Electrical Feed Drives for Machine Tools

Electrical Feed Drives for Machine Tools
اسم المؤلف
Hans Gross
التاريخ
23 مارس 2018
المشاهدات
352
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Electrical Feed Drives for Machine Tools
Edited by Hans Gross
Contents
Feed Drive and Position Control Loop 13
Basics of Control Theory
Open and Closed Loop Control
Stationary Systems Behavior
Characteristic Curves
Linearization
Normalized Values
Referenced Values
Dynamic Systems Behavior
Differential Equations
Transient Response
Frequency Response Curve
Bode Diagram
Linkage of Transfer Elements
Frequency Response Curve Symbol for Control Loops . . . 34
Experimental Determination of the Frequency Response Curve 35
Basics of the Position Control Loop
Construction and Functioning of the Position Control Loop 36
Localization
Measuring Value Detection
Measuring Procedures
Location of Measurement
Characteristic Values and Properties of Position Control Loops 40
Dynamic Systems Behavior of Single Control Loop Elements 41
Explanation of Terms
Behavior of Linear Position Control Loops . .
Non-linearities in the Position Control Loop . .
Position Loop Gain
Position Control Loop Model
Settling Time and Overshoot Width at Positioning
Ramp Distance for Thread Cutting
Contour Deviations on Corners
Contour Deviations on Circles
Disturbance Transient Response
Requirements for the Position Loop Gain . . .
Bibliography
DC Motors for Feed Drives 70
Requirements for the Feed Drive . . . .
Requirements for Stationary Operation
Requirements for Non-stationary Operation
2.1.2 70DC Shunt Motor .
Construction Forms
Permanent Magnet-excited DC Servo Motors of the Series 1HU 71
Electrically Excited DC Servo Motors of the Series 1GS . . . 74
Drive Behavior
Differential Equation and Block Diagram . . .
Stationary Behavior of the Uncontrolled Drive .
Dynamic Behavior of the Uncontrolled Drive
Dynamic Behavior of the Speed-controlled Drive
Calculating the Drive Nominal Angular Frequency
External Inertia Effect
Dead Time Effect
Selection of DC Servo Motors
Methods of Calculation
Stationary Load
Friction and Losses
Machining Force
Dynamic Load
Heating Behavior
Periodic Load Changes
Overload Behavior
Thermal Time Constants
Additional Optimization Criteria
Energy Content of Moved Masses
Attainable Acceleration
Drive Comparisons
Calculation Scheme
Summary of Calculation Formulas
Bibliography
Current Converters for DC Servo Motors
Notions and General Overview . . . .
Requirements
Dead Time
Form Factor
Efficiency
Costs
Transistor DC Choppers
Applications
Principle of Operation
Driving, Clockwise, I . Quadrant . . .
Driving, Counterclockwise, III . Quadrant
Braking, Clockwise, IV . Quadrant . .
Braking, Counterclockwise, II . Quadrant
DC Bus
Line Synchronized Thyristor Controllers
3.3 1463.3.1 Generalities
Rectifier and Inverter Operation . . . .
Circulating Curent-free Connection . . .
Circulating Current-conducting Connection
6-Pu!se Circulating Current-conducting Cross Connection . . 151
3-Pulse Circulating Current-conducting Anti-parallel Connection 153
6-Pulse Circulating Current-free Anti-parallel Connection . . 157
2-Pulse Circulating Current-conducting Anti-parallel Connection 159
Controllers
Structure of the Control Loop
Overcurrcnt Limitation
Subordinated Current Control
Speed Control with Current Limit . . .
Status Monitor
Adaptive Speed Control Influence . . .
Selection Criteria
Characteristic Values of Converter Circuits
Applications for Converter Circuits . . .
Bibliography
Design Versions of Mechanical Transmission Elements . . . . 177
Generalities
Requirements for the Mechanical Transmission System . . . 178
Nominal Angular Frequency
Stiffness
Damping Gradient . . . .
Non-linearities
Reversing Errors
Friction
4.2.4.3.1 Indirect Position Control Measurement
Effects of Reversing Errors and Frictional Reversing Errors
4.2.4.3.2 Direct Position Control Measurement . .
4.2.5 Moment of Inertia
4.2.5.1 Cylindrical Bodies
4.2.5.2 Linearly Moved Masses
4.2.5.3 Gear Ratio
Calculating the Slide Elements of the Drive
4.3.1 Feed Screw Drives
Construction and Requirements . . . .
Feed Screw
4.3.1.2.1 Stiffness of the Feed Screw . . .
4.3.1.2.2 Moment of Inertia of the Feed Screw
4.3.1.2.3 Efficiency
4.3.1.2.4 Feed Screw Lead
4.3.1.2.5 Lead Accuracy
4.3.1.2.6 Critical Speed
2174.3.1.2.7 Buckling Strength
4.3. 1.3 Ball Screw Nut
4.3.1.4 Feed Screw Bearings
4.3.1.4. 1 Stiffness and Preload
4.3.1.4.2 Effect of the Bearing Mounting Elements
4.3.1.4.3 Friction and Temperature Behavior .
4.3.2.2.1 Torsional Stiffness of Shafts . .
4.3.2.2.2 Bending Strength of Shafts . .
4.3.2.2.3 Radial Stiffness of Shaft Bearings
4.3.2.2.4 Bending Strength of the Gear Wheel, Pinion, and Rack Teeth 233
4.3.2.2.5 Example
4.3.2.3 Preload at the Pinion . .
Machine Slide and Guides
Machine Slide
Table Guides
Rack and Pinion Drives 229
Range of Applications, Influencing Variables
Stiffness
4.3.3.2.1 Requirements . .
4.3.3.2.2 Friction Guides
4.3.3.2.3 Roller Guides . .
4.3.3.2.4 Flydrostatic Guides
4.3.3.2.5 Aerostatic Guides
Damping
Gears
Overview of Applications . . .
Requirements
Moment of Inertia
Torsion and Bending
Reversing Errors
Toothed Belt Gear
Advantage Limits of a Gear Ratio
Motors of Equal Frame Size . .
Motors of Different Frame Size
Disturbance Transient Response
Comparison of two Motors . .
Couplings
Bibliography
Command Value Modification
Purpose of the Command Value Modification
Smoothing the Command Values
Effects of Command Value Smoothing . .
Stress and Contour Deviation Characteristics
Contour Movements
Diagrams for Contour Deviation and Stress Characteristics
5.3.3Determining the Command Value for Acceleration . .
Conclusions
Bibliography
Measurements on Feed Drives
Substantiation, Aim
Measuring Procedures
Measurements on the Mechanical Transmission Elements
Reversing Error ( Back Lash )
Total Stiffness, Nominal Angular Frequency
Friction Characteristics
Measurements on the Speed Control Loop
Step Response, Transient Response
Current Limit
Motor Heat
Nominal Angular Frequency of the Feed Drive . . . .
Measurements on the Position Control Loop
Contour Deviations
Measuring the Position Loop Gain
Measurements for the Smallest Position Increments . .
Positioning Response
Measuring Values of Machines in Use
Evaluation of Measured Frequency Response Curves . . . . 310
Measurements on a Timing Belt Gear . . .
Effect of the Moment of Inertia
Motors in Short Version
Effects of Optimization of the Speed Control
Frequency Response Curve of a Shell Magnet Motor . . . . 316
Influence of the Converter Circuit . .
Frequency Response Curve of an
Electrically Excited DC Servo Motor
Conclusions
Technical Data
DC Servo Motors
General Data
Design Series 1 HU
Design Series 1GS 3
Current Converter Units
Transistor DC Choppers
Line-synchronized Thyristor Controllers
Technical Appendix
Symbols and Units Used
SI Units
Conversion Tables
Equations
Index
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