Design of Demining Machines

Design of Demining Machines
اسم المؤلف
Dinko Mikulic
التاريخ
18 يونيو 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Design of Demining Machines
Dinko Mikulic
Contents
1 Humanitarian Demining Techniques . 1
1.1 Landmines Threats 1
1.1.1 Countries Affected to Various Degrees by Mines
and Unexploded Ordnance . 1
1.1.2 Landmines Obstacles . 3
1.1.3 Demining Stress Factors . 4
1.2 Humanitarian Demining Technology 5
1.2.1 Specification of Mine Clearance Quality . 7
1.3 Efficiency of Demining Techniques . 8
1.3.1 Classification of Demining Machines 8
1.3.2 Demining Conditions . 13
1.3.3 Efficiency of Deminers . 15
1.3.4 Efficiency of Mine Detection Dogs . 16
1.3.5 Efficiency of Demining Machines 16
1.3.6 Experience of the Machine Demining . 18
1.3.7 Role of Machine Demining . 24
References 26
2 Mechanics of Machine Demining . 29
2.1 Soil Categorization 30
2.2 Soil Trafficability . 31
2.2.1 Mean Maximum Pressure 31
2.2.2 Soil Cone Index 33
2.2.3 Wheel Rut Depth 35
2.2.4 Mobility Index, MI 36
2.3 Toolbox Demining System . 37
2.4 Soil Digging Resistance . 39
2.4.1 Soil Cutting Resistance . 39
2.4.2 Flail Force Impulse 40
xi2.5 Demining Machines with Flails 41
2.5.1 Flail Mechanics . 41
2.5.2 Hammer Shapes 45
2.5.3 Machine Power . 49
2.5.4 Flail Design . 51
2.5.5 Flail Geometry . 55
2.6 Demining Machine with Tillers 61
2.6.1 Helix System 62
2.6.2 Cutting Resistance . 63
2.7 Demining Machine with Rollers . 65
2.7.1 Heavy Mine Rollers 66
2.7.2 Medium Mine Rollers 70
References 72
3 Design of Demining Machines 73
3.1 Project Requirements . 74
3.1.1 Demining Machine Structure 76
3.1.2 Operating Conditions . 77
3.1.3 Performance Requirements . 77
3.1.4 Design Requirements . 78
3.1.5 Reliability Requirements 79
3.1.6 Documentation Requirements . 82
3.1.7 Testing Requirements . 82
3.1.8 Evaluation Model . 83
3.2 Design of Light Demining Machine . 84
3.2.1 Soil Digging . 84
3.2.2 Drive System 85
3.2.3 Cooling System and Air Cleaning 89
3.2.4 Flail System and Soil Digging Profile . 92
3.2.5 Machine Control 94
3.2.6 Machine Characteristics . 97
3.2.7 Assessment of Acceptability 98
3.2.8 Light Demining Machine with Rollers . 101
3.2.9 Mini Demining Bulldozer 103
3.2.10 Advanced Demining Systems . 104
3.2.11 Autonomous Unmanned Mine Clearing
Robot Concept . 108
3.3 Design of Medium Demining Machine . 111
3.3.1 Use of Medium Machines 112
3.3.2 Requirements for Development 114
3.3.3 Soil Resistance and Flail Power . 117
3.3.4 Engine and Transmission 125
3.3.5 Machine Efficiency 129
xii Contents3.4 Design of Heavy Demining Machine 130
3.4.1 Concept of Two Flails 130
3.4.2 Flail and Tiller Concept . 134
3.4.3 Machine Resistance on Mines . 135
3.4.4 Conclusion 137
3.5 Support Demining Machines 138
3.5.1 Demining Excavators . 139
3.5.2 Excavator Long Reach 140
3.5.3 Operator Safety . 140
3.6 Ecological Demining Machine 141
3.6.1 Machine Acceptability Eco Model 145
3.6.2 DE Drive System 149
3.6.3 Electric Demining Machine 151
References 151
4 Design of Mine Protected Vehicles 153
4.1 Project Requirements . 153
4.2 Selection of Chassis 155
4.2.1 Cross-Country Mobility . 155
4.2.2 Selection of Chassis and Mobile
Mechanic Workshop . 156
4.2.3 Armour Material 157
4.3 Mine Protected Vehicle Design 158
4.3.1 Safety Compartment . 158
4.3.2 Crew Protection Standards . 159
4.4 Level of Ballistic Protection 160
4.5 Cone of Destruction 162
4.6 Verification of Countermine Protection 163
4.7 Protection Against Impulse Noise and Vibrations . 166
4.7.1 Survivability of the Crew 166
4.7.2 Protection Packages 166
References 168
5 Personal Protective Equipment . 169
5.1 Personal Protective Equipment of the Machine Operator 170
5.1.1 Machine Operator Risk with a Remote
Controlled Machine 171
5.1.2 Protective Vest, Helmet and Footwear . 172
5.2 Requirements for Personal Protective Equipment 172
5.2.1 Definition of V50 Value . 173
5.2.2 Helmet and Visor Characteristics . 174
5.2.3 Protective Vest Characteristics 175
Contents xiii5.2.4 Mine Protective Boots and Covers 175
5.2.5 Acceptance Criterions 176
References 177
6 Test and Evaluation of Demining Machines . 179
6.1 Criteria for Evaluation of Demining Machines . 179
6.2 Demining Machine Performance . 181
6.2.1 Soil Digging Depth Profile . 181
6.3 Survivability and Protection 183
6.3.1 Operator Protection Against Mine Fragments 184
6.3.2 Protection Against Impulse Noise 186
6.3.3 Protection Against Vibrations . 187
6.4 Cerovac Test Range 189
6.4.1 Demining Machine Testing Area . 190
6.4.2 Detection Dog and Dog Handler Testing Area . 192
6.4.3 All Detector Types Testing Area . 194
6.4.4 Personnel Training Area . 194
6.5 Demining Machine Testing Process . 195
6.5.1 Preparation of Documentation . 196
6.5.2 Testing of Depth and Efficiency . 196
6.5.3 Machine Testing on AP Mines 198
6.5.4 Machine Testing on AT Mines 200
6.5.5 Machine Operator Protection Testing 201
6.5.6 Demining Machine Usage Acceptability 202
6.5.7 Annual Compliance Testing 203
6.5.8 Conclusion 204
6.6 Research of Machine Usage on Soft Soil . 204
6.6.1 New Loose Soil Layer—‘‘Banana Layer’’ . 205
6.6.2 Soil Trafficability in the Domain
of Terramechanics . 206
6.6.3 Conclusion 207
References 208
Abbreviations 209
Index
Index
A
Acceptability of demining machine, 202
Acceptance test, 180
Active protection, 172
Advanced demining systems, 104
Anti-personnel mines (AP), 2
Anti-tank mines (AT), 2
Application of demining machines, 24
Armour material, 157
Assessment of acceptability, 98, 203
B
Balance of power at soil digging, 123
Ballistic protection, 155, 160
Blast pressure, 162
C
Concept of two flails, 130
Cone of destruction, 162
Cooling system, 89
Countermine protection, 135, 153
Crew safety, 188
Cross-country mobility, 100, 155
Crushing resistance, 85
Cutting resistance, 63, 85
D
Deminer, 7
Demining excavators, 12, 139
Demining machine performance, 181
Demining machine testing process, 195
Demining rollers, 65, 101
Demining stress factors, 4
Design requirements, 75, 78
Diesel-electric demining machine, 146–149
Diesel engine exhausts gases, 143
Drag force, 45
Dual-use machine concept, 108
E
Ecological demining machine, 141
Efficiency of deminers, 15
Efficiency of demining machines, 16
Electric demining machine, 146, 151
Electronic system scheme, 96
Evaluation model, 83
Evaluation of demining machines, 179
F
Flail and tiller concept, 134
Flail centrifugal force, 42
Flail demining helix system, 51, 62
Flail design, 51
Flail design parameters, 59
Flail durability on mine explosion, 61
Flail force impulse, 40, 118
Flail geometry, 55
Flail mechanics, 41
Flail resistance moment, 120
Flail specific power, 124
Flail system, 92
H
Hammer force impulse, 46, 133
Hammer impulse force, 85
Hammer shapes, 45
D. Mikulic, Design of Demining Machines,
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4504-2, Springer-Verlag London 2013
211H (cont.)
Hammer striking force, 42
Heavy demining machine, 16, 21, 111,
130–131
Heavy mine rollers, 66
Helmet with visor, 172, 174
Humanitarian demining equipment, 8
Humanitarian demining technology, 5
Hydraulic scheme, 86
I
Impact force, 44
L
Land mine obstacles, 3
Light autonomous machines, 111
Light demining machine, 11, 84, 101
Loose layer of soil under the tracks, 205
M
Machine control, 94
Machine demining, 24
Machine durability, 81
Machine efficiency, 98, 99, 129, 197
Machine survivability, 183
Machine testing on AP mines, 198
Machine testing on AT mines, 200
Machine usage on soft soil, 204
Machine with flails, 10
Machine with tillers, 11
Mathematical expectation for number
of activated mines, 67
Mathematical expectation of machine
durability, 81
Mean maximum pressure (MMP), 31
Medium demining machine, 111
Medium machine, 16–17
Medium mine roller, 71
Mine neutralization, 10, 41, 45, 62, 74, 85,
111, 130, 203
Mine protected machines, 136
Mine protected vehicle, 153
Mine threat level, 155, 159
Mine-clearance, 4, 7, 78
Mini demining bulldozer, 103
Mobility Index (MI), 36
Movement resistance, 125
N
Nominal Ground Pressure (NGP), 33
O
Operator control unit, 95
Operator hand-held unit, 97
Operator safety, 140
Operator Survivability, 184
Optimal shapes of striking hammer, 54
P
Parameters of flail, 52
Passive protection, 170
Performance requirements, 75, 77
Performance test, 180
Power of engine, 127
Power required for machine operation, 50
Power required for soil digging, 122
Protection against impulse noise, 186
Protection against mine fragments, 184
Protection against vibrations, 187
Protective equipment for deminers, 169
Protective equipment of the machine
operator, 170
Protective footwear, 172
Protective vest, 172, 175
R
Reliability of mine activation, 66
Reliability requirements, 75, 79
Remote control, 78
Rollers design, 101
S
Safety compartment, 158
Soil categorization, 30
Soil cone index, 33
Soil crushing resistance, 118, 132
Soil cutting resistance, 39, 117
Soil digging density, 78, 85, 93
Soil digging depth profile, 93, 181, 197
Soil digging moment, 133
Soil digging resistance, 39
Soil trafficability, 31
Specification of mine clearance quality, 7
Striking hammer force, 52
Survivability of the crew, 166
Survivability test, 180
T
Tele-demining machines, 105
Tele-demining robotics, 107
Test range, 189
212 IndexTillers design, 61
Toolbox demining system, 37
Tracked demining machine, 114
Track model, 89
V
V50 Value, 170
Vegetation categorization, 32
Vehicle cone index, 35
W
Wedge efficiency, 54
Wheeled demining machine, 112
Wheel rut depth, 35
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