Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology

Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology
اسم المؤلف
Prof. Fiorenzo Franceschini, Dr. Luca Mastrogiacomo, Prof. Maurizio Galetto, Dr. Barbara Pralio, Dr. Domenico Maisano
التاريخ
18 سبتمبر 2016
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Distributed Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology
Prof. Fiorenzo Franceschini
Dr. Luca Mastrogiacomo
Prof. Maurizio Galetto
Dr. Barbara Pralio
Dr. Domenico Maisano
Contents
1 Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology: The New Paradigm
of Distributed Systems 1
1.1 Goal and History 1
1.2 Challenges of Large-Scale Dimensional Metrology 4
1.2.1 The Pressing Need for LSM Solutions. 5
1.2.2 The Complexity of Large-Scale Dimensional
Measurements. 6
1.3 Overview and Taxonomy of LSM Systems. 7
1.4 Distributed System Philosophy 10
1.4.1 Coverage of Measuring Volume 11
1.4.2 On-Line Self-Diagnostics 12
1.4.3 Metrological Performance Indicators 13
1.4.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Distributed
Systems 14
1.4.5 Localisation Algorithms and System Calibration. 15
1.5 Advantages and Weaknesses of Distributed Systems 18
1.6 Some Examples of Distributed Systems 19
1.6.1 HiBallTM 20
1.6.2 Photogrammetry 21
2 Indoor GPS (iGPSTM) 23
2.1 System Architecture. 23
2.2 Working Principles 24
2.3 Factors Affecting Measurements 27
2.3.1 Number of Transmitters. 27
2.3.2 Sensor Movement During Measurement. 29
2.3.3 Network Calibration 30
2.3.4 Environmental Factors 30
xi2.4 Metrological Performance Characterization. 31
2.4.1 Static Measurements 31
2.4.2 Dynamic Measurements. 33
3 The Mobile Spatial Coordinate Measuring System 37
3.1 System Architecture. 37
3.1.1 Sensor Network 38
3.1.2 Portable Probe 39
3.1.3 Data Processing Unit 40
3.2 The MScMS-I: A System Based on Ultrasound Technology 43
3.2.1 Working Principles 45
3.2.2 Localisation Algorithms. 47
3.2.3 Data Processing and Elaboration. 49
3.2.4 MScMS-I Prototype Description 50
3.2.5 Metrological Performance Characterization 52
3.3 The MScMS-II: An IR-based Distributed
Metrological System 54
3.3.1 Working Principles 54
3.3.2 Data Processing and Elaboration. 56
3.3.3 Localisation Algorithms. 57
3.3.4 Prototype Development and Performance Evaluation. 67
3.4 Comparison with Other Metrological Systems. 71
3.4.1 Comparison with CMMs 71
3.4.2 Performance Comparison with iGPSTM 81
4 Positioning and Coverage of Distributed Devices. 85
4.1 Introduction 85
4.2 Background 88
4.2.1 Problem Complexity.. 88
4.2.2 Network Topology 88
4.2.3 Design Objectives 88
4.3 Sensor Positioning Issues 90
4.3.1 Sensing Model 90
4.3.2 Working Environment Geometry 91
4.3.3 Aim of the Measurement 92
4.3.4 Localisation Techniques. 92
4.4 Network Design Strategies 93
4.5 The MScMS-I Framework: A Practical Case Study 104
4.5.1 Problem Statement 104
4.5.2 Task Definition. 108
4.5.3 Positioning Strategy Implementation 109
xii Contents5 System Calibration. 117
5.1 Concepts 117
5.2 The Goal of Calibration 118
5.3 Common Approach to System Calibration 120
5.3.1 Data Collection. 120
5.3.2 Data Computing 121
5.4 Localisation Algorithms 123
5.5 Calibration Procedures for MScMS-I 125
5.5.1 First Procedure 125
5.5.2 Second Procedure 127
5.5.3 Third Procedure 130
5.5.4 Tests and Performance Comparison. 131
5.5.5 General Considerations 134
5.6 MScMS-II Calibration 135
5.7 iGPSTM Calibration 137
6 Self-Diagnostic Tools 141
6.1 Introduction 141
6.2 Self-Diagnostics 142
6.3 The Concept of Measurement Reliability 143
6.4 Distance Model-Based Diagnostics 144
6.4.1 Setup of Parameters 145
6.4.2 A Practical Case Study 146
6.5 Energy Model-Based Diagnostics 147
6.5.1 Setup of Parameters 150
6.5.2 A Practical Case Study 151
6.6 Sensor Physical Diagnostics 154
6.6.1 Setup of Parameters 155
6.6.2 A Practical Case Study 156
6.7 Further Remarks 157
7 Methodologies for Performance Enhancing 159
7.1 The Practice of Error Correction 159
7.2 Performance Enhancing for MScMS-I 161
7.2.1 Analysis of the US Transducers 162
7.2.2 Description of the Experiments. 167
7.2.3 Analysis of the Experimental Results 170
7.2.4 Model Construction. 175
7.2.5 Model Implementation and Validation 178
7.3 Performance Enhancing for Other Distributed Systems 184
8 Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty 189
8.1 Measurement Uncertainty in LSM Distributed Systems 189
8.2 Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. 191
Contents xiii8.2.1 Type A and Type B Uncertainty. 191
8.2.2 Combined Standard Uncertainty 193
8.2.3 Expanded Uncertainty 193
8.2.4 Coverage Factor 193
8.3 Uncertainty Evaluation with Independent Repeated
Observations 193
8.4 Evaluation of Combined Uncertainty 195
8.5 Least-Squares Adjustment. 199
8.6 Uncertainty Evaluation When Using Adjustment Techniques 205
8.7 Uncertainty Evaluation in MScMS-I Measurements 206
8.7.1 Uncertainty of Measured Distances 207
8.7.2 Uncertainty of 3D Point Coordinates 207
8.7.3 Uncertainty of Probe Tip Coordinates 213
8.8 Uncertainty Evaluation in MScMS-II Measurements 216
8.8.1 Uncertainty of 2D Point Coordinates 216
8.8.2 Uncertainty of 3D Point Coordinates 218
8.8.3 Uncertainty of Probe Tip Coordinates 219
References 221
Index
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