Angles
basic features, 220
bisecting, 228
dimensioning, 335
of oscillation in four-bar linkages, 681
structural steel, 963
Angle valves, 888, 889
Angular contact ball bearings, 709
Angular dimension line, 324
Page numbers in italics indicate figures.
A
ABR. See Polyacrylic rubber (ABR)
Abrasive saw, 144
ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS)
AC (alternating current) circuits
elementary diagrams, 814
ACC. See American Chemistry
Council (ACC)
Acetal, 127
Acetate, 127
Acme thread, 396, 404
Acorn nuts, 417
Acoustical liner (AL), 1044
Acrylics, 127
Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA), 127
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 127
for pipe, 877
Active device, 832
Actual local size, 320
Actual mating size, 320–21
Actual size, 320–21
Actuator, 891
Acute angle, 220
Adaptive parts, 109
ADDA. See American Design Drafting/
Digital Design Association (ADDA)
Addendum formula, 697, 698, 704, 706
Addendums to contracts, 914, 979
Additive process, 844–45
Adhesion, 122
Adjacent views, 266
Advanced research, 1135–36
Aeronautical drafter, 15
AGMA. See American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA)
Agonic line, 1075
A hubs, 692
AIA. See American Institute of
Architects (AIA)
AIA CAD Layer Guidelines, 1016
Air-conditioning circuit and cycle
diagram, 1017
Air-duct calculators, 1044–451274 INDEX
Autodesk Seek free Web service, 1061–63
Autodesk Vault, 73
Autodesk® Seek, 848, 917–18, 997
Automatic cutter compensation, 146
Automatic pencil, 41
Automotive design drafter, 15
Automotive industry
plastics selection, 129–31
Auxiliary sections, 448
Auxiliary views, 292
analysis and review, 300–01, 302
CADD applications, 304–06
curves plotting in, 297
descriptive geometry and, 302
dimensioning, 344–45
enlargements, 297
full view, 293
layout process, 292, 302–03
location on different sheets, 298
math applications, 307
partial view, 293, 295
professional perspective, 307
removed views, drawing, 297, 298
rotated, 298–99
secondary, 299–300, 301
visualization, 295–96
AWS. See American Welding Society (AWS)
AWWA. See American Water Works
Association (AWWA)
Axes
creating for isometric sketches, 184
of pyramids, 222
Axial forces, defined, 930
Axis (thread), 394
Axis datums. See Datum axis
Axis geometric control, 495–96
Axis perpendicularity, 498
Axis straightness
effect of RFS on, 496
tolerances, 504
Axonometric projection, 563
types of, 566
Azimuth
measuring, 1073–74
traverses, 1076–77
B
Babbitt
section lines for, 202
Backfl ow valves, 890
Backsight, 1079
Back solving, 1143
Backward compatible, 1144
Ball bearings, 709
Balloons, 575, 610
identifi cation numbers in, 607, 715
to identify engineering changes, 613
leaders styles for, 610
piping notes in, 909
with page identification, 612
Ball valves, 887, 888
Band saw, 144
Bars (steel), 963
Base circle, 684
diameter, 697, 699
engineering change documentation,
599, 614
fasteners and springs, 393
lettering, 207
line, 54–57
line conventions, 193–94, 194
pictorial drawings, 563
undimensioned drawings, 780, 792
unit, 47
Aspect ratio, 1044
ASQ. See American Society for Quality (ASQ)
Assemblies
constraints, 108
defined, 987
model creation, 108
parameter-driven, 109
welded, 749
Assembly drawings, 444, 597, 603–04
basic features, 603
CADD tools and options, 614
defined, 603
detail assembly, 605–06
erection assembly, 606, 609
gear and bearing, 715–16
general assembly, 605
layout assembly, 604–05, 606
and parts list, 611, 622
pictorial assembly, 607, 610
printed circuit, 844, 846
for screwdriver, 622, 623, 624
subassembly, 606–07
types of, 604–07
Assembly files, 106
Assembly models, 615
Associated Lists, 811
Association Connecting Electronics
Industries (IPC), 842, 843
Associative dimension, 347–48
Assumed azimuth, 1074
ASTM standards, 123, 938, 967
manufacturing metals, 122
steel pipes, tubes, and fittings, 877
AT symbol, 943
Attribute, defined, 207
Attributes, with symbols in CADD, 901
AutoCAD, 71, 73, 97
assembly drawing tools, 614
detail drawing tools, 601
detailed thread representations with, 401
DIMLIN command, 345
drawing aids in, 268
enlargements in, 269
geometric tolerancing with, 548–52
MLEADER command, 406
REVCLOUD command, 916, 985
schematic thread representations
with, 400
XLINE command, 267
AutoCAD DesignCenter, 101
Autodesk, Inc., 73
Autodesk Algor Simulation, 73
Autodesk Ecotect, 993, 995
Autodesk Green Building Studio,
993, 994, 995
Autodesk Inventor, 73, 116, 117
Autodesk Inventor Fusion, 627
Autodesk Revit, 73
Angular dimensions, 329
Angularity tolerances, 511–12
Angular perspective. See Two-point
perspective
Angular surfaces, dimensioning, 335
Angular units, on engineering drawings, 329
Animation(s), 84–86
e-learning, 86
engineering, 85–86
entertainment, 86
storyboarding, 86
techniques, 86
Annealing, 124
Annotations (electronic), 835
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
ANSI/ASME standards
pipe sizes and wall thickness, 878–79
welding symbols, 748
ANSI/ISA standards
piping symbols, 907
ANSI standards
gear drawings, 693, 696
Antibacklash spring, 424
Apparent overlap, 553
Application block, 61
Application list (AL), 612
Applications
job, 26
patent, 31–32
ArchiCAD, 74
Architectural drafters, 15, 16
Architectural electrical symbols,
820, 821–22
Architectural lettering styles, 208–9, 209
Architect’s scale, 49–50
Archive drawings, storage of, 64
Arc length symbol, 325
Arcs, 223
CADD commands for, 226
concentric, 227
dimensioning, 336–37
drawing, 233
isometric, 187, 570
showing in multiviews, 262–66
sketching, 179–80, 187
Argon (CADD software), 73
Arm drafting machine, 13, 45
ARRAY command, 401
Arrowheads, 324, 330
on dimension and leader lines, 324
rules for, 199–200, 200
in welding symbols, 750, 755, 757–59
Arrowless dimensioning, 381
Arrow side of welded joint, 755, 757
ASA. See Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA)
As-built drawings, 620
Ashlar-Vellum, 73
ASME codes and standards
piping and pipelines collection, 876
slip-on pipe flanges, 885
ASME drafting standards, 29
ASME/ISO standards
multiview drawings, 249
ASME standards, 319–20, 349, 362, 574
dimension symbols, 325
electrical and electronic drawing, 811, 842INDEX 1275
Box beams, 955, 959
Box method, 584–85
of isometric construction, 568–69
sketching circles, 176–77
Brainstorming, 39
Brass, 125, 202
Braze welding, 747
Brazing, 746–47, 881
Brazolet, 884
BREAK, 453
Break corner, 151, 264
Breaking chain, 1079
Break lines, 332, 334, 336
in partial views, 257, 258
types, 203
Break symbol
for a cylindrical solid shape, 452
for a cylindrical tubular shape, 452
Bridges and culverts standards, 1103
Brinell hardness test, 124
Broken-out sections, 448, 603
BROKEN VIEW, 453
Bronze
for bearings, 709
composition of, 125
section lines for, 202
Building design, analyzing, 913, 995
Building information modeling (BIM), 992
Building life cycle, 987
Building sections. See also Sections
functions in structural drawings, 976,
978, 979
Burrs, 151, 350
Bus, 817
Bushings, 709, 885
Business management strategy, 1133
Bus layout drawing, 817–19
Butterfl y valves, 888, 889
Buttress thread forms, 396
Butt-welded steel pipe, 877
Butt welding, 879
Butyl rubber, 128
Butyrate, 127
C
CAB. See Cellulose-acetatebutyrate (CAB)
Cabinet oblique drawing, 576, 578
Cable assemblies
electrical drafting, 813, 814
Cable diagrams
electrical drafting, 813
Cable harness diagrams. See Cable
assemblies
CAD. See Computer-aided design (CAD);
Computer-aided drafting (CAD)
CAD/CAM integration, 87, 164
CAD/CAM systems, 64, 87
elements of, 164
CADD. See Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
CADD/CAM, dimensioning for, 381–82
Cadence Design Systems, Inc., 850
CAE. See Computer-aided engineering
(CAE)
CAGE code, 58
precision sheet metal, 782–87
process, bend allowance and, 782
Bend instructions, 780
Bend radius, bend allowance and, 782
Bend relief, 786
Bend table, 780, 782
Bend tangent line, 780
Bend transition, 785
Bentley Systems, Inc., 73
BE pipe. See Beveled end (BE) pipe
Beveled end (BE) pipe, 879
Bevel gears, 694–95, 704–05
Bevel groove welds, 753–54
B hubs, 692
Bias, 832
Bidding requirements, defined, 929
Bilateral tolerances, 321, 351, 532, 534
Bill of materials. See also Parts list (PL)
guidelines for, 608, 612
on pipe spool sheets, 910
BIM. See Building information
modeling (BIM)
Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor
(BOOM), 91
Binocular overlap, 91
Bisecting lines and angles, 228, 229
Bitmap images, 407
Black belts, 1134
Blacksmithing, 138
Blanking, 791
chemical, 145
Blind flanges, 885, 886
Blind holes, 147, 395, 411
BLOCK command, 766
Block diagram
electrical, 811
electronic, 827–28, 829
Blocks, 1084
of subdivisions, 1084
Block shading, 584
Block technique, 181–83, 182
Blow molding, 154–55
Blue-line prints. See Diazo prints
Blueprint, 13, 62
BM. See Bench marks (BM)
Board, 13
Body of thread, 394
Bolt circles, 196–97, 197
Bolted connections, specifying, 967
Bolts and nuts, 408, 409
Bond beams, 947, 950
Boolean operation, 104
BOOM. See Binocular Omni-Orientation
Monitor (BOOM)
Border, 57
Bores
of bearings, 710
of gears, 692
Boring techniques, 148
Bosses, 149, 150
Bottoming taps, 395, 411
Bottom-up assembly, 108
Boundary
defined, 449
Bow compass, 42
Bow dividers, 43
Box, developing, 1046, 1047
Base features in solid modeling, 107
Baseline, 1083
dimensioning, 332
Basic dimensions, 321, 479, 485
Basic Facts about Registering a Trademark, 32
Basic size, 358
Basic solid models, 104
Bead chain, 736
Beams
compass, 42
defined, 928
Bearing (direction)
of electrical supply lines, 817
expressing, 1074, 1075
Bearings, 709
bore, 710
codes, 710
dimensions, 711
drawing, 710
with gear assemblies, 643–44, 715–16
lubrication requirements of, 713
major types, 709–10, 710–11
mountings, 715
numbering system, 711
oil grooving of, 713
pressures, 936
selection, 710
symbols for, 710
Beginning points, 1075, 1078
Begin vertical curve point, 1091
Bell and spigot connections, 880
Bell Crank, 680
Belt drive ratio, 734
Belt drives, 727
advantages of, 728
basic purpose, 728
common confi gurations, 728, 729
design, 730, 731
length calculation, 741
selecting, 730–34
types, 728–29, 730
Belt length, 741
Belts, 728
and belt drives, 728
defined, 728
fl at belts, 729
positive drive belts, 729, 730
types, 728
V-belts, 728–29
Belt velocity, 734
Benches, 1110
Bench marking. See Existing product
research
Bench marks (BM), 1078
fi nding distance and elevation from,
1079, 1080
symbol for, 1078
Bend allowance, 776, 782
calculating, 782–85
defined, 782
Bend angle, bend allowance and, 782
Bend, defined, 777
Bend diagrams (rebars), 943, 948
Bend facets, 786
Bending
corner to round, sheet metal, 786
metal, 1381276 INDEX
Chopped fi ber spraying, 158, 159
Chordal addendum, 697, 698
Chordal thickness, 697, 698
Chromium steel, 123
C hubs, 692
Chucks, lathe, 140–41
CIM. See Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
Circles
basic properties, 222–23
CADD commands for, 226
concentric, 227
dimensioning, 321
drawing, 223, 226
fi nding distances between, 629
isometric, 186, 570
in perspective drawings, 582–83
prime, 688–89
showing in multiviews, 262–66
sketching, 176–79, 177, 178
Circle tangent, drawing, 223
Circle templates, 44
Circuit, 811. See also Electrical drafting
Circularity tolerance, 505–07
Circular pattern, 107–8
Circular pitch, 697, 703
Circular runout, 544, 545
Circulator, 1018
Circumference, 222
Circumscribed circle, 221
Circumscribed polygons, 230
Cire perdue technique, 137
Civil CADD technician, 14
Civil drafters, 15–16, 17, 1072
Civil drafting, 1072
CADD applications, 1113–17
contour lines, 1107–09
cut and fill, 1091, 1092
distance and elevation, 1078–82
grading plans, 1095–98, 1099, 1100,
1101, 1110–11, 1112
green technology application, 1117–19
math applications, 1120
plotting traverses, 1077–78
property descriptions, 1082–83
property lines, laying out, 1103–07
site design considerations, 1101–03
site plan basics, 1092–95, 1100
site plan layout, 1100–01
site profiles, 1109–10
starting, 1084–91, 1092
survey, 1073–77
Civil engineer’ scales, 47–49
Civil engineering drafter, 14
Civil engineering drawings
contour lines, 1086
direction concepts, 1073–75
highway layout, 1087–92
property descriptions, 1082–83
starting, 1084–86
surveying basics, 1075–76
Civil piping, 869
Classes of threads, 394
Clay pipe, 878
CLB. See Center line of bend (CLB)
Cleaning manual drafting equipment, 41
Clearance fi ts, 355, 358
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment
(CAVE), 91, 92
CE. See Concurrent engineering (CE)
Cellulose, 127
Cellulose-acetatebutyrate (CAB)
for pipe, 877
Cementing pipe, 881
Center dashes, 324
Center distance
for belt drives, 728, 729
for chain drives, 728, 735, 737
spur gear formula, 697
Centerline method
sketching circles, 177, 177–78
Center line of bend (CLB), 780
Centerlines, 324
as connection lines in exploded
assemblies, 575
as extension line, 198, 324, 343
dimensioning, in wood frame
construction, 960
of isometric construction, 569–70
in piping drawings, 895
precedence in multiviews, 266, 318
rules for, 196–97
spacing and offset, 324
Center plane datums. See Datum
center plane
Centers, lathe, 140, 141
Central forced-air systems, 1016–17
Centrifugal casting, 136
Ceramics, 122
Certification, 25
Chain, 1079
classifi cation and types, 734
Chain dimensioning, 331–32
Chain drives, 727, 734
advantages of, 728
classifi cation and types, 734
design, 737
light-duty chain, 736
nonprecision chains, 736
precision chains, 734–36
roller chain drive selection, 737–41
sprockets, 734, 735
Chain lines, 203, 204
Chain pitch, 735
Chamfers, 150
dimensioning, 335
showing in multiviews, 262–63
thread, 394, 398, 411
Champions, 1133
Change Manager, 627–28
Change Manager Environment, 627
Change order (CO), 616–18, 619, 624, 1038
Chart drawings, 327
Checker, 59
Check valves, 890
Chemical blanking, 145
Chemical machining, 145, 147
Chemical milling, 145
Chilled cast iron, 122
Chip, 837
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
refrigerants, 1022
Chloroprene rubber, 128–29
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), 129
Calculation, bend allowance, 782–85
Calendering process, 155
Camber, in glu-lam beams, 953
Cam design, 691
Cam displacement diagrams, 684, 691, 692
CADD applications, 691
creating, 684–87
development of, 687
as guide to manufacturing, 687–88
Cam followers, 684
Cam manufacturing, 691
CADD applications, 691
Cam profiles, 687, 688, 691
CADD applications, 691
Cam roller followers, 684
Cams
basic design features, 682
creating profi les for, 687–88
displacement diagram creation,
684–87
importance of understanding, 717
sketching, 182
types of, 683
CAM system. See Computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM) system
Cantilever beams, 958
Capacitance, 835
Capacitor, 829, 835
Caps, pipe, 883, 885
Cap screws, 409, 410, 417
CAQC. See Computer-aided quality
control (CAQC)
Carat, 125
Carbon steel pipe, 877
Carburization, 124
Careers
engineering drawing, 14–25
ethics, 30–31
fi nding employment, 26–27, 37
in related areas, 118
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 112–13
Cartesian coordinate system, 11, 225
Cartographer, 15
Cartographic drafter, 15
Case hardening, 124
Casting drafters, 15
Casting drawing and design, 361,
363, 364, 366
draft, 362
fi llets and rounds in casting, 362
shrinkage allowance, 362
Castings
major types, 135–37
simulating in solid models, 166
steel, 123
thermoset plastic, 157
Cast iron
for pipe, 877
section lines for, 202
types, 122–23
Catalogs, 622, 623
Catalog feature, 107, 108
Cathode, 830
CATIA, 73–74
Cavalier oblique projection, 576, 578
CAVE. See Cave Automatic Virtual
Environment (CAVE)INDEX 1277
skill standards, 30, 111–12
software manufacturers, 73–75
software products, 71, 72–75
solid modeling techniques, 104–11
sprockets, 735
standards, 111–12
structural drafting tools, 983
surface modeling techniques, 102–3
sustainable-design considerations, 115
symbols, 96–97
technical illustration, 88
technician, 14
terrain model, 1115
thread notes, 406, 408
thread representations, 407
three-dimensional illustration
capabilities, 588–89
tolerancing with, 360–61
two-dimensional drawings, 71, 76, 77
virtual reality, 89–93
web-based collaboration, 79–80
welding drawings with, 766, 767
workstation, 71, 72, 113
Computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD), software programs
drawing screw heads with, 417
for drawing screw thread
representations, 398
fastener tools, 422
spring creation tools, 429
Computer-aided drafting (CAD), 8, 10
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 84
in CIM systems, 163
electronics, 849
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
system, 87, 163. See also CAD/CAM
systems
Computer-aided quality control
(CAQC), 163
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM),
88, 161, 162–64
Computer numerical control (CNC)
systems, 691, 796
in CIM systems, 163
machining considerations in, 146
role in CAD/CAM systems, 87–88, 164
Computers in engineering drawings, 10.
See also Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
Concentric arcs, 227
Concentric circles, 223, 227
Concentricity tolerances, 529–30, 531
Concentric reducer, 881, 883
Concept phase of phase gate design process,
1137–40
design specification, 1140
industrial design, 1137, 1139
quality function deployment (QFD),
1139–40
Concept review, 1140
Concrete
construction methods, 936–47, 948, 950,
951, 952
section lines for, 202
weight and cubic yard calculations, 998
Concrete masonry unit, 945–47
Concrete pipe, 878
cam displacement diagrams, 691
cam manufacturing, 691
cam profiles, 691
in CIM systems, 161, 162
common geometric constructions,
224–25
computer-aided engineering, 84
computer-aided manufacturing, 87
computer-integrated manufacturing,
88, 88
computer numerical control, 87–88
constraints, 69
creating springs, 429
defined, 70
design vs. industrial design, 1139
design formats, 75–79
design planning, 112
detail drawing tools, 601
dimensioning with, 345–47
drafters and, 14
in drafting/designing of precision sheet
metal, 783
drawing accuracy with, 304
drawing and editing, 93, 94
drawing springs, 428
drawings templates, 99, 100–101
ergonomics, 112–14
factors, 75–76
fastener symbol libraries, 421–22
fastener tools, 422
fi le management, 101
fi le-referencing tools, 97
geometric tolerancing with, 547–52
graphical user interface (GUI), 72
hardware, 71
interface, 72
layers for HVAC drawings, 1043
lift hook, 69, 70
line-drawing techniques, 204–6
line standards and layers, 93, 94, 95–96
major applications in industry, 79–88
manual drafting and, 40
manufacturing materials applications,
133–34
MCAD software, 72
mechanism design features, 683
vs. microfilm, 64
multiview tools and options,
267–69, 275
note placement, 350
operator, 14
parts libraries, 33–34
peripheral equipment, 71
pictorial drawings with, 585–87
piping models, 914–15
piping symbols, 900, 901–2, 901–7
plotting considerations, 98, 99–100
productivity with, 112–14
product life cycle management, 73, 79
program, 445
property line layout tools, 1106
prototyping, 80–84
reusability of, 33–34
reusing content, 96–97
revision cloud tools, 916, 984, 985
site plan tools, 1113–17
sketching, 187–91
Clearance in spur gears, 697
Closed-loop robotic systems, 163
Closed traverses, 1075–76, 1077
Close running fits, 357
Close sliding fits, 357
Cluster gears, 694, 701
drawing, 701, 702
CNC. See Computer numerical
control (CNC)
CNC program, 87, 164. See also Computer
numerical control (CNC) systems
CO. See Change order (CO)
Coatings, dimensioning with, 361
Coaxial features, position tolerancing,
519–21, 522, 523
Cobalt (CADD software), 73
Cock valves, 887
CoCreate, 75
Coded section lines, 202, 443–44
Codes
plastic resin identifi cation codes, 129
welding, 765
Coils, 423, 829, 835
Cold air (CA), 1016–17
Cold-rolled steel (CRS), 123
Cold saws, 144, 145
Collaborative engineering, 1152
Collets, lathe, 140–41
Collision detection testing, 1028
Color-coding, 1029
Color gamut, 91
Columbium, 125
Column reinforcing, 938
Commercial construction, specifications for,
986–88
Commercial drafter, 16
Commercial electrical plans, 819–21,
823, 824
Compass-bearing traverses, 1076,
1077, 1078
Compasses, 42
beam compass, 42
bow compass, 42
emulating with hand, 178
Component terminal holes, 842–43
Composite positional tolerancing, 517–19,
520, 521
Composite profi le tolerance, 543
Composites, 122, 158
manufacturing, 158, 159
Compression length (springs), 423, 424
Compression molding, 157, 158, 159
Computer-aided design (CAD), 8, 10. See
also Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
defined, 70
sustainable-design practices, 116–17
Computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD), 10, 13, 14
3-D digitizers with, 915
adding text, 210–11
animation, 84–86
assembly drawing tools, 614,
615–16, 622
auxiliary views, 304–06
basic techniques, 93–101
cam and gear design tools, 6921278 INDEX
Crossed helical gears, 695
Cross fittings, 881, 883, 885
Cross-functional team approach, 1135
Cross-reference zoning, 298, 456
Crown backing, 704, 705
CRS. See Cold-rolled steel (CRS)
CSM. See Chlorosulfonated
polyethylene (CSM)
Cubes, 186
Cubic feet per minute (CFM), effect on duct
sizing, 1040
Cul-de-sacs, 1104
Cumulative trauma disorder, 112
Curve data, 1087
Curved line, 219
Curve length, 1087
Curves. See also Arcs; Irregular curves
in auxiliary views, 297
in civil drafting plan views, 1087–88
in civil drafting profi le views, 1091
in perspective drawings, 582–83
in property lines, 1103–04
in surface modeling, 102
Cushion sections, in V-belts, 729
Customer focus, 1152
Cut, 777
Cut and fi ll drawing, 1091, 1092, 1110,

  1. See also Grading plans
    Cutsheet, 1029, 1031
    Cutting line, 1088
    Cutting metal, 138
    Cutting-plane line, 200, 200–201, 440–42,
    1088
    in highway profi le drawings, 1088
    precedence in multiviews, 266
    structural drafting practices, 931, 932
    Cycles (cam), 684
    Cycloidal motion, 686
    Cylinder intersecting cone, 1058, 1060–61
    Cylinder pattern development, truncated,
    1048–49
    Cylindrical break lines, 203
    Cylindrical elbows, 1050
    Cylindrical features
    intersections in isometric drawings, 570
    position tolerancing for, 513
    showing in multiviews, 262, 265
    Cylindrical roller bearings, 710
    Cylindrical shapes, dimensioning of, 334
    Cylindricity tolerance, 507
    D
    Dardelet thread forms, 396, 397
    Dassault Systèmes, 73
    Data list (DL), 612
    Datum axis, 488–89
    Datum center plane, 490–92
    Datum dimensioning
    best for CNC, 146
    Datum features, 477
    coaxial, 489
    defined, 478
    simulators, 478–79, 499
    symbols for, 478, 480, 488, 490
    Datum precedence, 499–501
    Continuous stave wood pipe, 878
    Continuous-White layer, 94
    Contour flange, 787
    Contour interval, 1092
    Contour lines, 1086, 1093, 1107–09
    drawing, 1086, 1107–09
    topographic concepts, 1092
    Contours
    defi ned in civil engineering, 1086
    dimensioning, 337–38
    showing in multiviews, 262–66
    Contract documents, defined, 929
    Contractor drawing, 1028
    Control charting, 165, 169
    Control joints, 976
    Controlled radius (CR), 337
    defined, 322
    dimensioning, 322, 325
    Control limits, 165–66
    Control points, 102
    in closed traverses, 1075
    survey, 1107
    Control valves, 891
    body and damper symbols, 906
    Conventional breaks, 452–53
    Conventional machining
    prototyping by, 84
    Conventional tolerancing, 476
    Coordinate method, 582, 584–85
    of isometric construction, 568–69
    Coordinate systems, 1073, 1074
    Copes, 135
    Coplanar bends, 785
    Coplanar profi le tolerance, 542
    Coplanar surface datums, 487–88
    Coplanar surfaces, 542
    Copper alloys, 125, 202
    Copper pipe, 877
    Copper tubing, 877
    Copyright, 31, 1141
    Cores, casting, 135–36
    Cork, section lines for, 202
    Corner relief, 787
    Corrosive fl uids, protecting valves from, 889
    Cosine, 1079
    Cotangent, 1079
    Counterbores
    dimensioning, 325, 339–40
    drawing, 148, 149
    specifying for bolted connections, 968
    Counterdrill, 148, 149
    dimensioning, 340
    Countersink
    dimensioning, 325, 340
    drawing, 148, 149
    Coupler, 680
    Coupling circuitry, 832
    Couplings (pipe), 882, 885
    Coupolet, 884
    Courses, 1075, 1077–78
    Cover sheet, 1029
    CR. See Controlled radius (CR)
    Cradle-to-cradle design, 1021
    Cranks, 680
    Creativity in design, 1147–49
    principles of, 1148–49
    Crest (threads), 394
    Concrete slabs
    defined, 936
    plan, 972, 975
    specifying in drawings, 943, 972, 975
    Concurrent engineering (CE), 1134
    Conductor lines. See Conductor traces
    Conductor traces
    printed circuits, 840, 841
    Conductor width and spacing, on printed
    circuits, 842
    Conduit layout and detail drawings,
    819, 820
    Coned disk, 425
    Cone distance, 704, 705
    Cone pattern development, truncated, 1051
    Cones
    dimensioning, 335–36
    developing, 1050–51
    Confusing symbols, 832
    Congruency, of geometric shapes, 998
    Conical features
    dimensioning, 335–36
    profi le of, 543
    Conical taps, 1037
    Connecting rod, 680
    Connecting traverses, 1075–76, 1077
    Connection lines, 575
    in exploded assemblies, 575
    Connection methods, industrial piping,
    879–81
    Connectors
    in foundation plans, 972, 975
    joist and beam, 956, 958
    in structural design, 966–69
    Consider ease of recycling, 1152
    Constant force spring, 426
    Constant velocity motion, 685
    Constraints, 69, 105, 348
    for geometric construction, 225
    levels, 105, 106
    to lines, 204–5, 205
    Construction documents, defined, 929
    Construction drafter, 14
    Construction drawings, 929
    Construction lines
    with auxiliary views, 305–06
    basic features, 195
    to create multiview layouts, 273, 274
    sketching circles with, 176–77
    use in CADD, 267, 268
    Construction methods
    concrete block, 945–47, 950, 951, 952
    engineered wood products, 953, 955,
    959, 960
    importance of understanding, 936
    laminated beam, 950, 953, 957,
    958, 959
    poured and precast concrete, 936–42,
    947, 948, 952
    steel structures, 960–966
    timber frame, 947–48, 950, 953–960
    wood frame systems overview, 947
    Construction specifications, 986
    Content, process versus, 118
    Continuation sheet title block, 59
    Continuity of welds, 762
    Continuous reinforcing, 158, 159INDEX 1279
    ISO 9000 Quality Systems Standard,
    378–79
    in isometric drawings, 573–74
    jig and fi xture design, 378
    location dimensions, 342–44
    machined features, design and drafting
    of, 373
    machined surfaces, 370–73
    machining allowance, 362–63
    machining drawing, 363, 365
    maximum and minimum
    dimensions, 361
    notes for machined features, 338–42
    phantom lines, on machining allowance
    and draft angles, 363, 367
    in piping drawings, 900, 908
    plastic part manufacturing, drawings for,
    369–70
    platings and coatings, dimensions applied
    to, 361
    rules for multiviews, 302–03, 315–19
    site plan layout, 1104–06
    style setting, 348–49
    symbols, 325
    threads, 404–05
    tolerancing and, 351–61
    tool design, 373–78
    Dimensioning and Tolerancing, 47, 59
    Dimensioning and tolerancing block,
    59–60
    Dimensioning fundamentals, 327
    arrowheads, 330
    baseline dimensioning, 332
    chain dimensioning, 331–32
    cylindrical shapes, dimensioning, 334
    decimal points, 327–28
    dimensioning units, 327
    dimension lines and numerals, 330–31
    dimension line spacing, 330
    direct dimensioning, 332–34
    fractions, 329–30
    layout standards and specifications, 328
    metric and inch units, 328–29
    square features, dimensioning, 334
    stagger adjacent dimensions, 334
    symmetrical objects, dimensioning, 334
    Dimensioning systems, 326
    aligned dimensioning, 326
    chart drawings, 327
    rectangular coordinate dimensioning
    without dimension lines, 326–27
    tabular dimensioning, 327
    unidirectional dimensioning, 326
    Dimensioning units, 327
    Dimension lines
    AutoCAD features, 345
    defi ned, 297, 324
    and numerals, 330–31
    rules for, 198
    spacing of, 330
    structural drafting practices, 930–31, 932
    Dimension numerals, 324, 330–31
    Dimension origin symbols, 325, 344, 345
    Dimension styles, 348–49
    Dimension text, 324
    Dimetric projection, 563, 574
    DIMLIN command, 345
    of HANDLE, 621, 622
    layout process in structural drafting, 990
    manufacturing information, 599
    monodetail drawing, 599
    multidetail drawings, 599
    piping, 910, 911
    roof framing, 972, 977
    sheet layout, 599
    springs, 426
    steps in making, 599
    threads, 400–03
    Detailed representation of threads, 397
    Detailed spring representation, 426
    Detailer, 1028. See also Detail drafter
    defined, 928
    DETAIL VIEW command, 271
    Detail views
    in multiview drawings, 258–59
    Development phase of phase gate design
    process, 1140–44
    DfX. See Design for everything (DfX)
    Dial indicator, 545
    Diameter nominal (DN), 909
    Diameters, 222
    defined, 321
    dimensioning symbols, 325
    Diametral pitch, 342, 696, 698, 703
    Diaphragm symbols, 906
    Diaphragm valves, 889
    Diazo prints, 62
    Diazo reproduction, 62
    Die, 786
    Die casting, 137
    Dies (thread), 152, 361, 395, 394
    Differential relays, 817
    Diffusers, 1016
    Digital product defi nition datasets, 111
    Digital prototyping, 81
    Dimension
    defined, 321
    Dimensional accuracy points, 793, 794
    Dimensional constraint line, 204–5, 205
    Dimensional constraints, 348, 105
    Dimensional lumber, defined, 947
    Dimensional stability of drafting media, 50
    Dimensioning, 315. See also Geometric
    tolerance
    ASME standards, 319–20, 349, 362
    associative dimension, 347–48
    auxiliary views, 344–45
    basics, 320
    with CADD, 345–47
    for CADD/CAM, 381–82
    casting drawings, 361–62, 363, 364
    characteristics and definitions, 320–23
    CNC options, 146
    combined casting and machining
    drawing, 363, 366
    components, 324
    constraints, 348
    dimension origin, 344, 345
    excluded from assembly drawings, 603
    forging, design, and drawing, 363,
    368–69
    fundamental concepts, 323, 327–34
    in general notes, 349–51
    good practices, 334–38
    Datum reference frame (DRF), 479, 481, 482
    Datums, 375
    defined, 321, 477
    selecting, 553
    Datum targets, 483–87
    locating, 485–87
    symbols for, 483
    Da Vinci, Leonardo, 10–11
    DC (direct current) circuits
    elementary diagrams, 814
    DC biasing, 832
    Dead ends, 1103
    Decimal Inch Drawing Sheet Size and
    Format, 811
    Decimal inches, 327
    Decimal points, 327–28
    on drawings, 207
    Decking, 960
    Declination
    magnetic, 1074
    Dedendum, 697
    Dedendum angle, 704
    Default dimension styles, 348–49
    Default text styles, 210
    Defects
    minimizing, 165
    waste, 1132, 1133
    Deferred tangency, 236
    Deflection, 423
    Defl ection-angle traverses, 1076, 1077
    Deformed steel bars, 936, 937
    Degree of curve, 1087
    Degrees of freedom, 481–82
    Deliverables, 1150
    Delta, 351, 1039
    Delta angle, 1087, 1104
    Delta note. See also Flag notes
    pipe drawings, 915
    in structural drafting, 984, 985
    Deming, W. Edwards, 1133
    Depth dimensioning symbols, 325
    Depth of threads, 394
    Derived components, 108
    Descartes, René, 11
    Descriptive geometry, 11, 267
    auxiliary views and, 302
    Design documentation, 1144
    Design drafter, 14, 628
    Design drawings, 930
    Designer’s tools, 377–78
    Design for everything (DfX), 1152
    Design plan, 112
    Design sketches, 620
    Design specification, 1140
    Destructive testing of welds, 762–63
    Detachable chain, 736
    Detail assembly drawings, 605–06
    Detail drafter, 18, 20
    Detail drawings, 598, 620–22, 1037
    CADD tools and options, 601
    conduit, 819, 820
    coordination with sections in structural
    drafting, 934, 936, 972
    defined, 597
    of DRIVER, 622
    electrical grounding, 819
    foundations, 9721280 INDEX
    E-business, 1152
    Eccentric circles, 223
    Eccentric reducer, 881, 883
    ECM. See Electrochemical machining (ECM)
    ECN. See Engineering change notice (ECN)
    ECN number, 618–19
    ECO. See Engineering change order (ECO);
    Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECO)
    Economic efficiency, 1132
    Ecosystem, green technology application
    in, 1117
    ECR. See Engineering change request (ECR)
    EDA. See Electronic design automation
    (EDA)
    Edge views, 296
    Editing
    with CADD, 93, 94
    parametric models, 108–9
    EDM. See Electrodischarge machining
    (EDM)
    Education, 22–23, 25
    Elastomers, 127, 128–29
    Elbolet, 881, 884
    Elbows, 881, 883, 885
    E-learning animations, 86
    Electrical circuits, 811
    Electrical conduit, 870
    Electrical drafters, 16, 18
    Electrical drafting. See also Drafting
    overview, 810
    residential and commercial, 819–21,
    822–24, 824
    standards, 810–11, 842
    substation design, 814–19, 820
    types of diagrams, 811–13, 814
    Electrical relays, 817
    Electric-cable diagrammer, 16
    Electricity
    distribution, 814
    generation, 814. See also Wind power,
    electricity generation from
    transmission, 814
    Electric windings, 202
    Electrochemical machining (ECM), 145
    Electrodischarge machining (EDM), 145,
    1079, 1080
    Electrolysis, 844
    Electron beam (EB) machining, 145
    Electronic computer-aided design
    (ECAD). See Electronic design
    automation (EDA)
    Electronic design automation (EDA), 850
    Electronic drafters, 17, 19
    Electronic drafting. See also Drafting
    block diagrams, 827–28, 829
    operational amplifi ers and integrated
    circuit schematics, 836–38, 839, 840
    overview, 810, 827
    pictorial drawings, 846, 847
    printed circuits, 838, 840–46
    schematic diagram, 828–36
    standards, 810–11, 842
    Electronic plots, 98
    Electronics, 827
    Electronics industry
    plastics selection, 130, 131
    Electronic theodolites, 1081
    track, 13
    track drafting machine, 46
    Drafting pencils, manual drafting, 41–42
    Drafting technician, 14
    Drafting templates, 101
    Draftsperson, 14
    Drags, 135
    Drawing accuracy, 304
    Drawing aids, 204–5
    Drawing and editing, 618–19
    with CADD, 93, 94
    Drawing area, calculating, 316
    Drawing content
    extracting, 109
    reusing, 96–97
    Drawing dimensions, 361
    Drawing lines, 204–6
    Drawing planning process, 39–40
    preparing a drawing, 40
    problem-solving process, 39–40
    research techniques, 39–40
    Drawing revisions
    revision clouds, 1038–39
    Drawing scales, 46–47
    Drawing sections, 451
    Drawing sheets
    piping, 910, 914
    for structural drafting, 933, 934
    DRF. See Datum reference frame (DRF)
    Drill, 147
    Drilled holes, 147
    Drill fixtures, 375
    Drilling drawings, 844, 845
    Drilling machine, 140
    Drill jigs, 375
    DRIVER, 622
    detail drawing of, 622
    Drivers, in four-bar linkages, 680
    Driveways, 1102–03, 1104, 1106
    Drum cams, 690
    Dry sand molding, 135
    Dryseal American National Standard Taper
    Pipe Thread, 413
    Dryseal pipe thread, 413
    Dual purpose, 1022
    Ductalator, 1045
    Ductility, 122
    Duct sizing, 1039–40
    effect of an acoustical liner on, 1044
    effect of aspect ratio on, 1044
    effect of velocity (FPM) on, 1040, 1044
    effect of volume (CFM) on, 1040
    Ductwork
    defined, 1016
    Dumb solid models, 104, 105
    Durability of drafting media, 50
    Dwell (cam), 682, 684
    Dwg101–3Dim layer, 94
    Dxf file, 1064
    Dynamic load spring application, 425
    Dynamics, 679
    Dynamic sealing of bearings, 713
    E
    Earth, section lines for, 202
    Easements, 1088, 1102
    Diode, 830
    Direct-angle traverses, 1076
    Direct dimensioning, 332–34
    Directional relays, 817
    Directional survey drafters, 16
    Direct surface modeling, 103
    Discontinuity of welds, 762–63
    Displacement diagram, 684
    CADD tools and options, 692
    creating, 684–87
    as guide to manufacturing, 687–88
    Displacement of cams, 681, 683, 684
    Display functions, 269
    Distances, surveying, 1078–82
    Distribution, electricity, 814
    DIVIDE command, 1049, 1051
    Dividers, 43
    bow dividers, 43
    proportional dividers, 43
    DL. See Data list (DL)
    DN. See Diameter nominal (DN)
    Documents, defined, 929
    DOE-2, energy modeling program, 993
    Dot-to-dot method, 175, 175–76
    Double bend, 785
    Double helical gears, 694
    Double-lap seams, 1046
    Double lead worms, 705
    Double-line drawing, 899, 900
    Double pitch roller chain, 735
    Double-row ball bearings, 709
    Dovetails, 151
    Dowel pins, drawing, 418
    Downloading, on beams, 958
    Down spouts, 976
    Draft angles
    in casting drawings, 362
    in forging drawings, 363
    phantom lines on, 363, 367
    Drafter, 14. See also Drafting
    CADD and, 14
    defined, 14
    industries working for, 14
    Drafting. See also Engineering drawing
    ADDA and, 28–29
    CADD and, 10, 13, 14
    careers in, 14–25
    computer use overview, 10
    defi ned, 8, 193
    electrical. See Electrical drafting
    electronic. See Electronic drafting
    equipments, 13
    fields, 14–25
    fi nding employment, 26–27, 37
    history, 10–14
    manual. See Manual drafting
    mechanical, 8
    precision sheet metal, 776–808. See also
    Precision sheet metal
    salaries, 27–28
    standards, 29–30
    ties with manufacturing, 168
    Drafting furniture, manual drafting, 41
    Drafting geometry, 219
    Drafting machine, 13, 45–46
    arm, 13
    arm drafting machine, 45INDEX 1281
    Fabrics
    section lines for, 202
    Face angle, 704
    Face cams, 683
    Face gear, 695
    Faces
    defined, 188
    of gears, 692
    of polyhedrons, 222
    Face width, 704
    Facilities drafter. See Commercial drafter
    Facings of pipe flanges, 886–87
    Failure mode effect analysis (FMEA), 1142
    Fakespace, Inc., 91
    Fall (cam), 684
    Farad, 835
    Fasteners, 392. See also Threads
    cap screws, 417
    detailed threads, drawing, 400–03
    dowel pins, drawing, 418
    hexagon head, 416–17
    keys, keyways, and keyseats, 419–20
    lag screws, 414
    nuts, drawing, 417–18
    positional tolerancing of, 523–26, 527
    retaining rings, 419
    rivets, 420, 421
    screw heads, 416–17
    screw thread fasteners, 393–94
    screw threads, measuring, 406
    self-clinching, 415–16
    self-tapping screws, 414
    symbol libraries for, 421
    taper pins, 418–19
    thread-cutting tools, 395
    thread design guidelines, 410–14
    threaded fasteners, 408–09
    thread forms, 395–97
    thread inserts, 414, 415
    thread notes, 403–05
    thread representations, 397–400
    washers, drawing, 418
    wood screws, 414
    Fault condition, 819
    FDM. See Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
    FEA. See Finite element analysis (FEA)
    FEA software. See Finite element analysis
    (FEA) software
    Feature-based solid modeling, 104
    Feature control frames, 487, 502, 503, 504,
    517, 531
    Feature of size, 321
    Feature pattern, 107
    Feature-relating control, 517
    Features
    defined, 321
    Feed lines, 812
    Feet per minute (FPM), effect on duct
    sizing, 1040, 1044
    Felts, section lines for, 202
    Felt seals, 715
    FEM. See Finite element method (FEM)
    Ferrous metals, 122, 126
    FFF. See Free-form fabrication (FFF)
    Fiberglass-reinforced pipe (FRP), 877
    Fibers
    section lines for, 202
    Engineering maps, 1084, 1085
    Engineering sketches. See also Sketching
    analyzing, 620
    creating detail drawings from, 218, 292,
    299–300, 315–19
    isometric drawings from, 562
    structural drawings from, 928–29
    Enlargements
    for auxiliary views, 297
    CADD tools and options, 269, 271
    in multiview drawings, 258–59
    Entertainment, 86
    Environmentally friendly product, 1151
    EPDM. See Ethylene propylene diene
    monomer (EPDM)
    Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECO), 129
    EPM. See Ethylene propylene rubber (EPM)
    Equal bilateral tolerance, 351
    Equilateral triangles, 220, 221
    Erasability of drafting media, 50
    Erasers, 42
    Erection assembly drawings, 606, 609
    Ergonomics, 112–14
    Etched process, 844–45
    Ethyl cellulose, 127
    Ethylene propylene diene monomer
    (EPDM), 129
    Ethylene propylene rubber (EPM), 129
    Evapotranspiration, 1118
    Exaggerated vertical scales, 1089
    Excavation, 936
    Execution phase of phase gate design
    process, 1144–47
    Executive leadership, 1133
    Exercises, 113–14
    Existing product research, 1136–37, 1143
    Expander flanges, 886
    Explicit modeling, 105
    Exploded assembly, 575
    Exploded pictorial drawing, 575, 576, 577
    Exploded technical illustrations, 607
    Exporting, 98
    Extension lines, 908
    point established by, 324, 338
    rules for, 198
    Extension springs, 423
    Exterior elevations, 976, 979, 980, 981
    External arcs, 234
    External features, maximum material
    condition, 321, 322
    External reference system, 97
    External spur gears, 694
    External threads
    basic features, 152–53
    components of, 394
    designing, 411–12
    dimensioning, 404
    Extreme attitude variation, 513, 514
    Extreme form variation, 356, 494
    Extreme positional variation, 513
    Extrusion, 124, 154, 155
    F
    Fabrication drawings, 966
    Fabrication methods, 969
    Elementary diagrams, 814
    AC (alternating current) circuits, 814
    DC (direct current) circuits, 814
    Elevation reading, 1081
    Elevations
    contour lines, 1086, 1107–08
    piping, 909–10
    in structural drawings, 976, 979, 980, 981
    surveying, 1078–82
    Elevation symbol, 972, 977
    Elimination, waste, 1133
    Ellipses, 44
    in auxiliary views, 297
    drawing techniques, 236–37, 237
    for inclined circles in multiviews, 263
    isometric, 571
    sketching, 180, 186
    Ellipse templates, 44–45
    isometric, 44–45
    Elliptical arc, drawing, 237
    Employment
    ADDA Employment Center, 29
    drafting careers, 14–25
    ethics in, 30–31
    seeking, 26–27, 37
    End milling cutters, 142, 143
    End-result specifications, 986
    End thrust, 694
    End types (springs), 423
    End vertical curve point, 1091
    Engineered wood products, 953, 955,
    959, 960
    Engineering animations, 85–86
    Engineering calculations, structural
    drawings from, 928–29
    Engineering change notice (ECN), 616–18,
    619, 626
    Engineering change order (ECO), 616–18,
    619, 624, 1038, 1150
    Engineering change request (ECR), 615–16,
    618, 624–27, 1150
    Engineering copiers. See Photocopy printers
    Engineering design process
    after full production, 1147
    concept phase, 1137–40
    creativity and innovation, 1147–49
    deliverables, 1150
    development phase, 1140–44
    execution phase, 1144–47
    impact of change on, 1149–50
    implementing, 1134–37
    overview, 1131
    responds to changes in engineering,
    1150–51
    systems approach, 1130–31
    Engineering drafter, 19, 20
    Engineering drafting, 8–10, 19
    Engineering drawing, 8–10, 319
    careers, 14–25
    computers in, 10
    drawing planning process, 39–40
    early practices, 10
    education, 22–23, 25
    history, 10–13
    pioneers, 10–12
    qualification, 25
    wrench, 2–7, 3–71282 INDEX
    Front views
    criteria for selecting, 254–55, 255
    visualization from, 294
    FRP. See Fiberglass-reinforced pipe (FRP)
    Full indicator movement (FIM), 544
    Full sections, 444
    assembly drawings in, 603, 604, 606
    in isometric drawings, 571
    Functional elements, defined, 987
    Functioning prototype, 1140–41
    Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 81, 160
    G
    Gaps between dimension lines and
    numbers, 324
    Garter spring, 426
    Gasket drawings, 256, 257
    Gaskets, 713, 880
    Gas metal arc welding, 747, 748
    Gas tungsten arc welding, 747, 748
    Gates
    in design process, 1137, 1140,
    1144, 1147
    electronic, 837
    Gate valves, 887, 888
    Gauge, 776
    G-codes, 88, 146, 164
    GD&T. See Geometric dimensioning and
    tolerancing (GD&T)
    Gear and bearing assemblies, 715–16
    Gear drives
    advantages over belt and chain
    drives, 728
    Gear ratios, 702
    Gears, 691, 692
    basic features, 692
    data, 702
    designing and drawing, 696–702, 705–06
    drawing, 698
    importance of understanding, 717
    plastic, 706–08
    spline options, 692–93
    spline tolerances, 696
    structures, 692
    types of, 693–94
    Gear trains, 691, 702–03
    General arrangement (GA) drawings. See
    Pipe drawings
    General assembly drawings, 605
    General notes, 349–51
    defined, 320
    surface fi nish in, 371
    General oblique drawing, 576, 578
    General Tolerances, 29
    General tolerances, 353
    Generation, electricity, 814
    from wind power, 825–27. See also Wind
    power, electricity generation from
    Generations of drawing copies, 63
    Generic Standard on Printed Circuit Board
    Design, 842
    Geological drafters, 17
    Geometric characteristic symbols, 501–02
    Geometric constraint line, 204, 205
    Geometric constraints, 105, 225, 348
    Flat spring, 424
    Flat wire compression springs,
    424–25
    Floating fastener, 418, 524, 526
    Floor plan
    laying out, 988–89
    lighting layout, 821, 822
    in structural drawings, 972, 973
    Flow valve symbols, 907
    Fluoroelastomers (FPM), 129
    Fluoroplastics, 127
    Flush contour welds, 754, 755
    Flush hubs, 692
    Fly-through, 89–90
    FMEA. See Failure mode effect analysis
    (FMEA)
    Foam molding, 157, 158
    Foil, 776
    Folded-down form, 832
    Folding, prints, 62
    Fold lines
    defined, 250
    to establish auxiliary views,
    294, 296
    Followers
    cam, 682, 687
    in four-bar linkages, 680
    Fonts, defined, 207
    Footings
    purpose of, 936
    specifying in drawings, 944, 972, 975
    Force fits, 357
    Foreshortening
    in dimetric projections, 574
    in isometric drawings, 590
    in multiview drawings, 249, 250, 267
    need for auxiliary views with, 293
    Foresight, 1079
    Forged pipe, 877
    Forge welding, 138
    Forging, 3
    drafters, 15
    drawing and design for, 363, 368–69
    machining compared, 139
    major types, 137–38
    simulating in solid models, 166
    Formaldehyde, 1020
    Formal plate cam drawing, 688, 689
    Forms concrete, 936
    Form tolerances, 504–07
    Formulas, gear, 698, 704, 706
    Foundation, building, 936
    Foundation plans and details
    laying out, 989
    in structural drawings, 972, 975
    Four-Bar Linkage, 680, 681
    Four-center method, 186
    Fourth generation reproduction, 63
    FPM. See Fluoroelastomers (FPM)
    Fractions, 329–30
    on drawings, 208
    Free-form fabrication (FFF), 156, 157
    Free length of springs, 424
    Free running fits, 357
    Free state variation, 506
    French curves, 45
    Front elevations, 979
    Field notes (survey), 1082, 1107, 1108
    Field welds, 759
    Field work, importance to pipe drafting, 919
    Filament winding, 158, 159
    File management, 101
    File naming, 101
    File-referencing tools, 97
    File templates, 29
    Filled-in arrowheads, 330
    Filled plastics, 706
    Fillets
    basic features, 151
    in casting drawings, 362
    in forging dies, 363
    pictorial drawing techniques, 584
    showing in multiviews, 264, 265
    tangent arc applications, 223
    FILLET tool, 627
    Fillet welds, 745, 751–52
    FIM. See Full indicator movement (FIM)
    Find number, 612
    Finished drawings, creating from rough
    sketches, 174
    Finite element analysis (FEA), 163, 1143
    Finite element analysis (FEA) software,
    69, 74
    Finite element method (FEM), 69
    Firebreaks, 1103
    Fire clay for pipe, 878
    Firefi ghting water supply, 1103
    Fire ratings, 953
    Fire safety zone, 1103
    First-angle projection, 251, 254
    Fits
    for bearings, 711
    selection of, 356
    threads, 394
    types, 356–59
    Fittings (pipe), 881–85, 900
    Fitting-to-fitting, 909
    Fixed fastener, 524–26, 527
    Fixed-value device, 830
    Fixtures
    application examples, 374
    assembly drawing, 374
    basic features, 160, 161
    components, 375
    drawings, 162
    types, 375–76
    Flag notes, 351, 1039
    Flame cutting, 747
    Flanged connections, 879, 880
    Flanges (piping), 885–87
    Flanges, 787–88
    of steel beams, 963, 964
    Flange welds, 754, 757
    Flare-bevel groove weld, 753–54, 760
    Flare-V groove welds, 753, 760
    Flaring connection, 881
    Flask handler design, 717
    Flasks, casting, 135
    Flat belts, 729
    Flat-faced follower, 684
    Flatness tolerance, 505
    Flat patterns
    defi ned, 777, 1016
    sheet metal part, 777, 778INDEX 1283
    Hard metric conversion, 908
    Hardness testing, 124
    Hardware
    CADD workstation, 71
    HATCH command, 449
    Head Chainman, 1079
    Headers, defined, 955
    Head mounted display (HMD), 90–91
    Healthy soil, 1119
    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning
    (HVAC) systems
    Heat pump system, 1019
    Heat treating, 124
    Heavy bearings, 710
    Heavy drive fits, 357
    Heavy timber construction, 948, 950, 955
    Height of the instrument (HI), 1079
    Heliarc®, 747
    Helical gears, 694
    Helical springs, 423
    Helical torsion springs, 424
    Helix direction (springs), 424
    Hem, 1046
    Hems, sheet metal, 788
    Henry, 835
    Herringbone gear, 694
    Hexagon head fasteners, 416–17
    Hexagons
    dimensioning, 336
    Hex head bolt, 417
    Hex nuts, 416, 418
    HI. See Height of the instrument (HI)
    Hidden features, 255, 316, 335
    Hidden lines, 317. See also Sections
    overview, 195, 196
    excluded from assembly drawings, 603
    excluded from auxiliary views, 295
    precedence in multiviews, 266, 318
    rules for, 195–96, 196
    High-carbon steel, 123
    High-performance HVAC and green
    technology, 1021–22
    innovation, 1022
    viability, 1022
    High-pressure side of the system, 1044
    High-speed steel, 123
    Highway diagrams. See Highway wiring
    diagrams
    Highway layout, 1087–91, 1092
    Highways, 812
    Highway wiring diagrams
    electrical drafting, 812
    History-based modeling, 627
    History-based solid models, 104, 105. See
    also Parametric solid modeling
    HL. See Horizon line (HL)
    HMD. See Head mounted display (HMD)
    Holding fixtures. See Drill fixtures
    Holes
    location dimensioning, 343
    position tolerancing, 515, 517
    printed circuit board, 842–43, 844
    showing in multiviews, 263
    size dimensioning, 338–39, 343
    for standard bolts, 968
    threaded, 410–11
    Hole sizes, 338
    Grading plans, 1091, 1095–98, 1099, 1100,
    1101, 1110–11, 1112
    Grain of material, bend allowance and, 782
    Graphical Symbols for Diagrams, 810
    Graphical user interface (GUI)
    CADD, 72
    Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic
    Diagrams, 810–11, 814
    GRAPHISOFT, 74
    Graphite (CADD software), 73
    Graticule, 1073
    Gravel under slab, 936
    Gray cast iron, 122
    Great circles, 1073, 1074
    Green belts, 1134
    Green buildings
    aluminum in, 971
    defined, 969
    guidelines, 970
    steel in, 970–71
    Green Building Rating System™, 969
    Green construction, defined, 970
    GreenFormat, 988
    Green sand, 135
    Green technology, 1021
    Green technology application, 1117–19,
    115–17
    Grid, 841–42
    Grid azimuth, 1074, 1075
    Grid lines, 792–93
    Grid survey method, 1107, 1108
    Grid system (printed circuit), 841–42
    Grinding machine, 140
    Grooves
    in bearings, 713
    dimensioning, 342
    indicating in welding symbols,
    758–59, 760
    Groove welds, 753–54
    Ground grid, 819
    Grounding layout and detail drawings, 819
    Ground line (GL), 578
    Ground plane, 843
    Grouped objects, dimensioning, 347
    Grout joint, 946
    Guide for the Preparation of Patent
    Drawings, 32
    Gunter’s chain, 1079
    Gutters, 976
    H
    Half coupling, 882, 885
    Half sections, 444–45, 571
    Hammerhead turnarounds, 1104
    Hand-compass method of sketching
    circles, 178
    Hand drafting. See Manual drafting
    Hand forging, 138
    HANDLE, detail drawing of, 621, 622
    Hangers
    joist and beam, 956, 959
    piping, 894, 895, 896, 897, 898
    Haptic interface, 91–92
    Hard copy, 62, 98
    Hardening of steel, 124
    Geometric constructions
    basic shapes, 220–24
    with CADD, 224–25
    common types, 224–30
    defined, 219
    ellipses, 236–37, 237
    polygon, 230–33
    similarity and congruency, 998
    tangents, 233–36
    Geometric continuity, 102
    Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
    (GD&T), 476
    additional symbols, 502, 503
    axis control, 495–96
    CADD applications, 547–52
    combined controls, 544
    datum precedence and material
    condition, 499–501
    datums, 477–92
    feature control frame symbol, 502
    form tolerances, 504–07
    geometric characteristic symbols,
    501–02
    least material condition (LMC), 498–99
    material condition and material boundary
    symbols, 492–93
    math applications, 555
    maximum material condition (MMC),
    496–98
    orientation tolerances. See Orientation
    tolerances
    perfect form boundary, 494, 495
    profi le tolerance, 532–44
    regardless of feature size (RFS), 494, 495
    regardless of material boundary (RMB),
    494, 499
    runout, 544–46
    size, limits of, 494
    specifying independency, 546, 547
    surface control, 494
    symbols, 477
    Geometric tolerance
    defi nition of, 321
    Geometric Tolerance dialog box (AutoCAD),
    548, 550, 551, 552
    Geometry
    analytic, 11
    descriptive, 11
    GEOPACK Civil Engineering Suite, 73
    Geophysical drafters, 18
    Giant crossbow, 11
    Girts, 962
    GL. See Ground line (GL)
    Glass, section lines for, 202
    Glass box principle, 248, 250–52, 294
    Glass pipe, 878
    Glider, 10, 11
    Globe valves, 888
    Gluing pipe, 881
    Glulam beams (GLB), 953, 957, 959
    Gold, 125
    Google Earth, 74, 189, 190, 191
    Google Inc., 74
    Google SketchUp, 74, 188, 189
    Gothic lettering, 207
    Grades, 1103
    Grade slope, 10911284 INDEX
    Internal threads
    basic features, 153
    components of, 394
    dimensioning, 404
    International Aluminum Institute (IAI), 126
    International Electrotechnical Commission
    (IEC) standards
    electrical and electronic drafting, 810,
    842
    International Organization for
    Standardization, 378
    International System of Units, 327
    Internet, 64
    project collaboration via, 79–80
    value-added applications of, 1152
    Intersecting cylinders, 1056–57
    Intersecting lines, 219, 220
    Intersecting prisms, 1056
    Intersecting shafting gears, 694
    Intersection
    in isometric drawings, 570–71
    in section, 447
    Intervals, contour, 1092
    Intranet, 64
    Invention disclosure, 1141
    Inventor Open Fusion DWG command, 627
    Inventory waste, 1132, 1133
    Inverse kinematics (IK), 85–86
    Inverted tooth silent chain, 736
    Invert elevation of sewer lines, 1091
    Inverter, 826
    Investment casting, 137
    Involute curve, 696, 698
    Involute spline, 693
    Ionomers, 127
    IPC. See Association Connecting Electronics
    Industries (IPC)
    IPD. See Integrated product
    development (IPD)
    IRONCAD, 74
    Irregular curves
    for manual drafting, 45
    parallel, 227
    in perspective drawings, 583
    Irregular shapes, sketching, 182, 183
    Irrigation system, 1119
    ISO 2768 general tolerances, 354
    ISO 9000, 378–79
    ISO drafting Standards, 29–30
    IsoDraw, 572
    Isogonic lines, 1074–75, 1076
    Isometric arcs, 570
    sketching, 187
    Isometric circles, 570
    Isometric construction techniques, 568–74
    box method, 568–69
    centerline method, 569–70
    coordinate method, 568–69
    intersections, 570–71
    isometric dimensioning, 573–74
    isometric sections, 571, 572
    isometric spheres, 572, 573
    isometric threads, 572
    Isometric dimensioning, 573–74
    Isometric drawings, 563, 567
    isometric projections versus, 566–68
    pictorial, 607
    Inch tolerances
    specifi ed and unspecified, 352–53
    Inch units
    on engineering drawings, 329
    Incident solar radiation analysis, 995, 996
    Inclined lettering, 208
    Inclined planes
    circles and arcs on, 263–64
    Included angles (thread), 394
    Included angles, 1104
    In-control processes, 165
    Index contours, 1086, 1109
    Indoor combustion, 1019–20
    Inductance, 829, 835
    Inductor, 829, 835
    Industrial design (ID), 589
    in concept phase, 1137, 1139
    defined, 1137
    vs. modified CADD, 1139
    Industrial process-pipe drafter, 18–19, 20
    Industrial property, 1141
    Information Age of Technology, 1131
    Information grouping, 608
    Infrastructure, defined, 73
    In-house, 1029
    operations, 1141
    Injection molding, 139, 153–54
    Injuries, preventing, 112–13
    Inline followers, 684
    Innovation in design, 1147–49
    Inorganic materials in manufacturing, 122
    INOVATE, 74
    In-place creation, 108
    Input
    defined, 71
    Inscribed circle, 221
    Inscribed polygons, 230
    Inside diameter (ID), 877
    Inside mold line (IML), 780, 782
    Inspection fixtures, 376
    Inspection processes, 165–66
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers (IEEE), 810–11,
    814, 831
    Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE), 1134
    Instrument/function symbols, 905
    Insulation, section lines for, 202
    Integrated circuit (IC), 837
    Integrated product development
    (IPD), 1134
    Intellectual properties, 30–31, 1141–42
    Intelligence in parametric modeling,
    105, 563
    Intelligent worlds, 93
    Interchangeability, 12
    Interface
    CADD, 72
    defined, 188
    Interference fi ts, 355–56, 358
    Intergraph, 74
    Interior elevations, 979, 981
    Intermediate contours, 1086, 1109
    Intermittent fillet weld, 761
    Internal features, maximum material
    condition, 321, 322
    Internal integrated circuit schematics, 837
    Internal spur gears, 694
    Hole table, 780, 782
    Honing, 140
    Horizon line (HL), 578
    Horizontal band saw, 144
    Horizontal lines, sketching, 175–76
    Horizontal mills, 142
    Horsepower (HP), 737
    Hot gas welding, 881
    Hot-rolled steel (HRS), 123
    Hot-water system, 1018
    Housing fits, 711–12
    HP. See Horsepower (HP)
    HRS. See Hot-rolled steel (HRS)
    Hubs of gear, 692
    types of, 692
    HVAC CADD software, 1041–42
    HVAC contract drawing, 1026
    from an engineering sketch, 1022, 1025–28
    an HVAC contract drawing, 1028–29
    HVAC drawings, 1022
    HVAC models, 1044
    HVAC plans, 1041–42
    HVAC symbols, 1022, 1023–24
    HVAC symbols specifications
    detail drawings, 1037
    pictorial drawings, 1038
    schedules, 1037–38
    section drawings, 1037
    written specifi cations, 1032, 1036–37
    HVAC systems and components, 1016
    drafters, 18, 20
    Hydraulic fl ask handler design, 717
    Hydrochlorofl uorocarbons (HCFCs), 1022
    Hydroforming, 139
    Hydronic radiant heating, 1019
    Hydrozoning, 1119
    Hypoid gears, 695
    Hypotenuse, 919
    defined, 221
    I
    IAI. See International Aluminum
    Institute (IAI)
    IC. See Integrated circuit (IC)
    ID. See Industrial design (ID); Inside
    diameter (ID)
    Identifi cation Coding and Application of
    Hook-up and Lead Wire, 836
    Identification numbers
    electronics, 836
    in working drawings, 607–08, 612, 715
    Idlers, 730
    IEC. See International Electrotechnical
    Commission (IEC) standards
    IEEE. See Institute of Electrical and
    Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    IIE. See Institute of Industrial
    Engineers (IIE)
    I-Joists, 955, 959, 960
    IK. See Inverse kinematics (IK)
    Illustrated parts breakdowns. See Exploded
    technical illustrations
    IML. See Inside mold line (IML)
    IMSI/Design, LLC, 74
    Inch dimensions, 329INDEX 1285
    use in dimensioning, 318, 324, 335
    in welding symbols, 749, 750, 755,
    757–59
    Leadership in Energy and Environmental
    Design (LEED™) program,
    969–71, 1019
    green building guidelines, 970
    Lead grades, 41, 42
    Leads, 394, 706
    Lead time, 3
    Leaf, 776
    Lean manufacturing, 377, 1132–33
    goals of, 1132–33
    Lean production. See Lean manufacturing
    Least material boundary (LMB), 493
    Least material condition (LMC),
    355, 493
    defined, 321
    geometric tolerancing with, 498–99
    positional tolerance at, 515
    Leather
    section lines for, 202
    LEED™. See Leadership in Energy and
    Environmental Design (LEED™)
    program
    Left-hand threads, 394
    Legibility, of lettering, 209
    Lettering
    defined, 207
    in detail views, 258–59
    on engineering drawings, 207
    format, 54, 57
    legibility, 209
    numbers, 207–8
    standards and practices, 328
    structural drafting practices, 933
    style overview, 208–9
    styles in CADD, 210–11
    Leveling, 1079, 1082
    Levels, 680, 1079
    Library feature, 107, 108
    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools, 115
    Life cycle engineering, 1134
    Life safety system, 1022
    Lift check valves, 890
    Lift hook, 69, 70
    Light bearings, 710
    Light drive fits, 357
    Light-duty chain, 736
    Lighting fi xture schedule, 821, 823
    Limits
    dimensioning, 351, 352, 353
    of feature size, 494, 553
    Limits of dimension
    defined, 322
    Line
    ASME standards, 54–57
    Linear bearings, 709. See also Bearings
    Linear patterns, 108
    Line balloons, 909
    LINE command, 205
    Line contrast, 193
    Line-contrast shading, 583
    Line Conventions and Lettering, 54, 194
    Line drawing format, 205–6
    Line element perpendicularity, 511
    Line of intersection, 1055–56
    Kinetics, 679
    Knife-edged follower, 684
    Knowledge-based engineering
    (KBE), 1134
    Knurling, 153, 341–42
    Knurl pitch, 342
    Kubotek Corporation, 74
    L
    Labels
    electronic schematics, 832–33, 835,
    835, 836
    Labyrinth seals, 714
    Lag screws, 414
    Laminated beam construction, 950, 953,
    957, 958, 959
    Laminated veneer lumber, 955, 959, 960
    Lancing, 789
    Land parcels, 1082
    Land relief pictorials, 1093
    Landscape drafters, 19, 21
    Lands of printed circuits, 840, 841
    Lap-joint flange, 885, 886
    Lapping, 140
    Lap-welded steel pipe, 877
    Large-scale integration (LSI), 838, 839
    Lasers
    cutting and machining with,
    145, 147, 341
    Laterals (piping), 881, 885
    Latex, 127
    Lathes, 140–41, 395
    Latitude, 1073
    Latrolet, 881, 884
    Lay, 371
    Layers (CADD), 205–6
    in composites, 158, 159
    construction lines on, 195
    drawing techniques, 93, 94, 95–96
    used in industrial applications, 93, 94
    Layout assembly drawings, 604–05, 606
    Layouts
    for auxiliary views, 302–03
    CADD steps, 304
    for detail drawings, 601, 604
    details and sections in structural
    drafting, 936
    electronic schematics, 832, 834
    for multiviews, 267, 272–74, 275
    for pictorial drawings, 584–85
    piping drawings, 916, 917
    precision sheet metal, 777–82
    printed circuit, 843
    site plans, 1100–01, 1102,
    1104–06, 1107
    for structural drafting, 988–89
    Layout space, 98, 272–73
    LCA. See Life Cycle Assessment
    (LCA) tools
    Lead
    section lines for, 202
    LEADER command, 766
    Leader line
    for balloons, 607
    rules for, 199
    piping, 874, 875, 910, 912–13
    types of, 568
    Isometric ellipses, 571
    sketching, 186
    templates, 44–45
    Isometric lines, 185, 186, 567
    Isometric planes, 567
    Isometric projections, 567–68
    and isometric drawings, 566–68
    Isometric scale, 567–68
    Isometric sections, 571, 572
    Isometric sketches
    calculating pipe lengths from, 868–69
    from crude sketches, 562
    techniques for creating, 184–87
    Isometric spheres, 572, 573
    Isometric threads, 572
    Isosceles triangle, 220–21, 221
    ISO thread specifications, 396
    Item, 612
    Item numbers. See Identification numbers
    J
    J groove welds, 754
    Jig and fi xture design, 160, 161, 162, 373,
  2. See also Tool design
    Jigs, 160, 161
    JIT. See Just-in-time (JIT)
    Jobs
    engineering drawing careers, 14–25
    in related areas, 118
    seeking, 26–27, 37
    workplace ethics, 30–31
    Joints
    in concrete slabs, 976
    industrial piping, 880, 881
    welded types, 762
    Joists, floor, 939
    Journal bearings, 709
    Justifi cation, for text objects, 211
    Just-in-time (JIT), 1132
    K
    Kaizen event, 1131
    KBE. See Knowledge-based engineering
    (KBE)
    Kerfs, 143, 151
    Keyboards, 113
    KeyCreator, 74
    Keys, 152, 419–20, 692
    Keyseats
    defined, 152
    dimensioning, 341
    drawing, 152, 419–20
    Keyways
    defined, 152
    dimensioning, 341
    drawing, 152, 419–20
    of gears, 692–93
    K factor, 783, 785
    Killed steel, 124
    Kilohms, 835
    Kinematics, 6791286 INDEX
    erasers, 42
    irregular curves, 45
    machines, 45–46
    media, 50–53
    overview, 40
    pencils, 41–42
    pens, 42
    reproduction methods, 43
    scales for, 46–50. See also Scales
    sheet sizes for, 53–54, 55–56
    templates, 44–45
    triangles, 43–44
    Manual of Steel Construction, 963
    Manufacturing. See also Machining processes
    CAD/CAM systems, 164
    CADD applications, 133–34
    castings, 135–37
    cells, 163
    computer-integrated, 161, 162–64
    drafter’s role in providing specifications
    for, 596
    forgings, 137–38, 139
    hydroforming, 139
    metallurgy, 126
    metals commonly used in, 122–26
    plastic fabrication processes, 153–59
    powder metallurgy, 139–40
    process simulating in models, 166–67
    product development sequence, 122
    rapid prototyping, 160
    stamping, 138–39
    statistical process control, 165–66
    tool design, 160, 161, 162, 373–78
    Marble
    section lines for, 202
    Margin drawing number block, 61
    Marine drafter, 19
    Marketing, 1135
    Markups, 891
    Master black belts, 1134
    MasterFormat, 987
    MasterFormat 2004 Edition: Numbers and
    Titles, 1036–37
    MasterFormat™: Master List of Numbers
    and Titles for the Construction Industry,
    1036
    Master patterns, 841
    Material boundary symbols, 492, 493
    Material condition, 492–93
    datum precedence and, 499–501
    location tolerances and, 515
    Material Condition dialog box
    (AutoCAD), 549
    Material list number, 1029
    Materials. See also Manufacturing
    metallurgy, 126
    metals, 122–26
    plastics and polymers, 126–29
    selection, 131–32
    simulating in solid models, 166–67
    Materials science, 126
    Math applications
    belt and chain drives, 741
    distance between tangent circles, 629
    length of a connecting rod, 718
    for projected areas, 307
    rounding numbers, 555
    Low-pressure side of the system, 1044
    LSI. See Large-scale integration (LSI)
    Lubrication, 713–14
    bend allowance and, 782
    Lugs, 149, 150
    Lumber, standard callouts, 955, 960
    M
    Machined features, 338
    counterbore, dimensioning, 339–40
    countersink/counterdrill, 340
    design and drafting of, 373
    holes, dimensioning, 338–39
    keyseats and keyways, dimensioning, 341
    knurls, dimensioning, 341–42
    multiple features, dimensioning, 340, 341
    necks and grooves, dimensioning, 342
    slots, dimensioning, 340–41
    spotface, dimensioning, 340
    Machined surfaces, 370–73
    Machine forging, 138, 139
    Machinery’s Handbook, 132, 776
    fastener head information, 417
    gear data, 692
    purchase part information, 614
    steel data, 124
    thread forms, 404, 413
    Machinery’s Handbook, ASME Handbook, 782
    Machines
    drafting. See Drafting machine
    screws, 408, 409
    tangency design and drafting application
    for, 234, 235
    tools versus, 374–75
    Machining allowance, 362–63
    phantom lines on, 363, 367
    Machining drawing, 363, 365, 366
    Machining fixtures, 375
    Machining processes
    basic features created by, 147–53
    chemical and electronic methods, 145, 147
    cost considerations in design, 168
    defined, 140
    simulating in solid models, 167
    tool design for, 160, 161, 162, 373–78
    tools for, 140–45
    Magma Design Automation, 850
    Magnesium, section lines for, 202
    Magnetic azimuth, 1074–75
    Magnetic declination, 1074–75, 1076
    Magnetic poles, 1074–75
    MAJOR DIA, 523
    Major diameter (thread), 394
    Major subdivisions, 1095, 1097, 1101
    Male-and-female facings, 887
    Malleable cast iron, 123
    Malleable iron
    section lines for, 202
    Management science. See Operations
    management
    Manganese, 123
    Manual drafting, 8
    CADD and, 40
    compasses, 42
    dividers, 43
    Lines
    ASME standards, 193–94, 194
    CADD drawing techniques, 204–6
    characteristics of, 219–20
    constraints, 204–5, 205
    dividing equally, 229
    drawing, 223, 225–26
    format for drawing, 205–6
    parallel, 227
    perpendicular, 227–28
    precedence in multiviews, 266
    profi le of, 532–36, 537, 538, 539
    sketching, 175–76, 180–81
    structural drafting practices, 930–932
    types, 194–204
    used in dimensioning, 198, 324
    Line shading, 583–84
    Line standards
    CADD drawing techniques, 93, 94, 95–96
    Line tangent
    drawing, 223
    Line weights
    ASME standards, 193–94, 194
    defined, 195
    Linkages, 679
    defined, 679
    importance of understanding, 717
    symbols for, 679–80
    types of, 680
    Liquid crystal polymers, 127
    List numbers, 1028
    List of materials. See Bill of materials; Parts
    list (PL)
    Lithium-ion battery, 1136
    LMB. See Least material boundary (LMB)
    LMC. See Least material condition (LMC)
    Load capacities (road), 1103
    Loading extension of springs, 424
    Lobed ring seals, 714, 715
    Local meridians, 1073
    Local notes, 320
    Locating tolerance zone, 543
    Locational fits, 357
    clearance fits, 357
    interference fits, 357
    transition fits, 357
    Location dimensions, 320, 342–44
    holes, locating, 343
    multiple features, of nearly same size, 344
    polar coordinate dimensioning, 343
    polar orientation, locating multiple
    tabs in, 344
    rectangular coordinate dimensioning, 343
    repetitive features, dimensioning, 343–44
    for structural steel, 966
    Location tolerances, 512–28
    Logic circuits, 837
    Logic diagrams, 838
    Long-axis isometric drawing, 568
    Longitude, 1073
    Loop traverses, 1075–76, 1077
    Loose running fits, 357
    Lost-wax casting, 137
    Lot and block system, 1082, 1083–84
    Lots, 1082, 1084, 1096
    Lowercase lettering, 208
    Lower control limits, 166, 351INDEX 1287
    Molded lip packings, 714
    Molded plastic gears, 707
    accuracy of, 708
    advantages, 707
    disadvantages, 708
    Molded ring seals, 714
    Molybdenum, 123
    Moment, defined, 930
    Moment of inertia, defined, 930
    Monge Gaspard, Frenchman, 11
    Monitor ergonomics, 113
    Monodetail drawing, 599
    advantages, 599
    CADD tools and options, 601
    example, 598
    Mortar joints, 946, 951
    Motion blur, 91
    Motion waste, 1132, 1133
    Motorola, 1133
    Mountings for bearings, 715
    Mount St. Helens, 1086
    Movable datum target symbol, 490, 491
    MOVE command, 401
    Multiaxis milling machinings, 143
    Multiconductor systems, 813
    Multidetail drawings, 599
    Multifunctional robotics, 163
    Multilayer boards, 842
    Multilayer sandwich boards, 842
    Multiple bends, sheet metal, 785
    Multiple features, 344, 486, 515–19
    dimensioning, 340, 341
    of same size, 344
    Multiple-strand chains, 734–35
    Multiview drawings, 11
    defined, 250
    sheet metal part, 777–78
    Multiviews. See also Auxiliary views
    CADD tools and options, 267–71
    creating from engineering sketches, 292,
    299–300, 315–19
    elements of, 250–52
    fi rst-angle projection basics, 254
    layout process, 267, 272–74, 275
    line precedence, 266
    projecting contours, circles, and arcs,
    262–66
    sketching, 183, 183–84
    third-angle projection basics, 252–53, 254
    view selection for, 254–62
    Mylar®, 52
    N
    Nailed connections, 968
    NAND gate, 837
    National Pipe Taper Fuel (NPTF), 413
    National Standard taper pipe threads (NPT),
    413, 909
    Natural rubber, 128
    Naturescaping, 1118
    NCS. See United States National CAD
    Standard (NCS)
    NC system. See Numerical control (NC)
    system
    Necks, 152
    dimensioning, 342
    Metric threads, 404
    forms, 396
    Metric tolerances
    specifi ed and unspecified, 353–54
    Metric units
    on engineering drawings, 329
    expressing on a piping drawing, 908
    Metric welded wire reinforcement, 938
    Metric welding symbol, 758
    Microfilm, 62–64
    alignment arrows, 61
    vs. CADD, 64
    Micro-Station PowerDraft, 73
    MicroStation software, 73
    Mild steel, 123
    MIL-HDBK/MIL-STD. See Military defense
    handbook/standard (MIL-HDBK/MILSTD)
    Military (MIL) standards, on line
    thicknesses, 194
    Military defense handbook/standard
    (MIL-HDBK/MIL-STD), 836
    Military identification systems, 836
    Millimeter dimensions, 329
    Millimeters, 327
    Milling
    chemical, 145
    dimensioning slots for, 340–41
    machine, 142–43
    Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation, 1135
    MIM. See Metal injection molding (MIM)
    Minimum and maximum slopes, 1101
    Minimum dimensions, 361
    Minimum required annular ring, 843
    Minor diameter (thread), 394
    Minor subdivisions, 1095, 1096–97
    Minus draft method, 370
    Minutes, in surveying, 1073
    MIRROR command, 401
    Mirrored features, 108
    Mistake-proofing, 377
    Mitered elbow, 881, 884
    Miter gears, 694
    Miter joint, 787–88
    Mitre lines, 251
    defined, 183
    MLEADER command, 406
    MMB. See Maximum material boundary
    (MMB)
    MMC. See Maximum material condition
    (MMC)
    MOD. See Mechanical/optical principles
    (MOD)
    Model, sheet metal part, 779–80, 781, 789–90
    Model dimensions, 360–61
    Models, piping, 910, 914, 914–15
    Model sections, 450–51
    Model sketches, 187–88
    Model Space (AutoCAD), 601
    Model space, 98
    Model text, 212
    Modifi ed constant velocity motion, 685, 686
    Modifiers, 492
    Modular construction, 835
    Moisture, 1019–20
    Mold, 361
    drafters, 15
    MathCAD, 75
    Maximum dimensions, 361
    Maximum material boundary (MMB), 493
    Maximum material condition (MMC), 355,
    493, 494
    defined, 322
    geometric tolerancing with, 496–98
    of internal and external features, 321, 322
    positional tolerance at, 513
    zero positional tolerance at, 529
    MCAD software. See Mechanical computeraided design (MCAD) software
    M-codes, 88, 164
    Measurement lines, 180–81, 181
    Mechanical computer-aided design (MCAD)
    models, 627
    Mechanical computer-aided design (MCAD)
    software, 72
    Mechanical drafter, 19, 22
    Mechanical drawing/drafting, 8, 20, 22, 25.
    See also Engineering drawing
    Mechanical engineer, 1016
    Mechanical engineer’s scale, 50, 52
    Mechanical joint connections, 880, 881
    Mechanical/optical principles (MOD),
    1079, 1080
    Mechanical spring, 421
    Mechanical systems, 1016
    Mechanics, 679
    Mechanisms, 679
    CADD applications, 683
    in daily lives, 679
    Media for manual drafting, 50–53
    Media for undimensioned drawings, 793
    Medium bearings, 710
    Medium-carbon steel, 123
    Medium drive fits, 357
    Medium running fits, 357
    Megahelion™ drive, 116
    Melamine formaldehyde, 128
    Melt through, 759–60
    Mentor Graphics, Inc., 850
    MEP Modeler, 74
    Meridians, 1073, 1083
    Metal buildings, 961–62
    Metal injection molding (MIM), 139
    Metallurgy, 126
    Metals
    castings, 135–37
    commonly used in manufacturing,
    122–26
    forgings, 137–38
    section lines for, 202
    stamping, 138–39
    Unifi ed Numbering System for, 125–26
    Metes and bounds system, 1082, 1083
    Method specifications, defi ned, 986
    Methyl pentenes, 127
    Metric dimensions
    in piping drawings, 908–9
    Metric Drawing Sheet Size and Format, 811
    Metric fits, 358
    Metrics, 1140
    in piping, 909
    Metric scale, 47, 48
    Metric symbols/names
    rules for writing, 908–91288 INDEX
    Overlapping tolerance controls, 553
    Overlay system, 205–6
    Overlubrication of bearings, 713
    Overprocessing waste, 1132, 1133
    Overproduction waste, 1132, 1133
    Overrules, 1037
    Oxyacetylene welding, 746
    Oxyfuel welding, 746
    Oxygen gas welding, 746–47
    Ozalid dry prints. See Diazo prints
    P
    P&ID. See Process and instrumentation
    diagram (P&ID)
    Packaging industry
    plastics selection, 130
    Packings, 713–14
    Pads
    drawing, 150
    of printed circuits, 840, 841
    Page identification
    balloons with, 612
    Page numbering systems, 933–35
    Panel connections, concrete
    construction, 940, 941
    Panel elevations, 979, 982
    Panelized roof systems, 947, 954, 955
    Panel plan, 979, 982
    Paper space, 98
    Parallel bar, 13, 43
    Parallelism tolerances, 507–09
    Parallel lines, 219, 220, 227
    Parallelograms, 221
    Parallel perspective. See One-point
    perspective
    Parallels (geographic), 1073
    Parallel shafting gears, 694
    Parameter-driven assemblies, 109
    Parameters
    defined, 105
    editing, 108–9
    Parametric solid modeling, 563
    assembly drawing tools with, 615
    assembly modeling, 108
    auxiliary views from, 306
    creating 2-D drawings from, 270
    dimensioning and tolerancing, 360
    editing, 108–9
    extracting drawing content, 109
    overview, 104
    part model elements, 107–8
    simulating materials and processes in,
    166–67
    in structural drafting, 983
    welding process options, 767
    work environments, 105–7
    Parametric Technology Corporation, 74–75
    Parcels, 1082, 1084
    Part files, 106
    Partial auxiliary view, 293
    Partial datum surface, 487
    Partial views
    in multiview drawings, 257, 258
    Parting lines, 362
    Parting plane, 362
    Oblique prism, 222
    Oblique surface, 299, 300, 301
    Observation platform design, 998
    Obtuse angle, 220
    Occupational Outlook Handbook, 14, 22
    Occupational overuse syndrome, 112
    Occupations
    engineering drawing careers, 14–25
    fi nding employment, 26–27, 37
    in related areas, 118
    workplace ethics, 30–31
    OD. See Outside diameter (OD)
    OEE. See Overall equipment
    effectiveness (OEE)
    Offset cam follower, 688, 689
    Offset cone, developing, 1051–52
    Offset sections, 445–46
    Offset sidebar roller chain, 736
    Ogee, 2
    Ogee curves, 235–36, 236
    Ohms, 835
    Oil and gas drafter, 19
    Oil grooving of bearings, 713
    Oil viscosities, 713
    OML. See Outside mold line (OML)
    One-line diagram, 814
    One-pipe hot-water system, 1018
    One-point perspective, 578–79, 580
    One sigma process, 1133
    One-view drawings, 256–57
    On–off valves, 887, 888
    OP AMP. See Operational amplifi er (OP AMP)
    Open arrowheads, 330
    Open-loop robotic systems, 163
    Open traverses, 1075, 1076
    Operational amplifi er (OP AMP), 836–37
    Operations management, 1135
    Optical theodolites, 1081
    Orientation tolerances, 507
    angularity, 511–12
    concentricity tolerances, 529–30, 531
    location, 512–28
    parallelism, 507–09
    perpendicularity, 509–11
    symmetry tolerance, 530–31, 532
    virtual condition, 513, 528–29, 530, 531
    Orifice fl anges, 886
    Orifi ce plate, 886
    O-ring seal, 714
    Orthographic projections
    defined, 249
    sketching. See Multiviews sketching
    Oscillation angles in four-bar linkages, 681
    Other side of welded joint, 755, 757
    Outline section line, 201, 201–2
    Outlining projects, 219
    Out-of-control processes, 165, 166, 169
    Output
    defined, 71
    Outside diameter (OD), 710
    bearings, 710–11
    in gear structure, 692
    pipe, 877
    spur gear formula, 698
    Outside mold line (OML), 782
    Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), 1133
    Overfl ow drains, 976
    Needle roller bearings, 710
    Needle valves, 888–89
    Neoprene, 128–29
    Nesting blanks, 791–92
    Nests, 1064
    Net cross-sectional dimensions (lumber), 957
    Net inside area (NIA), 1044
    Neutral axis, 782
    Neutral zone, 782
    Nipolet, 884
    Nitrate, 127
    Nitrile rubber, 129
    Nodular cast iron, 123
    Nominal pipe size (NPS), 397, 877, 878
    Nominal sizes
    defined, 322
    lumber, 955
    Nonassociative dimension, 348
    Nondestructive testing of welds, 763, 764
    Nondirectional relays, 817
    Nonferrous metals, 122, 124–26
    Nonintersecting shafting gears, 695
    Nonisometric lines, 185, 185–86, 567
    Nonparallel holes, 521, 523
    Nonprecision chains, 736
    detachable chain, 736
    pintle and welded steel chains, 736
    Nonprovisional patent applications, 31–32
    Nonservo systems, 163
    Non-uniform rational basis spline
    (NURBS), 102
    Normalizing, 124
    Notes
    as dimensions, 320
    in piping drawings, 900, 908, 909
    surface fi nish in, 371
    with threads, 403
    Not-to-scale dimension, 619
    NPS. See Nominal pipe size (NPS)
    NPT. See National Standard taper pipe
    threads (NPT)
    NPTF. See National Pipe Taper Fuel (NPTF)
    NREL. See United States Department of
    Energy National Renewable Energy
    Laboratory (NREL)
    Numbered symbols, 1037–38
    Number of teeth, 698, 706
    Numerical control (NC) system, 87. See also
    Computer numerical control (CNC)
    system
    NURBS. See Non-uniform rational basis
    spline (NURBS)
    Nuts, 408, 409
    drawing, 417–18
    self-clinching, 415
    types of, 409
    NX, 75
    Nylon, 127
    O
    Object lines, 195
    precedence in multiviews, 266, 318
    structural drafting practices, 930–31
    Object-Red layer, 94
    Oblique drawing, 563, 576, 578INDEX 1289
    detail drawing, 910, 911
    drafting activities, 870, 872, 891–910
    drawing revisions, 914, 915–16
    drawing sheets, 910, 914
    drawings types, 872–74, 875
    fittings, 881–85
    fl anges, 885–87
    metrics in, 909
    sizes and wall thickness, 878
    specifi cation, 893, 894
    types of pipe, 876–78
    valves, 887–91
    Piping elevations, 909–10
    Piping isometrics, 874, 875
    Piping models
    CADD, 914–15
    miniature assemblies, 910, 914
    Piston, 681
    Pitch
    of springs, 424
    of thread, 394
    of welds, 760–61
    worm gear formula, 706
    Pitch angle, 704
    Pitch cone, 704
    Pitch diameter, 729
    bevel gear formula, 704
    spur gear formula, 697, 703
    of thread, 394
    worm gear formula, 706
    Pitch gage, 406
    Pitch line, 703
    of V-belts, 729
    Pivoted followers, 684
    Pixel density, 91
    PL. See Parts list (PL)
    Placed features, 107
    Plain bearings, 709
    Plain end (PE) preparation, 879
    Plain wire, 938
    Plan and profile, 1109
    Planar surfaces, 542
    Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle, 1133
    Plane geometry
    defined, 219
    Plane of projection, 249
    Planned unit development, 1094–95, 1097
    Plans
    defined, 930
    piping, 892, 894
    Plan views (highway layout), 1087–88
    Plastic gears, 706–08
    Plastic part manufacturing, drawings for,
    369–70
    Plastic resin identifi cation codes, 129
    Plastics
    major types, 122, 126–29
    manufacturing processes, 153–59
    for pipe, 877
    reusability of, 130
    section lines for, 202
    selection applications, 129–31
    as sustainable material, 130
    using, 130
    Plate, 776
    Plate cams, 684, 687
    Plated-through holes, 842–43
    Pictograms, 10
    Pictorial assembly drawings, 607, 610
    Pictorial drawings, 562, 563, 565, 566, 1038
    CADD applications, 585–87
    for catalogs, 622, 623
    circles and curves, 582–83
    from crude sketches, 562
    defined, 250
    dimetric projection, 574
    electrical drafting, 811
    electronics, 846, 847
    exploded, 575, 576, 577
    isometric, 566–68
    isometric construction techniques,
    568–74
    land relief, 1093
    layout for 584–85
    long-axis isometric drawing, 568
    oblique methods, 576, 578
    one-point perspective, 578–79, 580
    overview, 563
    perspective, 578, 579
    regular isometric drawing, 568
    reverse isometric drawing, 568
    shading techniques, 583
    solid models in, 563, 565
    in structural drafting, 991
    technical illustration, 565, 566
    three-dimensional illustration
    capabilities, 588–89
    three-dimensional visualization tools,
    563, 565
    three-point perspective, 580–82
    trimetric projection, 574–75
    two-point perspective, 580
    uses of, 566
    Picture plane (PP), 578
    PID. See Punch ID (PID)
    Piece numbers, 1028
    Pilaster, 947, 952, 953
    Pilot hole
    calculating depth, 410–11
    for nailing, 968
    specifying for pipe thread, 413
    Pilot relay system, 817
    Pinions, 691, 692, 696, 703
    Pin numbers, 837
    Pins, 257, 418–19
    Pintle and welded steel chains, 736
    Pipe assemblies, 910, 913
    Pipe drafter, 20, 23
    Pipe drafting
    drawing sheets, 910, 914
    elements of, 870, 872, 891–910
    layout technique, 916, 917
    revisions, 914, 915–16
    Pipe drawings
    elements of, 872–74, 875
    Pipe fitters, 910, 913
    Pipelines, 869
    Pipe support symbols, 904
    Pipe threads, designing, 412–14
    Piping
    applications, 869–70
    ASME codes and standards, 876
    connection methods, 879–81
    defined, 869
    Part models
    elements, 107–8
    Parts, precision sheet metal, 777
    Parts libraries, 33–34
    Parts list (PL), 612. See also Bill of materials
    assembly drawing and, 622
    CADD tools, 615
    guidelines for, 622
    keying to working drawings, 605, 715–16
    with printed circuit board drawings,
    844, 846
    and working drawings, 597, 608–12
    Passive VR, 90
    Patches, 102
    Patent drafters, 19
    Patent research, 1141
    Patents, 31–32
    applying for, 31–32
    Pattern development, 1045
    defined, 1016
    of a truncated pyramid, 1052
    Pattern-locating control, 517
    PC. See Point of curve (PC)
    PCB. See Printed circuit board (PCB)
    PDCA. See Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle
    PDM. See Product data management (PDM)
    Pedestal footings, 972, 975
    PEEK. See Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
    Pencils, 41–42
    for sketching, 175
    Penetration of welds, 759, 760
    Penny classifi cations (nails), 968
    Pens, 42
    Percentage calculations, 768
    Perfect form boundary, 494, 495
    Periods (cam), 684
    Peripheral equipment
    CADD workstation, 71
    Permanent casting, 137
    Perpendicular bisector, 228
    Perpendicularity tolerances, 509–11
    Perpendicular lines, 219, 220, 227–28
    Perspective drawing, 565, 578, 579
    types of, 578
    Petroglyphs, 10
    PF. See Powder forging (PF)
    PFD. See Process fl ow diagram (PFD)
    Phantom lines, 203, 335, 363, 368, 374
    for contours in multiview drawings,
    264, 265
    drawing a detailed coil spring
    representation using, 427
    for drawing sheet metal part, 778
    on machining allowance and draft angles,
    363, 367
    Phase gate design process, 1137–47
    concept phase, 1137–40
    development phase, 1140–44
    execution phase, 1144–47
    Phenolics, 128
    Philadelphia rod, 1079
    Photocopy printers, 62
    Photodrafting, 846
    Photogrammetrists, 20
    PI. See Point of intersection (PI)
    Pickoff jig, 376
    Pickoff number, 10291290 INDEX
    Prequalifi ed welded joints, 765
    Press break, 786
    Pressure angle spur gears, 696, 697
    Pressure regulating valve, 891
    Prestressed concrete structures, 940–41, 942
    Primary auxiliary views, 299
    Primary datum, 479, 481
    Prime circles in cam profiles, 688–89
    Prime meridian, 1073
    Principal plane, 780
    Print, 13
    Printed circuit board (PCB), 810, 838, 840.
    See also Printed circuits
    Printed circuit-board artwork, 841
    Printed circuits, 838, 840–46
    design and layout, 838–41
    preparation, 844–45
    scale, 842
    Prisms
    basic features, 222
    Problem-solving process, 39
    Process, content versus, 118
    Process and instrumentation diagram
    (P&ID), 870, 872
    Process fl ow diagram (PFD), 870, 871
    Process notes, 604, 605, 622
    Process piping, 869
    equipment symbols, 903
    Process vessels, 874
    ProConcrete, 73
    Product bill of materials, 1142
    Product catalog, 622
    Product data management (PDM), 79
    Product description/business case, 1135
    Product development sequence, 122
    Production sample inspection, 1144, 1147
    Product life cycle, 131, 1147
    Product life cycle management (PLM)
    system, 1134
    for CADD, 73, 79
    Product release level, 1144
    Products, precision sheet metal, 777
    Pro/ENGINEER, 74
    Profi le form and orientation tolerance
    zone, 543
    Profi le of a surface tolerance. See Surface
    profiles
    Profi les, 1087, 1109
    through grading plans, 1095, 1099
    highway layout, 1088–91
    for map, 1088
    steps in creating, 1088–89, 1109–10
    Profi le tolerance, 532–44
    Progressive dies, 376
    Projected areas
    math application for, 307
    Projected tolerance zone, 526–28, 529
    Projection, 563
    Projection, multiview
    CADD tools and options, 270–71
    fi rst-angle, 251, 254
    orthographic, 249
    plane of, 249
    third-angle, 251
    Project leader, 1135
    Project outlines, 219
    Project plan, 1137
    Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 128
    Polyphenylene sulfi de (PPS), 128
    Polypropylene, 128
    Polystyrene, 128
    Polysulfi de rubber, 129
    Polysulfones, 128
    Polyurethane, 129
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 128
    for pipe, 877
    Pop safety valve, 890
    Porcelain
    section lines for, 202
    Portfolios, 589
    Positional tolerance zone, 514, 522
    Positional tolerancing, 512, 513, 522, 530
    based on the surface of a hole, 513, 514
    of coaxial features, 519–21, 522
    of fasteners, 523–26, 527
    at least material condition, 515
    locating symmetrical features, 531, 532
    at maximum material condition, 513
    at regardless of feature size, 514–15
    Positive drive belts, 729, 730
    Positive work habits, 113
    Postmortem review, 1147
    Postprocessors, 87, 164
    Postproduction review, 1147
    Posture, 113
    Poured concrete construction, 936–45,
    946–49, 950
    Poured-in-place concrete, 938–39
    Powder forging (PF), 140
    Powder metallurgy (PM), 139–40
    Power hacksaw, 144
    Power substation design drawings,
    814–19, 820
    Power-supply plan, 821, 823
    PP. See Picture plane (PP)
    PPO. See Polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
    PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
    PRC. See Point of reverse curve (PRC)
    Precast concrete
    beam drawing, 946
    manufacturing methods, 939–41
    panel drawings, 943, 945, 948
    slab drawing, 947
    Precedence of lines in multiviews, 266
    Precious metals, 125
    Precision chains, 734–36
    double pitch roller chain, 735
    inverted tooth silent chain, 736
    offset sidebar roller chain, 736
    roller chain, 734–35
    Precision running fits, 357
    Precision sheet metal. See also Sheet metal
    bending, 782–87
    CADD in drafting/designing of, 783
    dimensioning applications, 792–95
    drafting, 776–808
    layout, 777–82
    overview, 776–77
    Predictive engineering, 163, 1152
    Prefabricated steel structures, 961–62
    Preparing a drawing, 40
    Preproduction build, 1144
    Prequalified fi llet welds
    sizes for, 752
    Plates (steel), 962–63, 964
    Platings, dimensioning with, 361
    Platinum, 125
    Plats, 1084, 1085, 1095–96, 1102. See also
    Subdivision plats
    PLM. See Product life cycle management
    (PLM)
    PLM system. See Product life cycle
    management (PLM) system
    Plot device, 98
    Plot plan, 1091, 1092
    drawings, 817
    Plots, electronic, 98
    Plots of land, 1082
    Plotters, 114
    Plotting, 1077
    CADD, 98, 99–100
    Plotting traverses, 1077–78
    Plug, 885
    Plug taps, 395
    Plug valves, 887, 888
    Plug welds, 745, 754, 755
    Plumbing, 869
    Plumbing drafter, 20, 23
    Plus draft method, 370
    Plus/minus dimensioning, 351, 353
    Plywood, specifying in drawings, 960
    Plywood lumber beams, 955, 959
    PM. See Powder metallurgy (PM)
    Point of beginning, for traverses, 1075,
    1077, 1078
    Point of curve (PC), 1087
    Point of intersection (PI), 1088, 1091
    Point of reverse curve (PRC), 1087
    Point of tangency (PT), 1087
    Points established by extension lines,
    324, 338
    Point-to-point dimensioning. See Chain
    dimensioning
    Point-to-point interconnecting wiring
    diagrams. See Wiring diagram
    Polar coordinate dimensioning, 343
    Polar coordinate dimensions, 197
    Polar orientation
    locating multiple tabs in, 344
    Poles, true versus magnetic, 1074–75
    Polyacrylic rubber (ABR), 129
    Polyallomers, 127
    Polyamide, 127
    Polyarylate, 127
    Polybutadiene, 129
    Polycarbonates, 128
    Polyester film, 52–53
    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 128
    Polyethylene (PE) pipe, 877
    Polyethylene, 128
    Polygonal modeling, 102
    Polygons
    dimensioning, 336
    guide to constructing, 230–33
    regular, 221–22
    Polyhedrons, 222
    Polyimides, 128
    Polyisoprene, 129
    Polymerization, 126
    Polymers. See also Plastics
    major types, 122, 126–29INDEX 1291
    Registration marks, 793, 795
    Regular isometric drawing, 568
    Regular polygons, 221–22, 230–33, 231
    Regular polyhedrons, 222
    Regular right cylinder, developing, 1048
    Regular solids, 222
    Regulating valves, 888–89
    Regulatory approval, 1144
    Reinforced concrete, 937
    Reinforced concrete block construction,
    945–47, 950–952, 953
    Reinforced thermoset plastics (RTP),
    128, 158
    Reinforcing cords in V-belts, 729
    Related part method, 261–62
    Related views, 266
    Relations, 105
    Relay types, 817
    Release documentation, 1144
    Relief valves, 890, 891
    Removed sections, 454–55
    Removed views, 260–61
    Repetitive features
    location dimensioning, 343–44
    Repetitive movement injury, 112
    Repetitive strain injuries, 112
    Reproduction methods, manual drafting, 43
    Reprogrammable robotics, 163
    Research
    advanced, 1135–36
    existing product, 1136–37
    Research and development (R&D), 122, 604
    Research techniques, 39–40
    Residential electrical plans, 819–20, 821–23
    Resin transfer molding, 158, 159
    Resistors, 830, 832, 835
    Retaining rings, 419
    Return-air (RA) register, 1017
    Reusability of CADD, 33–34
    Reusability of plastics, 130
    Reusing drawing content, in CADD, 96–97
    REVCLOUD command, 916, 985, 1041
    Reverse engineering (RE), 74–75, 915
    Reverse isometric drawing, 568
    Revision clouds, 1038–39
    piping drawings, 915–16
    in structural drafting, 984–85
    Revision history block, 60
    Revision letter, 618, 626
    Revision notes, 915, 985
    Revisions
    piping drawings, 914, 915–16
    structural drafting, 984–85
    Revision status notation, 55, 56, 61
    Revision status of sheets block, 60–61
    Revolved section, 453–54
    Rework, 1132
    RFC. See Running and Sliding Fits (RFC)
    RFS. See Regardless of feature size (RFS)
    Ribbed floors, 938, 940
    Right angle helical gears, 695
    Right angles, 220
    defined, 227
    Right-hand thread, 394
    Right-of-ways, 1088
    Right prisms, 222
    developing, 1046, 1047
    Radius (R), 1087
    of a circle, 223
    of curves in civil drafting, 1087
    defined, 322
    dimensioning, 322, 325
    for turning in driveways, 1102, 1103
    Radon, 1020
    Raised face (RF) flanges, 887
    Random controlled decking, 960
    Ranges, township location by, 1083
    Rapid injection molding, 82, 83
    Rapid prototyping (RP), 3
    as manufacturing process, 160
    overview of tools for, 81–82
    subtractive, 82, 83
    Ratios (gear and drive), 703, 706
    RE. See Reverse engineering (RE)
    Reaction injection molding, 157
    Reamed holes, 147
    Reamer, 147
    Rear chainman, 1079
    Rebar
    ASTM standards, 938
    bend diagrams, 943, 948
    defined, 937
    specifying in drawings, 943–44, 975
    Rebar schedules, 972, 975
    Rectangle, drawing, 232–33
    Rectangular, developing, 1046, 1047
    Rectangular coordinate dimensioning, 197,
    326–27, 343
    sheet metal part, 778–79, 780
    Rectangular patterns, 108
    Rectangular system, 1082, 1083
    Recycle symbol, 168
    Recycling
    in construction industry, 970–71
    plastics, 129
    Redline, 624
    Redraws, 620
    Reducers (pipe), 881, 883, 885
    Reducing elbow, 881, 883
    Reducing flanges, 886
    Reducing laterals, 883
    Reducing tee, 881, 883
    Reference arrow method, 200–201,
    298–99, 455
    for removed views, 261
    Reference designations, 828–29
    Reference Designations for Electrical
    and Electronic Parts and Equipment,
    811
    Reference dimension, 331, 332
    defined, 322
    symbols, 325
    Reference features, 108
    Reference lines, defined, 250
    in welding symbols, 749, 750, 755, 757–59
    Refi nement of size, 553
    Refl ected ceiling plan, 824
    Refractories, 122, 202
    Refrigeration, 1017
    drafter, 18
    Regardless of feature size (RFS), 493, 494,
    495, 514–15, 525
    Regardless of material boundary (RMB),
    493, 494, 499
    Project portfolio, 1135
    Project portfolio management, 1135
    Project termination, 1137
    ProjectWise, 73
    Property descriptions, 1082–84
    Property identifi cation standards, 1103
    Property line layout, 1103–07
    Propionate, 127
    Proportional dividers, 43
    Proportions, in sketching, 180
    Proprietary product specification, 981
    Prototypes, 620
    Prototypes/prototyping, 80–84
    conventional machining, 84
    digital prototyping, 81
    overview, 80–81
    rapid injection molding, 82, 83
    rapid prototyping, 81–82
    subtractive rapid prototyping, 82, 83
    Protractors, plotting traverses with, 1077–78
    Provisional patent applications, 32
    PT. See Point of tangency (PT)
    Public-land system, 1082
    Pulleys, 692, 728
    Punch ID (PID), 796, 797
    Punching, 138
    process, 341
    Punch press, 138
    Purchase parts, 1141. See also Standard parts
    defining, 598
    describing, 612–14
    gears as, 692
    Purchasing departments, 596
    Purlins, 947, 962
    PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
    Pyramid
    developing, 1052
    pattern development of a truncated, 1052
    Pyramid prisms, 222, 223
    Pythagorean theorem, 868–69, 919
    Q
    QFD. See Quality Function Deployment
    (QFD)
    Quadrilaterals, 221
    Qualifi cation requirements, 25
    Quality control
    in CIM systems, 163
    conventional systems, 165–66
    ISO 9000 standards, 378–79
    statistical process control, 165–66, 169
    Quality control charts, 121, 165, 166
    Quality function deployment (QFD),
    1139–40
    Quality improvement, 165–66, 169, 1132
    Quarters of township sections, 1083
    R
    Rack and pinion, 696, 703, 704
    Radial loads, 709
    Radial survey, 1107
    Radiant heating and cooling systems,
    1018–19
    Radiation, 11071292 INDEX
    Search for solution multipliers, 1130
    Seats of valves, 887
    Secondary auxiliary views, 299–300, 302
    Secondary datum, 481
    Secondary originals, 63
    Second generation reproduction, 63
    Seconds, in surveying, 1073
    Sectional view identification, 440–42
    Sectional views on different sheets, locating,
    455–56
    Section drawings, 1037
    Sectioning, 449–50
    defined, 440
    Section lines, 442–44
    in isometric drawings, 571
    rules for, 201–3
    Sections, 1083. See also Building sections
    assembly drawings in, 603, 604, 606
    coordination with details in structural
    drafting, 934, 935, 974
    cutting-plane and section lines, 201
    defined, 440
    in isometric drawings, 571
    laying out, 990
    piping, 893–96, 894, 909–10
    of townships, 1083
    Seismograph drafter, 18
    Self-clinching fasteners, 415–16, 416
    Self-clinching nuts, 415
    Self-clinching spacers and standoffs, 415
    Self-clinching studs, 415–16
    Self-locking nuts, 417
    Self-locking thread, 396, 397
    Self-tapping screws, 414
    Sellers, Coleman, 11
    Semiconductor, 830
    Semimetallic gaskets, 880
    Semipictorial wiring diagram, 846, 847
    Separation walls, 953
    Serdynski, David P., 1135
    Service mark, 32
    Servo systems, 163
    Setbacks, 1105
    Set screws, 409, 410, 692
    Sewer lines, 1089
    Shading, 1118
    Shading analysis, 988
    Shading techniques, 583–84
    Shaft fi ts, 352, 711
    Shaft shoulder and housing shoulder
    dimension, 712–13
    Shale
    for pipe, 878
    Shape descriptions, 250
    Shapers, 145
    Sharp-V thread forms, 396
    Shear forces, defined, 930
    Sheaves, 727, 728
    Sheet layout planning, 599
    Sheet metal. See also Precision sheet metal
    defined, 776
    fl anges, 787–88
    hems, 788
    material application in drafting of,
    791–92
    model, 779–80, 781, 789–90
    parts, 777
    products, 777
    threads, 394
    tolerancing for, 544–46
    Runs, in pipe fittings, 881
    Rural fi re department access, 1102–03
    S
    SAE. See Society of Automotive Engineers
    (SAE)
    Safety precautions, 1102–03
    Safety valves, 890
    Sand, section lines for, 202
    Sand casting, 135, 136
    Saving drawings, 101
    Saw machines, 143–44
    SBR. See Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)
    Scale factor, 98
    Scalene triangle, 221
    Scales
    architect’s, 49–50, 51
    civil engineer’s, 47–49
    defined, 46
    in detail views, 258–59
    drawing, 46–47
    exaggerated in civil drafting, 1089
    isometric 567–68
    mechanical engineer’s, 50, 51, 52
    metric, 47, 48
    of piping isometrics, 910
    of printed circuit drawings, 1089
    selecting, 990
    shapes, 46
    for site plans, 1100
    for sketching, 180–81
    Schedules, 930, 1037–38
    Schedule tracking, 1144
    Schematic diagrams, 809
    electrical drafting, 811
    electronic, 828–36
    springs, 426
    substations, 814
    threads, 400
    Schematic representations of threads, 397
    Schematic spring representations, 426
    Schematic wiring diagram
    electrical drafting, 812
    Screwdriver
    assembly drawing for, 622, 623, 624
    Screwdriver symbol, 830
    Screwed connections, 879, 880
    Screwed pipe fi ttings, 881, 882, 885
    Screw heads, 416–17
    Screw machine, 142
    Screw threads, 152, 393, 394
    inserts, 415
    in isometric drawings, 572
    measuring, 406
    standards and terminology, 393–94
    Scupper, 976
    S curves, 235–36, 236
    Sealed bearings, 709–10
    Sealing methods, 713
    Seamless forged steel fittings, 881
    Seamless pipe, 877
    Seams, 1046
    sheet metal, 788
    Seam welds, 754, 756–57
    Right triangles, 221
    constructing, 231, 232
    Rim board, 955
    Rimmed steel, 124
    Ring-type joint (RTJ) flange, 887
    Rise (cam), 684
    Rise, for highway layouts, 1091
    Rivets, 420, 421
    RMB. See Regardless of material boundary
    (RMB)
    Road clearances, 1103
    Road load capacities, 1103
    Roadway layout, 1072
    Robotics, 163
    Rock, section lines for, 202
    Rocker arms, 680
    Rockers, 680
    Rockwell hardness test, 124
    Rolled thread forms, 396, 397
    Roller bearings, 709, 710
    Roller chain, 734–35
    Roller chain drive selection, 737–41
    Roller followers, 684
    Roll form, 788, 789
    Rolling element bearings, 709–10
    Roof coverings in wildfi re zones, 1103
    Roof drainage plan, 972–76, 978
    Roof drains, 976
    Roof framing plan and details, 972,
    977, 989
    Roof systems (wood frame), 947,
    954, 955
    Root angle, 704
    Root diameter, 697
    Root of thread, 394
    Root openings of welds, 753
    ROTATE, 448
    Rotated views, 262
    Rotational bearings, 709. See also Bearings
    Rotational degrees of freedom, 481, 482
    Rotational molding process, 155–56
    Rotation arrow method, 298–99
    Roughness of surfaces, 372
    Rough sketches, 174, 272, 273, 292, 315,
  3. See also Sketching
    Round, tangent arc applications, 223
    Rounded curves
    showing in multiviews, 264, 265
    Rounds
    basic features, 151
    in casting drawings, 362
    in forging dies, 363
    pictorial drawing techniques, 584
    showing in multiviews, 264, 265
    RP. See Rapid prototyping (RP)
    RTJ flange. See Ring-type joint (RTJ) flange
    RTP. See Reinforced thermoset plastics (RTP)
    Rubber
    basic features, 127
    section lines for, 202
    synthetic types, 128–29
    Rubber-band line, 204, 205
    Run, for highway layouts, 1091
    Runners, casting, 135
    Running and Sliding Fits (RFC), 356–57
    Runout
    defined, 410
    showing in multiviews, 264–66INDEX 1293
    Solid Enginyeria Ltd, 1151
    Solid height of springs, 424
    Solid length (springs), 424
    Solid models. See also Parametric
    solid modeling
    dimensioning and tolerancing, 360
    multiview drawings from, 270
    overview, 78–79
    as pictorial models, 563, 565
    simulating materials in, 166
    techniques for, 104–9
    Solid object 3-D printing, 160, 161
    Solid phase forming process, 156
    SolidWorks, 74, 110
    Solvent welding pipe connections, 881
    Sound insulation, section lines for, 202
    Sound liner, 1031
    Source reduction, 1021
    Southwest Windpower, 825
    SP. See Station point (SP)
    Spacers, self-clinching, 415
    Spaces, dividing equally, 230
    Spacing, of letters, 209, 210
    Span, between fl oor supports, 939
    SPC. See Statistical process control (SPC)
    Specifi c area flatness, 505
    Specifi cations, 351
    defi ned, 986
    lumber, 955, 960
    welding, 765
    Specifi c notes, 349
    Specifi c tolerance dimensions, 353
    Specifi ed dimension, 351
    defined, 322
    Specifi ed inch tolerance, 352–53
    Specifi ed metric tolerance, 353–54
    Specs (piping), 893, 894
    Spheres, 223, 572, 573
    Spherical diameter
    dimensioning, 325
    Spherical features, position tolerancing of,
    523, 526
    Spherical radius
    dimensioning, 325
    Spherical roller bearings, 710
    Spiral gears, 695
    Spiral torsion spring, 424
    Splines, 102, 152, 692–93, 785
    Spool drawings, 874, 875, 910, 913
    Spotfaces, 148, 149, 150
    dimensioning, 325, 340
    Spot welding, 754, 756
    Spring data, 426
    Spring index, 422
    Springs
    characteristics, 423
    coned disk, 425
    constant force, 426
    detailed representation, 426–27
    flat, 424
    garter, 426
    mechanical, 421
    schematic representations, 426, 428
    specifications, 426
    terminology, 423–24
    torsion, 424
    volute, 425
    wave, 424–25
    Sketching. See also Engineering sketches
    arcs, 179–80
    block technique for, 181–83, 182, 183
    CADD, 187–91
    circular lines, 176–79, 177, 178
    electronic schematics, 832, 834
    ellipses, 180, 181
    irregular shapes, 182, 183
    measurement lines in, 180–81, 181
    multiview layouts, 183–84, 267, 272–75
    overview, 174–75
    in planning process, 218
    proportions and scales for, 180–81
    quality of, 175
    straight lines, 175–76
    tools and materials, 175
    Sketch tools (CADD), 187–91
    Skystream 3.7, 825–26
    SLA. See Stereolithography (SLA)
    Slabs (concrete)
    defined, 936
    specifying in drawings, 944, 972, 976
    Slack side idlers, 730
    Slate, section lines for, 202
    Sleeve bearings, 709
    Slider cranks, 681
    Sliding fits, 357
    Slip-on pipe flanges, 885, 886
    Slope
    dimensioning symbol, 325
    in site design, 1101
    Slots, 525, 532
    dimensioning, 340–41
    Slotted features, locating, 521–22, 524
    Slot welds, 754, 755
    Sludge, 889
    Small bore piping, 895
    Small circles, 176, 197
    Smart HVAC systems, 1021
    SmartMarine 3-D, 74
    SmartSketch, 74
    SMD. See Surface-mounted devices (SMD)
    Smithing, 138
    Smoothness of drafting media, 50
    Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
    123, 692
    steel numbering applications,
    124, 132
    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., 129
    Socket-welded connection, 879
    Sockolet, 884
    Soft copy, 98
    Soft gaskets, 880
    Soft metric conversions, 908
    Software, 10
    CADD, 71–75
    piracy, 31
    Solar heating integrated with radiant
    system, 1019
    Solar tracker, 1151
    Solar tracking equipment, 116
    Solder, 746, 880
    Soldered connection, 880
    Soldering, 746
    Solder mask, 842, 844
    Solder paste, 845
    Solder resist mask, 842, 844
    SolidEdge, 75
    roll form, 788, 789
    seams, 788
    Sheet metal blanks, 1064
    Sheet metal drafting, 1045
    Sheet metal pattern design, 1061
    Sheet metal punch, 796–97
    Sheet sizes
    for manual drafting, 53–54, 55–56
    setting up in CADD, 275
    for site plans, 1100
    for structural drafting, 998
    Shielded metal arc welding, 747
    Shields, for ball bearings, 709
    Shop drawings, 966, 1028
    Short break line
    on metal shape, 452
    on wood shape, 452
    Shoulders
    of leader lines, 324
    of shafts and housings, 712–13
    Shrinkage allowance, 362
    Shrink fits, 357. See also Interference fit
    Siemens Corporation, 75
    Silicones, 129
    Silk screen artwork, 843–44
    Silver, 125
    Similarity of geometric shapes, 998
    Simple harmonic motion, 684–85
    Simplifi ed representation of thread, 397–98,
    398–400
    Simulated datum axis, 488, 489
    Simulated datums, 478, 479
    Simulation, 850
    Single- and double-line HVAC plans,
    1031–32
    Single composite pattern, 516
    Single-lap seam, 788, 1046
    Single-layer boards, 842
    Single lead worms, 705
    Single-line drawing, 895, 899
    Single-row ball bearings, 709
    Single span straight beams, 953, 957
    Single-stroke Gothic lettering, 207
    Sintering, 139, 158
    Site analysis plan, 1094, 1096
    Site plan, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094
    CADD applications, 1113–17
    checklist, 1107
    contour line placement, 1106–07
    designing, 1101–03
    electric substations, 817
    elements of, 1092–93, 1094, 1095
    layout, 1100–01, 1102, 1104–06, 1107
    metrics in, 1100
    planned unit development, 1094–95, 1097
    profiles, 1109–10
    site analysis plan, 1094, 1096
    topography, 1092, 1093
    Site profiles, 1109–10, 1111
    Sites, 1082
    SI units, 327
    Six Sigma, 377, 1133–34
    Size description, 267
    Size dimensions, 320
    Size features, 321
    Size, of electronic symbols, 830, 831,
    838, 840
    Sketched features, in solid modeling, 1071294 INDEX
    Subtractive rapid prototyping, 82, 83
    Supervisory control relays, 817
    Supplementary welding symbols, 750, 751
    Supply chain integration, 1152
    Supports (piping), 894, 895, 897.
    See also Hangers
    Surface condition, bend allowance and, 782
    Surface fi nishes, 371–72, 713
    characteristics of, 372–73
    defi ned, 153, 370–71
    of shafts and housings, 713
    surface roughness, 372
    surface waviness, 372
    Surface geometric control, 494, 495
    Surface models
    overview, 77–78
    techniques for, 102–3
    Surface-mounted devices (SMD), 845–46
    Surface profiles, 536–42. See also Tolerances
    Surface roughness, 372
    Surfaces, creating, 102–3
    Surface straightness tolerance, 504
    Surface texture, 370. See also Surface finishes
    Surface waviness, 372
    Survey information, 1072
    Surveying
    bearings, 1074
    direction concepts, 1073–75
    distance and elevation, 1078–82
    grid azimuth, 1075
    magnetic azimuth, 1074–75
    plotting traverses, 1077–78
    traverse types, 1075–77
    true azimuth, 1073–74
    Surveyors’ map, 1100, 1102
    Sustainability, 1021
    defi ned, 115, 131
    Sustainable buildings, defined, 969
    Sustainable CAD, 116–17
    Sustainable design, 115–17
    analysis for, 992
    opportunity, 992
    in practice, 992
    Sustainable energy, use, 992
    Sustainable material, use, 992–93
    Sustainable water, use, 992
    Swaging, 138, 881
    Sweepolet, 884
    Swing check valves, 890
    Switch symbols, 820, 822
    Symbol dialog box (AutoCAD), 548, 549
    Symbol libraries
    creating and using, 33–34
    for fasteners, 421
    piping, 900, 901–2, 901–7
    welding symbols in, 766
    Symbols
    bearings, 710
    break lines, 203
    CADD, 96–97
    datum features, 478, 480, 481, 488, 490
    datum target, 483–87
    dimensioning, 325
    electric power systems, 815–16
    electronics, 829–32
    elevation, 972, 977
    feature control frame, 487–88
    Stitch lines, 204
    Stock size
    defined, 322
    Storage
    CADD devices, 101
    defined, 71
    original drawings, 63–64
    Storyboarding, 86
    Straight angles, 220
    Straight laterals, 883
    Straight line segment, 219
    Straight line motion, 685, 686
    Straight lines, 175–76
    Straight line shading, 584
    Straightness tolerance, 504
    Straight taps, 1037
    Straight tee, 881, 883
    Street elbow, 885
    Stress analysis (gear), 708
    Stressed skin panels, 955, 960
    Stretching exercises, 113–14
    Stretch-out line, 1046
    Stroke, 681
    Structural drafters, 20, 23
    Structural drafting. See also Construction
    methods
    basic drawing layout steps, 988–90
    commercial construction specifications,
    986–88
    complete drawing sets, 972–79
    for concrete block construction, 945–47,
    950–952, 953
    for concrete construction, 936–45,
    945–47, 948
    construction specifications, 986
    engineered wood products, 953, 955,
    959–60
    from engineering calculations, 928–29
    heavy timber construction, 948, 950, 955
    laminated beam construction, 950, 953,
    957–59
    lettering on, 933
    line work on, 930–32
    revisions, 984–85
    standards, 930
    steel structures, 960–66
    wood construction overview, 947–60,
    953–56
    working drawing organization, 933–36
    Structural engineering
    defined, 930
    Structural steels, 962–65
    Structural Steel Shapes, 962
    Structural tees, 963
    Stub-end flanges, 885, 886
    Studs, self-clinching, 415–16
    Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), 129
    Subassemblies, 835
    defined, 106
    welded, 749
    working drawings for, 606–07
    Subdivision plans, 1084, 1095–98
    Subdivision plats
    describing, 1084
    examples, 1083, 1084
    Substation, 814
    design drawings, 814–19, 820
    Sprockets, 734, 735
    CADD applications, 735
    Sprues, 135
    Spur gears, 694, 696, 697, 698, 699, 702,
    703–04
    Square features and symbol, dimensioning
    of, 334
    Square groove welds, 753
    Square-head bolts, 417
    Squares, drawing, 232–33
    Square shape dimensioning symbol, 325
    Square thread form, 396
    Square to round, 1052–53
    S-shaped curve design, 2
    STA. See Stations (STA)
    Stacking, 331
    Stadia technique, 1079, 1080
    Stagger adjacent dimensions, 334
    Stainless steels, 123
    Stamping press, 791
    Stampings, 138–39, 167–68
    Standard ANSI fits
    description of, 356–57
    designation of, 356
    establishing dimensions for, 357, 358
    Standard ANSI/ISO Metric Limits and Fits,
    357–59
    Standard General Requirements for Electronic
    Equipment, 836
    Standard line-fitting symbols, 904
    Standard parts, 598. See also Purchase parts
    Standards. See also ANSI standards
    CADD, 111–12
    drafting, 29–30
    ISO 9000, 378–79
    screw threads, 393–94
    Standoffs, 415
    Static load spring application, 425
    Static pressure (SP) classifications, 1028–29
    Statics, 679
    Static sealing of bearings, 713
    Station point (SP), 578, 1075
    Stations (STA), 1079, 1107
    fi nding distance and elevation from,
    1079–82, 1107–08
    Statistical process control (SPC), 165–66,
    169, 354
    Statistical tolerancing, 325, 354, 355
    Steam tracing, 877
    Steel
    building structures with, 960–66
    in green construction, 969–71
    for pipe, 877
    properties and types, 123–24
    reinforcing bars, 937, 938
    section lines for, 202
    springs, 421
    Steel alloys, 123
    Steel castings, 123
    Steel deck systems, 938, 939
    Steel-framed structures, 962
    Steel pipe, 964
    Steel stud construction, 960–61
    Steel tubing, 877
    Stereolithography (SLA), 81, 160
    Stick electrode welding, 747
    Stipple shading, 584INDEX 1295
    Threads, 394
    detailed drawings, 400–03
    drawing, 152–53
    forms of, 395–97
    in isometric drawings, 572
    measuring, 406
    metric, 404
    position tolerancing, 523
    representations, 397–400
    schematic diagrams, 400
    simplifi ed representation of, 398–400
    standards and terminology, 393–94
    tools for cutting, 395
    types, 152–53
    Unifi ed and American National
    threads, 403
    worm gear formula, 706
    Thread series, 394
    Threads per inch, 394
    Thredolet, 884
    3-D digitizers, 915
    Three-dimensional illustration capabilities,
    588–89
    3-D model, 13, 14
    3-D printer, 3
    3-D printing, 81–82, 160, 161
    Three-dimensional solid models, 78–79
    multiview drawings from, 270
    Three-dimensional surface models, 77–78
    Three-dimensional visualization tools,
    563, 565
    Three-dimensional wireframe models, 76, 77
    3ds Max, 73
    Three-hinged arch beams, 953, 957
    Three-point perspective, 578, 580–82
    Through-the-window VR. See Passive VR
    Thrust bearings, 709
    Thrust loads, 709
    Ties, 938
    Tight side idlers, 730
    TIG welding. See Tungsten inert gas welding
    (TIG) welding
    Tilt-up precast concrete, 941–42
    Timing, 682
    Titanium, 125, 202
    Title blocks, 57–59
    general notes in, 350
    Tobacco smoke, 1020
    Tolerances. See also Geometric tolerance
    for bearings, 710–11
    buildup, 331
    defi ned, 323, 351
    and drawing specifications, 696
    of gear teeth, 696–98
    for metric threads, 404
    undimensioned drawings, 793
    welding, 762
    Tolerance zones, misinterpreting, 553
    Tolerancing applications, 351
    allowance, 355
    CADD applications, 360–61
    clearance fits, 355
    extreme form variation, 356
    fi ts, types of, 356–59
    inch tolerances, specified and
    unspecifi ed, 352–53
    interference fits, 355–56
    Telerobotics, 90
    Tempering, 124
    Templates, 44–45
    creating and using, 99, 100–101
    defined, 99
    drawings, 99, 100–101
    undimensioned drawing, 792
    Tensile strength, 122
    Tensile stress, 938, 939
    Terminal, 842
    Terminal pads, 841, 843
    Terminal units, 1018
    Terrain model, 1115
    Tertiary datum, 481
    Text. See also Lettering
    adding with CADD, 210–11
    for dimensioning, 324
    locating, 211
    model, 212
    styles, 210, 211
    Text editor, 210
    The Architect’s Handbook of Professional
    Practice, 935
    Theodolites, 1079, 1081
    Thermal insulation, section lines for, 202
    Thermoforming of plastic, 156
    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), 129
    Thermoplastic polyesters, 128
    Thermoplastic rubbers (TPR), 128
    Thermoplastics
    common types, 127–28
    defined, 122
    manufacturing processes, 153–57
    for pipe, 877
    Thermoset plastics
    applications, 128
    common types, 128
    defined, 122
    manufacturing processes, 157–58
    Thermostat, 1016, 1021
    Thickness, bend allowance and, 782
    Thin materials, section drawings of, 202
    Third-angle projection, 251
    elements of, 252–53, 254
    THL. See True-height lines (THL)
    Thorson, Troy, 1135
    Thread design guidelines, 410–14
    external threads, designing, 411–12
    pipe threads, designing, 412–14
    threaded holes, designing, 410–11
    Threaded and coupled (T&C) pipe, 879
    Threaded fasteners, 408–09
    bolts and nuts, 408, 409
    cap screws, 409, 410
    machine screws, 408, 409
    set screws, 409, 410
    Threaded holes, designing, 410–11
    Threaded rods, 153
    Thread form, 394
    Thread inserts, 414, 415
    Thread notes, 403–05, 406
    Acme thread, 404
    CADD, 406, 408
    in drawings, 404–05, 406
    metric threads, 404
    Unifi ed and American National
    threads, 403
    first-angle projection, 254
    geometric tolerancing, 477, 501, 502
    integrated circuit, 837
    linkages, 679–80
    material condition, 492, 493, 496
    metric fits, 358
    nondestructive tests, 763–64
    piping, 900, 901–2, 901–7
    recycle symbol, 168
    sizes, 830, 831, 838, 840
    symmetry, 531
    third-angle projection, 254
    welding, 745, 749–51, 752, 766
    Symbols for Mechanical And Acoustical
    Elements As Used In Schematic
    diagrams, 811
    Symbols library
    CADD, 97
    Symmetrical features
    position tolerancing, 531
    Symmetrical objects, dimensioning of, 334
    Symmetrical shape
    dimensioning, 325
    Symmetry geometric tolerance, 530–32
    Symmetry symbol, 197, 198
    Synerject LLC, 89
    Synopsys, Inc., 850
    Synthetic rubbers, 128–29
    Systems, defined, 983
    Systems approach to engineering design,
    1130–31
    T
    T&C pipe. See Threaded and coupled
    (T&C) pipe
    Table movements (milling machine), 143
    Tables, 780, 782
    Tabular, 612
    Tabular dimensioning, 327
    Tags, 901, 1028
    Tails in welding symbols, 749, 750
    Tangent arcs
    drawing, 233
    Tangent circles, distance between, 629
    Tangents
    construction, 233–36
    defi ned, 179, 224
    design and drafting applications, 233–36
    Tap drill (thread), 394
    Tapered roller bearings, 710
    Taper pins, 418–19
    Taper pipe threads, 413–14
    Taper taps, 395, 411
    Taps (thread), 394, 395
    Taps, 153
    defined, 1037
    Tap set, 395
    Tax incentives for wind power generators, 826
    Team, 1132
    Technical drafting/drawing. See Engineering
    drawing
    Technical illustration, 88
    pictorial drawings versus, 565, 566
    Technical illustrators, 20, 22, 23–24, 24, 589
    Tektronix parts library, 33–341296 INDEX
    Uniform accelerated motion, 685–86
    UniFormat, uniform classification
    system, 987–88
    Uniform classifi cation system, 987–88
    Unilateral profi le tolerance, 534–36, 538,
    539, 540–41
    Unilateral tolerance, 323, 351, 534
    Unions, for screwed pipe, 882, 885
    United States (U.S.) customary units, 327
    United States Department of Energy
    National Renewable Energy
    Laboratory (NREL), 825
    United States National CAD Standard
    (NCS), 30, 112
    Unit flatness, 505
    Units
    conventional standards and practices,
    327, 328–29
    electronics, 835–36
    in site plans, 1097
    in surveying, 1079
    in welding symbols, 751
    Unit straightness, 504
    Universal milling machines, 143
    Universal recycle symbol, 168
    UNS. See Unifi ed Numbering System (UNS)
    Unsaturated polyesters, 128
    Unsectioned features, 446–47
    Unspecifi ed inch tolerance, 352–53
    Unspecifi ed metric tolerance, 353–54
    Unspecifi ed tolerances, 59
    Uploading, on beams, 955
    Upper control limits, 166, 351
    Upset forging, 138
    Urea formaldehyde, 128
    User interface, 188
    USGBC. See U.S. Green Building Council
    (USGBC)
    Utility Scale Solar, Inc., 116
    Utility services drawings, 1089–91
    V
    V28™ Lithium-Ion Sawzall, 1135
    Vacuum bag forming, 158, 159
    Value, 1132
    Value chain integration, 1152
    Value numbers, 836
    Valve actuator symbols, 901, 902
    Valves (piping), 887–91, 900, 901, 902
    Vanadium alloy, 123
    Vanishing point left (VPL), 578, 580
    Vanishing point right (VPR), 578, 580
    Vanishing point vertical (VPV), 578
    Vanish thread, 394
    Variable air volume (VAV)
    box, 1044
    units, 1018
    Variable resistors, 830
    Variable-value device, 830
    Variation, 166
    V-belts, 728
    basic features, 728–29
    common configurations, 729
    drive design, 731–34
    Vellum, 52
    True geometry view, defined, 249
    True-height lines (THL), 579
    True poles, magnetic poles versus, 1074–75
    True position, 512
    True Y fittings, 881
    Truncated cylinder pattern development,
    1048–49
    Truncated prism pattern development,
    1047–48
    Truncated pyramid, pattern development
    of a, 1052
    Truncated solids
    defined, 222
    Trunk lines, 812
    Truss roof system, 947, 954
    T-slot, 153
    Tubing
    copper, 877
    steel, 877
    structural, 963–64
    Tudor arch beams, 953, 957
    Tungsten, 123, 125
    Tungsten carbide, 125
    Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) welding, 747
    TurboCAD, 74
    Turnarounds, 1104
    Turning aprons, 1102
    Turning points, 1079–80
    Turnouts, 1103
    Turret lathes, 141
    Two-dimensional drawings
    overview, 71, 76, 77
    creating from parametric solid models, 270
    Two-pipe hot-water system, 1018
    Two-point perspective, 578, 580
    Two single-segment feature control frames,
    517, 519
    Two-view drawings, 256
    Typical cross sections, 976, 978
    U
    U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), 969,
    971, 992, 1019
    U groove welds, 754
    UL. See Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
    Ultrasonic machining, 145
    Unconstrained line, 204, 205
    Undercuts, 153
    Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 1144
    Undimensioned Drawings, 780, 792, 842
    Undimensioned drawings, 792, 1061
    ASME standard, 780, 792
    media used for, 793
    tolerances, 793
    Unequal bilateral tolerance, 351
    Unequally disposed profi le tolerance, 538,
    540–41
    Unidirectional dimensioning, 326
    Unifi ed and American National threads, 403
    Unifi ed Inch Screw Threads, 394
    Unifi ed Numbering System (UNS), 125–26
    Unifi ed Screw Threads Metric
    Translation, 394
    Unifi ed thread form, 395
    Unifi ed Thread Series, 393
    Tolerancing applications (continued)
    maximum and least material
    conditions, 355
    metric tolerances, specified and
    unspecifi ed, 353–54
    single limits, 352
    statistical tolerancing, 354, 355
    Tongue-and-groove decking, 960
    Tongue-and-groove facings, 887
    Tool-and-die design drafter, 22
    Tool design, 160, 161, 162, 373
    designer’s tools, 377–78
    process, 374–77
    Tool offset, 164
    Tool path displays, 382
    Tool process, 374–77
    Tool runout, 411
    Top-down assembly, 108
    Topographical drafter, 16
    Topography, on site plans, 1092, 1093
    Torsion, 424, 765
    Torsion bar spring, 424
    Total indicator reading (TIR). See Full
    indicator movement (FIM)
    Total quality management (TQM), 1134
    Total runout, 544–45
    Total station theodolites, 1081
    Townships, 1083
    Toyota production system (TPS), 1132
    TPE. See Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)
    TPR. See Thermoplastic rubbers (TPR)
    TPS. See Toyota production system (TPS)
    TQM. See Total quality management (TQM)
    Track drafting machine, 13, 46
    Trademarks, 32–33
    Trails, in exploded assemblies, 575
    Trammel method, 178, 178–79
    Transfer molding, 157
    Transferring, triangles, 229
    Transistors, 832
    Transition fits, 358
    Transition piece, 786
    Transition piece development, 1054
    Transition piece pattern development,
    drawing, 1052–55
    Transit lines, 1087
    Transits, 1079, 1081
    Transit stations, 1107
    Transit theodolites, 1081
    Translational degrees of freedom, 481, 482
    Transmission, electricity, 814
    Transmitter symbols, 202
    Transparency of drafting media, 51
    Transportation piping, 869
    Transportation waste, 1132, 1133
    Travel of angled pipe, finding, 919
    Traverses, 1075–77
    Traverse stations, 1075
    Triangles, 43–44
    basic features, 220–21
    guide to constructing, 231
    transferring, 229
    Triangulation, 231, 1053
    curve-to-curve, 1055
    TRIM command, 401
    Trimetric projection, 563, 574–75
    True azimuth, 1073–74INDEX 1297
    Wood pipe, 878
    Wood screws, 414
    Wool seals, 715
    Work features, 108
    Work habits, 113
    Working depth, spur gear formula, 697
    Working drawing, 596
    analysis, 620–27
    assembly drawings, 603–04, 605
    change order (CO), 616–18, 619
    coordination in structural drafting,
    933–36
    detail assembly, 605–06
    detail drawings, 598–99
    drawings, editing, 618–19
    engineering change notice (ECN),
    616–18, 619
    engineering change order (ECO),
    616–18, 619
    engineering change redraw, 620
    engineering change request (ECR),
    615–16
    erection assembly, 606, 609
    general assembly, 605
    identifi cation numbers in, 607–08,
    715–16
    layout assembly, 604–05, 606
    overview, 597
    parts lists for, 608–12
    pictorial assembly, 607, 610
    from prototype, 620
    purchase parts, 612–14
    subassembly, 606–07
    Work results, 986
    Workstation, 71, 72, 113
    World Wide Web, 92–93
    Worm gears, 695, 705–06, 707
    basic features, 695
    designing and drawing, 706
    Wrench, 2–7, 3–7
    X
    Xenon (CADD software), 73
    Xeriscaping, 1118
    Xerography, 62
    XLINE command, 267
    Y
    Yellow belts, 1134
    Y turnarounds, 1104
    Z
    Zero geometric tolerance, 512
    Zero positional tolerance, 513–14
    at maximum material condition (MMC),
    529, 531
    Zinc, section lines for, 202
    Zoned control system, 1018
    Zoning, 57
    Zuken, Inc., 850
    Web-browser plug-in, 92–93
    Web-enabled virtual reality modeling
    language (VRML), 92–93
    Web site research, 1065
    Weld-all-around symbol, 760, 761
    Welded connections, 968
    Welded pipe, 877
    fittings, 881
    Welded wire reinforcement (WWR), 937–38
    Welding
    advantages, 745–46
    drawing elements for, 748–51
    forge method, 138
    importance of understanding, 768
    indicating locations for, 755, 757–59
    overview, 745
    penetration, length, and other
    information, 759–62
    pipe connection by, 879
    processes, 746–48
    specifications, 765
    tests of, 762–64
    weld design guidelines, 765
    weld types, 751–55
    Welding fixtures, 375
    Welding jigs. See Welding fixtures
    Welding ring, 881, 882
    Weld length and pitch, 760–61
    Weldments, 749
    Weld-neck flanges, 885, 886
    Weldolets, 881, 884
    Weld symbols, 749–50, 751
    White cast iron, 122
    White metal
    section lines for, 202
    Whitworth screw threads, 394
    Whitworth thread form, 396
    Whole depth, 697, 706
    Whole-systems approach to engineering
    design, 1130–31
    Wide-mouth taps, 1037
    Widths of bearings, 710–11, 713
    Wildfi re zones, 1103
    roof coverings in, 1103
    Windchill, 75
    Windows, in reinforced concrete walls, 952
    Wind power, electricity generation from,
    825–27
    remote installations, 826, 827
    residential electricity generation, 825–26
    tax incentives, 826
    Wireframe models, 76, 77
    Wire list (WL), 612
    Wire reinforcement, 937–38, 943
    Wiring diagram
    electrical drafting, 811, 812
    semipictorial, 846, 847
    WL. See Wire list (WL)
    Wood, section lines for, 202
    Wood frame construction, 947–60
    anchoring to masonry, 947, 956
    engineered wood products, 953, 955,
    959–60
    heavy timber, 948, 950, 955
    laminated beam, 950, 953, 957–58
    overview, 947
    standard callouts, 957–60
    Ventilation
    air-to-air heat exchangers, 1020
    sources of pollutants, 1019–20
    Verification, 850
    Vertex, defined, 222
    Vertical band saw, 144
    Vertical curve, 1091
    point, 1091
    Vertical mills, 142
    Vertical scales, exaggerated, 1089
    Vertical uppercase Gothic, 13
    Vertices, defined, 76
    V groove welds, 753
    Vicinity map, 1094, 1097
    View enlargements
    for auxiliary views, 297
    CADD tools and options, 269, 271
    in multiview drawings, 258–59
    Viewing-plane lines, 200, 200–201, 297, 298
    View selection, 254–62
    Virtual, defined, 74
    Virtual Building software, 74
    Virtual condition, 513, 528–29, 530, 531
    Virtual reality (VR)
    applications, 89–90
    opportunities, 93
    passive, 90
    tools for, 90–93
    Virtual team, 1152
    Virtual worlds, 92–93
    Viscosity, 713
    Visible lines, 195
    Visual engineering, 1152
    VOC. See Voice of the customer (VOC)
    Voice of the customer (VOC), 1139
    Volute spring, 425
    VPL. See Vanishing point left (VPL)
    VPR. See Vanishing point right (VPR)
    VPV. See Vanishing point vertical (VPV)
    VR. See Virtual reality (VR)
    VRML. See Web-enabled virtual reality
    modeling language (VRML)
    Vulcanization, 128, 158
    W
    Waffle fl oors, 938, 940
    Waiting-time waste, 1132, 1133
    Walk-throughs, 89
    Wall details, 979, 982
    Warm air (WA), 1016–17
    Washers, drawing, 418
    Waste
    defined, 1133
    elimination, 1133
    lean manufacturing and, 1133
    Toyota production system (TPS)
    and, 1132
    Water, section lines for, 202
    Water jet cutting, 144–45
    Water Pik, Inc., 110–11
    Wave solder, 842
    Wave spring, 424–25. See also Flat wire
    compression springs
    Waviness of surfaces, 372
    Web-based collaboration, 79–80

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