Energy Conversion – Second Edition

Energy Conversion – Second Edition
اسم المؤلف
D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith
التاريخ
7 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
330
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Energy Conversion – Second Edition
Edited by
D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith
Contents
Preface .ix
Contributors xi

  1. Global Energy Systems 1
    D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith
    Section I Energy Resources
  2. Fossil Fuels .33
    Robert Reuther, Richard Bajura, and Philip C. Crouse
  3. Biomass Properties and Resources . 61
    Mark M. Wright and Robert C. Brown
  4. Municipal Solid Waste 73
    Shelly H. Schneider
  5. Nuclear Resources 81
    James S. Tulenko
  6. Solar Energy Resources .85
    D. Yogi Goswami
  7. Wind Energy Resource 137
    Dale E. Berg
  8. Geothermal Energy 177
    Joel L. Renner and Marshall J. Reed
    Section II Energy Conversion
  9. Steam Power Plant 191
    John Kern
  10. Gas Turbines 209
    Richard H. Bunce
  11. Internal Combustion Engines 223
    David E. Klett, Elsayed M. Afify, Kalyan K. Srinivasan, and Timothy J. Jacobs
  12. Hydraulic Turbines 257
    Roger E.A. Arndt and Leonardo P. Chamorroviii Contents
  13. Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Systems . 281
    Seyfettin C. (John) Gülen
  14. Stirling Engines 447
    Frank Kreith
  15. Nuclear Power Technologies through Year 2035 455
    Kenneth D. Kok and Edwin A. Harvego
  16. Nuclear Fusion . 491
    François Waelbroeck
  17. Energy Storage Technologies . 497
    Jeffrey P. Chamberlain, Roel Hammerschlag, and Christopher P. Schaber
  18. Solar Thermal Energy Conversion 525
    T. Agami Reddy and Jeffrey H. Morehouse
  19. Concentrating Solar Thermal Power 655
    Manuel Romero, Jose Gonzalez-Aguilar, and Eduardo Zarza
  20. Photovoltaics Fundamentals, Technology and Application 765
    Roger Messenger, D. Yogi Goswami, Hari M. Upadhyaya, Senthilarasu Sundaram,
    Aruna Ivaturi, Stephan Buecheler, and Ayodhya N. Tiwari
  21. Wind Energy Conversion 851
    Dale E. Berg
  22. Biomass Conversion Process for Energy Recovery 897
    Mark M. Wright and Robert C. Brown
  23. Geothermal Power Generation 931
    Kevin Kitz
  24. Waste-to-Energy Combustion 985
    Charles O. Velzy and Leonard M. Grillo
  25. Fuel Cells 1033
    Xianguo Li
  26. Direct Energy Conversion . 1085
    Mysore L. Ramalingam, Jean-Pierre Fleurial, and George Nolas
    Appendix A: The International System of Units, Fundamental Constants,
    and Conversion Factors . 1103
    Appendix B: Solar Radiation Data . 1109
    Appendix C: Properties of Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids . 1137
    Appendix D: Ultimate Analysis of Biomass Fuels . 1151
    Index . 1153
    1153
    “Atoms for Peace” speech, 457
    1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, effect of on
    transportation of coal, 46–47
    2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1017
    3PRH bottoming cycles, 315, 319, 359
    40 CFR Part 60, 1011–1012
    450 scenario, 14–15, 28
    A a
    -Si cells, 800, 806–807
    configurations, 810–811
    deposition techniques for, 808
    fabrication of, 777–778
    flexible, 814–816
    stability and recombination issues in,
    809–810
    a-Si:H cells
    configurations for, 808–809
    deposition techniques for, 808
    ABAQUS, 872
    Abengoa, 674, 724
    Absolute efficiency, 276
    Absorber pipes
    enhancing heat transfer in, 704
    flow in, 700–701
    Absorbers
    compound parabolic concentrators, 539–540
    design of, 731
    design of for flat-plate collectors, 530
    flat-plate solar collectors, 662–664, 667
    ideal temperatures of, 663–664
    reducing losses from, 537–538
    use of in tubular receivers, 732–734
    use of in volumetric receivers, 734–739
    Absorption carbon capture, 295
    Absorption charge mode, 781
    Absorption effects, 666
    Absorptivity, 683
    AC solar array systems, 782
    Acceptance angle, 681–682
    Acid electrolyte fuel cell, 1035, 1071. See also
    PEMFCs
    Acid rain, combustion of coal and, 48
    Acoustic flow meters, 277
    ACPR nuclear reactors, 467
    Active length factor, 683
    Active pitch control rotors, 875
    Active solar systems, 551
    closed-loop, 554–557
    controls for, 557–562
    design recommendations and costs, 578–579
    Active space heating, design approach for,
    570–573
    AD process, microbial phases in, 915
    ADAMS, 872
    Additive manufacturing, use of to reduce inlet
    temperature gaps, 352
    Adiabatic saturators
    definition of, 221
    use of with gas turbines, 218
    Adsorption carbon capture, 295
    Advanced boiling water reactors (AWBRs), 465
    Advanced fossil fuel power systems.
    See AFFPS
    Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), 460
    Advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR), 468
    Advanced power systems, categories of, 283
    Advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR),
    466–467
    Advanced thermal reactors, 465–466. See also
    Generation III nuclear reactors
    Aeroderivative gas turbines, air standard cycle
    calculations for, 317–318
    Aerodynamic loading, 869–870
    Aerodynamic models of wind turbines,
    860–868
    AES nuclear reactors, 467
    AFFPS, 435
    cogeneration, 364–367
    combustion technologies, 335–345
    determinants for, 296–301
    fuel cell hybrid system, 305–306
    fuel flexibility, 369–372
    GTCC high performance cycles, 355–360
    GTCC technology, 351–355
    indirectly fired gas turbines, 361–362
    operational flexibility, 367–369
    repowering, 362–364
    thermodynamics of, 308–319
    USC power plants, 345–351
    use of GTCC system for benchmark, 319
    Agricultural residues, 66
    Air
    use of as a working fluid, 527–528
    use of to cool gas turbines, 220
    Index1154 Index
    Air gasification, 902
    Air heat transfer, 630–631
    Air mass ratio, 102–103
    Air pollution
    control of from MSW combustion, 996–997
    emission requirements, 1011–1012
    gaseous emission control, 1014–1016
    organic compound control, 1016–1019
    particulate control, 1012–1013
    trace metals from MSW residue, 1019–1022
    Air quality control, 286, 417–423
    Air quality control systems. See AQCS
    Air separation unit (ASU), 290, 392–393, 434
    Air solar collectors, 552
    Air staging, 339
    Air standard power cycles, 230
    calculations for heavy duty GTs, 317–318
    idea Diesel cycle, 232–233
    ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
    Air temperature, transient thermal analysis of,
    630–631
    Air throttling, 234
    Air-blown gasifiers, 904–905
    Air-cooled volumetric receivers, 735
    Air–fuel mixture
    SI engine emissions levels and, 242–243
    SI engines, 236–238
    Airfoils, 855. See also Wind turbines
    performance characteristics, 866
    Alcohols
    butanol, 922
    cellulosic ethanol, 921–922
    corn ethanol, 918–921
    mixed, 924
    Algae, 69
    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs), 1067–1069
    All-or-nothing auxiliary heaters, 555–556
    Allam cycle, 299
    Alloy steels, 381–382
    Alloying elements, 383
    Alpha iron, 383
    Altitude angle, 91, 635, 779
    American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity
    scale. See API gravity
    American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
    and Air-Conditioning Engineers. See
    ASHRAE
    American Society of Testing and Materials. See
    ASTM
    Amine-based absorption/stripper process, 296
    Ammonia
    leakage of from SCR converters, 243
    production of from biomass, 916
    Ammonia–water binary power plants, 976
    Amorphous silicon PV cells. See a-Si cells
    Anaerobic digestion. See also AD process
    conversion of biomass to biogas using,
    914–915
    Anaerobic digestors, 916
    ANDASOL, 678
    ANDASOL-I plant, 712
    Anemometers, 159–160
    selection of, 160
    Aneutronic fusion, 492
    Angle of incidence, 106
    Angström-Page regression equation, 113–114
    Angular dependence, 534
    Anisotropic of diffuse solar radiation,
    118–119
    Annual lighting energy saved, 635
    Annual normal incident radiation, 656
    Anodes in fuel cells, 1035
    Anthracite, 34–36
    reserves of, 39–40
    Antiknock index, 245
    Aora, 724
    Aperture-area-weighted SSF, 615
    API gravity, 59
    definition of, 60
    AQCS, 286
    use of in FFPS, 295
    Archimede Solar, 677
    ARDISS, 703
    Area–velocity measurements, 276
    AREVA, 715
    Areva-EdF-CGNPC nuclear reactor, 467
    Ash content of coal, 36–39
    Ash discharge facilities, 1010
    Ash fusibility, 39
    ASHRAE
    clear sky model, 103–105
    Standard 93-77, 533
    Asphalt, 55
    ASTM
    alloy steel specifications, 382
    coal property analysis, 36–39
    coal rank classification scheme of, 34–36
    Standard D975, 246
    Standard D976, 246
    Standards Part 47, 244–245
    Atmea1 nuclear reactor, 467
    Atmospheric IGFC, 307–308
    ATS heliostat, 724
    Attached sunspace, 586–587
    Ausra, 715
    Austenite, 383Index 1155
    Australia
    evolution of LF reflector systems in, 714–715
    hot fractured rock development in, 936
    use of linear Fresnel systems in, 673–674
    Autoignition, 228
    Autoignition temperature, 370
    Automatic generation control (AGC), 368
    Automotive storage technologies, 501
    energy density, cycle life, and efficiency
    of, 503
    Auxiliary heaters, 555–556
    designs for closed-loop multipass systems,
    573–575
    Auxiliary power, 287
    Auxiliary technologies, 284
    Azimuth angle, 91, 635, 779
    B
    Baghouses
    use of in gaseous emission control, 1015
    use of in organic compound control, 1019
    Balance of plant (BOP), 293
    Balance of the system (BOS) costs, 767
    Ball joints, use of in connecting PTCs, 679–681
    Bandgap
    effect of on solar cell efficiency, 767
    semiconductor materials used in solar
    cells, 799
    tailoring for a-Si, 807
    Bang-bang control, 555
    Barometric pressure, determination of air
    density using, 161
    Barrel swirl, 236
    Base load, 320
    Baseloaded, 944
    Bat fatalities, impact of wind facilities, 150
    Batch feeding of MSW, 995
    Batteries
    capacity of in PHEVs, 8
    flow, 509–511
    lead-acid, 506
    lithium ion, 506–507
    nickel metal hydride, 507–508
    nickel-cadmium, 507
    secondary, 505–506
    sodium-sulfur, 508
    zebra, 509
    Beam radiation, 101
    Beam solar radiation, measurement of, 126–127
    Belgium, nuclear power capacity in, 461
    Berjelius, 82
    Best Available Control Technology (BACT), 1027
    Betz limit, 863
    Binary power plants, 938, 947
    advantages of, 973–974
    integration of steam turbines in, 977–980
    pressurized geothermal brine, 976–977
    types of, 975–976
    Bio-oil upgrading, 925–926
    Biodiesel, 918
    production of from biomass, 922–924
    Biofuels, 8, 918
    drop-in, 927
    ethanol, 918–922
    production of, 19–21
    properties of, 926–927
    world production of, 20–21
    Biogas, 914–915
    Biomass
    analysis of, 64–65
    co-firing, 902
    conversion of to heat and power, 897–898 (See
    also Biomass conversion)
    definition of, 61
    demand for, 4
    land use for production of, 69–71
    physical and thermochemical properties
    of, 63
    potential of, 19–21
    productivity data, 63
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    solar energy conversion to, 61–63
    torrefied, 913–914
    total energy potential of, 14
    Biomass conversion, 898
    biofuel properties, 926–927
    combustion equipment, 901–902
    direct combustion, 898–901
    facility efficiency and capacity comparison,
    899
    gaseous fuels, 914–917
    gasification, 902–904
    gasification equipment, 904–907
    gasification equipment types, 905
    heat and power cycles, 907–912
    liquid fuels, 917–926
    processes of solid fuel combustion, 900
    solid fuels, 913–914
    Biomass crops
    nominal annual yields of, 69
    primary productivity and solar efficiency
    of, 520
    Biomass energy systems, 898
    Biomass fuels, thermal performance of, 64
    Biomass gasification, 8981156 Index
    Biomass properties, plant composition, 63–64
    Biomass resources, 66
    algae, 69
    energy crops, 67–68
    waste materials, 66–67
    Biomass solids, thermochemical energy storage
    by, 519–520
    Biomass storage technologies
    biodiesel, 521
    ethanol, 520–521
    syngas, 521–522
    Biorenewable resources, 66–67
    Bipolar fuel cell connections, 1064–1066
    Bird fatalities, impact of wind facilities,
    149–150
    Bituminous coal, 35–36
    analysis of, 38–39
    reserves of, 39–40
    Blade cooling, 219–220
    Blade element momentum (BEM), 864
    Blade stall control, 874
    BLADED, 872
    Blades for steam turbines, 199–200
    Blast furnace gas (BFG), 289–290
    Blocking losses, 721
    Blowdown, wastewater from, 296
    Blowers, capacity of in MSW furnaces, 1007
    BN-series of fast neutron reactors, 469–470
    Boiler feed pump (BFP), 204
    Boilers, 901
    design of in WTE facilities, 988
    mass-fired water wall units, 1008–1009
    RDF-fired water wall systems, 1009
    refractory furnace with waste heat, 1008
    steam, 196–198
    suitable alloys for construction of, 383–384
    tube corrosion in, 1011
    Boiling water reactors (BWRs), 457, 459
    Boost pressure, 247–250
    Bottom ash, 1010
    Bottom dead center (BDC)
    four-stroke SI engines, 225
    two-stroke SI engines, 227
    Bottoming cycles, 196
    use of in waste energy recovery, 250–252
    Boudouard reaction, 903–904
    Boundary Dam Power Station CCS project, 407
    Box turbines, 854
    Brake mean effective pressure (bmep),
    calculation of, 235
    Brake work, 234–235
    Brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc),
    calculation of, 235
    Brayton cycle, 209, 213–215, 292, 297, 909–910
    impact of constant-volume heat addition on,
    341–342
    supercritical CO2, 376–379
    Brayton gas turbine cycles, state-of-the-art, 297
    Brayton–Rankine combined cycle. See also
    GTCC
    calculating thermal efficiency of, 311–314
    Breeder reactors, 478
    BREST nuclear reactor, 469
    BrightSource, 674, 724, 743
    Bubbly flow, 701
    Building integrated PV (BIPV), 17, 799
    use of a-SI think film technology for, 815
    Building-attached photovoltaics (BAPV), 815
    Buildings, effect of on wind speed, 154–155
    Bulb turbines, 260
    Bulk segment, 781
    Buoyant force pressure difference, 583
    Buried contact cells, 778
    Burning velocity, 371
    Butane (C4H10). See Hydrocarbons
    Butanol, 922
    C
    C-P&R correlation, 115–118
    model of, 119–122
    c-Si technology, 796–797, 806–807
    C4 plants, conversion of solar energy by, 62
    Cadmium, environmental concerns,
    835–836
    Cadmium telluride solar cells. See CdTe solar
    cells
    California
    geothermal power transmission in, 940
    use of geothermal energy in, 933
    Calorific values, use of in coal property
    analysis, 37–38
    Campbell–Stokes sunshine recorder, 128–129
    Canada
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    nuclear power reactors in, 459–460
    use of heavy-water reactors in, 468
    CANDU reactor, 459–460, 480
    EC6, 468
    CAP1000 nuclear reactor (China), 465
    Capital charge factor, 320
    Capital costs
    CRS plants, 718
    estimating for FFPS, 319–323
    geothermal power plants, 946–947
    learning curve for FOAK technologies, 322Index 1157
    minimization of for geothermal
    development, 952–954
    nuclear power, 488–489
    PTC systems, 711
    STP plants, 659, 672
    wind turbines, 886–890
    WTE facilities, 1023–1025
    Carbon, combustible portion of in MSW,
    995–996
    Carbon capture and sequestration. See CCS
    Carbon capture systems, types of, 295–296
    Carbon fiber, use of for wind turbines, 882
    Carbon fixation pathways, 62
    Carbon monoxide
    combustion conditions and production
    of, 900
    emissions from IC engines, 240–241
    emissions of from MSW incineration,
    1014–1016
    emissions of in flue gas, 295
    production of from MSW combustion, 997
    reduction of in coal combustion, 339–340
    Carbon sequestration, 10
    Carbon–oxygen reactions, 903–904
    Carbon–water reactions, 903–904
    Carbonization, 898, 914
    Carburetors, 236
    Carnot cycle, 308
    comparison of with Rankine cycle,
    193–194
    efficiency of, 662
    Carnot efficiency
    equivalency of with reversible efficiency,
    1049–1050
    fuel cells, 1048–1049
    Carnot factor
    characterization of bottoming cycles using,
    310–311
    contemporary heat engines, 316–317
    Carnot limit, 305
    Carnot target, 309
    Cascaded HAT (CHAT), 359–360
    Case studies, initial wind farm development in
    New Mexico, 171–173
    Catalytic combustor, reduction of emissions
    using, 339
    Catalytic converters, emission control using,
    243
    Catalytic gasifiers, 308
    Catalytic hydromethanation, 399
    Cathodes in fuel cells, 1035
    Cavitation of hydraulic turbines, 270
    Cavity receivers, 729, 731
    CCS, 284. See also Post-combustion carbon
    capture system
    proposed technologies for, 298–300
    use of with IGCC power plants, 391–392
    CdTe PV modules, 796–797, 800
    environmental concerns, 835–836
    CdTe solar cells
    absorber layer, 819
    deposition techniques for, 820–821
    device structure, 817
    electrical backcontact and stability issues,
    819–820
    flexible, 821
    junction activation treatment, 819
    material and properties of, 816
    n-type window layer, 818
    schematic of, 817
    TCO front electrical contact configuration,
    817–818
    Cellulose, 64
    Cellulosic ethanol, 921–922
    Cellulosic material, characteristics of in
    MSW, 989
    Center-feed configuration of solar fields, 693
    Central receiver systems. See CRSs
    Centrifugal blower, 248
    Centrifuge uranium enrichment, 480–481
    Ceramic materials
    use of for gas turbine coatings, 220
    use of for thermal energy storage, 698
    Ceramic matrix composites, 389–390
    potential use of with reheat combustion, 357
    use of to reduce inlet temperature gaps, 352
    CESA-1, 733
    Cetane index, 246
    Cetane number, 240, 246, 918
    CFD models, 866–867
    Chalcopyrites, 821–823. See also CIGS solar cells
    Chalder Hall nuclear power plant, 462
    Champion thin-film social cell efficiencies, 798
    Chaplecross nuclear power plant, 462
    Char, 899–900
    oxidation of, 900–901
    production of in gasification process, 903
    Charge cooling, 250
    Chemical looping combustion (CLC), 299,
    416–417
    Chemical spraying (CS), 819
    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 777–778, 808
    China
    CAP1000 nuclear reactor, 465
    coal use in, 10–11
    energy use in, 2–41158 Index
    HTR-PM nuclear reactor, 468
    increase in electricity-generating capacity, 6
    power capacity of, 4
    power production in, 4
    production of c-Si modules in, 796
    solar collectors in, 17–18
    use of nuclear power in, 12
    Chinooks, 138
    Chisholm’s model, 703
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, combustion
    conditions and production of, 900
    Chromium, 383
    CI engines, 224
    basic operation of, 228–229
    combustion in, 239–240
    compression ratio, 231–232
    emission reduction, 243
    fuels for, 245–246
    knock in, 240
    particulate emissions from, 241–242
    power output control in, 234
    supercharging, 247–248
    turbocharging, 248–250
    CIGS solar cells, 797, 800, 812
    absorber layer, 823
    alternative growth processes for, 826–827
    buffer layer, 823–824
    coevaporation process, 825–826
    configurations, 817–818, 823–825
    cost estimates for, 805
    electrical backcontact, 823
    environmental concerns, 835–836
    flexible, 827–829
    front electrical contact, 824
    material and properties, 821–823
    potassium incorporation in, 825
    selenization of precursor materials,
    825–827
    sodium incorporation in, 824
    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion,
    339–341
    Circumsolar radiation, 118–119
    Clean Air Act Amendments (1990), effect of on
    transportation of coal, 46–47
    Clean coal technology, 10
    Clear sky illuminance, 642
    Clear sky radiation model, 103–105
    Climate change, 7, 27–28
    Cloncurry, 724
    Closed heaters, 203–204
    Closed-cycle gas turbines, 217
    use of in FFPS, 292
    Closed-cycle reprocessing, 478
    Closed-loop multipass systems
    design of with auxiliary heater in parallel,
    573–574
    design of with auxiliary heater in series,
    574–575
    Closed-loop solar systems, 552–553
    description of, 554–557
    Closed-loop steam cooling. See also H-System
    use of to reduce TIT–RIT temperature loss,
    355–357
    Closed-space sublimation. See CSS
    Cloud cover, 780
    Cloud point, 246
    Co-firing, 902
    CO2 emission factor, 333–334
    CO2 emissions, 295, 333. See also Hydrocarbons
    coal combustion and, 48
    combustion conditions and production
    of, 900
    flash-steam power plants, 980–981
    increasing electricity-generating capacity
    and, 6
    transportation sources of, 6
    use of renewable energy sources to
    decrease, 5
    CO2 sequestration, 27
    Coal, 289
    analysis and properties of, 36–39
    average properties of, 333
    combustion of, 332–334
    composition and classification, 33–36
    conversion processes, 39
    demand for, 4
    effect of quality of on plant
    performance, 349
    emissions from, 5
    environmental aspects of, 47–48
    global reserves of, 10–11
    maceral groups, 34
    oxy-fuel combustion of, 408–410
    rank classification scheme, 34–36
    reserve to production ratio (R/P), 10–11
    reserves of, 39–40
    resources, 40
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    spot prices for, 324
    terminology, 40–41, 49–50
    transportation of, 41, 46–47
    type of, 33–34
    world recoverable reserves of, 44–46
    Coal combustion, technology to limit emissions
    from, 339–340
    Coal gasification, 391–397Index 1159
    Coal-fired steam power plants, 191–192
    potential conversion efficiency
    improvements, 345–348
    Coalification, 34
    definition of, 49
    Coatings, use of in gas turbines, 220
    Code predictions for turbine design, 867–868
    COE
    standard formulation of, 319
    wind turbines, 855, 886–890
    Coefficient of performance (COP)
    definition, 1099
    thermoelectric refrigeration, 1095–1098
    Coevaporation processes, 825–826
    use of for CZTS deposition, 832
    Cogeneration, 291, 364–367. See also Combined
    heat and power
    measuring effectiveness of, 365–367
    Coke oven gas (COG), 289
    Coking properties, 38
    Collares-Pereira and Rabl correlation. See
    C-P&R correlation
    Collector fields, 719–727
    Collector time constant, 536
    COLON SOLAR, 723–724, 741
    Combined collector-heat exchanger
    performance, 559–561
    Combined cycle system, 217
    definition of, 221
    fuels used in, 289
    power generation by, 910–912
    Combined heat and power (CHP), 291, 364–367.
    See also Cogeneration
    measuring effectiveness of, 365–367
    Combined-cycle gas turbine power plant. See
    GTCC power plants
    Combined-cycle power plants, integration of
    power towers into, 741
    Combined-cycle steam power plants, 192
    Combustible portion of MSW, ultimate analysis
    of, 989
    Combustion
    calculations for biomass fuels, 65
    chemical looping, 299, 416–417
    chemical reactions of, 997
    coal, 332–334
    elements and compounds encountered in, 996
    emission limits for, 1012
    equipment, 901–902
    heat of, 998
    methane, 332
    principles of in WTE facilities, 995–1003
    properties of transportation fuels, 919
    Combustion cycles, four-stroke SI engine, 224
    Combustion dynamic instability, 371
    Combustion efficiency, 211
    definition of, 222
    Combustion flame, 899–900
    Combustion of MSW, 76–78
    Combustion process
    abnormal, 238–239
    CI engines, 228–229
    four-stroke SI engines, 225
    normal, 237–238
    two-stroke Si engines, 225, 227–228
    Combustion reaction, 330–334
    Combustors, gas turbines, 221
    Commercial geothermal power production,
    934–947. See also Geothermal power
    Commercial solar systems, 551–552
    Compact steam generators, 688
    Composting, recovery of materials from MSW,
    76–78
    Compound parabolic concentrators. See CPCs
    Compressed air energy storage (CAES), 513–514
    Compressed natural gas (CNG), 58. See also
    Natural gas
    Compression ignition engines. See CI engines
    Compression ratio, 230
    CI engines, 231–232
    SI engines, 231–232
    Computational fluid dynamics models. See CFD
    models
    Concentrating collectors, 528–529
    Concentrating photovoltaic technologies. See
    CPV technologies
    Concentrating reflectors, beam quality of,
    668–670
    Concentrating solar collectors, 17
    Concentrating solar power. See CSP
    Concentrating solar power plants. See CSP
    systems
    Concentrating solar thermal power
    outlook for, 752–755
    research and development, 714
    Concentrating solar thermal power plants
    (CSP), 17
    Concentration ratio, 529
    Concrete, use of for thermal energy storage, 698
    Concurrent gasifiers, 905–906
    Condensate heaters, 203–204
    Condensate pumps, 205
    Condenser gas-removal systems, 972–973
    Condensing steam turbines, 968–971
    Condensors for steam turbines, 204–205
    Cone optics, 6671160 Index
    CONSOLAR, 717
    Constant-pressure heat addition, 340–341
    ideal Diesel cycle, 232–233
    Constant-pressure turbocharging, 248–249
    Constant-volume heat addition, 341
    ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
    Constrained exogenous parameters, 566
    Containers and packaging, recovery of from
    MSW, 74–76
    Control systems
    design of for solar thermal applications,
    557–562
    parabolic trough collectors, 675–676
    Controlled circulation boilers, 197
    Controlled retractable injection point. See CRIP
    underground coal gasification
    Convective heat loss, 728–729
    Convective losses, reduction of in solar
    collectors, 537
    Conversion of uranium, 83
    Cooling systems, load reduction using
    daylighting controls, 648–651
    Cooling tower makeup water, 296
    Copper-indium gallium diselenide thin films.
    See CIGS solar cells
    Coriolis forces, 138
    Corn, conversion of solar energy by, 62
    Corn ethanol, 918–921. See also Ethanol
    Corrosion, 381
    Cost, solar add-on, 582
    Cost of energy. See COE
    Costs
    geothermal power plants, 946–947
    solar thermal systems, 578–579
    WTE facilities, 1023–1025
    Countercurrent gasifiers, 905–906
    CPCs, 528, 539–540
    CPRG model, 120–122
    CPV technologies, 845–848
    energy payback, 848–849
    market for, 848
    qualification standards, 849
    Creep, 380–381
    CRIP underground coal gasification, 397–398
    Criteria pollutants, 295
    Crop yields, 69
    Cross-flow turbines, 259
    CRSs, 670–672, 674, 727–742
    control of, 726–727
    experience with, 739–740
    heliostat and collector field technology,
    719–727
    investment cost breakdown for, 718
    molten-salt systems, 744–747
    solar thermal power plants, 716–717
    technology description, 718–719
    tubular receivers, 732–734
    volumetric receivers, 734–739
    water–steam plants, 740–744
    Crucible growth method, 775
    Crude oil, 244
    classification of, 51
    world refining capacity, 55
    Cryogenic separation, 406
    Crystalline silicon PV cells, manufacture of,
    774–777
    Crystalline silicon thin films. See c-Si
    technology
    Crystalline silicon thin films on glass. See CSG
    thin films
    CSG thin films, 797–798
    CSP
    collectors, 670–672 (See also specific
    collectors)
    electricity production with, 658
    reasons for using, 661–665
    technologies, 671–672
    CSP systems, 656
    characteristics of, 673
    environmental advantages of, 659
    CSS, 819
    use of for CdTe deposition, 820
    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. See CIGS solar cells
    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells. See CZTS solar cells
    Cup anemometers, 159
    Curtis, Charles, 210
    Cut-off ratio, 233
    Cycle efficiency, Diesel, 233
    Cycle life, 503
    Cycle variants, gas turbine efficiency and,
    355–360
    Cyclic fatigue, 882
    Cyclone furnaces, 339
    Cylinder volume, 231
    Cylindrical external receivers, 729
    Czochralski method, 774
    CZTS solar cells, 829
    configuration, 830
    deposition and growth of absorber, 830–833
    material and properties, 829–830
    D
    D-T reaction, 491–492
    energy conversion and transport, 493–494
    Daily solar energy storage, 552Index 1161
    Daily utilizability fraction, 546–548
    Dangling bonds, 806–807, 810
    Darrieus turbines, 854
    structural dynamics of, 872
    Data
    collection and handling of, 166
    processing and reporting,
    169–171
    protection and storage of, 167
    retrieval frequency, 167
    screening of, 168–169
    solar radiation, 129–131
    validation of, 167–168
    verification of, 169
    Data loggers, 162–164
    Data sensors
    sampling rates and statistical quantities,
    164–165
    towers and mounting, 165–166
    Daylighting
    controls and economics, 648–651
    definition of, 581
    design approach, 633–634
    design fundamentals, 633
    design methods, 635–648
    sun-window geometry, 634–635
    DC solar array systems, 780–781
    DC-to-AC inverters, 1036
    Deadbands, 558
    Deaerators (DA), 204
    Declination, 91, 779
    Decommissioning costs, nuclear power
    plants, 488
    Dedicated energy crops, 61
    Degraded sunshape, 667
    Degree of recuperation, 379
    Delivered power, price of from geothermal
    resources, 942–943
    Demonstrated reserve base (DRB), 41
    U.S., 42–43
    Demonstrated resources, 41
    Dendritic web growth, thin-film production
    by, 777
    Densified RDF, 1008
    Department of Energy (US). See DOE
    Depleted uranium, 481
    Deposition techniques
    a-Si solar cells, 808
    CdTe absorber layer, 819
    CdTe solar cells, 820–821
    CIGS absorber, 825–827
    CZTS absorber, 831–833
    thermal barrier coatings, 390–391
    Depressions, effect of on wind speed, 155–156
    Depth of discharge (DOD), 501
    Deriaz hydraulic turbines, 267
    Design cooling load, reduction of using
    daylighting, 648–651
    Design methods
    active solar space heating, 570–573
    classification of for solar systems, 568–569
    domestic solar hot water heating, 573
    IPH applications of active solar heating,
    573–578
    recommendations for active solar
    applications, 578
    Design point parameters, 691
    Design specific speed, 263
    Desuperheating, 203–204
    Detailed design methods, 569
    Detonation combustion, 344
    Deuterium-deuterium reaction
    (D-D reaction), 492
    Deuterium-tritium reaction. See D-T reaction
    Diesel cycle, 232–233, 292, 297
    Diesel engines. See also CI engines
    combustion chamber design for, 228–229
    combustion in, 239–240
    Diesel fuel, 245–246, 918
    Diesel knock, 240
    Differential temperature controllers, 558
    Diffuse radiation, 633
    anisotropic of, 118–119
    Diffusion coatings, 390
    Diffusion combustors, 335
    Diffusion flame design of gas turbines, 221
    fuels for, 289
    Diffusion flame lift-off length (FLoL),
    239–240
    Dimensionless figure of merit (ZT)
    definition, 1099
    magnitude of in thermoelectric materials,
    1092–1098
    Dimethyl ether (DME), production of from
    biomass, 916
    DIN EN 10020, alloy steel specifications,
    381–382
    Dioxins
    combustion conditions and production of,
    900
    control of from MSW combustion,
    1016–1019
    Direct combustion, 898–901
    Direct electric storage
    SMES, 512
    ultracapacitors, 511–5121162 Index
    Direct gain systems, 586
    Direct heat, use of geothermal energy for, 934
    Direct heating air-blown gasifiers, 904–905
    Direct injection (DI) engines, 225, 228
    Direct methanol fuel cells. See DMFCs
    Direct radiation, 101
    Direct solar radiation, measurement of, 126–127
    DIrect Solar Steam project. See DISS project
    Direct steam generation. See DSG
    Direct thermal storage, 515
    latent heat, 517–519
    sensible heat, 515–517
    Direct-coupled DC PV array system, 780–781
    Direct-drive generators, 876–877
    Direct-return piping configuration, 692
    Directional solidification (DS) superalloys,
    388–389
    Directly coupled systems, 557
    Directly irradiated receivers, 729
    Discovered oil resources, 51
    definition of, 60
    Discovery of geothermal resources, 949–950
    Dish-Stirling systems, 674, 747
    concentrators, 748–749
    description of, 747–748
    developments in, 750–752
    receiver, 749
    use of Stirling engines, 749–750
    Dish/engine collectors, 670–672, 674
    DISORT, 122
    Dispersion effects, 666
    DISS project, 676, 702–704
    Distillate fuel oil, 54
    Distributed grid technologies, 501
    Distributed photovoltaic systems. See
    Photovoltaics
    DLN combustion, 295
    estimation of CO and NO
    x from, 334–339
    DLN combustors, reducing pollutants from,
    335–339
    DMFCs, 1073–1074
    acceptable contamination levels, 1074
    applications of, 1075
    basic operating principle, 1074
    major technological problems, 1074–1075
    technological status, 1075
    DOE
    Biomass Feedstock and Property Database, 65
    Energy Information Administration (EIA)
    (See EIA)
    Domestic solar hot water heating
    design method for, 573
    use of closed-loop systems for, 554–557
    Double-reheat cycle, 297
    Double-tank solar systems, 556–557
    Downdraft gasifiers, 905–906
    Dowtherm-A, 676
    DPT550, 743
    Draft tubes
    importance of for flow stability, 266
    numerical modeling of, 273–274
    Drag devices, 855
    power coefficients for, 860
    translating, 857
    Drain cooler approach (DCA), 203
    Drain-back systems, 557
    Drain-down systems, 557
    Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, 457
    Drop-in fuels, 927
    Drum-type boilers, 197
    Dry grind ethanol, 920–921
    Dry low NOx combustion. See DLN combustion
    Dry natural gas, world production of, 55–56, 58
    DSG, 676, 690–691
    advantages of, 700
    research and development for, 713–714
    use of in PTC plants, 699–707
    DSSCs, 800, 833
    Dual catalytic converters, 243
    Dual-axis tracking, 528
    Dual-medium storage systems, 698–699
    Dufay, Charles, 1086
    DUKE, 707
    Durable goods, recovery of from MSW, 74–76
    Dusseldorf System, 1005
    Dye dilution test method, 276
    Dye-sensitized solar cells. See DSSCs
    E
    E class gas turbines, air standard cycle
    calculations for, 317–318
    Earth, thermal energy within, 177–178
    Earth contact cooling, 629–632
    Earth-sun geometric relationship, 86–87, 90–92
    shadow-angle protractor, 95–98
    solar time and angles, 92–93
    sun-path diagram, 93–94
    East-west sun-tracking axis orientation, 679
    Easterlies, 138–139
    ECN Phyllis database, 65
    Economic access for geothermal resources
    electricity transmission, 939–941
    power plant costs, 946–947
    viable market, 941–946
    wellhead energy cost, 938–941Index 1163
    Economic and Simplified boiling water reactor
    (ESBWR), 466
    Economic considerations, elements of for
    passive solar systems, 581–582
    Economics, daylighting controls and, 648–651
    Economizer, 197
    Eddystone 1 (AEP), 303
    Edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process,
    776
    Edison, Thomas, 1086
    Efficiency
    energy storage, 502
    engine fuel conversion, 235
    gas turbines, 211–212
    hydraulic turbines, 262
    measures of, 276
    Otto cycle, 230–232
    parabolic trough collectors, 686–688
    volumetric, 235–236
    Effusion cooling, 352
    EGR
    use of in CI engines, 240
    use of in two-stroke engines, 227
    EGR system, development of for use with DLN
    combustors, 337–338
    EIA, crude oil classification and estimated
    world reserves, 51–54
    Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 457
    Electric generators for FFPS, 292
    Electric power generation
    economic analysis of, 319–330 (See also LCOE)
    U.S. capacity by generator/cycle type, 907
    Electric storage, direct, 511–512
    Electric vehicles, 8
    energy storage with, 501
    Electrical backcontact, 819–820
    CIGs solar cells, 823
    Electrical energy, price of delivered geothermal
    power, 942–943
    Electrical energy storage technologies, 498–499
    Electrical power generation subsystem, 875–878
    Electricity, 6
    demand for, 5–6
    production, 6
    transmission of geothermal power, 939–941
    Electricity generation, use of PTCs for, 693–695
    Electricity-generating capacity, addition to 2040,
    6
    Electro-hydraulic governors, 269
    Electrochemical energy storage
    batteries, 505–509
    electrolytic hydrogen, 511
    flow batteries, 509–511
    Electrodeposition (ED), 819, 827
    Electrodes, processes of in fuel cells, 1062–1063
    Electron cyclotron resonance reactor (ECR)
    deposition, 808
    Electron motive, 1087
    definition, 1100
    Electron saturation current, 1088–1089
    Electron–hole pair (EHP), creation of, 771
    Electrostatic precipitators, 1012–1013
    Elemental analysis, 63–64
    combustible portion of MSW, 989, 999
    Elling, Jens William Aegidius, 210
    Emissions. See also specific pollutants
    air pollution control requirements, 1011–1012
    carbon monoxide, 240–241
    control of from IC engines, 242–243
    NO
    x, 241
    unburned hydrocarbons, 241
    Endogenous parameters, 566
    Energy
    availability of from wind, 141–151
    forecast of future mix, 27–28
    global needs and resources, 2–4
    per capita consumption, 22–24
    production of from geothermal wells,
    938–939
    Energy balance, parabolic trough collectors,
    686–688
    Energy conservation
    distinction of from passive solar systems,
    581
    role of, 22–26
    Energy consumption, global, 2–3, 51–53
    Energy conversion efficiency
    definition, 1046
    fuel cell, 1047
    heat engines, 1048–1049
    irreversible, 1057–1058
    Energy crops, 67–68
    Energy density, 503
    Energy losses
    irreversible, 1054–1056
    reversible, 1052–1054
    Energy payback period
    CPV technologies, 848–849
    PV cells, 775
    thin-film PV cells, 798–799
    wind power, 886
    Energy policies, potential for renewable energy,
    14–15
    Energy Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT),
    885
    Energy saving potential, 25–261164 Index
    Energy storage
    devices for, 501–503
    electrochemical, 505–509
    electrolytic hydrogen, 511
    flow batteries, 509–511
    mechanical, 512–515
    specifications for fuels, 504–505
    thermochemical, 519–522
    Energy storage technologies
    applications of, 500–501
    electrical, 498–499
    Engine efficiency, 211
    Engine fuel conversion efficiency, 235
    Enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM)
    technology, 408
    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 936
    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application, 298,
    407–408
    Enrichment facilities for uranium, 83–84,
    480–481
    Enthalpy, reversible cell potentials, 1043
    Entrained flow gasifiers, 905–906
    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs), 390
    Environmental concerns, wind facilities,
    149–151
    Enzymatic hydrolysis, 921
    Equatorial doldrums, 138–139
    Equivalence ratio, 237, 331
    ERSATZ, 130
    eSolar, 724, 743
    ESTELA, 713
    ET-100 PTC, 706
    ET-150 parabolic trough collector, parameters
    of, 678
    Ethane (C2H6). See Hydrocarbons
    Ethanol, 918
    cellulosic, 921–922
    corn, 918–921
    world production of, 20–21
    yields of from biorenewable resources, 921
    EuroDish project, 749, 752
    Europe
    energy use in, 2–3
    MEXICO wind project of, 868
    nuclear fuel reprocessing in, 478
    nuclear power plant licensing in, 465
    per capita energy consumption, 22–23
    use of volumetric receivers in, 737–738
    European pressurized water reactor (EPR), 465
    European Solar Thermal Electricity
    Association. See ESTELA
    EuroTrough, 678, 703
    Evacuated tubular collector, 538–539
    Evaporative cooling, 627
    use of for GT inlet conditioning, 354
    Evolutionary pressurized water reactor (EPR),
    465
    Excess air ratio, 331
    Excitation systems, 208
    Excitonic solar cells, 833
    Exergy, 310
    Exhaust emissions
    control of from IC engines, 242–243
    harmful constituents, 240–242
    Exhaust gas clean-up systems, 198
    Exhaust gas recirculation. See EGR
    Exhaust heat, recovery of from gas turbines, 216
    Exhaust waste energy recovery, 250–252
    Exinite, 34
    Exit velocity head, 262
    Exogenous parameters, 522
    Expanders, 209. See also Gas turbines
    Expansion process
    definition of, 222
    turbine efficiency in, 211
    Exploration of geothermal resources, 949–950
    risk of, 950–951
    Extended Zel’dovich mechanism, 334
    External combustion engines (XCE)
    gas turbines, 210
    use of in FFPS, 292
    External cylindrical tubular receiver, 732
    External receivers, 729
    External tubular receivers, 732
    Extraterrestrial solar radiation, 99–100
    spectral distribution, 98
    Extratropical cyclones, 138
    F F
    -chart design method, 570–573
    Fabric filters, 1013
    Failure mechanisms, 380–381
    Fast breeder reactors (FBR), 469
    FAST code, 872
    Fast neutron reactors, 469–470
    Fast pyrolysis, 898
    Feed-in tariffs (FIT)
    construction of STPs in Spain due to, 658
    solar thermal power plants, 711
    Feedstocks
    organic composition of, 64
    waste materials as, 67
    Feedwater booster pump, 205
    Feedwater heaters, 203–204
    Fermi level, 1087Index 1165
    Ferrite, 383
    FFPS
    air quality control systems, 417–423
    auxiliary equipment, 294–296
    combustion in, 330–345
    design objectives, 316
    expected advances in, 298
    future technologies, 305–308 (See also
    AFFPS)
    impact of CCS on performance of,
    402–404
    impact of renewable technologies on duty
    cycle of, 367–369
    main equipment, 292–294
    materials used for components in, 380–387
    past technologies, 302–303
    present technologies, 304–305
    schema for, 290–291
    suitable alloys for boiler construction,
    383–384
    system components, 291–292
    wastewater treatment, 429–430
    water treatment systems, 424–429
    zero liquid discharge wastewater treatment,
    430–433
    Field tests of hydraulic turbines, 276277
    Finished petroleum products, 54
    Finite-element modeling, VAWTs, 872
    Finland
    European pressurized water reactor, 465
    nuclear power capacity in, 461
    Firing temperature, 352. See also RIT
    First-of-a-kind technologies. See FOAK
    technologies
    Fiscal incentives
    necessity of for solar power plants, 711
    new STP plant construction, 673
    Fischer–Tropsch liquids (FTLs), 289, 917
    synthesis of from biomass, 924–925
    Fission products, 84
    Fixed carbon content, 34–36
    definition of, 49
    Fixed O&M costs, rule-of-thumb for GTCC,
    323–324
    Fixed wake models, 865
    Fixed-speed turbine orientation, 877
    Flame lift-off length (FLoL), 239–240
    Flame speed, 371
    Flame temperature, 331–332
    reduction of in combustors, 335
    Flammability ratio, 370
    Flash-steam systems, 689–690
    Flat absorbers, 662–664, 667
    Flat-plate collectors, 529
    daily utilizability, 546–548
    description of, 529–531
    incidence angle modifier, 534–535
    individual hourly utilizability, 541–545
    modeling, 531–534
    performance improvements, 537–538
    pressure drop across, 536
    stagnation temperature of, 536
    stationary, 528
    time constant of, 536
    Flexible a-Si solar cells, 814–816
    Flexible CdTe solar cells, 821
    Flexible CIGS solar cells, 827–829
    Flexible joints, use of in connecting PTCs,
    679–681
    Float voltage, 781
    Float zone method, 774
    Flooded lead–acid batteries, 781
    Flow batteries, 509–511
    Flow control, use of for speed regulation of
    hydraulic turbines, 268
    Flow rate, field tests to measure, 276277
    Flue gas
    methods of treatment, 1014–1016
    pollutant emissions in, 295
    recirculation of in MSW combustion,
    1007–1008
    Fluid inlet temperature, 531
    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), 339–341, 902,
    1022, 1026
    Fluidized bed gasifiers, 905–906
    Flux-line trackers, 676
    Fly ash, 1010
    Flywheel energy-storage systems, 514
    FOAK technologies, estimating project costs
    for, 322–323
    Foehn winds, 138
    Food waste, percentage of in municipal solid
    waste, 73
    Forest residues, 66
    Fossil fuel power systems. See FFPS
    Fossil fuel reserves, 11. See also specific sources
    Fossil fuel steam power plants. See also Steam
    power plants
    efficiencies of, 192
    Fossil fuels, demand for, 4
    Four-stroke IC engines
    indicator diagram for, 234
    volumetric efficiency, 235–236
    Four-stroke SI engines, 224
    basic operation of, 224–226
    Fracking, 2881166 Index
    Fracture permeability, 935
    Frame machines, 351. See also J class gas
    turbines
    France
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    nuclear power reactors in, 461
    Francis hydraulic turbines, 260
    efficiency of, 267
    performance characteristics, 266–267
    Free electrons
    definition of, 1100
    electron saturation current and, 1088
    Free energy conversion efficiency, 1058
    Free swelling index, 38
    Free-wake model, 865
    Frequency-domain calculations, 871
    Fresnel concentrators, 847–848
    Fresnel reflectors. See Linear Fresnel reflectors
    Friedel model, 703
    Fuel cell hybrid system, 305–306
    Fuel cell systems, 1036–1037
    power generation by, 910
    thermodynamic model of, 1038
    Fuel cell utilization factor (UF), 306
    Fuel cells, 1034–1035
    alkaline, 1067–1069
    Carnot efficiency, 1048–1049
    connection and stack design considerations,
    1063–1066
    direct methanol, 1073–1075
    efficiency loss in, 1059–1061
    efficiency of, 1050–1052
    efficiency of and energy loss mechanisms,
    1052–1056
    electrode processes, 1062–1063
    energy conversion efficiency of, 1046
    equivalency of Carnot and reversible
    efficiency, 1049–1050
    irreversible energy losses, 1054–1056
    molten carbonate, 1076–1079
    operational characteristics and technological
    status of, 1067
    performance of, 1037–1038
    phosphoric acid, 1076–1077
    polymer electrolyte membrane, 1069–1073
    principle of operation for, 1035–1036
    reversible cell potential, 1038–1042
    reversible energy conversion efficiency for,
    1047
    solid oxide, 1079–1082
    types of, 1066–1067
    use of as power generation systems, 305–306
    waste heat generation by, 1056–1057
    Fuel chargeable to power (FCP), 367
    Fuel conversion efficiency (FCE), use of waste
    energy recovery to increase, 250–252
    Fuel cycle for nuclear power systems, 478–484
    fuel fabrication and use, 481
    mining and milling of uranium, 480
    reprocessing, 481, 483–484
    spent fuel storage, 484
    spent fuel transportation, 484
    uranium and thorium resources, 478–479
    uranium conversion and enrichment,
    480–481
    Fuel electrodes, 1035
    Fuel flexibility, 369–372
    Fuel injection systems, 236
    Fuel moisturization, 338–339
    Fuel saver scheme, 660
    Fuel staging, 339
    Fuel synthesis, 917
    Fuel systems for FFPS, 294–295
    Fuel utilization factor, 365
    Fuel-capacity factor, 944
    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion, 339
    Fuel–air ratio, 237
    SI engine emissions levels and, 242–243
    Fuels
    energy storage specifications, 504–505
    properties of, 370, 504
    Fukushima nuclear accident, effect of on
    growth of nuclear power, 461
    Furans
    combustion conditions and production
    of, 900
    control of from MSW combustion, 1016–1019
    Furnaces
    design of in WTE facilities, 988
    factors affecting design of, 997
    solid waste combustion in, 1003–1008
    Fusion
    confinement, 492
    energy conversion and transport, 493–494
    Fusion power plants, potential of, 491
    Fusion reactions, 491–492
    Future energy mix, forecast of, 27–28
    G
    Gadolinium zirconate (GdZ) coatings, 391
    Gamma iron, 383
    Garbage, moisture content of, 989
    Gas. See also Oil; Petroleum
    classification of, 54–55
    resource base, 53Index 1167
    Gas centrifuges, uranium enrichment using,
    480–481
    Gas engines, 372. See also IC engines; Recips
    emissions from, 374
    low-quality waste heat recovery from,
    375–377
    Gas turbine Brayton cycles
    calculating efficiencies of, 311–313
    cycle pressure ratios of, 297
    Gas turbine combined cycle power systems. See
    GTCC power plants
    Gas turbine combustors, use of in FFPS, 293
    Gas turbine-based repowering options, 364
    Gas turbine–modular helium reactor
    (GT-MHR), 469
    Gas turbines, 209
    combustors, 221
    comparison of with recips, 372–375
    cycle analysis, 211
    cycle configurations, 213–215
    cycles, 212–213
    efficiency of, 211–212, 222
    evolution of, 304–305
    fuel and firing, 210–211
    fuel flexibility of, 369–372
    fuels used in, 288
    history of, 210
    materials, 220
    mechanical product features, 221
    NOx production in combustors of, 334–339
    state-of-the-art, 283, 352–353
    steam-cooled, 297
    thermal barrier coatings for, 390–391
    three-pressure reheat bottoming cycles (See
    3PRH bottoming cycles)
    upper temperature limit, 219–220
    use of exhaust from to power steam
    turbines, 217
    use of for power generation, 909–910
    use of in FFPS, 291–293
    use of superalloys for, 388
    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) system, 472–473
    Gas-cooled reactors, 460
    high-temperature, 468–469
    Gas-phase reactions, 904
    Gas-turbine combined-cycle plants, efficiencies
    of, 209
    Gas–solid reactions, 903–904
    Gaseous diffusion, uranium enrichment using,
    481
    Gaseous emission control, 1014–1016
    Gaseous fuels, 288
    biomass conversion to, 914–917
    Gasification, 289, 294–295, 391–397, 902–904
    equipment, 904–907
    equipment types, 905
    MSW, 1026
    production of light gases from biomass,
    915–916
    Gasoline, 244–245, 918
    additives, 245
    Fischer–Tropsch liquids (FTLs), 924–925
    GAST project, 730
    Gemasolar plant, 674, 717, 724, 733–734, 746–747
    Generalized solar load ratio, 620
    Generation III nuclear reactors, 462, 464–465
    fast neutron reactors, 469–470
    heavy-water reactors, 468
    high-temperature gas-cooled reactors,
    468–469
    light-water reactors, 465–468
    Generation IV International Forum (GIF), 471
    Generation IV nuclear reactors, 471–472
    gas-cooled fast reactor system, 472–473
    lead-cooled fast reactor, 475–477
    molten salt reactor, 477
    sodium-cooled fast reactor, 474–476
    supercritical-water-cooled reactor,
    473–475
    very-high-temperature reactor, 472–474
    Generators
    auxiliaries, 207–208
    excitation, 208
    turbine, 875–878
    use of in steam power plants, 206–208
    ventilation, 207
    Geometric concentration ratio, 681
    Geometric correction factors (GCFs), 125–126
    Geometrical losses, 684–685
    Geostrophic winds, 138
    Geothermal combined-cycle steam power
    plants, 968, 978–979
    Geothermal condenser gas-removal systems,
    972–973
    Geothermal energy, 177
    definition and use of, 933–934
    renewability of, 937
    Geothermal energy systems, types of, 178
    Geothermal power
    binary power plant technologies, 973–977
    contract provisions for new development,
    945–946
    contract provisions for operation, 944–945
    environmental impact of, 980–982
    market for, 941–946
    price of delivered power, 942–9431168 Index
    requirements for commercial production of,
    934–947
    steam turbine technologies for production
    of, 967–973
    Geothermal resources
    barriers to management of, 957–959
    characterization of, 959–962
    chemistry of, 956–958
    definition of, 934–936
    economic access, 938–947
    exploration and assessment of, 948–951
    improving through human intervention, 936
    management of for power production, 951–957
    temperature of, 946–947
    Geothermal steam supply, 963–967
    Geothermal systems
    costs of, 946–947
    design parameters for, 960–962
    emissions from, 980–982
    enhancing steam production in, 955–957
    operating costs of, 947
    residual brine management in, 954–955
    Geothermal turbines, design of, 971
    Geothermal wells, capital limitations on
    placement of, 958–959
    Germany
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    phase out of nuclear power in, 462
    Geysers The, 933
    use of EGS at, 936
    GFDI devices, use of in solar arrays, 785
    Gibbs free energy, conversion of solar heat to, 656
    Gibbs function, reversible cell potentials, 1043
    Gieseler plastometer test, 38
    Glass
    percentage of in municipal solid waste, 73
    transmittances of, 639
    Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP)
    composites, use of for wind turbines,
    882
    Glazing area, values for, 593–597
    Global climate change, 7, 27–28
    Global commercial reprocessing capacity, 483
    Global crude oil refining capacity, 55
    Global efficiency, 687
    Global energy figures
    electricity-generating capacity, 6
    energy consumption, 2–3, 51–53
    energy demand, 5–6
    land use for biomass production, 70–71
    natural gas reserves, 57
    new construction of nuclear power plants,
    462–464
    nuclear power plants, 457–458
    uranium enrichment facilities, 482
    wind power potential, 149
    Global wind patterns, 139
    Glow discharge CVD, 808
    Glow plugs, 229
    GOES, 131–132
    Governors, use of for speed regulation of
    hydraulic turbines, 268–270
    Grate systems, use of in MSW furnaces,
    1003–1007
    Grate-fired systems, 901
    Gray–King assay test, 38
    Greenhouse effect, 529
    Grid integration, wind power, 884–885
    Grid-connected solar systems, 782
    Grid-tied inverters, 784
    Griggs–Putnam index of deformation, 154
    Gross calorific value, 34–36
    definition of, 49
    measurement of, 38
    Gross output, 287
    Ground fault detection and interruption
    devices. See GFDI devices
    Ground illuminance, 643
    Ground reflectivities, 626
    Ground-coupled geothermal heat pump
    systems, 934
    GTCC, 351–355
    calculating thermal efficiency of, 311–316
    comparison of high performance
    cycles, 360
    comparison of with recips, 372–375
    efficiency improvement parameters, 355
    net cycle efficiency map, 354
    outage factors, 325
    power augmentation options, 353
    rule-of-thumb O&M costs estimates,
    323–324
    startup curves, 369
    GTCC power plants, 294–295
    auxiliary power for, 287
    bottoming cycle steam conditions in, 297
    comparison of with USC power plants,
    350–351
    efficiency wall of, 304
    exhaust temperatures, 390
    fuels used in, 288–289
    operational flexibility of, 367–369
    use of fuel moisturization technology in,
    338–339
    use of intercooling in, 357
    GUDE, 703Index 1169
    H
    H class gas turbines, 283
    estimating O&M costs for, 323–324
    H turbines, 854
    H-System, 297
    use of to reduce TIT–RIT temperature loss,
    355–357
    H
    2S emissions from geothermal power plants,
    981
    Haber process, 916
    Hahn, Otto, 81
    HAWC2, 872
    HAWTs, 852–854
    CFD models for, 866–867
    classification of, 854
    momentum models of, 860–864
    peak performance coefficients for, 863
    structural dynamics, 870–872
    vortex models for, 864–866
    yaw control systems, 878
    Haynes 263, 387
    Head, 258
    availability of to impulse turbines, 265–266
    Heat
    biomass conversion to, 897–898, 907–912
    geothermal, 934
    Heat addition
    constant-pressure, 232–233, 340–341
    constant-volume, 230–232
    irreversibility of, 310, 318
    natural gas combustion, 330–332
    Heat engines
    Carnot factor of, 316–317
    crucial nature of for FFPS, 305
    reversible energy conversion efficiency for,
    1048–1049
    thermodynamic cycles, 296–297
    use of Kelvin–Planck statement to
    analyze, 308
    Heat exchangers, use of in steam power plants,
    203–204
    Heat flow, 177–178
    Heat loss coefficient, 684
    Heat pipe collectors, 530–531
    Heat rate (HR), 286
    cost analyses and, 327–329
    Heat recovery repowering, 364
    Heat recovery steam generators. See HRSGs
    Heat removal factor, 532
    Heat sinks for FFPS, 292
    Heat source, definition of for thermoelectric
    applications, 1100
    Heat sources for FFPS, 292
    Heat transfer
    air and pipe, 630
    analysis of, 630–631
    soil, 630–631
    Heat transfer fluid technology. See HTF
    technology
    Heat-rejection systems, 971–972
    Heaters for steam power plants, 203–204
    Heating load, 590
    Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines, 351. See also
    J class gas turbines
    use of reheat combustion with, 357
    Heavy-water reactors, 468
    Height layers, 159
    HELIOS, 721
    Heliostat drives, 724–725
    characteristics of, 725
    Heliostat field control system (HFCS), 726
    Heliostat fields, 716–717, 719–727
    Hemicellulose, 64
    Herbaceous energy crops (HECs), 67
    Heterojunction with intrinsic thin-film layer
    cells. See HIT cells
    Heterojunctions, 800
    HHV, 287, 504
    biomass, 64–65
    combustible portion of MSW, 989
    combustion of MSW, 997–999
    efficiency measures of gas turbines
    using, 211
    High fogging, 354
    High vacuum evaporation. See HVE
    High-cycle fatigue, 882
    High-enthalpy wells, 939
    High-level wastes (HLW), 486
    managing from spent fuel, 486
    waste management of, 487–488
    High-performance power systems. See HIPPS
    High-pressure steam conditions, 297
    High-temperature gas-cooled reactors, 468–469
    Higher heating value. See HHV
    Hill diagram, 263–264
    HIPPS, 361–362
    HIT cells, 813
    HiTRec project, 737–738
    Holocellulose, 67
    Holzwarth turbine, 343
    Homogeneous combustion process, four-stroke
    SI engines, 225
    Honeycomb material, use of to reduce losses
    from collectors, 537
    Horizontal sky and sun illuminances, 6451170 Index
    Horizontal skylights, 644–648
    Horizontal solar radiation, models based on
    long-term measures of, 113–123
    Horizontal-axis machines, 853
    Horizontal-axis wind turbines. See HAWTs
    Hot dry rock (HDR), 936
    Hot fractured rock (HFR), 936
    Hot gas cleanup, 391
    Hot gas path (HGP)
    parts, 297
    temperatures, 352
    use of superalloys for component
    manufacturing, 388–389
    Hot reheat (HRH) steam, 297
    Hot wire CVD (HWCVD), 808
    Hottel–Whillier–Bliss (HWB) equation, 531
    Hour angle, 91
    HRSGs, 218
    controlled warming of, 368–369
    effectiveness of, 315
    exergy destruction in, 358–359
    increasing effectiveness of, 376
    use of in FFPS, 294
    HTF technology, 689
    use of in SEGS plants, 707
    Human Development Index (HDI), relationship
    to per capita energy use, 23–24
    Humid air turbine (HAT) cycle, 218, 283,
    359–360
    definition of, 222
    Humming, 371
    Hurricanes, 138
    HUTYIN, 677
    HVE, 819
    use of for CdTe deposition, 820
    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), energy storage
    with, 501
    Hybrid gas turbine fuel cell, 305–306
    Hybrid models for wind turbines, 867
    Hybrid power plants, 656–657, 740–741
    integration of CRS technologies in, 717
    Hybrid solar cells, 812–813, 833
    Hybrid vehicles, 8
    Hydraulic fracturing, 288. See also Fracking
    Hydraulic turbines
    cavitation and setting of, 270
    classification of, 258
    description of, 258–261
    efficiency of, 262
    field tests of, 276277
    model testing of, 271
    numerical simulations of, 271–275
    performance characteristics, 265–267
    performance comparisons, 267
    performance of, 262–264
    power available, 261–262
    scaling formulae for, 263–264
    speed regulation, 268–270
    Hydrocarbons
    combustion conditions and production of,
    900
    emissions of from MSW incineration,
    1014–1016
    physical properties of, 58–59
    unburned, 241
    Hydrodynamic loading, modeling of, 869
    Hydrogasification, 915–916. See also Gasification
    Hydrogen, 288
    combustible portion of in MSW, 995–996
    use of as a fuel, 295, 399–401
    use of as a transportation fuel, 8
    Hydrogenation reaction, 903–904
    production of biodiesel using, 923
    Hydrokinetic turbines, 277–278
    Hydropower
    numerical simulations of facility
    components, 271–275
    total energy potential of, 14
    typical installation, 258
    Hydrothermal processing, 926
    I I–
    V curves for ideal PV cells, 772
    IC engines
    air standard power cycles, 230–233
    carbon monoxide emissions from, 240–241
    combustion in, 236–240
    control of emissions from, 242–243
    exhaust waste energy recovery, 250–252
    fuels for, 244–246
    gas turbines, 210
    intake pressurization, 247
    open mechanical energy cycles in, 233–236
    supercharging, 247–248
    turbocharging, 248–250
    types and basic operation of, 224–229
    use of in FFPS, 291
    Ideal Carnot cycle, 309
    Ideal Diesel cycle, 232–233
    Ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
    IGCC power plants, 10, 283, 295, 391–397,
    910–912
    blocks, 392
    capital cost estimates for, 322
    emissions from, 396–397Index 1171
    IGFCs, 307
    atmospheric, 307–308
    pressurized, 308
    Ignition delay period, 228
    Ignition properties of transportation
    fuels, 919
    Ignition quality, 245–246. See also Cetane
    number
    Illuminance, 633
    Illuminances
    clear sky, 642
    ground, 643
    horizontal sky and sun, 645
    incident direct sky and sun, 636
    incident ground reflected, 636–638
    overcast sky, 641
    work-plane, 633, 639–640, 644
    Illuminated p–n junction, 770–772
    Impulse turbines, 258–259
    control of flow in, 262
    performance characteristics, 265–266
    performance comparison with reaction
    turbines, 267
    Incidence angle, 679, 685–686
    modifiers for flat-plate collector, 534–535
    Incident radiation, 656
    Inconel 617, 387
    Independent power producers (IPPs), 942
    Index tests of flow, 277
    India
    coal use in, 10–11
    electricity-generating capacity of, 6
    energy use in, 2–3
    fast breeder test reactor in, 469
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    use of heavy-water reactors in, 468
    Indicated mean effective pressure (imep),
    calculation of, 234
    Indicated resources, 41
    Indicated work, 234
    Indicator diagram, 234
    Indirect gain systems, 586
    Indirect heating gasifiers, 905
    Indirect injection (IDI) engines, 228
    Indirectly coupled systems, 553
    Indirectly fired gas turbines, 361–362
    Indirectly heated receivers, 729–730
    INDITEP project, 705–706
    Individual hourly utilizability, 541–545
    Indonesia, electricity-generating capacity of, 6
    Induction generators, 876
    Industrial process compressors, use of
    intercoolers with, 216
    Industrial process heat applications. See IPH
    applications
    Industrial sector
    applications for PTCs in, 688
    use of direct steam generation in,
    690–691
    use of flash steam systems in, 699–690
    use of unified boiler systems in, 689
    Industrial solar systems, 551–552
    Industrial Solar Technology (IST), 678
    Inertial CO2 extraction system (ICES), 405
    Inertial fusion confinement, 492
    Inferred resources, 41
    Injection process, 702
    Inlet air fogging, 218
    Inlet foggers, 354
    Insolation, 99
    effect of day-to-day changes in, 540–541
    Installed nameplate capacity, 852
    Intake pressurization, IC engines, 247–250
    Integral optimization of heliostat fields, 722
    Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC)
    plants. See IGCC power plants
    Integrated gasification fuel cells. See IGFCs
    Integrated solar combined-cycle system plants.
    See ISCCS plants
    Intercept factor, 682–683
    Intercooled recuperated (ICR) machines,
    216, 357
    Intercoolers, 216
    definition of, 222
    use of in turbochargers, 249–250
    Intercooling, use of in gas turbine power
    plants, 357
    Interelectrode motive distribution, 1087–1088
    Intermediate-level wastes (ILW), 485
    Intermittent flow, 701
    Internal combustion engines. See IC engines
    Internal reformation, use of in NGFC system,
    308
    Internal resistance, 505
    International Organization of Standardizations.
    See ISO
    International Solar Radiation Data Base, 131
    International Thermonuclear Experimental
    Reactor (ITER), 492–493
    Intertinite, 34
    Inverted cavity receivers, 716
    Inverters, DC-to-AC, 783–784, 1036
    IPH applications
    closed-loop multipass system design,
    573–575
    design methods for, 573–5781172 Index
    open-loop single pass system design,
    575–578
    use of closed-loop systems for, 556
    use of parabolic trough collectors for, 678
    IRIS pressurized water reactor, 467
    Iron, 383
    Iron plates, use of for thermal energy storage, 698
    Irradiance, mitigation of fluctuation in, 656
    Irreversible energy conversion efficiency, forms
    of, 1057–1058
    Irreversible energy losses, 1054–1056
    ISCCS plants, 657, 673, 712–713
    Islanding condition, 784
    ISO
    coal classification, 36
    COE calculations, 320
    Iso-octane, 245
    Isolated gain systems, 586, 588
    Italy
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    use of geothermal energy in, 933
    use of tubular receivers in, 732
    Ivanpah, 658, 674
    J
    J class gas turbines, 283, 351–355
    air standard cycle calculations for, 317–318
    estimating O&M costs for, 323–324
    Japan
    advanced boiling water reactor in, 465
    advanced pressurized water reactor in, 466
    development of Generation III nuclear
    reactors in, 465
    nuclear fuel reprocessing in, 478
    nuclear power reactors in, 461
    use of tubular receivers in, 732
    Jet fuel, 54, 918
    Jevons, W.S., 302
    Joint European Torus (JET), 492
    Junction activation treatment, 819
    K
    K class gas turbines, air standard cycle
    calculations for, 317–318
    Kalina cycle, 283, 358–359
    Kaplan hydraulic turbines, 260
    efficiency of, 267
    use of index testing for, 277
    Kazakhstan
    BN-350 nuclear reactor in, 469
    VBER-300 nuclear reactor in, 468
    Kelvin–Planck statement of 2nd law of
    thermodynamics, 308
    Kerena nuclear reactor, 467
    Kerosene, 54
    Kewaunee nuclear power plant, 462
    Kinematic engines, 453
    Kinematic Stirling engine, 750
    Klaproth, Martin Heinrich, 81
    Knock
    CI engines, 240
    SI engines, 238
    Kockums 4-95 Stirling-engined based PCU, 751
    Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor
    (KALIMER), 470
    Korean Next-Generation Reactor, 467
    L
    Land breezes, 138
    Land disposal of MSW, 76–78
    Land use
    biomass production, 70–71
    geothermal power plants, 982
    Lardello geothermal energy site, 933, 937
    Large-eddy simulation (LES), numerical
    modeling using, 272–275
    Latent heat, 504
    hydration-dehydration reactions, 519
    storage of in phase change materials, 518
    storage of with chemical reactions, 519
    use of for direct thermal storage, 517–519
    Latent heat storage systems, 699
    Latitude, 91
    Law of diminishing returns, 566
    LCOE, 319–323
    similar technology requirements
    of, 324–325
    wind turbines, 887
    LCR, 589–590
    passive solar heating system design using,
    592–620
    tables for representative cities, 602–615
    Lead losses, 1088
    definition of, 1100
    Lead time, 320–321
    Lead-acid batteries, 506
    Lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), 475–477
    Lead–acid batteries, use of in solar systems, 781
    Lean catalytic lean burn (LCL), 339
    Lean premix (LPM) combustion, 336–339. See
    also DLN combustion
    Lean-premixed process, 221
    Levelized cost of energy. See LCOEIndex 1173
    LHV, 287, 504
    biomass, 64–65
    combustion of MSW, 997–999
    efficiency measures of gas turbines using,
    211
    LHV basis, efficiencies of gas-turbine
    combined-cycle plants, 209
    Life cycle cost, 363
    Lift devices, 857–859
    power coefficients for, 860
    Lifting line model, 864–865
    Lifting surface model, 864–865
    Light gases, production of by biomass
    conversion, 915–916
    Light loss factor, 639, 646–648
    Light-induced degradation, 809–810
    use of multijunction cells to combat, 811–812
    Light-water graphite-moderated reactors, 461
    Light-water nuclear reactors, 465–468
    Lighting, terms and units, 633
    Lightning protection devices, 165
    Lignin, 63–64
    Lignite, U.S. reserves of, 39–40
    Lignocellulose, 63–64
    energy crops, 67–68
    Limb-darkened distribution, 666
    Lime injection
    control of trace metal emissions with, 1021
    use of in gaseous emission control, 1015
    use of in organic compound control, 1019
    Linear current booster (LCB), 782–783
    use of in PV arrays, 780
    Linear Fresnel collectors, 670–672
    integration of in combined-cycle plants,
    673–674
    Linear Fresnel reflectors, 714
    future development and performance
    trends, 716
    historical evolution of, 714–716
    Linear Power Tower, 716
    Linked vertical well. See LVW underground
    coal gasification
    Liptinite, 34
    Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 56. See also
    Natural gas
    production of, 58
    Liquefied refinery gases, 54
    Liquid electrolyte fuel cells, 1062
    Liquid fuels, 288
    Liquid sensible heat storage, 515–517
    Liquid solar collectors, 552
    Liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors
    (LMFBRs), 461
    Lithium ion batteries, 506–507
    Liu and Jordan (LJ) method, 115
    LNB, estimation of CO and NOx from, 334–335
    Load, 589–590
    predictions for wind turbines, 867–868
    time dependence of, 551
    Load reduction, use of daylighting controls for,
    648–651
    London Array, 883–884
    Long-term measured horizontal radiation
    circumsolar, 118–119
    models of, 113
    monthly solar radiation on tilted surfaces,
    115–118
    spectral models, 122–123
    Longwall mining, 48
    Low cycle fatigue (LCF), 368
    Low specific speed hydraulic turbines, 259
    Low-level wastes (LLW), 485
    Low-pressure-ratio recuperated cycle, 216–217
    Low-quality waste heat recovery, 375–377
    Lower heating value. See LHV
    Lowest Achievable Emission Requirements
    (LAER), 1027
    Lubricants, 55
    Lumen method of skylighting, 644–648
    Luminous flux, 639
    LUZ International, 707. See also SEGS plants
    bankruptcy of, 711
    parabolic trough collectors of, 710
    LVW underground coal gasification, 397–398
    M
    MACC, 327
    Macerals, 34
    definition of, 49
    Macroscopic errors, 667
    Magnetic fusion confinement, 492
    tokomak reactor development, 492–493
    Magnox reactors, 460
    Main step-up transformers, 293
    Makeup water treatment, 296
    MAN Ferrostaal Power Industry, 715
    Manganese, 383
    Manure, 66
    Maricopa Solar Plant, 674, 751
    Martin grates, 1005–1006
    MASDAR, 746
    Mass-burn systems, 990–992
    furnaces, 1003–1007
    particulate emissions from, 1019–1022
    performance of, 1022–10231174 Index
    Mass-fired incinerators, residue handling and
    disposal, 1009–1011
    Mass-fired water wall units, 1008–1009
    Material flows methodology, 73
    Matrix permeability, 935
    Maximum acceptable increase in capital cost.
    See MACC
    Maximum Achievable Control Technology
    (MACT), 1027
    Maximum power trackers (MPT), 782–783
    Maximum useful temperatures, energy sources
    and, 661
    MCFCs, 305, 1076–1077
    acceptable contamination levels, 1078
    air utilization factor, 306
    applications of, 1079
    basic operating principle, 1077–1078
    major technological problems, 1078–1079
    technological status, 1079
    Measured resources, 40
    Mechanical energy storage, 499
    compressed air, 513–514
    flywheels, 514
    pumped hydro, 512–513
    Mechanical grates, use of in MSW furnaces,
    1003–1007
    Mechanical work, conversion of solar heat
    to, 656
    Membrane carbon capture, 295
    Mercury, emissions of from MSW, 1020
    Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), 345
    Metal chlorides, boiler tube corrosion due to,
    1011
    Metallurgical coals, 38
    Metals
    condensation point for, 1013
    degradation of in FFPS, 380–381
    emissions from MSW incineration, 1019–1022
    percentage of in municipal solid waste, 73
    Meteorological towers, sensor mounting on,
    165–166
    Methanation, 295, 398–399, 904, 914–915
    Methanation unit, 290
    Methane, 289. See also Hydrocarbons
    production of from biomass, 914–916
    stoichiometric combustion of, 332
    Methanol, direct oxidation of, 1073
    METOSAT, 131
    MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled
    Conditions), 868
    Micorcrystalline silicon (μc-Si), 807
    Microalgae, conversion of to biodiesel, 923–924
    Micromorph solar cells, 807
    Microscopic errors, 667
    Mid-level design methods, 569
    Miller cycle engine, 224
    Minable coal, 41
    Mine tailings, 485
    Mineral matter, 36
    Minimum emissions compliance load (MECL),
    336, 368
    Mixed alcohols, 924
    Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, 483
    reprocessing of, 483
    Mixed-flow runners, 260. See also Runner
    configurations
    Model testing of hydraulic turbines, 271
    Modeling
    flat-plate collectors, 531–534
    solar system simulation, 563–566
    use of TRNSYS for, 570–573
    Modified Wobbe index (MWI), 371–372
    MODTRAN, 122
    Modular incinerators, 1019–1022, 1025–1026
    Moisture content
    coal, 36–37
    MSW, 989
    Molten carbonate fuel cells. See MCFCs
    Molten salt reactor (MSR), 477
    Molten salts
    use of for thermal energy storage, 698–699
    use of in SEGS PTCs, 708
    Molten-salt central receivers, 674
    Molten-salt tubular receivers, 733–734
    Molybdenum, 383
    Momentum models, 860–864
    limitations of, 866
    Monolithic modules, 813–814
    Monsoons, 138
    Monte Carlo simulation, use of for project cost
    estimation, 329–330
    Monthly clearness index, 115, 542
    Motor gasoline, 54
    Motor method for octane rating, 244–245
    Motor octane number (MON), 245
    Mountain winds, 138
    effect of terrain on speed of, 155–156
    MSW
    air pollution control facilities for, 1011–1022
    batch feeding of, 995
    biorenewable resources in, 66–67
    characteristics of, 988–990
    definition of, 73
    distribution of trace metals in, 1019–1022
    electricity generating capacity of, 19
    fluidized bed combustion, 1026Index 1175
    generation and recovery of, 74–76
    generation of in US, 77
    incinerators, 1003–1008
    management of, 76–78
    materials and products in, 73–74
    particulate emissions from combustors, 1013
    processing of, 994–995
    pyrolysis and gasification of, 1026
    quantities of, 988
    residue handling and disposal, 1009–1011
    ultimate analysis of, 999
    MSW combustion, 76–78, 995–1003, 1022–1023
    modular systems for, 1025–1026
    Multicrystalline silicon PV cells, manufacture
    of, 774–777
    Multijunction solar cells, 798, 811–812
    configurations, 813
    use of in concentrating PV systems, 845
    Multipass solar collector systems, 543
    Multipressure steam flash, 964–965
    Municipal solid waste. See MSW
    N n
    -doping, 807
    n-type window layer, 818
    n–i–p configuration, 810–811
    Nafion 117, 1074
    Nanowire solar cells, 815
    Naphthas, 55, 244–245
    NASA
    PEMFC studies by, 1072–1073
    use of thermionic energy conversion by, 1086
    National Climatic Data Center. See NCDC
    National Electrical Code (NEC)
    Article 690 of, 787
    requirements of for PV arrays, 786
    National Ignition Facility, 492
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric
    Administration. See NOAA
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory. See
    NREL
    National Solar Radiation Database
    (NSRDB), 130
    Natural circulation boilers, 197
    Natural convection/ventilation, 624–627
    Natural gas
    combustion reaction, 330–332
    consumption of, 56
    demand for, 4
    efficiency of gas turbines using, 211
    global reserves of, 10
    liquids, 54
    oxy-fuel combustion of, 410–413
    production measurement, 58
    reserves and resources, 56–57
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    spot prices for, 324
    terminology, 60
    use of in auxiliary heaters, 695
    world production of, 55–56
    world reserves of, 57
    Natural gas fuel cells. See NGFCs
    NCDC, solar radiation data of, 130
    Nernst loss, 1059–1061
    Net building load coefficient (NLC), 589–590
    Net energy savings, 582
    Net head, 262
    Net output, 287
    Net primary production (NPP), 519
    Net skylight transmittance, 645
    Net thermal output, 687–688
    New Mexico Wind Energy Center, 883–884
    New-generation solar cells, 833–834
    Next-generation nuclear reactor technologies,
    462, 464–465
    fast neutron reactors, 469–470
    gas-cooled fast reactor system, 472–473
    Generation IV, 471–472
    heavy-water reactors, 468
    high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, 468–469
    lead-cooled fast reactor, 475–477
    light-water reactors, 465–468
    molten salt reactor, 477
    sodium-cooled fast reactor, 474–476
    supercritical-water-cooled reactor, 473–475
    very-high-temperature reactor, 472–474
    NGFCs, 307–308
    Nickel, 383
    Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, 507–508
    Nickel-based superalloys, 388
    Nickel-cadmium batteries, 507
    Nitrogen oxides. See NOx emissions
    No-load speed, 268
    NOAA, solar radiation data of, 130
    Nocturnal cooling systems, 627–629
    Non-heat engines, 305
    Non-OECD Asian countries, electricitygenerating capacity of, 6
    Non-spinning reserve, 368
    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries, 511
    Nonconcentrating collectors, 528
    sensible heat storage in water, 515
    Noncondensable gas (NCG), 969–970
    compositions of in geothermal systems,
    972–9731176 Index
    Nondurable goods, recovery of from MSW,
    74–76
    Nontracking solar collectors, 552
    Nonvacuum deposition techniques, use of for
    CZTS deposition, 832–833
    North America, energy use in, 2–3
    North-south sun-tracking axis orientation, 679
    Nova-1, 715
    NOVATEC Solar, 715–716
    NO
    x emissions, 295. See also Hydrocarbons
    coal combustion, 48, 339–340
    combustion in gas turbines and, 334–339
    geothermal power plants, 981–982
    IC engines, 241
    MSW combustion, 1022–1023
    reduction of using SNCR, 1014–1015
    NREL
    FAST code, 872
    National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB),
    130
    peak sun hour figures, 780
    S-809 airfoil, 858
    wind resource maps of, 146–148
    wind turbine cost modeling, 887–890
    NSAT, 131
    Nuclear fission, 81–82, 456
    Nuclear fuel cycle, 82–84
    Nuclear fuels
    processing of, 82–84
    sources of, 81–82
    Nuclear fusion, 12
    confinement, 492
    energy conversion and transport, 493–494
    potential of, 491
    tokamak reactor development, 492–493
    Nuclear power
    comparison of generation technologies,
    488–489
    economics of, 486, 488
    growth of, 461–462
    role of in future energy mix, 27
    Nuclear power plants
    global, 457–458
    life extension, 461–462
    new construction of worldwide, 462–464
    tokomak reactor development, 492–493
    worldwide distribution by reactor type,
    447–461
    Nuclear power reactors, 461
    boiling water reactors (BWRs), 459
    development of current technologies, 457
    gas-cooled reactors, 460
    Generation III, 462, 464–470
    Generation IV technologies, 471–477
    pressurized heavy-water reactor, 459–460
    pressurized water reactors, 457–459
    small modular reactors, 470
    waste management for used fuel from,
    487–488
    Nuclear power systems
    fuel cycle, 478–484
    goals for Generation IV technologies,
    471–472
    Nuclear power technology, 456
    Nuclear resources, 11–13
    fuel regeneration, 12
    Nuclear waste, 485–486
    types of, 485–486
    O
    Octane number, 918
    Octane rating, 244–245
    OECD countries, per capita energy use in,
    23–24
    Offshore gross wind resource, 149
    Offshore wind installations, 868
    platform hydrodynamics, 869
    Ohmic contact, stability of in CdTe solar cells,
    819–820
    Oil. See also Petroleum
    classification of crude, 51
    demand for, 4
    global reserves of, 9–10
    resource base, 53
    role of in future energy mix, 27
    transitioning away from, 8
    use of for transportation, 7–8
    world refining capacity, 55
    world reserves of, 51–54
    Oil crops, 67
    Once-through boilers, 197
    Once-through cycle, 478, 702, 704, 707
    Once-through superheated water–steam
    receiver, 732
    Open cycle, 478
    Open heaters, 203
    Open volumetric receivers, 735
    Open-cycle gas turbines, use of in FFPS, 291
    Open-loop single pass systems, design methods
    for, 575–578
    Open-loop solar thermal systems, 553–554
    Open-pit mining, uranium, 480
    Operating costs, geothermal power plants, 947
    Operating fuel cells, efficiency loss in,
    1059–1061Index 1177
    Operational flexibility, 367–369
    Optical concentration, 665
    CRSs, 717
    STP plants with, 671–674
    Optical efficiency, 662
    enhancing, 536
    flat-plate collectors, 534
    heliostat fields, 719–727
    Optical losses
    in power towers, 727
    in PTCs, 682
    OPTIMAT materials database, 882
    Optimum pressure ratio, 213–214
    Orbital combustion process (OCP), 227–228
    Orebodies, 479
    Organic chemicals, presence of in MSW ash
    residue, 1010
    Organic composition of plants, 63–64
    Organic compound emission control, 1016–1019
    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), 250–252, 287
    low-quality waste recovery using, 376
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
    Development. See OECD countries
    Ormat Technologies, 976–977
    Otto cycle, 230–232, 292, 297
    Output characteristics of thermionic converters,
    1089–1090
    Over-fire air (OFA), 339
    Overall free energy conversion efficiency, 1058
    Overcast sky illuminance, 641
    Overfire air, 1007
    Overlay coatings, 390
    Overpotential, 1054–1055
    Overvoltage, 1054–1055
    Oxidation catalytic converters, 243, 381
    Oxy-fuel combustion, 283, 290, 295, 299
    coal, 408–410
    natural gas, 410–413
    supercritical CO2, 413–416
    Oxygen
    mass transfer of in biomass conversion,
    900–901
    role of in MSW combustion, 995–1003
    Oxygen-blown gasifiers, 905
    P
    p–i–n junctions, 808–809
    p–n junction, 768–770
    illuminated, 770–772
    PAHs, 1016
    combustion conditions and production
    of, 900
    Pancaked charges, 940
    Paper and paperboard products, percentage of
    in municipal solid waste, 73
    Parabolic concentrators, 670–671, 748–749
    configuration of, 666
    errors of, 667–668
    sun tracking by, 665
    Parabolic trough collector systems. See PTC
    systems
    Parabolic trough collectors. See PTCs
    Parabolic trough STPs, 675–681
    Parasitic power consumption, 287
    Part-flow cycle, 378–379
    Partial depletion effect, 554
    Partial oxidation, 521
    Particle interaction losses, 1088
    definition of, 1100
    Particle receiver designs, 729
    Particulate control, 1012–1013
    Diesel engines, 243
    Particulate emissions, geothermal power
    plants, 982
    Particulate matter, emissions of in flue
    gas, 295
    Particulates, emissions of from Diesel engines,
    241–242
    Passive cooling systems, design fundamentals,
    624–632
    Passive pitch control, 875
    Passive solar cooling systems, definition of, 581
    Passive solar heating systems
    definition of, 581
    design approaches, 588–589
    design fundamentals, 588
    designations and characteristics of, 598–601
    fundamental design concepts, 588
    general application status and costs, 582
    generalized design methods, 589
    performance estimation using LCR method,
    592–620
    SLR correlation parameters, 621–623
    SLR method for calculating performance of,
    620–624
    types of, 586–588
    Passive solar systems, 551
    distinction of from energy conservation, 581
    economic considerations, 581–582
    Passive solar thermosyphon systems, 582–585.
    See also Thermosyphon systems
    Payback period, wind energy, 886
    PCBs, 1016
    PE-1, 715
    Peak optical efficiency, 6861178 Index
    Peak power, limitation of for wind turbines,
    873–875
    Peak sun hour (psh), 780
    Pebble-bed modular reactor, 468–469
    Peltier effect, 1092
    Pelton-type hydraulic turbines, 259
    efficiency of, 267
    head values for, 266
    PEMFCs, 1069–1070
    acceptable contamination levels, 1071
    applications of, 1072–1073
    basic operating principle, 1070–1071
    major technological problems, 1071–1072
    Permanent-magnet generators, 876
    direct-drive, 876–877
    Permeability, 935
    Perovskite solar cells, 834–835
    solid-state, 800
    Pescara turbine, 343
    Petra Nova project, 407
    Petrochemical feedstock, 55
    Petroleum. See also Oil
    product classification, 54–55
    use of for transportation, 7–8
    PFB combustion system, 210–211, 340, 362–363
    Phase change materials (PCM), 699
    solar thermal storage in, 562
    storage of thermal energy in, 517
    PHEVs, 8
    energy storage with, 501
    Phibar method, 545–548
    use of in IPH design methods, 573–578
    Philippines, geothermal power transmission
    in, 940
    Philo 6 (AEP), 303
    PHOEBUS-type receivers, 736
    Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), 1075–1076
    Photobioreactors, 69
    Photosynthesis, steps and efficiencies of, 62
    Photovoltaic arrays. See PV arrays
    Photovoltaic cells. See PV cells
    Photovoltaic conversion, 766–767
    Photovoltaic detectors, 127
    Photovoltaic modules. See PV modules
    Photovoltaic panels. See PV panels
    Photovoltaic systems. See PV systems
    Photovoltaic technologies. See PV technologies
    Photovoltaics (PV). See also PV cells
    increasing use of, 17
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    worldwide installed capacity, 766–767
    Pipe heat transfer, 630–631
    Piping losses, 561–562
    Pitch control, 874–875
    Pitch speed capability, 880–881
    Pitch to feather control, 874
    Pitch to stall control, 874
    Pitting corrosion, 381
    Plant composition, impact of on biomass
    energy, 63–64
    Plant deformation, 153
    Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD), 808
    Plastics, percentage of in municipal solid waste,
    73
    Plataforma Solar de Almeria. See PSA
    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. See PHEVs
    Plutonium
    reprocessing of, 481, 483–484
    use of in breeder reactors, 478
    Polar jets, 138–139
    Polarization, 1054–1055
    Policies for renewable energy, potential of,
    14–15
    Policy change, potential for renewable energy,
    14–15
    Pollutants, emissions of in flue gas, 295
    Polychlorinated biphenyls. See PCBs
    Polycrystalline PV cells, manufacture of,
    774–777
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. See PAHs
    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. See
    PEMFCs
    Polymer electrolyte membranes, use of in
    DMFCs, 1073–1074
    Polysulfide bromide batteries (PSB), 510
    Porta-Test Whirlyscrub V Gas Scrubber, 966
    Portugal, installed wind power capacity in, 852
    Post-combustion carbon capture system,
    401–408
    use of in FFPS, 295–296
    Potassium, incorporation of in CIGS solar cells,
    825
    Power
    availability of in hydraulic turbines,
    261–262
    biomass conversion to, 897–898, 907–912
    Power block design, 705
    Power booster scheme, 660
    Power coefficient, 857–858
    Power cycles, air standard, 230–233
    Power density, 503, 873
    two-stroke SI engines, 227
    Power generating capacity, 907
    growth of nuclear power, 461
    Power generation, use of thermoelectric devices
    for, 1094–1095Index 1179
    Power production. See also Electric power
    generation
    gas turbines, 212–213
    management of geothermal resource for,
    951–959
    Power quality (PQ), 501
    Power sector, primary energy use by, 5
    Power supply, contribution of STP to, 659
    Power towers, 672, 674, 717, 727–742. See also
    CRSs
    experience with, 739–740
    heliostat and collector field technology,
    719–727
    molten-salt systems, 744–747
    technology description, 718–719
    tubular receivers, 732–734
    volumetric receivers, 734–739
    water–steam plants, 740–744
    Power/load control programming, 879–881
    Pre-combustion carbon capture, 295
    Pre-combustion chamber, 229
    Premixed flame, 336
    Prescribed wake models, 865
    Pressure, effect of on reversible cell potential,
    1044–1045
    Pressure drop, flat-plate collectors, 536
    Pressure swing adsorption, 399–400
    Pressure-gain combustion, 283, 340–345
    Pressure–time technique, 276
    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion. See PFB
    combustion system
    Pressurized geothermal brine, 976–977
    Pressurized heavy-water reactor, 459–460
    Pressurized IGFCs, 308
    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs), 457–459
    Pressurizing intake air, 247–250
    Primary energy consumption, 3
    Primary energy use, major sectors of, 5–6
    Prime movers, types of in FFPS, 291–292
    PRISM nuclear reactor, 469
    Probabilistic methods for cost estimation, 329–330
    Probability density, 873
    Process contingencies, 321
    PRODISS, 703
    Producer gas, 902
    composition of from various gasifiers, 907
    Project contingencies, 321
    Project cost estimates, 320–321. See also TPI
    Propane (C3H8). See Hydrocarbons
    Propeller anemometers, 159
    Propeller turbines. See also Reaction turbines
    efficiency of, 267
    performance characteristics, 266–267
    Prospecting for wind energy sites, 152–153
    biological indicators, 153
    effects of topography, 153–157
    Proved oil resources, definition of, 60
    Proven oil reserves, 9
    Proximate analysis, 63–64, 332
    coal, 36–38
    definition of, 49
    Proximate ash content, 36
    PS10, 658, 674, 717, 724, 740–744
    PS20, 724, 743
    PSA, 674
    PTC systems, use of direct steam generation in,
    699–707
    PTCs, 528, 670–672
    barriers to commercial use of, 711
    connection of in series, 679–681
    costs of, 673
    efficiencies and energy balances in, 686–688
    electricity generation with, 693–695
    industrial applications for, 688–691
    LS collectors, 710
    new designs for, 711–713
    operational principles and components of,
    675–691
    orientation of the rotation axis, 679
    performance parameters and losses in,
    681–686
    sizing and layout of solar fields with,
    691–693
    solar power plants with, 711–714
    thermal storage systems for, 695–699
    Puerto Errado-2, 674
    Pulsating combustor engines, 343
    Pulse converter turbocharging, 249
    Pulse turbocharger, 249–250
    Pulse(d) detonation combustion (PDC), 344
    Pulverized coal (PC)
    boiler construction, 383–384
    use of in FFPS, 294
    Pumped hydro, 512–513
    numerical modeling of, 273
    PUREX process, 483
    PV arrays, 778–779
    balance of system components in, 784–787
    sunlight and orientation of, 779–780
    PV cells. See also solar cells
    CdTe, 816–821
    CIGS, 821–829
    combination of into modules and arrays,
    778–779
    CZTS, 829–833
    efficiency of, 767–768, 7931180 Index
    hybrid, 812–813
    illuminated p–n junction, 770–772
    new generation, 833–835
    p–n junction, 768–770
    properties of, 772–773
    PV charge controller, 781–782
    PV modules, 778–779
    a-Si solar cells and configurations, 808–813
    cost potentials, 801, 805
    deposition techniques for a-Si solar cells, 808
    efficiencies of, 802–804
    materials availability issues, 805–806
    PV panels, costs of, 766–767
    PV systems
    components of, 782–787
    configurations of, 780–782
    present status of technology and future
    challenges, 792–794
    stand-alone PV well pump system, 787–788
    stand-alone system for remote schoolhouse,
    788–790
    utility-interactive example, 791–792 (See also
    Utility-interactive PV systems)
    PV technologies
    concentrating, 845–849
    worldwide market share of, 801
    Pyranometer, 124–126
    measurement of solar radiation with,
    126–127
    Pyrheliometer, 124
    Pyrolysis, 521–522
    bio-oil upgrading, 925–926
    MSW, 1026
    role of in biomass conversion to solid fuels,
    913–914
    solid fuel combustion, 899–900
    thermal gasification and, 903
    Pyroprocessing, 484
    Q
    Quiescent chamber engine, 228
    R
    Raceway ponds, 69
    Radar, impact of wind facilities on, 151
    Radial runners, 260. See also Runner
    configurations
    Radial staggered heliostat field layout, 721–722
    Radiation distribution, effect of on solar
    collector performance, 541
    Radiation statistic, 542
    Radiative cooling systems, 627–629
    Radiative losses, reduction of in solar collectors,
    537
    Radiative transfer numerical models, 122–123
    Radioactive waste materials, 82, 84, 456,
    485–486
    management of radioactive gases, 487–488
    types of, 485–486
    Raft River Geothermal Power Plant, 943
    RAM, 324–327
    Range tests, 168
    Rank, definition of for coal classification, 49
    Rankine bottoming cycle. See RBC
    Rankine cycle, 192, 250–251, 292, 908
    analysis of, 192–195
    combination of with topping cycles, 196
    increasing efficiency of, 194
    integration of CRSs in, 717
    integration of PTCs in, 693–694
    Ranking SCO2 cycle, 379
    RANS equations, use of for simulation of
    hydraulic turbines, 271–272
    Raptors, impact of wind facilities on, 150
    Ray tracing analysis, 667
    RBC, 297
    thermodynamic calculations of efficiency,
    309–311
    RDF systems, 990–992, 1022
    furnace grates in, 1005–1007
    particulate emissions from, 1019–1022
    production of fuel pellets in, 995
    RDF-fired water wall systems, 1009
    Reaction turbines, 258, 260
    cavitation issues with, 270
    control of flow in, 262
    performance characteristics, 266–267
    performance comparison with impulse
    turbines, 267
    Reactor fuel, 456
    Reactor technologies, 461
    boiling water reactors (BWRs), 459
    development of, 457
    gas-cooled reactors, 460
    Generation III, 462, 464–470
    plant life extension, 461–462
    pressurized heavy-water reactor, 459–460
    pressurized water reactors, 457–459
    small modular reactors, 470
    Real options theory, 329–330
    Reburning, 339
    Receiver and power system control system
    (RPSCS), 726–727
    Receiver tubes, 677Index 1181
    Reciprocating engines. See Recips
    Reciprocating grates, 1004
    Reciprocating IC engines, 224
    Recips
    Carnot factor for bottoming cycle of, 376
    comparison of with gas turbines, 372–375
    stationary power generation examples, 374
    use of in FFPS, 291
    Recirculation process, 702, 704
    Recoverable oil resources, definition of, 60
    Recoverable reserves
    coal, 41
    oil, 9–10, 51
    Recovery rates, 78
    products in MSW, 74–76
    Recuperated gas turbines, 209, 215
    definition of, 222
    Recuperated SCO2 cycle, 377–379
    Recycling, 987
    recovery of materials from MSW, 76–78
    Reduced boiling water reactor (PBWR), 468
    Reduced moderation water reactor (RMWR),
    468
    Reduction catalytic converters, 243
    Reed valves, 227
    Reflective parabolic concentrators, 670–671
    Reflective solar concentrators, 717
    Reflectivity, 682
    Reflectors
    concentrating, 668–670
    performance improvement of solar collectors
    using, 537–538
    use of in parabolic trough collectors, 677–678
    Reforming, 521
    REFOS, 738–739
    Refractories, 1006–1007
    Refractory furnace with waste heat boilers, 1008
    Refrigeration, use of thermoelectric devices for,
    1095–1098
    Refuse
    feeding, 995
    receipt, processing, and storage of, 994–995
    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) systems. See RDF
    systems
    Regenerable solid solvent carbon capture, 295
    Regenerative cycle, 194
    gas turbines, 215–216
    Reheat combustion, 313, 357–358
    Carnot factor and, 318
    Reheat combustion gas turbine, air standard
    cycle calculations for, 317–318
    Reheaters, 198, 216
    Relational tests, 169
    Relative efficiency, 276
    Reliability, availability, and maintenance. See
    RAM
    Renewable energy (RE). See also specific sources
    biomass potential, 19–21
    biomass resources, 66–69
    elements of economic consideration, 581–582
    energy storage for, 498–499
    present status and potential of, 13–15
    resource summary, 21–22
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    solar energy conversion to biomass, 61–63
    solar energy potential, 16–18
    wind energy resource, 143–149
    wind power potential, 15–16
    wind resource assessment, 152–157
    wind resource evaluation, 157–171
    Renewable energy resources, geothermal
    energy, 937
    Renewable energy sources, electricity
    production from, 5–6
    Repowering, 362–364
    Reprocessing, 478, 481, 483–484
    PUREX process, 483
    pyroprocessing, 484
    UREX+ process, 484
    Research and development, solar thermal
    power plants, 713
    Research method for octane rating, 244–245
    Research octane number (RON), 245
    Reserve base, 41
    global recoverable coal resources, 44–46
    Reserve to production ratio (R/P), 10–11
    Reserve-return layout of solar fields, 692–693
    Residential solar systems, 551
    Resonance condition, 871
    Reversible cell potential, 1038–1042
    effect of operating conditions on, 1042–1046
    Reversible energy conversion efficiency, 1047,
    1052–1054
    equivalency of with Carnot efficiency,
    1049–1050
    heat engines, 1048–1049
    Reversible energy loss, 1052–1054
    Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)
    equations. See RANS equations
    RF glow discharge decomposition, 777
    Rich catalytic lean burn (RCL), 339
    Ridges, effect of on wind speed, 155–156
    Rim angle, 681–682
    RIT, 352
    Rock storage systems, 562
    Rocking grates, 10041182 Index
    Roll-bond collectors, 530
    Roller grates, 1004–1005
    Room surface dirt depreciation, 639
    Room-and-pillar mining, 47–48
    Root mean square (RMS), use of to quantify
    slope errors, 668–669
    Roots blower, 248
    Rotor inlet temperature. See RIT
    Rotor speed capability, 880
    Rotors for steam turbines, 200–201
    Runaway speed, 268
    Runner configurations
    hydraulic turbine efficiency and, 262
    impulse turbines, 259
    numerical modeling of, 273
    performance comparisons, 267
    reaction turbines, 260
    Russia
    fast nuclear reactors in, 469
    nuclear power reactors in, 461
    S
    S-809 airfoil, 858
    Sac volume, 241
    Safety controller, 878–879
    Salinity-gradient ponds, sensible heat storage
    in, 516–517
    Salt velocity testing method, 276
    San Onofre nuclear power plant, 462
    Sanlúcar heliostats, 724
    Satellite data
    estimation of solar resource from,
    132–134
    use of to map solar radiation, 131–132
    Saturated steam plants, 741–744
    SBDART, 122
    Scaling factor, 688
    Scaling formulae for hydraulic turbines,
    263–264
    Schott, 677
    Screen printing (SP), 819
    Scrubber/fabric filter control systems, 1013
    Sea breezes, 138
    Seasonal pricing, geothermal power, 945
    Seasonal solar energy storage, 552
    Secondary batteries, 505–506
    lead-acid, 506
    lithium ion, 506–507
    nickel metal hydride, 507–508
    nickel-cadmium, 507
    sodium-sulfur, 508
    zebra, 509
    Seebeck effect, 1092
    Seed crystals, use of to fabricate silicon PV cells,
    774–776
    SEGS plants, 658, 673, 707–721
    basic characteristics of, 709
    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), 198, 243, 295,
    335
    Selective noncatalytic reduction. See SNCR
    Selective surfaces, use of to reduce losses from
    collectors, 537
    Selective surfaces on flat-plate collectors, 530
    Selenization, 825–827
    Self-discharge time, 501–503
    Semiconductor materials, use of on PV cells,
    796–801. See also PV cells
    Semipermanent global wind patterns, 139
    SENER, 678, 724, 746
    SenerTrough, 678
    Sensible heat, 504, 515
    storage in liquids, 515–517
    storage in solids, 517
    Sensible storage systems, 562–563
    Sensitivity curves, 615–619
    Sensor coatings, 391
    Sensor technology
    control of solar systems using, 558
    data collection and handling, 166–171
    sampling rates and statistical quantities,
    164–165
    specifications for wind data instruments, 162
    towers and mounting, 165–166
    use of for wind resource evaluation, 159–165
    Separated brine, uses of in geothermal power
    operations, 954–955
    Separative work units (SWU), 480
    Sequential combustion, 357–358. See also Reheat
    combustion
    SEVILLANA, 741
    Shading, heliostat placement and, 721
    Shading losses, 561–562
    Shadow map, 97
    Shadow-angle protractor, 95–98
    Shadow-band trackers, 676
    Shaft power producers for FFPS, 292
    Shassroen, Fritz, 81
    Shell-and-tube heat exchangers, use of in steam
    turbines, 204–205
    Shippingport Atomic Power Station, 457
    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs), 67
    SI engines, 224
    abnormal combustion, 238–239
    air throttling in, 234
    combustion in, 236–237Index 1183
    compression ratio, 231–232
    control of emissions from, 242–243
    fuels for, 244–245
    normal combustion process, 237–238
    supercharging, 247–248
    turbocharging, 248–250
    Si p–n junction, 769–770
    Si PV cells, manufacture of, 774–777
    Sibbutiminous coal, 34
    reserves of, 39–40
    Sidelighting, 633–634
    lumen method of, 635–644
    Siemens, 677
    Silica
    concentrations of in geothermal reservoirs,
    956
    solubility limits of, 978–979
    solubility of, 974
    Silicon, 383
    Silicon nitride, use of for gas turbine coating,
    220
    Silicon thin-film solar cells. See Si PV cells
    Silicon wafers, 797
    Similitude of hydraulic turbines, 262–264
    Simple design methods, 568–569
    Single-axis sun-tracking systems, 528, 676
    Single-crystal (SC) superalloys, 388–389
    Single-crystal Si PV cells, manufacture of,
    774–777
    Single-medium storage systems, 696–698
    Single-pass open-loop solar thermal systems,
    554
    Single-point temperature controllers, 558
    SKAL-ET, 678
    Sky diffuse radiation, 101
    SkyFuel Inc., 716
    Skylight, 633
    definition of, 581
    Skylighting, lumen method of, 644–648
    Slag, 39
    Slagging combustion technology, 339
    Slope error, use of root mean square to
    quantify, 668–669
    SLR, 592
    calculation of passive solar heating
    performance using, 620–624
    Small modular reactors (SMRs), 470
    SMES, direct electric storage with, 512
    Smith–Kaplan hydraulic turbines,
    260–261
    SNCR, use of to reduce NOx emissions from
    MSW incineration, 1014–1015
    Snell’s law of reflection, 667
    SO2 emissions. See also Hydrocarbons
    geothermal power plants, 981
    MSW incineration, 1014–1016
    Societal concerns, wind facilities, 149–151
    SODEAN, 741
    Sodium, incorporation of in CIGS solar cells, 824
    Sodium nickel chloride batteries, 509
    Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), 474–476
    Sodium–sulfur batteries, 508
    SOFCs, 305, 1079–1080
    acceptable contamination levels, 1081
    applications of, 1082
    basic operating principles, 1080–1081
    major technological problems, 1081–1082
    programs currently researching, 306–307
    technological status, 1082
    use of syngas by, 307–308
    utilization factor, 306
    Softwoods, 67
    Soil
    heat transfer, 630–631
    temperatures and properties, 631
    transient thermal analysis of temperature,
    630–631
    SOLAIR project, 737–738
    SOLANA, 658, 711
    Solar absorbers, stagnation temperatures for,
    663–664
    Solar add-on cost, 582
    Solar altitude angle, 91, 635, 779
    Solar angles. See also specific angles
    definitions for on a tilted surface, 105–112
    Solar azimuth angle, 91, 635, 779
    Solar beam radiation, 633
    Solar cells. See also PV cells
    assembly of, 775
    bandgap of semiconductor materials used
    in, 799
    CdTe, 816–821
    CIGS, 821–829
    CZTS, 829–833
    efficiencies of, 16, 802–804
    future of, 815
    hybrid, 812–813
    manufacture of Si PV cells, 774–777
    multijunction and tandem, 811–812
    new generation, 833–835
    Solar chimney concept, 625–626
    Solar concentration ratio, 670–671
    Solar concentration, STP systems and, 661–671
    Solar concentrators
    beam quality, 665–671
    errors of, 667–6681184 Index
    Solar constant, 99
    Solar control, 624
    Solar declination, 87, 90
    Solar Electricity Generating System plants. See
    SEGS plants
    Solar energy
    conversion of to biomass, 61–63
    economic considerations, 581–582
    exergetic value of, 656
    growth potential of, 16–18
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    storage of by STP plants, 659–661
    Solar energy storage, use of biomass for,
    519–522
    Solar ephemeris, 88–89
    Solar fields
    new PTC designs for, 712–714
    sizing and layout of, 691–693
    Solar fraction, 564
    Solar gain, increasing for daylighting purposes,
    649
    Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd., 715
    Solar hot water heating
    absorber losses during, 537
    design method for, 573
    thermosyphon systems, 582–585
    use of closed-loop systems for, 554–557
    Solar insolation, 99
    effect of day-to-day changes in, 540–541
    Solar load ratio. See SLR
    Solar noon, 779
    Solar One, 658, 732–733, 744
    Solar ponds, sensible heat storage in, 516–517
    Solar Power Group (SPG), 715
    Solar power systems (SPS), Stirling, 450–453
    Solar power towers. See CRSs
    Solar radiation, 85–86, 98–99
    anisotropic of, 118–119
    atmospheric extinction of, 101–103
    attenuation of, 102
    data, 129–131
    detectors for instrumentation, 127–128
    estimation of terrestrial, 100–101
    extraterrestrial, 99–100
    hourly and daily on tilted surfaces, 119–122
    instruments for measuring, 124–127
    mapping using satellite data, 131–134
    measurement of, 123
    measurement of sunshine duration, 128
    models based on long-term measures of,
    113–123
    monthly estimation models, 112
    spectral measurements, 128–129
    thermal storage of, 695–699
    on a tilted surface, 105–112
    use of in wind-flow modeling, 161
    wideband spectral measurements of, 129
    Solar receivers, 656, 717, 727–742
    convection losses in, 728–729
    direct configuration of, 730
    efficiency of, 662–664, 727
    tubular, 732–734
    volumetric, 734–739
    Solar reflectors, use of in parabolic trough
    collectors, 677–678
    Solar savings fraction. See SSF
    Solar steam generation systems, 688
    Solar Stirling power systems, 450–453
    Solar system design, 527
    Solar thermal collectors
    compound parabolic concentrators, 539–540
    (See also CPCs)
    corrections to performance parameters,
    559–562
    evacuated tubular, 538–539
    factors influencing performance of, 532
    flat-plate, 529–538 (See also Flat-plate
    collectors)
    long-term performance of, 540–550
    piping and shading losses, 561–562
    pressure drop across, 536
    stagnation temperature, 536
    time constant of, 536
    types of, 527–529
    Solar thermal energy, storage of, 562–563
    Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot
    plant, 740
    Solar thermal power systems. See STP systems
    Solar thermal systems
    active, 551
    classification of, 550–552
    closed- and open-loop systems, 552–557
    costs, 578–579
    daily and seasonal storage, 552
    design methods, 568–578
    design of active space heating, 570–573
    design recommendations, 578
    liquid and air collectors, 552
    passive, 551
    simplified economic analysis for, 568
    simulation of, 562–566
    sizing methodology, 566–568
    solar-supplemented, 550–551
    stand-alone, 550
    Solar time, 92–93, 779
    Solar Two, 733–734, 745–746Index 1185
    Solar zenith angle, 91
    Solar-cell-activated controls, 558
    Solar-supplemented energy systems, 550–551,
    555–557
    production functions of, 566–568
    simplified economic analysis of, 568
    Solar-supplemented systems, simplified
    economic analysis for, 568
    Solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies, 672–673
    Solarlite, 676, 707
    Solarmundo, 715
    SOLGAS, 717
    SOLGATE, 717
    Solid fuels
    biomass conversion to, 913–914
    processes of combustion of, 899–900
    ultimate analysis of, 999
    Solid oxide fuel cells. See SOFCs
    Solid polymer (electrolyte) fuel cells. See
    PEMFCs
    Solid waste, quantities and characteristics of,
    988–990
    Solid waste management. See MSW
    Solid-fuel combustors, 901–902
    Solid-liquid phase changes, 518
    melting points and heats of fusion for, 518
    Solid-solid phase changes, 518
    Solid-state perovskite-based solar cells, 800
    Solids, storage of sensible heat in, 517
    Solitem, 678
    SOLMET, 130
    Solution mining, uranium, 480
    SOPOGY, 678
    Soponova 4.0, 678
    Sorghum, conversion of solar energy by, 62
    Source circuit, 784–785
    South Africa, development of the pebble-bed
    modular reactor in, 468–469
    South-facing windows, 624–625
    Soybeans, conversion of to biodiesel, 923
    Space heating
    design of active solar systems for, 570–573
    use of active closed-loop solar systems for,
    557
    Space nuclear power systems (SNPS), 1085
    use of thermionic converters in, 1091
    Spain
    construction of new STP plants in, 711–713
    heliostat technology in, 723–724
    history of linear Fresnel reflector systems
    in, 715
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    nuclear power capacity in, 461
    PS10 project in, 741–744 (See also PS10)
    STP plant in, 674
    Spark gap, 236
    normal combustion process, 237–238
    Spark ignition engines. See SI engines
    Spark plugs, 224
    Specific energy, 503
    Specific power, 503
    Specific speed, 259
    definition of, 263
    practical range of for reaction turbines, 266
    values of for impulse turbines, 266
    Spectral distribution, extraterrestrial solar
    radiation, 98
    Spectral models of solar radiation, 122–123
    Spectral solar radiation, measurement of,
    128–129
    Speed regulation for hydraulic turbines,
    268–270
    Spent fuel, 456
    interim storage costs, 488
    managing high-level wastes from, 486
    storage of, 484
    transportation of, 484
    waste management of, 487–488
    Spinning reserve, 368
    Split-compression cycle, 378–379
    Spray attemperators, 198
    Spreader-stoker facilities, 1022
    Sputtering
    use of for CZTS deposition, 831–832
    use of for deposition on CdTe solar cells, 820
    SSF, 589–590
    aperture-area-weighted, 615
    sensitivity curves, 615–619
    values for, 593–597
    Stack design considerations, 1063–1066
    Stack effect, 625–626
    Staebler–Wronski effect (SWE), 809–810
    use of multijunction cells to combat, 811–812
    Stagnation temperature, 536, 663
    Stainless steel, 381–382
    Stall control, 874
    Stand-alone inverters, 784
    Stand-alone solar systems, 550
    Standard candle, 633
    Standard fuels, classification of, 54–55
    Starch crops, 67
    Steady-state procedures, use of to test flat-plate
    collectors, 532–534
    Steady-state simulations, 564
    Steam
    enhancing production of, 955–9571186 Index
    heat transport in, 688
    pipeline operation in geothermal systems,
    965
    Steam boilers, 196–197
    drum-type, 197
    major components of, 197–198
    use of in FFPS, 293
    Steam coals, 38
    Steam cooling of gas turbines, 220
    definition, 222
    Steam drum, 197
    Steam flash power plants, 947
    Steam generators, 196–198
    stages of, 694
    Steam methane reformer, 290
    Steam methane reforming (SMR), 295, 399–400
    use of in natural gas fuel cells, 307
    Steam power plants, 191–192, 939
    auxiliary power for, 287
    efficiencies of, 192
    exhaust gas clean-up systems for, 198
    generators, 206–208
    heat exchangers in, 203–205
    pumps, 205
    Rankine, 908–909
    Ranking cycle analysis, 192–195
    use of boilers in, 196–198
    use of topping and bottoming cycles in, 196
    use of turbines in, 198–203
    Steam RBCs, state-of-the-art, 297
    Steam turbines, 198–199, 965–967
    blading, 199–200
    choosing arrangements for, 201–202
    conversion, 967–968
    cylinders and bolting, 202
    geothermal, 938
    integration of in binary power plants,
    977–980
    materials for, 202, 385–386
    rotors, 200–201
    steam/brine separation for, 963–964
    use of exhaust from gas turbines to power,
    217
    use of in FFPS, 293
    valves, 203
    Steam-injected gas-turbine (STIG) cycle, 218, 911
    definition of, 222
    Steam-tubes, 861
    Steel, 381
    Steinmuller heliostat ASM-150, 724
    STEM, 703
    Sterling cycle, thermodynamics of, 447–450
    Sterling, Reverend Robert, 447
    Still gas, 55
    Stirling cycle, 292, 908
    Stirling engines, 450–453
    use of dish-Stirling systems, 749–750
    Stirred reactor model, 331
    Stodola, Aurel, 302
    Stoichiometric combustion, 330–334
    Stoichiometry, 1059–1061
    Storage
    applications, 500–501
    closed-loop solar systems, 554–557
    devices for, 501–503
    direct electric, 511–512
    direct thermal, 515–519
    electrochemical energy, 505–509
    electrolytic hydrogen, 511
    flow batteries, 509–511
    mechanical energy, 512–515
    passive solar heating systems design,
    591–592
    refuse, 994–995
    solar thermal, 551–552
    solar thermal energy, 562–563
    temperatures in active solar systems, 558
    thermochemical energy, 519–522
    Storage capacities, 501
    Storage media, 499
    Storage systems, 498–499
    Stored energy, principal forms of, 499
    STP systems, 656. See also CSP systems
    advantages of, 656–658
    capital costs of, 659, 672
    central receiver, 716–717
    dish-Sterling, 747–752
    outlook for, 752–755
    plant technologies, 671–674
    potential market for, 659
    principles and limitations of, 670–671
    reasons for lack of new facilities, 658
    solar concentration and, 661–671
    system efficiency, 661–665
    use of in IPH applications, 678
    use of PTCs in, 711–714
    Straflo turbines, 260
    Straight-run gasoline, 245. See also Naphthas
    Stress, 380
    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 381
    Stretched-membrane concentrator, 751
    Structural dynamics
    HAWTs, 870–872
    VAWTs, 872
    Subcritical pentane binary power plants, 975
    Substitute natural gas (SNG), 289, 295, 398–399Index 1187
    Substrate solar cell configuration, 810–811
    Subtropical jets, 138–139
    Sugarcane, conversion of solar energy by, 62
    Sulfur
    combustion of coal and emissions of, 48
    combustion of in MSW, 996–997
    Sulfur dioxide. See SO2 emissions
    Sun angles, 92–93
    definitions for on a tilted surface, 105–112
    Sun tracking, 528, 665, 675–676
    axis orientations for, 679
    parabolic concentrators, 748
    Sun–earth geometric relationship, 86–87, 90–92
    shadow-angle protractor, 95–98
    solar time and angles, 92–93
    sun-path diagram, 93–94
    Sun-path diagram, 93–94
    Sun-window azimuth angle difference, 635
    Sun-window geometry, 634–635
    SunCatcher system, 748
    Sunk costs, 958
    Sunlight, 633
    definition of, 581
    Sunshape, 666–667
    degraded, 667
    Sunshine
    instruments for measuring, 124–127
    measurement of duration, 128
    Sunshine switch, 128
    Sunshot Initiative, 714
    Sunspace, 586–587
    Superalloys, 387–390
    example chemical composition of, 387
    use of in gas turbines, 220
    use of in USC power plant boiler
    construction, 385
    Supercharging, 224, 247–248
    Superconducting magnetic energy storage
    system. See SMES
    Supercritical CO2 cycle (SCO2 cycle), 283, 299,
    376–379
    oxy-fuel combustion with, 413–416
    Supercritical coal power plants. See also Steam
    power plants
    efficiencies of, 192
    Supercritical double-reheat power plants, 303
    Supercritical hydrocarbon binary power plants,
    975–976
    Supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) plants, 396
    Supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SWR),
    473–475
    Superheated steam systems, 743
    Superheaters, 197–198
    Superstrate solar cell configuration, 810–811
    Surface ignition, 238–239
    Surface mining, 48
    Surface work function, 1087
    definition of, 1100
    Suspension burners, 902
    Swamp coolers, 627
    Swirl ratio, 228
    Switchyard, 293
    Switzerland, nuclear power capacity in, 461
    Synchronous AC generators, use of in FFPS, 293
    Synchronous generators, 875–876
    Syngas, 288, 391–397, 521–522, 902, 915–916
    catalytic pathways for conversion of to fuels,
    917
    generation of by biomass gasification,
    916–917
    generation of in indirect heating gasifiers,
    904
    generation of in oxygen-blown gasifiers, 905
    use of in fuel cells, 307–308
    Synthetic fuels, production of, 391
    System checks, 169
    System reliability, 164
    T
    T–s plots
    heat transfer from recuperator/regenerator,
    215
    use of for gas turbine cycles, 212–213
    T&D systems, geothermal power, 939–941
    Tailwater elevations, turbine cavitation and, 270
    Tandem solar cells, 811–812
    Tankless storage technologies, biomass solids,
    519–520
    Tax incentives, necessity of for solar power
    plants, 711
    TCOs, 810–811
    front electrical contact configuration for
    CdTe solar cells, 817–818
    TCR, 321
    Technology Program Solar Air Receiver project,
    736
    Technology readiness level. See TRL
    Temperature
    effect of on reversible cell potential,
    1042–1044
    geothermal resources, 946–947
    stagnation, 536
    Temperature sensors, use of in active solar
    systems, 558
    Temperature–entropy plots. See T–s plots1188 Index
    Terminal temperature difference (TTD),
    203–204
    Terrestrial solar radiation, 86, 138
    clear sky radiation model, 103–105
    estimation of, 100–103
    on a tilted surface, 105–112
    Thailand
    DSG solar thermal power plant in, 707
    electricity-generating capacity of, 6
    Theilacker and Klein correlation, 545–548
    Themis system, 733
    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), 388
    application of on components, 390–391
    use of to reduce inlet temperature
    gaps, 352
    Thermal efficiency, 286, 686
    definition of for power cycles, 230–231
    flat-plate collectors, 534
    improving in coal-fired power plants,
    345–348
    Thermal energy, 177–178
    Thermal energy storage (TES), 499, 659–661
    Thermal fluids, use of in CRSs, 718
    Thermal gasification, 902–904
    equipment for, 904–907
    process steps, 903
    Thermal loss coefficient, 683
    Thermal losses, 683, 727
    flat-plate collectors, 529
    piping and shading, 561–562
    Thermal memory coatings, 391
    Thermal NO
    x mechanism, 334
    Thermal oils, 676–677, 689
    use of as working fluids, 527–528
    use of for energy storage, 696–698
    use of in SEGS plants, 707
    Thermal storage, 562–563, 591–592
    direct, 515–519
    dual-medium systems, 698–699
    single-medium systems, 696–698
    sizing and layout of solar fields, 692
    systems for parabolic trough collectors,
    695–699
    Thermal storage beds, 517
    Thermal storage roof, 588
    Thermal storage wall, 586–587
    Thermionic converters
    electron saturation current, 1088–1089
    interelectrode motive distribution,
    1087–1088
    output characteristics, 1089–1090
    schematic of, 1086
    surface work function, 1087
    thermodynamic analysis of, 1090–1091
    types of, 1089
    use of in space power systems, 1091
    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC), 1085–1086
    definition of, 1100
    principles of, 1086–1089
    Thermochemical energy storage, 519
    biodiesel, 521
    biomass solids, 519–520
    ethanol, 520–521
    syngas, 521–522
    Thermochemical technologies, use of for
    biomass conversion, 924
    Thermocline systems, sensible heat storage in,
    516–517
    Thermodynamic analysis of thermionic
    converters, 1090–1091
    Thermodynamic model of fuel cell
    system, 1038
    Thermodynamic test method, 276–277
    Thermodynamics
    AFFPS, 308–319
    Stirling cycle, 447–450
    Thermoelectric applications, 1093–1094
    power generation, 1094–1095
    refrigeration, 1095–1098
    Thermoelectric detectors, 127–128
    Thermoelectric effects, 1092–1093
    Thermoelectric legs, 1093–1095
    definition of, 1100
    Thermoelectric modules, 1093–1094
    definition of, 1100
    Thermoelectric power conversion, 1092
    Thermopiles, 127
    Thermosyphon systems, 557
    concept, 582–583
    solar hot water heating using, 582–585
    thermo-fluid system design considerations,
    584–585
    Thin-film full-spectrum solar cells, 815
    Thin-film PV technology
    advantages of, 799–800
    cost potentials, 801, 805
    efficiencies, 797
    historical and current developments,
    796–801
    material availability issues, 805–806
    Thin-film silicon solar cells. See also a-Si cells; Si
    PV cells
    fabrication of, 776–778
    material and properties, 806–807
    Thoma’s sigma, 270
    Thompson effect, 1092Index 1189
    Thorium, 82
    resources of, 478–479
    use of in breeder reactors, 478
    Thorium reserves, 12
    Three-dimensional, lifting-surface, free-wake
    model, 865
    Throttle steam conditions, 297
    Tilted surfaces
    hourly and daily solar radiation on, 119–122
    terrestrial radiation on, 105–112
    Time to rupture, 381
    Tip-speed ratio, 863
    TIT, 312
    definition of, 352
    E class, 342–344
    improving cycle performance by increasing,
    318
    NO
    x emission as a function of, 335
    use of fuel moisturization to increase, 338
    TIT–RIT temperature loss, 352
    use of closed-loop steam cooling to reduce,
    355–357
    TMY data sets, 130
    Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), 492
    Tokamak magnetic fusion, 492
    Tokomak reactor development, 492–493
    Top dead center (TDC)
    CI engines, 228
    four-stroke SI engines, 224–225
    two-stroke SI engines, 225
    Toplighting, 633–634
    Topography, effects of on wind speed, 153–157
    Topping cycles, 196
    Topping-up auxiliary heaters, 555–556
    Toroidal bowl combustion chamber, 228–229
    Torque boxes, 678
    Torque tubes, 678
    Torrefied biomass, 913–914
    Torresol Energy, 674
    Total capital requirement. See TCR
    Total plant investment. See TPI
    Total primary energy supply, fuel shares in, 13
    TPI, 321
    Trace metals
    distribution of in MSW, 1019–1022
    presence of in MSW ash residue, 1010
    Tracking axis, 675
    Tracking solar collectors, 552, 675–676
    Trade winds, 138–139
    Transesterfication, production of biodiesel
    using, 922–923
    Transition to alternative fuels, 10
    Translating drag device, 857
    Transmission and distribution systems. See
    T&D systems
    Transmission reservations, 940
    Transmissivity, 683
    Transparent conducting oxides. See TCOs
    Transportation
    use of for distribution of coal, 41, 46–47
    use of primary energy by, 6–8
    Transportation fuels
    ignition and combustion properties of, 919
    traditional, 918
    use of light gases for, 915–916
    Trend tests, 169
    Trickle charge, 781
    Trickle type flat-plate collectors, 531
    Triglycerides, conversion of, 922–924
    Tritium, 491–492
    TRL, 299–300
    DOE Office of Fossil Energy definitions for,
    301
    TRNSYS, 569
    modeling active space heating design using,
    570–573
    Trombe wall, 586
    Tube turbines, 260
    Tube-and-sheet collectors, 530
    Tubular collectors, 531
    evacuated, 538–539
    Tubular receivers, 732–734
    heat transfer principles in, 731
    Tumble swirl, 236
    Turbine control
    operational controller, 879
    power/load control programming, 879–881
    safety controller, 878–879
    Turbine efficiency, 211–212
    definition of, 222
    Turbine generators, 875–878
    Turbine inlet temperature. See TIT
    Turbine reheat, 216
    Turbine runners, 258. See also Runner
    configurations
    Turbine vane cooling, 219–220
    Turbines
    hydraulic (See Hydraulic turbines)
    hydrokinetic, 277–278
    impact of wind facilities on environment,
    149–151
    orientation of, 877
    steam, 198–203
    Turbocharging, 224, 248–250
    Turbulence
    intensity, 1701190 Index
    SI engine combustion, 236
    use of large-eddy simulation for modeling
    of, 272–275
    wind farm siting and measurements of, 161
    Turgo turbines, 259
    Two-axis sun-tracking systems, 528, 676
    Two-phase flow, 700
    Two-stroke SI engines, 224
    basic operation of, 225–228
    Two-tank thermal storage system, 516
    Type, definition of for coal classification, 49
    U
    Ultimate analysis, 332
    biomass, 64
    coal, 37–39
    combustible portion of MSW, 989, 999
    definition of, 49
    Ultimate recoverable oil reserves, 9
    UltimateTrough, 712
    Ultra-supercritical (USC) coal plants. See USC
    power plants
    Ultracapacitors, 511–512
    Unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs)
    emissions of from IC engines, 241
    emissions of gas engines vs. GTCC, 374
    reduction of in coal combustion, 339–340
    Underfire air, 1007
    Underground coal gasification (UGC), 397–398
    Underground mining, uranium, 480
    Unified boiler systems, 689
    Unipolar fuel cell connections, 1064–1065
    Unit size, 501–502
    United Kingdom
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    London Array wind power project, 883–884
    nuclear power reactors in, 460
    United States
    advanced pressurized water reactor in,
    466–467
    coal reserves in, 39–40
    development of Generation III nuclear
    reactors in, 465
    electric power generation capacity by
    generator/cycle type, 907
    energy use in, 2–4
    geothermal power production in, 932–933
    heliostat technology in, 724
    history of linear Fresnel reflector systems
    in, 715
    installed wind power capacity in, 852
    nuclear power capacity in, 461
    nuclear power plants in, 457
    per capita energy consumption, 22–23
    STP plants in, 673–674
    Sunshot Initiative, 714
    United States Department of Energy. See DOE
    Unity stoichiometry, 1060
    Updraft gasifiers, 905–906
    Upper temperature limit, gas turbines, 219–220
    UPS inverters, 784
    Uranium, 81–82
    conversion and enrichment of, 480–481
    fuel fabrication and use, 481
    known recoverable resources of, 479
    milling of, 480
    mine tailings, 485
    mining of, 480
    processing of, 82–84
    reprocessing of, 483–484
    use of in breeder reactors, 478
    world commercial reprocessing capacity, 483
    Uranium reserves, 12
    Uranium-235, fission of, 456
    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), 243
    URSSATrough, 678
    USC power plants, 283, 345–351
    comparison of with GTCC power plants,
    350–351
    potential alloys for boiler construction in,
    384–385
    use of superalloys in, 388
    Utility shaping, 500
    Utility-interactive PV systems, 786
    example of, 791–792
    Utilizability
    daily, 546–548
    hourly and daily solar radiation on tilted
    surfaces, 119
    individual hourly, 541–545
    Utilizability factor, 542
    Utilization coefficient, 646–648
    Utilization in fuel cells, 1059–1061
    V
    Vacuum receiver pipes, 677
    Vacuum thermionic converters, 1089
    Validation tests
    range tests, 168
    relational tests, 169
    trend tests, 169
    Valley winds, 138
    Valves for steam turbines, 203
    Vanadium, 383Index 1191
    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB), 509–510
    Vane cooling, 219–220
    Vanguard-1 prototype, 750
    Vapor thermionic converters, 1089
    Vapor transport (VT), use of for CdTe
    deposition, 820
    Vapor transport deposition. See VTD
    Variable exogenous parameters, 566
    Variable O&M costs, rule-of-thumb for GTCC,
    323–324
    Variable-pitch turbines, 881
    Variable-speed turbine orientation, 877
    Variations in wind speed, 138–140
    VAWTs, 852–854
    classification of, 854
    momentum model for, 864
    structural dynamics, 872
    vortex models for, 864–866
    VBER nuclear reactors, 467–468
    Velocity head, 261–262
    Velocity predictions for wind turbines,
    867–868
    Ventilation for steam generators, 207
    Vertical wind profile, 142–143
    effects of terrain on, 154–155
    Vertical wind shear, 142–143
    determination of, 159–165
    exponent, 170
    Vertical windows, lumen method of
    sidelighting, 635–644
    Vertical-axis wind turbines. See VAWTs
    Very-high frequency deposition techniques, 808
    Very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR), 472–474
    Viscosity, Diesel fuels, 246
    Vitrinite, 34
    Volatile gas oxidation, 899
    Volatile matter, 34–36
    definition, 50
    production of by pyrolysis, 899
    release of from coal, 36
    Volatile metals, emissions of from MSW, 1020
    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), emissions
    of in flue gas, 295
    Volatility of gasoline fuels, 244
    Voltage efficiency, 1058
    Volume energy storage capacity, 744–745
    Volumetric efficiency, 235
    Volumetric receivers, 734–739
    heat transfer principles in, 731
    von Ohain, Hans, 210
    Von Roll grates, 1005
    Vortex models, 864–866
    limitations of, 866
    VP-1, 676
    VTD, 819
    VVER-TOI nuclear reactors, 467
    W
    Wankel rotary engine, 224
    Waste biomass, definition of, 61
    Waste combustors, air supply capacity
    in, 1007
    Waste energy recovery (WER), 250–252
    Waste heat, 1036
    generation of by fuel cells, 1056–1057
    optimized management of, 742
    Waste heat recovery (WHR), low-quality,
    375–377
    Waste heat recovery (WHR) heat exchangers,
    use of in FFPS, 292
    Waste management, radioactive wastes,
    487–488
    Waste materials, biorenewable resources in,
    66–67
    Waste recycling, 987
    Waste stream, estimation of using material
    flows methodology, 73
    Waste-to-energy combustion, 986
    Waste-to-energy facilities. See WTE facilities
    Wastewater
    treatment of from FFPS, 296, 429–430
    use of in EGS, 936
    Water
    use of as a thermal fluid, 676, 690
    use of as a working fluid, 527–528, 553
    use of for geothermal power production, 935
    use of for sensible heat storage, 515–517
    use of for solar thermal storage, 562–563
    use of to cool gas turbines, 220
    Water gas shift (WGS), 904
    use of in fuel cell systems, 910
    Water heating, solar thermosyphon, 582–585
    Water treatment systems, 424–427
    usage minimization, 427–429
    use of in FFPS, 296
    Water wall units
    mass-fired, 1008–1009
    RDF-fired, 1009
    use of in MSW furnaces, 1003–1007
    Water–gas shift reaction, 915
    Water–steam cavity receiver, 733
    Waterwall, 586
    Waxes, 55
    Wayang Windu geothermal power project,
    968–9691192 Index
    Weather Year for Energy Calculations data sets.
    See WYEC data sets
    Websites
    agricultural statistics, 69
    biomass, 63
    DOE Office of Fusion Energy, 495
    geothermal energy, 983
    IPH application designs, 678
    solar radiation data, 122, 131
    spectral models of solar radiation, 122
    wind turbine material characteristics, 882
    Weibull distribution, 144
    Weizmann receiver, 740
    Wellhead energy cost, 938–941
    Westinghouse AP1000 nuclear reactor, 465
    Wet compression, 354
    Wheeling charges, 940
    Whittle, Frank, 210
    Wicket gates, 259
    numerical modeling of, 272–273
    use of for flow control, 269
    Wideband spectral solar radiation
    measurements, 129
    Wind direction vanes, 160–161
    Wind energy
    conversion considerations, 882–891
    worldwide installed capacity of, 852
    Wind energy development sites, prospecting
    for, 152–157
    Wind energy potential (WEP), 145
    Wind energy resource (WER), 143–149
    assessment of, 152–157
    evaluation of, 157–171
    maps of for the United States, 146–148
    Wind facilities
    impact of on radar, 151
    impacts of on birds and bats, 149–151
    Wind farms
    initial development example, 171–173
    site assessment, 157–171
    Wind forecasting, 885–886
    Wind origins, 137–140
    Wind patterns, 139
    Wind power, 141–142, 852
    environmental/societal restrictions,
    149–151
    grid integration of, 884–885
    growth potential of, 15–16
    offshore, 868–869
    role of in future energy mix, 27–28
    Wind power density, 119, 171
    Wind shear, 142–143
    vertical exponent, 170
    Wind speed
    distribution of, 144–145
    effects of topography on, 153–157
    site assessment and, 155–156
    variations in, 138–140
    Wind turbines
    aerodynamic loading of, 869–870
    aerodynamics of, 855–860
    classification of, 852–854
    components used in complex cycles, 215–219
    computational fluid dynamics models of,
    866–867
    control subsystem for, 878–881
    cost of energy for, 855
    costs of, 886–890
    electrical power generation subsystem,
    875–878
    environmental concerns, 890–891
    hybrid models for, 867
    impacts of on birds and bats, 149–151
    installations of, 883–884
    limitations of momentum and vortex
    models, 866
    load prediction, 161
    materials used for, 882–883
    momentum models of, 860–864
    offshore platform hydrodynamics, 869
    operational regions of, 879
    orientation of, 877
    peak power limitation, 873–875
    power extraction efficiency of, 857–858
    structural dynamic considerations, 870–872
    terrain classification and siting of, 153–157
    velocity and load predictions, 867–868
    vortex models for, 864–866
    yaw system, 878
    Windmills, 852–854
    Window dirt depreciation (WDD), 639
    Windowed receivers, 729
    Windows
    solar illuminance, 634
    south-facing, 624–625
    vertical, 635–644
    Winter–Kennedy taps, 277
    Wobbe index (WI), 371–372
    Woody crops, 67
    Work-plane illuminance, 633, 639–640, 644
    Working fluids, 527–528, 553
    World Bank, promotion of ISCCS construction
    by, 712
    World commercial reprocessing capacity, 483
    World crude oil refining capacity, 55
    World electricity production, 6Index 1193
    World energy consumption, 2–3, 51–53
    World energy demand, 5
    per capita consumption, 22–23
    World energy resources, 8
    biomass potential, 19–21
    coal, 10–11, 44–46
    conventional oil, 9–10
    distribution of solar thermal collector
    markets, 18
    fossil fuel reserves, 11
    natural gas, 10, 57
    nuclear, 11–13
    oil, 54
    renewable energy, 13–15
    solar energy potential, 16–18
    thorium, 82
    total primary energy supply, 13
    uranium, 82
    wind energy potential, 15–16
    World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
    solar radiation data of, 130
    World primary energy demand, 2
    World Radiation Data Center (WRDC), solar
    radiation data of, 130
    World uranium enrichment facilities, 482
    Worldwide energy figures
    annual geothermal power, 933–934
    conversion efficiencies for PV technologies,
    846
    fossil-fuel–fired electricity generation, 282
    installed capacity of wind energy, 852
    market share of PV technologies, 801
    new nuclear plant construction, 462–464
    nuclear power plants, 457–458
    PV panel production, 766–767
    Worm-gear drive mechanism, 725–726
    WTE facilities
    air pollution control, 1011–1022
    boilers in, 1008–1009
    combustion principles, 995–1003
    costs, 1023–1025
    furnaces in, 1003–1008
    materials handling systems in, 988
    operation and capacity of, 992–993
    performance of, 1022–1023
    regulatory requirements, 1027
    residue handling and disposal, 1009–1011
    siting of, 993
    types of, 990–992
    WYEC data sets, 130
    Y
    Yard trimmings, percentage of in municipal
    solid waste, 73
    Yearly average energy, 548–550
    Yearly normalized energy surface (YNES), 722
    Yield strength, 381
    Z
    Zebra batteries, 509
    Zenith angle, 91
    Zero Emission Power and Steam (ZEPS) power
    plant, 415–416
    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plants, 296,
    430–433
    Zinc bromide batteries, 510
    ZT, magnitude of in thermoelectric materials,
    1092–1098

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