Design Principles of Metal Cutting Machine Tools

Design Principles of Metal Cutting Machine Tools
اسم المؤلف
F. Koenigsberger
التاريخ
23 ديسمبر 2022
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422
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Design Principles of Metal Cutting Machine Tools
by
F. Koenigsberger
D.Sc, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Prod.E., Mem.A.S.M.E.
Professor of Machine Tool Engineering
The Manchester College of Science and Technology
University of Manchester
PART I
Introduction
4 CALCULATION DATA
PART II
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Table of Contents
Preface
SI Units

  1. What is Total Energy?
  2. Principal Prime Movers used in Total Energy Production
  3. Steam Turbines and Total Energy
  4. Governor Systems for Industrial Steam Turbo-Alternators
  5. Open-Cycle Gas Turbines and Total Energy
  6. Closed-Cycle Gas Turbines and Total Energy
  7. Diesel and Gas Engines and Total Energy
  8. The Fuel Cell and Total Energy
  9. Refrigeration and Total Energy
  10. District Heating and Total Energy
  11. Existing Total Energy Schemes in North America
  12. Economic Assessment of Total Energy
    Bibliography
    Index
    Subject Index
    Accelerations 203
    Acceptance tests 210
    Air inclusions 125, 126, 132
    Angles of rotation 196
    errors 196, 197
    due to wear 197
    pitch error (of lead screw) 196, 197
    Apertures 46, 47, 48, 58
    Arbors, milling 268
    Automatic
    alignment 211
    error compensation 211
    control 161-211
    machines 185-211
    measuring instrument 197
    “Milwaukee-Matic” boring and milling 208
    operational movement 197
    setting movements 69
    work programme 185
    magnetic disc 195
    magnetic drum 195, 201, 203
    magnetic tape 185, 194, 195, 205, 206
    photographic film 195
    punched card 185, 194, 195, 201
    punched tape, 185, 194, 195, 201, 207, 208
    “reader” 201, 208
    operations 161
    “Automation” 162
    “Back-bending”
    effects 273
    moments 273, 281
    Backlash 16, 193, 201, 204, 207
    automatic elimination 149
    Balance weight 271
    Bearings 52
    anti-friction 256
    axial thrust 271
    “back-bending” effect 52
    ball 273
    alignment errors 273
    ball-and-roller 273
    carrying structures 51
    cylindrical roller 274
    double-taper roller 274
    expansion 281
    “Filmatic” 281
    ” G A M E T ” arrangement 274
    “Hydrauto” 279, 280
    hydrostatic 266
    lathe spindle 274
    Mackensen 280
    main 68
    main journal 271
    multiple arrangement 273
    misalignment 273
    multi-surface 280
    needle roller 277
    plain 278,281
    friction resistance of 278
    play in the bearing 52
    play adjustment 278
    pre-loads 52
    pressure lubricated 53
    roller 273
    load carrying capacity 273
    self-aligning 273, 281
    S K F double-row cylindrical roller 275
    taper roller 273
    under load 51
    Belt speeds 285
    Bending stiffness 44, 46, 50
    Boring machine
    horizontal type 231, 232, 233, 267, 271, 294, 295
    Lindner jig 300
    Plauert-Wetzel 253, 254
    spindle 267
    vertical tvpe 276
    table 277
    Broaching 21-3
    cutting resistance 21
    maximum force 22
    specific cutting resistance 22
    Bull-wheel 290
    Cam 173
    control 175
    feed 183
    Cam-and-crank, linkage combination 141
    Cam-and-rack unit 141
    Cam-operated devices 141
    Camshaft, master 176
    Change points 206
    Chatter 55, 216
    Chip
    disposal 225
    removal 225, 229, 230
    section 29, 30
    Clamping 185, 305, 308
    collet 183
    devices 164, 220, 221
    magnetic 164
    positive 164
    forces 164, 165
    mechanisms 165, 307
    moment 52
    motorized 309
    operation 166, 183
    power operated 307
    Clutches 109, 162
    disengagement 178
    dog 162, 163, 178
    electromagnetic 282
    slipping 181
    Coding rings 208 322 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Damping 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62
    capacity 62
    Datum point 202, 207
    Deflexion of the spindle (see Spindle deflexion)
    Deformations
    of the bearing 51
    of a spindle 51
    of a wall panel 47
    Diameter
    range 75
    range ratio 70
    Diametral error 215
    Differential transformer 197, 200
    Disturbances 204
    Drilling 6-9
    axial thrust 7
    cutting forces 7
    cutting speed 8
    feed rate, 7, 8
    specific cutting resistance 7
    torque 7
    Drilling machines 172, 213, 216
    cutting edge force symmetry 217
    pillar 294
    feed drive 294
    Raboma radial 302
    radial 213, 217, 233, 235, 305
    axial force \P’ 217
    base plate deformation 213
    spindle head 217
    Collet
    clamping 183
    feed 183
    Computer, electronic 205, 206, 207
    Constant torque 98,118
    Constructional elements 211-38
    cast iron 44, 45, 222
    beam 45
    rolled steel 44
    steel-casting 225
    welded steel 222
    Control
    devices 201
    interpolator 205
    “numerical control” 194
    two-dimensional 192
    engineering 193
    equipment 193
    information 194
    binary system 194, 195
    decimal/binary system 195
    loop 194, 203
    operations 43
    signals 192, 195, 197
    amplification 204
    error 204
    “false” 201
    systems 99, 193
    analogue/digital converter 196
    analogue method 196, 200, 205
    British Thompson-Houston 201
    continuous path 203
    devices 154
    digital method 196, 197
    electro-optical (Ferranti) 197
    digital principle 197
    E.M.I. 205
    energy 175, 177, 182
    equipment 95-109, 199
    error signals 174, 195
    feedback 298
    Ferranti 198, 199, 206, 207
    change points 206, 207
    points of inflexion 206, 207
    reflecting scale 198
    transparent glass scale 198
    hydraulic 184
    operations 171, 203
    positioning movement 174
    pressure compensation 184
    programme 175
    sequence 173
    shaft 174, 182
    auxiliary 182
    master 182
    signal 171, 182
    switching operations 176
    valve 188
    Controls 162
    Coordinate setting 202
    Copying
    device 187
    slide 190
    systems 193
    dynamic behaviour 193
    force amplification 193
    instability 193
    stability 194
    static behaviour 193
    threshold 193
    velocity amplification 193
    velocity error 194
    Counting
    device, electronic 198
    direction of movement 198
    photo-electric cells 198
    displacement 198
    frequency 198
    velocity 198
    mechanism 205
    Couplings 109
    elastic 109
    Cover plates 46, 58
    Cross roller chain 258
    Cross slides, 168, 183
    Cutter head 268
    Cutting
    force 30
    pulsating 43
    movement 1, 70
    speed 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 29, 69, 282
    constant 178
    economic 2
    feeds 3, 9
    permissible 2
    range ratio 70
    recommended 6
    Cutting tool
    cooling 29
    feed rate, geometric influence 27
    lubrication of 29
    materials 6
    high-speed steel 6, 8
    cutting speeds and feeds 9
    carbide 6
    Cylinders 154 SUBJECT I N D E X
    spindle inclination 271
    spindles 271,272
    “Webo” pillar 284, 285
    Driver
    one-sided 25
    twin 25
    Drives 95-161
    belt 109
    flat 109
    cam 142
    operated 137
    chain 109
    clutch-type 113
    gear 115, 116
    composite 117
    crank 137
    cutting 282-300
    rectilinear 287
    efficiency 125
    volumetric 178
    electric 95-109
    feed 291
    feed reversing 296
    friction 119, 120, 124
    friction coefficient 69
    gear 29, 67
    helical 142
    Heynau 120
    hydraulic 125, 126, 150, 184
    advantages 125
    “Meander” 111
    mechanization of 162
    motor 29, 30
    non-composite gear 118
    nylon belt 109
    phase lag 67
    pinion-and-rack 142
    piston-and-cylinder 152
    P.I.V. 122-4
    efficiency 123
    planing machine 37
    planing machine table 288, 289
    Pry mm 121
    rack-and-pinion 149, 152
    backlash 150
    backlash elimination 150
    rectilinear reciprocating 136
    reversing 290
    rotational movement 109
    Ruppert-type gear 115
    screw 148, 149
    backlash 148
    efficiency 148
    stiffness 148
    screw-and-nut 149, 152
    efficiency 149
    single-motor 95
    sliding gear 116,291
    slip 125
    spindle 285, 286
    static friction 69
    stepless 70, 119, 124
    stepped 70, 109
    stepping motor, 299
    surfacing 297
    two-axes 75, 76
    Vee-belt 109
    wheel-segment and rack 142
    winding gear 115
    Driving motors, electric 95, 96
    braking 99
    solenoid-operated brakes 97, 99
    reverse current 97
    direction of rotation 97
    efficiency 97-9, 133
    high frequency 97
    high-speed 109
    interlock-devices 100, 101, 107
    low-speed 109
    minimum speed 99
    stick-slip 99
    motor speed 99
    pole-changes 73
    power factor 97
    reversing of 99, 107
    shunt-wound 97
    slip ring 96
    speed adjustment 97
    squirrel-cage 96
    nominal torque 96
    starting torque 96
    standard speeds 97
    starting 107
    current 96
    resistance 97
    torque 96
    under load 96-8
    stopping 107
    Dwell 184
    Dynamic
    bending lines 65
    deflexions 61
    performance 43
    rigidity 43, 55-69
    shapes 63
    spring constant 55
    stiffness 56
    of oil film 62
    Effective stiffness 53
    Efficiency 23, 30, 37-9
    lever layout 39
    overall 37
    reciprocating machines 37
    Electric starters, star delta 96
    Electrical controls 99
    single-lever 101
    Electrical interlocking 103
    Electro-mechanical equipment 102
    Elongation of fastening bolts 50
    Energy, transmission 182
    Exciting frequency 56
    Facing 8
    Fatigue 39
    Feed
    bar 183
    collet 183
    drive 204, 291, 294
    accessibility 271
    mechanisms 74
    movement 1, 184, 203, 291
    rate 2, 29, 30, 69, 74, 76
    screws 231, 235
    standard 74
    velocity 203
    323 3 2 4 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Filters 154
    Finishing operations 26, 27
    roughing 26, 27
    Fixtures, milling 167
    Fly-wheels 68, 69
    Forst-Enor vane pump 128
    Free-wheel 177
    coupling 100
    feed 177
    rapid traverse 177
    Friction clutches 116
    Frictional resistance 204
    Gearbox
    clutch type 76
    draw-key type 76, 291
    eighteen speed 191
    speed diagram 191
    idling resistance of 96
    lathe feed 291
    layout diagram 79
    Norton-type 76, 291
    speed range 111
    number of steps of 77
    output speeds 95
    pre-selector 113
    sliding gear 76
    standard 82
    standard speed ranges of 95
    “Varia 25” type 284,285
    Gears
    centre distances of 85
    combinations 88
    conversion 110
    drives (see Drives, gear)
    -hobbing machine 203
    dividing accuracy 203
    intermediate reduction 77
    part drive 78
    P.I.V. 294
    pumps 127, 132
    ratio 75-8, 82, 83
    reduction 75
    layout of 75
    teeth
    numbers of teeth 75, 83, 87, 89
    calculation of the 86
    difference between numbers of teeth of 2 adjacent
    gears 87
    minimum possible sum of the 85, 87, 92
    sum of the 8 5 , 8 7 , 8 9 , 9 2 , 9 3
    General requirements 23-30
    accuracy 27
    of shape 23
    deviations
    from circular shape 25
    from cylindrical form 25
    from required dimensions 25
    workpiece shape 24
    dimensional accuracy 23, 27
    economy 29
    feed rates, 30
    productivity 23, 29
    rate of metal removal 23
    separation of measuring and driving elements 27
    spindle speeds 30
    surface finish 23
    Geneva mechanism 303, 304
    Germar tables 93, 95
    Gratings 207 (see also Optical gratings)
    Grinding 19-21
    accuracy of ground workpiece 186
    circumferential speed of workpiece 21
    correcting device 186
    costs 69
    cutting speed 20
    cylindrical 19, 20
    depth setting 20
    dressing diamond 186
    external cylindrical 21
    feed rate 20
    forces 19
    internal 21
    instantaneous chip section 20
    longitudinal feed rate 21
    machines 214, 233
    bed 2 1 4 , 2 3 3
    centreless 256
    Churchill 280
    “Diskus” 233
    feed drive layout 142
    “Fulcro-Sizer” cylindrical 185, 186
    internal 186
    surface 233
    power requirements 20
    surface 21
    wheel 19, 20
    bond hardness 19
    bond strength 20
    boron carbide 19
    carbide 19
    circumferential speed 21
    corundum 19
    cutting-of 20
    emery 19
    grain size 19
    silicon 19
    soft 19
    wear 20, 21
    workpiece, arc of contact 21
    Hydraulic
    copying device 190
    driving units 132
    efficiency 157
    equipment 190
    motor 126, 132, 150, 152, 207
    cylinder and piston 150
    variable speed 152
    pre-selection 302
    device 303
    unit 190
    “Inchworm” unit 300
    Inertia
    forces 96, 289
    loads 43
    Interchangeability of finished components 28
    Internal grinding spindle 125
    Jig boring machine 199
    Schwartzkopf 199
    block gauge system 199
    length scales 199 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Joining elements 50
    Joints 50
    flanged 50
    pre-load 50
    “rubbing” effect 61
    Jones and Lamson machine 228
    Kienzle diagram 58, 63
    Lathe 24
    alignment 227
    automatic 175, 182, 185
    bed 61
    centre 30-3, 215, 227
    apron 293
    nomogram 31, 32
    working accuracy 246
    Churchill-Fay 166
    copying 189, 283
    loading device 189
    deformations 24
    diametral error 246-50
    “Frontor” 277
    “Heycomat” 229
    horizontal deviation 250
    caused by wear 246, 247
    “Neomat” 227
    roll turning 228
    “Waldrick” 229
    Schaerer 148, 178, 229, 267
    spindle 267, 274
    head gearbox 282
    turret 169, 282
    Lead-screws 292
    interlocking 292
    metric 110
    Lightweight construction 56
    Lubrication (see also Oil) 29, 308, 311
    central 309, 310
    point 309
    film stiffness 53
    film thickness 53
    hydrodynamic 273, 278, 280, 281
    pressure 53
    pump 311
    Machine tools
    bearings 29
    load carrying capacity 43, 46
    manufacturing limits 210
    materials
    cast iron 45
    rigidity 43
    slideways 29, 203
    spindle speeds 29, 30
    stiffness 27, 29, 43, 44, 46, 220, 221
    strength 29
    testing 210
    torsional stiffness 220
    wear 229
    Machining marks 193
    Machines
    friction of 193
    natural frequencies of 193
    reversing action of 137, 141
    semi-automatic 185
    single-purpose 69
    tracer-controlled 186
    Magazine 208
    Magnetostriction 300
    “Magnetostrictor” 300
    Maintenance 37, 39
    Mandrell, centring 270
    Master’s (see Templates)
    Material
    consumption 45, 46
    damping 58
    Maximum cutting force 13
    Mean power 13
    Measuring devices 195, 200
    scales 200
    length scales 199
    magnetic scales 200
    sensing head 200, 201
    Measuring systems 201
    Mechanical interlocking 103
    Mechanism
    driving 178
    stiffness 178
    “dropping worm” 178
    Geneva 183
    latch 179
    Middle chip thickness 13
    Mild steel 45
    Milling 10-19
    average force required 19
    chatter 16
    chip section 10, 11
    chip thickness 10, 16, 17
    climb milling 16
    copy milling 187
    cutter head 17
    cutting force 11
    components 14
    periodicity 17
    pulsation 10
    resistance 11, 12
    cutting resistance
    specific 12, 15, 16
    variations 10
    cutting speed, feet/min. 15
    depth of cut 10,11
    down-cut 16, 17
    face 10
    milling 17
    nomogram 18
    feed
    per minute 12
    per tooth 12
    rate 173
    force pulsation frequency 16
    instantaneous chip thickness 10
    load conditions 17
    maximum chip thickness 12
    middle chip thickness 12, 17
    nomogram
    maximum and average cutter force 14
    operations 36
    power determination 19
    profile 191, 192
    slab 10, 12
    milling 17
    spindle drive 87, 90
    tool life 16
    up-cut 16
    325 326 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Milling (continued)
    vibrations 10
    width of cut 10, 11
    Milling machines 33-9, 102, 233
    cylindrical 233
    efficiency of drive 35
    Fairey-Ferranti, special 209
    input power 35
    modes of vibration 62
    net cutting power 35
    net feed-drive power 35
    nomogram 34, 35
    numerically controlled 205
    piano 233, 253
    power balances 35
    production 237
    profile 204
    rate of metal removal 35
    recommended cutting speeds 35
    single-purpose 107
    spindle 269,275
    nose 268
    taper spindle 268
    total power 35
    vertical 286, 287
    Model experiments 60
    Motor
    adjustment 178
    eccentricity 178
    Motors {see also Driving motors)
    pump
    piston type 133
    vane type 133, 152
    oscillating 154
    Moving masses
    friction 203
    stiffness 203
    Movement, operating handles, wheels etc. 37
    Natural frequency 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62
    Oil 125 (see also Lubrication)
    compressibility 125
    coefficient 126
    flow 152,263
    circuit design 154
    circuit efficiency 158
    “closed” circuit 159
    counter-pressure 157, 159
    delivery 156
    hydraulic circuit 155
    leakage losses 159
    pressure drop 156, 157
    throttle adjustment 152
    throttle resistance 156
    throttle valve 156, 157
    hydraulic 125
    velocities 126
    viscosity 125, 263
    Operating devices 300-12
    control levers 304, 305
    hand-wheels 304
    hydraulic pre-selection 303
    locking 303, 304
    measuring 300
    optical instruments 300
    positioning 304
    speed change 301
    switching 303
    Operational
    accuracy 210
    accuracy 210
    speeds 29
    Optical gratings 196, 197, 203
    Moire interference pattern 196, 197, 199
    Optimum cutting conditions 27
    Overload 181
    device 182
    protection 125, 164
    relay 119
    valve 135
    Pantograph 194
    Parabolic interpolation 205
    Patterns 224
    Permissible
    deformations 43
    maximum deflexion 45
    maximum stress 45
    Phase angles 61
    Pipes 154
    flexible 190
    pipe connexions 190
    Pistons 154, 190
    rod 152
    velocity 155, 156
    Pitch circle diameters 83, 87
    Planing 21
    intermittent feed movement 21
    machines 220, 289
    Plungers 152
    Points of inflexion 206
    Positioning
    movement 203
    operation 202
    Power 30
    constant 98, 118, 119
    feed 102
    idling 36
    input 36
    net 30
    reversing and return movement 37
    Profiling operations 203
    Programme 203, 205, 209
    Pulley
    cone 76, 83, 84
    diameters 75, 83
    jockey 83, 84
    Pump/motor unit
    output torque 135
    range of output speeds 135
    total efficiency 134
    Pumps
    adjustment 178
    auxiliary 159
    axial piston 131
    constant delivery 127, 156, 159
    delivery 127, 128, 131
    pulsations 132
    eccentricity 134, 178
    efficiency 132
    Forst-Enor 128
    gear 127, 132
    Jahns-Thoma 131
    Lauf-Thoma 130 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    leakage losses 127, 131, 134
    loss adjustment 128
    lubricating 311
    mechanical efficiency 134
    motor eccentricity 134
    oil gear 131
    piston 131, 132
    power output 132, 133
    pressure drop 133
    screw conveyor 128
    vane type 128, 129, 132
    vanes 130
    thickness 129
    variable delivery 128,152
    volumetric efficiency 127
    Quadrant 109
    Quick-return mechanisms 138
    braking 146
    efficiency 148
    friction losses 147, 148
    heat losses 146, 147, 148
    infinitely variable speed 122, 152
    irreversibility 148, 152
    reducing heat losses 147
    reversing action 138, 148, 162, 221, 289
    reversing operation 184
    reversing speed 184
    speed-range ratio 139
    starting action 147
    velocity curves 138
    Whitworth 137
    Radial drilling machine 50
    Rapid switching movement 183
    Rapid traverse 100, 101, 102
    Rate of metal removal 13
    Reaming 8
    cutting speeds and feeds, high-speed steel reamers 9
    Recirculating
    ball nut 148, 149, 207, 300
    pre-load 149
    cages 258
    elements 258
    Rectilinear movements 196
    Reference point 202
    Repair work 37, 39
    Resonance 57, 58
    Restrictor 266
    Roller chain 258 (see also Cross roller chain)
    “Rubbing faces” 60
    Safety factors 119
    Safety of the operator 97
    Screw and nut efficiency 148
    Screwcutting 292, 294
    Screw-thread
    inch 110
    metric 110
    Servomechanism 200, 203, 204
    Shafts 67
    power 83
    standard speeds 83
    under load 83
    torques 82, 83
    Setting movement 201, 291
    Shaping 21
    intermittent feed movement 21
    Shear
    deflexions 45
    stresses 45
    Signal transmission 191
    “Signal trip dog discs” 183
    Sizing device 174
    Slides 220 (see also Slideways)
    Slideways 220, 226, 230, 231, 235, 239-66
    adjustable strip 240
    air lubricated 259
    ball-bearing 208
    ball slide 258
    chip accumulation and removal 239
    cover plates 254
    telescopic 254
    covering belts 254
    covers 229
    cylinder 239
    cylindrical grinding elements 242
    dirt 252
    dovetail 239, 241, 242
    ease of assembly 239
    felt seals 254
    film thickness 259
    flame-hardened 244
    flat 239
    friction
    coefficient 255
    conditions 239, 255
    resistance 255, 256, 259
    guiding
    accuracy 239
    elements 239
    rail 258,259
    hardened steel 228
    hardened surfaces 244
    holding strips 241
    hydrodynamic lubrication 256
    hydrostatic 259
    hydrostatically lubricated 207
    layout 226
    load-carrying capacity 239, 260, 264
    lubrication 239
    lubrication grooves 256
    mean specific pressure 244
    mean surface pressure 252
    needle bearing arrangement 257
    negative damping 255
    oil film thickness 259, 260, 266
    overdetermined, design 233
    play adjustment 241
    pressure distribution 252
    protection 253
    rates of wear 244
    restraint 239
    -free guiding device 243
    roller-bearing 257
    roller-slide 256, 258, 259
    rubber seals 254
    “running in” 244
    saddle 229
    scrapers 255
    seals 252,254
    semi-fluid friction 256
    sliding speeds 256
    specific surface pressures 245, 248, 252
    spring-loaded rollers 257
    327 328 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Slideways (continued)
    stability 241, 252
    steel tape 255
    “stick-slip” 255
    stiffness 252, 259, 264
    surface pressure 244
    surface roughness of sliding surfaces 244
    taper strip 241
    Vee 239, 240, 249, 250
    wear 228, 239, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 252, 255,
    259
    compensation 239
    wedged strip 242
    Slip gears 76, 109
    Slipping clutch 119
    Slow feed 293
    Spacers 167
    “Sparking out” 184
    Speed change 208
    infinitely variable 284
    motorised 302
    Speed ranges 56, 57, 69, 70, 74
    ratio 70
    Speed values 109
    Spindles 266,270
    balancing 270
    bayonet fixing 268
    bearings 266-81
    boring machine 267
    centring accuracy 269
    centring elements 266
    concentricity of location 268
    deflexion 51, 52
    drilling machine 271
    drives 67
    lathe 267
    length 271
    main 266
    milling 268, 269
    machine 268
    nose 267, 268
    number of steps 74, 75
    preferred numbers 72
    quick change device 269
    ratio 74
    speed 74, 76
    range 71, 74
    arithmetic progression 72
    saw diagram 72
    geometric progression 71, 72, 73
    saw diagram 71, 72
    logarithmic progression 72
    saw diagram 72
    ratio 75
    standardization 69-95
    variation 69
    standard
    geometric progression 83
    speeds 73
    steps 73
    step ratio 75
    tapered 279
    unit 270
    Spring constant 44
    Stability diagrams 55
    Standards 3 7
    Static behaviour 193
    Static
    friction 204
    stiffness 43-55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62
    Statistical methods 211
    Stick-slip 193, 300
    phenomena 201, 275
    Stifleners 45,46,47,48
    Stiffness 43, 193
    cumulative 43
    Stroke 136
    limitation 178
    rigid stop 178, 182
    Structures 211-38
    accessibility of welded seams 238
    adjustable wedge units 214
    anchor bolts 213
    apertures 220, 224, 235
    assembly of 213
    ball-bearing housing 225
    beds 211,231
    long type 213
    box section 230, 238
    cellular construction (in Germany) 225, 235
    centre lathe 215
    deformations of the bed 215
    diametral error 215
    closed-box section 44, 228, 233, 234
    columns 211
    deformations 213, 215
    diagonal stifleners 228
    direction of forces 213
    drilling machine 216
    spindle axes inclinations 217
    drilling operation concentricity 217
    ease of manufacture 213
    economy of material 224
    finished weight 224
    foundations 213
    frames 211
    heat treatment 224
    inertia forces 215
    installation 213
    internal stresses 224
    layouts of design 213
    levelling 213,214
    light-alloy castings 225
    lightening holes 224
    lightweight construction 233
    loading conditions 213
    machining allowance 224
    maintenance 213
    materials 213
    material consumption 223, 224
    milling machine 222, 233, 234, 237
    arbor support 220
    bed 235,236
    column 219
    knee 219,220
    milling arbor 219, 220
    overarm 219
    saddle 219
    spindle 219
    table 219,220
    welded design 237
    outer stay 231
    planing machine 220, 221
    bed 221
    core displacements 223
    cross-beam 220, 221
    bending stiffness 221
    stability 221S U B J E C T I N D E X
    deflexion of the bed 221
    weight of the table 221
    points of application 213
    power requirements 213
    shell construction (in Germany) 225
    slideway layout 226
    sliding properties 223
    spindle-bearing housing 225
    static stiffness 233
    stiffening 228
    Peters arrangement 228
    stiffness 213, 215
    stresses 213, 215
    stress relieving heat treatment 223
    supporting wedges 211
    three-point support 213
    torsional stiffness 221
    tubular section 44
    vibration conditions 215, 217
    vibration rigidity 233
    weld assembly 238
    welded construction 224, 225
    weldment 223, 224
    Surface
    roughness 28
    waviness 28, 66
    theoretical 66
    Surfacing 168, 177
    Swarf
    barrow 230
    conveyor
    five-spindle automatic machine 226
    Synchro-resolves 196, 197
    “Inductosyn” 196, 197
    analogue principle 197
    error voltage 197
    “hair-comb’ winding 197
    moving scale 197
    reference scale 197
    servo motor 197
    slider 197
    Table feed 208
    Taper
    turning attachment 176, 177
    turning device 187
    Tapping 8
    cutting speeds, high speed steel taps 9
    Taylor
    constant 1
    equation 2
    Temperature rise 26, 27
    Templates 187, 189, 192, 194, 209
    Threads (see Screw threads)
    Three-dimensional copying 193
    device 191, 192
    Tool 2, 69
    changes 269
    holders 167
    life 2, 69, 204
    Torque
    constant 69
    variation 69
    Torsional stiffness 44, 46, 50, 67
    Tracer 190, 191
    control 187
    increased amplification 188
    mechanism 187
    error 188
    natural frequency 188
    stability 188
    working accuracy 188
    lever 192
    Transducer 189
    Transmission
    elastic 109
    errors 93
    positive 125
    load 124
    torque 123
    power 109
    ranges 82
    ratio 75, 76, 78, 82-95
    layout diagram 82
    overall 78
    small 86
    speed diagram 82, 83
    standard range 76, 87
    Traverse, rapid 177
    Turbine, compressed air 125
    Turning 3-6
    chatter 5
    chip section 4
    cutting force 3, 5
    components 4
    cutting speed 4, 5
    depth of cut 3
    external copy 191
    operations 191
    facing operations 294
    feed force component 5
    feed rate 5
    forced vibration 4
    heat conduction 5
    internal copy
    operations 191
    main cutting force component 5
    operations 35
    power requirements 4, 5
    radial component 5
    specific cutting resistance 4, 5
    tool
    approach angle 6
    life 5
    negative rake 5
    rake angles 3, 4
    vibrations 3
    Turret
    head 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 183,H84
    slide 183
    square 168
    Twist drill 6, 7, 8
    cross edge 6
    pointing 7
    effective rake angle 6, 7
    helix angle 6, 7
    relief angle 6
    Universal milling head 287, 288
    Valves 154
    balancing 159
    differential 158
    “Cincinnati” 160
    electro-hydraulic 207
    329330 S U B J E C T I N D E X
    Valves (continued)
    overload 159
    pre-selector 302
    reduction 157
    spool 190, 264, 266
    dynamic response 266
    leakage 266
    stiction 266
    throttle 159, 184
    Velocity amplification 193
    Vertical boring machine 61, 171
    Vibrations 28
    amplitudes 61
    forced 55, 63
    free 55
    problems 55
    self-excited 55
    tests 60
    torsional 67
    Wall panels 43, 47, 48
    Wall thicknesses 45
    Ward-Leonard 192
    control 148
    sets 96,98,119
    Washers, C-shaped 110
    Welded joints 61
    Welding
    fixtures 224
    labour costs 224
    Whitworth
    quick-return mechanism 137
    Width of cut 13
    Working accuracy 43, 53, 193
    Workpiece
    clamping 164
    measurements 27
    Worm
    disengaging movement 181
    dropping 181
    tilting axis 181
    Wulfel-Kopp Tourator 121 ^ x.
    s – iTu/mtn
    rin. 28aQ-ZSO
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    F I G . 22b^ , degrees
    Diometer(d), in. W i d t h ( b ) . in,
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    Diameter(d), in. W i d t h ( b ) . . in.
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