Design Data for Plastics Engineers

Design Data for Plastics Engineers
اسم المؤلف
Natti Rao , Keith O'Brien
التاريخ
14 ديسمبر 2021
المشاهدات
260
التقييم
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Design Data for Plastics Engineers
Natti Rao , Keith O’Brien
Contents
Preface v
A Final Word vii
Authors viii

  1. Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers 1
    1.1 Ideal Solids 1
    1.2 Tensile Properties . 1
    1.2.1 Stress-Strain Behavior 2
    1.2.2 Tensile Modulus 5
    1.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength 6
    1.3 Shear Properties . 6
    1.3.1 Shear Modulus 6
    1.3.2 Effect of Temperature on Shear Modulus 7
    1.4 Compressive Properties 9
    1.4.1 Bulk Modulus 10
    1.5 Time Related Properties . 11
    1.5.1 Creep Modulus . 11
    1.5.2 Creep Rupture 12
    1.5.3 Relaxation Modulus 13
    1.5.4 Fatigue Limit . 14viii Contents
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    1.6 Hardness . 15
    1.7 Impact Strength . 17
    1.8 Coefficient of Friction 17
  2. Thermal Properties of Solid and Molten Polymers . 23
    2.1 Specific Volume . 23
    2.2 Specific Heat . 26
    2.3 Thermal Expansion Coefficient . 27
    2.4 Enthalpy . 29
    2.5 Thermal Conductivity 29
    2.6 Thermal Diffusivity . 31
    2.7 Coefficient of Heat Penetration . 32
    2.8 Heat Deflection Temperature 34
    2.9 Vicat Softening Point . 35
    2.10 Flammability 35
  3. Transport Properties of Molten Polymers 39
    3.1 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids . 39
    3.2 Viscous Shear Flow 41
    3.2.1 Apparent Shear Rate 41
    3.2.2 Entrance Loss . 42
    3.2.3 True Shear Stress . 42
    3.2.4 Apparent Viscosity 44
    3.2.5 True Shear Rate . 47
    3.2.6 True Viscosity . 47
    3.3 Rheological Models . 47
    3.3.1 Hyperbolic Function of Prandtl and Eyring 48
    3.3.2 Power Law of Ostwald and De Waele . 48
    3.3.3 Polynomial of Muenstedt . 50Contents ix
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    3.3.4 Viscosity Equation of Carreau . 53
    3.3.5 Viscosity Formula of Klein . 55
    3.4 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity . 56
    3.5 Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Weight 57
    3.6 Viscosity of Two-Component Mixtures . 59
    3.7 Melt Flow Index . 59
    3.8 Tensile Viscosity 60
    3.9 Viscoelastic Properties 60
    3.9.1 Primary Normal Stress Coefficient Θ . 61
    3.9.2 Shear Compliance Je 61
    3.9.3 Die Swell . 62
  4. Electrical Properties 65
    4.1 Surface Resistivity . 65
    4.2 Volume Resistivity . 65
    4.3 Dielectric Strength . 65
    4.4 Relative Permittivity . 66
    4.5 Dielectric Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent 66
    4.6 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) 68
  5. Optical Properties of Solid Polymers . 73
    5.1 Light Transmission 73
    5.2 Haze 73
    5.3 Refractive Index 73
    5.4 Gloss . 75
    5.5 Color 75
  6. External Influences 77
    6.1 Physical Interactions . 77
    6.1.1 Solubility . 77x Contents
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    6.1.2 Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) 77
    6.1.3 Permeability 79
    6.1.4 Absorption and Desorption 80
    6.1.5 Weathering Resistance . 80
    6.2 Chemical Resistance 81
    6.2.1 Chemical and Wear Resistance to Polymers 81
    6.3 General Property Data 82
  7. Extrusion 91
    7.1 Extrusion Screws 92
    7.2 Processing Parameters . 92
    7.2.1 Resin-Dependent Parameters . 92
    7.2.2 Machine Related Parameters 98
    7.3 Extrusion Dies . 124
    7.3.1 Pipe Extrusion . 126
    7.3.2 Blown Film 135
    7.3.3 Sheet Extrusion 137
    7.4 Thermoforming 142
    7.5 Compounding 146
    7.6 Extrudate Cooling 149
    7.6.1 Dimensionless Groups 152
  8. Blow Molding 155
    8.1 Processes 155
    8.1.1 Resin Dependent Parameters . 155
    8.1.2 Machine Related Parameters 161
  9. Injection Molding 169
    9.1 Resin-Dependent Parameters 170
    9.1.1 Injection Pressure . 170Contents xi
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    9.1.2 Mold Shrinkage and Processing Temperature 172
    9.1.3 Drying Temperatures and Times . 174
    9.1.4 Flow Characteristics of Injection-Molding
    Resins . 175
    9.2 Machine Related Parameters . 179
    9.2.1 Injection Unit . 179
    9.2.2 Injection Molding Screw 180
    9.2.3 Injection Mold 183
    Index
    This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. 205
    Index
    Index terms Links
    A
    Absorption 80
    B
    Barrel 98
    diameter 98 108
    temperature 98 108
    Bagley plot 42
    Barr screw 92
    Biot number 152
    Blown film 135
    Blow molding 155
    Brinkman number 152
    Bulk modulus 10
    C
    Chemical resistance 81
    Clamp force 188
    Color 75
    Comparative tracking index 68
    Compounding 146
    Composites 83
    Contact temperature 32206
    Index terms Links
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    Cooling channels 196 200
    Cooling of melt 196
    in mold 196
    Cooling time 196 198
    Correction factors 106
    drag flow 106
    pressure flow 106 127
    Creep modulus 11
    Creep rupture 12
    D
    Deborah number 152
    Desorption 80
    Design of mold 183 196 200
    mechanical 200
    thermal 196
    Dielectric strength 65
    dissipation factor 66
    Diffusion coefficient 80
    Dimensionless numbers 152
    Die swell 62
    Drying temperature 174
    time 175
    E
    Enthalpy 29
    Elastomers 87
    Entrance loss 42
    Environmental stress cracking 77207
    Index terms Links
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    External influences 77
    Extrudate cooling 149
    Extruder output 98
    Extrusion dies 124
    annulus 127
    pressure drop 127
    residence time distribution 131
    shear rate 41 47
    slit 126 127 128
    substitute radius 128
    Extrusion screws 92
    channel depth 122 103
    clearance 101
    channel length 106
    flight diameter 101
    Extrusion screws
    lead 115
    power 109 122
    speed 102
    F
    Fatigue 14
    Flammability 35
    Fluid 39
    Newtonian 39
    non-Newtonian 39
    Fluctuation 112 111
    pressure 113
    temperature 112
    Friction 19208
    Index terms Links
    This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
    G
    Gates 170 186
    Gloss 75
    H
    Hardness 16
    Haze 73
    Heat defection temperature 34
    Heat penetration 32
    I
    Ideal solid 1
    Impact strength 17
    Injection molding 169
    mold 183
    pressure 170
    processing temperature 173
    resin 170
    runner systems 183
    screw 181
    unit 179
    L
    Light transmission 73
    Liquid crystal polymers 85
    Loss tangent 66
    M
    Melt flow index 59209
    Index terms Links
    This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
    Melting parameter 107
    Melting profile 108
    Melt pressure 111
    temperature 111
    Mold shrinkage 172
    N
    Normal stress coefficient 61
    Nozzle 183 184
    P
    Parameter 92
    machine related 98
    resin dependent 92
    Permeability 79 80
    Permittivity 66
    relative 66
    Pipe extrusion 126
    R
    Reinforced plastics 83
    Refractive index 73
    Relaxation modulus 13
    Rheological model 47
    Carreau 53
    Muenstedt 50
    power law 48
    Pradtl and Eyring 48
    Runner 183210
    Index terms Links
    This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
    S
    Shear compliance 61
    Shear modulus 6
    effect of temperature 6
    Shear rate 41
    apparent 41
    true 47
    Shear stress 42
    true 42
    Sheet extrusion 137
    Shrinkage 172
    Solubility 77
    Specific volume 23
    Specific heat 23
    Spider die 131
    Spiral die 136
    Stress strain behavior 2
    Structural foam 84
    Surface resistivity 65
    Tensile modulus 5
    effect of temperature 6
    T
    Tensile strength 6
    effect of temperature 6
    Thermal conductivity 29
    Thermo forming 142
    Thermal diffusivity 31211
    Index terms Links
    This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
    Thermal expansion coefficient 27
    Twin screws 92
    V
    Volume resistivity 65
    Viscosity 41
    apparent 44
    effect of molecular weight 57
    shear 44
    true 47
    two-component mixtures 59
    W
    Weathering resistance 80

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