رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application

رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application
اسم المؤلف
Liew Zhen Hui
التاريخ
19 أكتوبر 2021
المشاهدات
105
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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رسالة ماجستير بعنوان
Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application
Liew Zhen Hui
(B.eng. (Hons.), Nus)
A Thesis Submitted
For the Degree of Master of Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National University of Singapore
Table of Content
SUMMARY .I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . II
TABLE OF CONTENT III
LIST OF TABLES .VI
LIST OF FIGURES .X
LIST OF CHARTS .XX
LIST OF GRAPHS XXV
LIST OF EQUATIONS . XXXI
LIST OF SYMBOLS XXXII

  1. PROLOGUE . 1
    1.1. COMPETITION BACKGROUND 1
    1.2. PROJECT BACKGROUND 1
    1.3. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 2
    1.4. PROJECT SCOPE . 2
  2. CHASSIS OF FSAE RACE CAR . 5
    2.1. FUNCTION OF CHASSIS 5
    2.2. ATTRIBUTES OF CHASSIS . 5
    2.3. TYPE OF CHASSIS 10
    2.4. LOAD CASES OF CHASSIS 17
  3. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS 22
    3.1. TYPE OF CHASSIS CONSTRUCTION 22
    3.2. TYPE OF MATERIAL . 22
    3.3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 22
    3.4. COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE) TOOL . 24
    3.5. DESIGN METHODOLOGY . 28IV
    3.6. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS . 54
    3.7. ESTIMATION OF DISCREPANCY & PREDICTION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF
    ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 154
    3.8. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 160
  4. DATA ACQUISITION ON OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS . 162
    4.1. OBJECTIVE OF DATA ACQUISITION . 162
    4.2. OUTLINE AND PREPARATION OF TEST RUN FOR DATA ACQUISITION 163
    4.3. PRESENTATION & INTERPRETATION OF DATA . 165
    4.4. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 178
  5. RESEARCH ON STRESSED SKIN CONSTRUCTION FOR CHASSIS 180
    5.1. STRESSED SKIN PRINCIPLE 180
    5.2. PHYSICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN TUBULAR SPACEFRAME & STRESSED SKIN
    CONSTRUCTION . 183
    5.3. INTERPRETATION OF DATA & PRESENTATION OF RESULT . 192
    5.4. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 207
  6. CONCLUSION 209
    REFERENCE 210
    APPENDICES 1 – DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – SHAPE OF CHASSIS . 212
    APPENDICES 2 – DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – ORIENTATION OF BRACE 230
    APPENDICES 3 – DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – CROSS SECTION OF
    STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 250
    APPENDICES 4 – DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – ESTIMATION OF DISCREPANCY
    & PREDICTION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED
    CONCEIVED CHASSIS . 268
    APPENDICES 5 – DATA ACQUISITION ON THE OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS – X1-6A
    ACCELEROMETER 273V
    APPENDICES 6- DATA ACQUISITION ON THE OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS –
    ACQUIRED DATA . 288
    APPENDICES 7 – RESEARCH ON STRESSED SKIN CONSTRUCTION FOR CHASSIS 298
    List of Tables
    TABLE 1-COMPARISON OF DEFORMATION BETWEEN TRIANGULATED AND ORIGINAL PLANAR FRAME 31
    TABLE 2-DYNAMIC FACTORS USED FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR . 45
    TABLE 3-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 59
    TABLE 4-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 61
    TABLE 5-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 63
    TABLE 6-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 65
    TABLE 7-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 69
    TABLE 8-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 72
    TABLE 9-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 74
    TABLE 10-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 76
    TABLE 11-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 81
    TABLE 12-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 84
    TABLE 13-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 86
    TABLE 14-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 87
    TABLE 15-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 90VII
    TABLE 16-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 92
    TABLE 17-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 94
    TABLE 18-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 96
    TABLE 19-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 98
    TABLE 20-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 100
    TABLE 21-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 102
    TABLE 22-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 104
    TABLE 23-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 106
    TABLE 24-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 108
    TABLE 25-WEIGHT, SECOND MOMENT OF AREA AND SPECIFIC SECOND MOMENT OF AREA OF EXTRUSION
    WITH RESPECT TO CROSS SECTION OF EXTRUSION . 110
    TABLE 26-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 112
    TABLE 27-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 114
    TABLE 28-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 117VIII
    TABLE 29-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 119
    TABLE 30-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 121
    TABLE 31-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 123
    TABLE 32-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 126
    TABLE 33-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 128
    TABLE 34-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 131
    TABLE 35-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 133
    TABLE 36-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 136
    TABLE 37-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS . 139
    TABLE 38-SAFETY FACTOR OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS . 150
    TABLE 39-SAFETY FACTOR OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS . 152IX
    TABLE 40-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
    STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF
    STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 152
    TABLE 41-TABLE OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL . 158
    TABLE 42-TABLE OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF MANUFACTURED FRAME . 159
    TABLE 43-COMPARISON OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BETWEEN FRAME MODEL &
    MANUFACTURED FRAME . 159
    TABLE 44-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE ENHANCED CONCEIVED AND MANUFACTURED
    CHASSIS 160
    TABLE 45-LATERAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING SKID PAD TEST . 171
    TABLE 46-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING ACCELERATION AND BRAKE TEST . 177
    TABLE 47-VERTICAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING TEST RUNS 177
    TABLE 48-IMPROVED DYNAMIC FACTORS FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR 178
    TABLE 49-SAFETY FACTOR OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS USING IMPROVED
    DYNAMIC FACTORS . 178
    TABLE 50-COMPARISON OF DEFORMATION BETWEEN TRIANGULATED AND STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME
    . 182
    TABLE 51-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 192
    TABLE 52-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME . 194
    TABLE 53-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME 196
    TABLE 54- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS & WEIGHT
    OF THREE FRAMES . 198
    TABLE 55-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 200
    TABLE 56-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME . 202
    TABLE 57-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 204
    TABLE 58- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS, STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS & WEIGHT OF
    THREE FRAMES 206X
    List of Figures
    FIGURE 1-LADDER CHASSIS OF A FORD STREET ROD CAR [II] . 12
    FIGURE 2-TWIN TUBE CHASSIS OF LISTER JAGUAR RACE CAR [III] 13
    FIGURE 3-FOUR TUBE CHASSIS OF LOTUS 21 RACE CAR [IV] . 14
    FIGURE 4-BACKBONE CHASSIS OF LOTUS ELAN SPORT CAR [V] . 15
    FIGURE 5-TUBULAR SPACEFRAME CHASSIS OF GALMER D-SPORT RACE CAR [VI] 16
    FIGURE 6-STRESSED SKIN/MONOCOQUE CHASSIS OF USF1 RACE CAR [VII] 17
    FIGURE 7-LOAD CASE OF LATERAL BENDING OF CHASSIS [VIII] 18
    FIGURE 8-LOAD CASE OF HORIZONTAL LOZENGING OF CHASSIS [VIII] 19
    FIGURE 9-LOAD CASE OF VERTICAL BENDING OF CHASSIS [VIII] . 19
    FIGURE 10-LOAD CASE OF LONGITUDINAL TORSION OF CHASSIS [VIII] . 20
    FIGURE 11-CAD & FE MODEL OF A TUBE 25
    FIGURE 12-ELEMENT WITH NODES HIGHLIGHTED IN RED [XI] . 26
    FIGURE 13-PLANAR FRAME 29
    FIGURE 14-DEFLECTED PLANAR FRAME . 29
    FIGURE 15-TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 30
    FIGURE 16-DEFLECTED TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 30
    FIGURE 17-SIDE VIEW OF THE CHASSIS OF SALOON CAR CARRYING LOADS [XVI] . 33
    FIGURE 18-FRONT VIEW OF THE CHASSIS OF SALOON CAR CARRYING LOADS [XVI] 33
    FIGURE 19-COMPARISON OF TWO DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT METHODS OF INPUTTING LOADS INTO THE
    CHASSIS FROM SUSPENSION [XV] 34
    FIGURE 20-MODEL OF IDEAL CHASSIS WHOSE AIM IS MERELY TO PROVIDE HIGH STRUCTURAL STIFFNESS
    [I] 35
    FIGURE 21-IDEALIZED MODEL OF CHASSIS AND SUSPENSIONS – REPRESENTATION OF CHASSIS AND
    SUSPENSIONS AS SPRINGS [VIII] . 37
    FIGURE 22-SIMPLE HOLLOW TUBE CHASSIS MODEL 40
    FIGURE 23-CHASSIS MODEL OF NUS FSAE C4 RACE CAR UTILIZING THE CONCEPT OF SIMPLE TUBE
    MODEL 41
    FIGURE 24-CALCULATION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS 41
    FIGURE 25-LOAD CASES FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR 44XI
    FIGURE 26-CHASSIS MODEL WITH ENGINE AND SUSPENSION MODEL INCORPORATED FOR MORE REALISTIC
    REPRESENTATION 46
    FIGURE 27-DRIVER MODEL 48
    FIGURE 28- PEDAL & STEERING ASSEMBLY MODEL 48
    FIGURE 29-TOOL MANIPULATION MODEL OF SPANNER 10, 13 AND 17 – VOLUME OF MOTION NEEDED TO
    MANIPULATE TOOLS 49
    FIGURE 30-REGULATION CHECKING MODEL OF HORIZONTAL TEMPLATE . 49
    FIGURE 31-CHASSIS 1WITH FIVE BAYS . 54
    FIGURE 32-CHASSIS 1 WITH SUSPENSION AND ENGINE MODEL . 54
    FIGURE 33- SCENARIO OF CLOCKWISE & COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE APPLIED TO CHASSIS 1 . 56
    FIGURE 34-COMPOSITION OF FOOT WELL OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND LABELED 58
    FIGURE 35-VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL OF CHASSIS 2 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FRONT
    BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE, FRONT BULKHEAD DIAGONAL BRACE AND FRONT BULKHEAD LOWER
    BRACE . 59
    FIGURE 36-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 3 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
    FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE . 61
    FIGURE 37-VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 4 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
    FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE, FRONT BULKHEAD DIAGONAL BRACE AND FRONT BULKHEAD
    LOWER BRACE . 63
    FIGURE 38-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 5 WITH VARIATION OF
    LENGTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE AND FRONT ROLL HOOP BRACE 65
    FIGURE 39-COMPOSITION OF FRONT SUSPENSION BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
    LABELED . 67
    FIGURE 40-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 6 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
    FRONT ROLL HOOP BRACE . 69
    FIGURE 41-COMPOSITION OF DRIVER COCKPIT OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
    LABELED . 71
    FIGURE 42-VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT OF CHASSIS 7 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF SIDE
    IMPACT STRUCTURE, UPPER MAIN ROLL HOOP BRACE, REAR CONNECTING ELEMENTS AND ENGINE
    MOUNTING ELEMENTS . 72XII
    FIGURE 43-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 8 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
    UPPER MAIN ROLL HOOP BRACE 74
    FIGURE 44-VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 9 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF SIDE
    IMPACT STRUCTURE, REAR CONNECTING ELEMENTS AND ENGINE MOUNTING ELEMENTS . 76
    FIGURE 45-COMPOSITION OF ENGINE BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND LABELED
    . 78
    FIGURE 46-COMPOSITION OF REAR SUSPENSION BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
    LABELED . 79
    FIGURE 47-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 10 WITH NO INFLUENCE TO OTHER
    ELEMENTS . 80
    FIGURE 48-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER FOOT WELL (PLAN VIEW), LOWER FOOT WELL (BOTTOM VIEW)
    AND SIDE FOOT WELL (SIDE VIEW) 83
    FIGURE 49-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER
    FOOT WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 84
    FIGURE 50-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO SIDE FOOT
    WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 85
    FIGURE 51-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, “\” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
    FOOT WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 87
    FIGURE 52-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT SIDE BAY (SIDE VIEW), UPPER FRONT BAY (PLAN VIEW) AND
    LOWER FRONT BAY (BOTTOM VIEW) . 89
    FIGURE 53-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CHEVRON BRACE, CROSS BRACE, DIAMOND BRACE AND REVERSE
    CHEVRON BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO FRONT SIDE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 89
    FIGURE 54-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “<” BRACE, LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL &
    CROSS BRACE, LATERAL BRACE, CROSS BRACE AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER FRONT
    BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 91
    FIGURE 55-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “<” BRACE, LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL &
    CROSS BRACE, LATERAL BRACE, CROSS BRACE AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER FRONT
    BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 93
    FIGURE 56-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SIDE DRIVER COCKPIT (SIDE VIEW) AND LOWER DRIVER COCKPIT (PLAN
    VIEW) 95XIII
    FIGURE 57-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, LONGITUDINAL BRACE, LONGITUDINAL & “\” BRACE, LONGITUDINAL &
    “/” BRACE AND LONGITUDINAL & CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO SIDE DRIVER COCKPIT IN
    ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 96
    FIGURE 58-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CROSS BRACE, “/” BRACE, AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
    DRIVER COCKPIT IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 97
    FIGURE 59-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY (SIDE VIEW), LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY (SIDE
    VIEW) AND LOWER ENGINE BAY (BOTTOM VIEW) 99
    FIGURE 60-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, DOUBLE PARALLEL BRACE, DOUBLE (ENGINE) BRACE, SINGLE (ENGINE)
    BRACE, SINGLE (REAR PIVOT) BRACE, DOUBLE CROSS BRACE, DOUBLE (REAR PIVOT) BRACE AND
    TRIPLE BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 100
    FIGURE 61-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE, INTEGRATED CROSS BRACE AND CROSS BRACE,
    EACH INSERTED TO LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 102
    FIGURE 62-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, LATERAL BRACE, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “\” BRACE,
    LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL & CROSS BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
    ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 104
    FIGURE 63-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER REAR SIDE BAY (SIDE VIEW) AND LOWER REAR SIDE BAY (SIDE
    VIEW) 106
    FIGURE 64-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LONGITUDINAL BRACE, AND LONGITUDINAL & “/” BRACE,
    EACH INSERTED TO UPPER REAR SIDE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 106
    FIGURE 65-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CROSS BRACE AND “/” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER REAR SIDE
    BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 108
    FIGURE 66-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER FOOT WELL BRACE, SIDE FOOT WELL BRACE AND LOWER FOOT
    WELL BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 111
    FIGURE 67-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 112
    FIGURE 68-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 114XIV
    FIGURE 69-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 116
    FIGURE 70-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT SIDE BAY BRACE, LOWER FRONT BAY BRACE AND UPPER FRONT
    BAY BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 118
    FIGURE 71-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 119
    FIGURE 72-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 121
    FIGURE 73-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 123
    FIGURE 74-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER DRIVER COCKPIT BRACE AND LOWER DRIVER COCKPIT BRACE, OF
    WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED . 125
    FIGURE 75-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 126
    FIGURE 76-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 128
    FIGURE 77-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY BRACE, LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY BRACE AND
    LOWER ENGINE BAY BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 130
    FIGURE 78-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 131
    FIGURE 79-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 133XV
    FIGURE 80-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
    (PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
    0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 135
    FIGURE 81-SCENARIO OF CLOCKWISE & COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE APPLIED TO CHASSIS 34 137
    FIGURE 82-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR LEFT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 148
    FIGURE 83-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR RIGHT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 148
    FIGURE 84-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT LEFT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 149
    FIGURE 85-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT RIGHT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 149
    FIGURE 86-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR RIGHT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS . 150
    FIGURE 87-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR LEFT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 151
    FIGURE 88-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT RIGHT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 151
    FIGURE 89-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT LEFT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 152
    FIGURE 90-SETUP OF ANALYSIS WITH FRAME MODEL . 155
    FIGURE 91-SETUP OF TEST WITH MANUFACTURED FRAME . 155
    FIGURE 92-SETUP OF TORSIONAL TEST . 156
    FIGURE 93-INSTALLATION DIAGRAM OF ACCELEROMETERS . 165
    FIGURE 94-TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 181
    FIGURE 95-STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME 181
    FIGURE 96-DEFLECTED TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 181
    FIGURE 97-DEFLECTED STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME 182
    FIGURE 98-“STRESS SKIN” FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME 185
    FIGURE 99-“SPACEFRAME” FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME . 185
    FIGURE 100-BARE FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME . 186
    FIGURE 101-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH BARE FRAME MODEL 186
    FIGURE 102-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED BARE FRAME . 187
    FIGURE 103-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH “SPACEFRAME” FRAME MODEL 187
    FIGURE 104-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 188
    FIGURE 105-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME MODEL 188
    FIGURE 106- SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME 189
    FIGURE 107-SIMPLY SUPPORT BENDING TEST SETUP 190XVI
    FIGURE 108-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 1 212
    FIGURE 109-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 1 212
    FIGURE 110-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 1 . 212
    FIGURE 111-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 1 213
    FIGURE 112-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.1) OF CHASSIS 1 . 213
    FIGURE 113-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 2 214
    FIGURE 114-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 2 214
    FIGURE 115-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.3.9) OF CHASSIS 2 . 215
    FIGURE 116-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 2 . 215
    FIGURE 117-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 217
    FIGURE 118-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 217
    FIGURE 119-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 4 . 217
    FIGURE 120-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 218
    FIGURE 121-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 4 218
    FIGURE 122-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 4 218
    FIGURE 123-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 219
    FIGURE 124-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 5 220
    FIGURE 125-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 5 220
    FIGURE 126-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 5 221
    FIGURE 127-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 5 221
    FIGURE 128-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 6 222
    FIGURE 129-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 6 222
    FIGURE 130-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 6 223
    FIGURE 131-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 6 223
    FIGURE 132-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 224
    FIGURE 133-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 8 224
    FIGURE 134-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 8 225
    FIGURE 135-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 226
    FIGURE 136-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 226
    FIGURE 137-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 8 227XVII
    FIGURE 138-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 9 228
    FIGURE 139-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 9 228
    FIGURE 140-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 9 229
    FIGURE 141-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 11 231
    FIGURE 142-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 11 231
    FIGURE 143-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 11 231
    FIGURE 144-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 12 232
    FIGURE 145-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 12 232
    FIGURE 146-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 12 232
    FIGURE 147-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 13 234
    FIGURE 148-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 13 234
    FIGURE 149-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 13 234
    FIGURE 150-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 14 235
    FIGURE 151-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 14 235
    FIGURE 152-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 14 235
    FIGURE 153-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 15 236
    FIGURE 154-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 15 237
    FIGURE 155-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 15 237
    FIGURE 156-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 16 238
    FIGURE 157-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 16 238
    FIGURE 158-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 16 239
    FIGURE 159-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 17 240
    FIGURE 160-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 17 . 240
    FIGURE 161-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 17 241
    FIGURE 162-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 17 241
    FIGURE 163-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 18 242
    FIGURE 164-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 18 242
    FIGURE 165-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 18 243
    FIGURE 166-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 19 244
    FIGURE 167-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 19 244XVIII
    FIGURE 168-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 20 245
    FIGURE 169-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 20 245
    FIGURE 170-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 21 246
    FIGURE 171-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 21 247
    FIGURE 172-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 23 248
    FIGURE 173-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 23 249
    FIGURE 174-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 24 251
    FIGURE 175-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 24 251
    FIGURE 176-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 24 251
    FIGURE 177-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 25 252
    FIGURE 178-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 25 252
    FIGURE 179-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 25 252
    FIGURE 180-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 26 254
    FIGURE 181-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 26 254
    FIGURE 182-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 26 254
    FIGURE 183-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 27 256
    FIGURE 184-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 27 256
    FIGURE 185-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 27 256
    FIGURE 186-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 28 257
    FIGURE 187-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 28 257
    FIGURE 188-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 28 257
    FIGURE 189-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 29 259
    FIGURE 190-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 29 259
    FIGURE 191-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 29 259
    FIGURE 192-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 30 260
    FIGURE 193-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 30 260
    FIGURE 194-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 30 261
    FIGURE 195-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 30 261
    FIGURE 196-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 31 262
    FIGURE 197-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 31 262XIX
    FIGURE 198-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 32 263
    FIGURE 199-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 32 264
    FIGURE 200-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 33 265
    FIGURE 201-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 33 265
    FIGURE 202-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 34 266
    FIGURE 203-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 34 267
    List of Charts
    CHART 1-WORK CHART OF THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE CHASSIS FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR . 50
    CHART 2- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 84
    CHART 3-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 86
    CHART 4-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 88
    CHART 5-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 90
    CHART 6-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 92
    CHART 7-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 94
    CHART 8-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 96
    CHART 9-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 98
    CHART 10-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 101
    CHART 11-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 103
    CHART 12-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 105
    CHART 13-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 107
    CHART 14-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 108
    CHART 15-SPECIFIC SECOND MOMENT OF AREA OF EXTRUSION WITH RESPECT TO CROSS SECTION OF
    EXTRUSION . 110XXI
    CHART 16-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 113
    CHART 17-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 115
    CHART 18-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 117
    CHART 19-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 120
    CHART 20-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 122
    CHART 21-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 124
    CHART 22-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 127
    CHART 23-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 129
    CHART 24-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 132
    CHART 25-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 134
    CHART 26-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 136
    CHART 27-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 230
    CHART 28-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 230
    CHART 29-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 231
    CHART 30-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 232
    CHART 31-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 233XXII
    CHART 32-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 233
    CHART 33-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 234
    CHART 34-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 235
    CHART 35-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 236
    CHART 36-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 236
    CHART 37-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 237
    CHART 38-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 238
    CHART 39-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 239
    CHART 40-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 240
    CHART 41-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 241
    CHART 42-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 242
    CHART 43-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 243
    CHART 44-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 243
    CHART 45-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 244
    CHART 46-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 245
    CHART 47-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 246
    CHART 48-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 246
    CHART 49-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 247
    CHART 50-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 247
    CHART 51-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 248XXIII
    CHART 52-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    ORIENTATION OF BRACE 248
    CHART 53-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 250
    CHART 54-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 250
    CHART 55-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 251
    CHART 56-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 252
    CHART 57-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 253
    CHART 58-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 253
    CHART 59-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 255
    CHART 60-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 255
    CHART 61-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 256
    CHART 62-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 257
    CHART 63-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 258
    CHART 64-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 258
    CHART 65-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 259
    CHART 66-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 260XXIV
    CHART 67-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 261
    CHART 68-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 262
    CHART 69-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 263
    CHART 70-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 263
    CHART 71-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 264
    CHART 72-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 265
    CHART 73-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
    ELEMENT . 266
    CHART 74-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 266
    List of Graphs
    GRAPH 1-GRAPH OF OVERALL RACE CAR STIFFNESS VERSUS STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE
    CHASSIS [VIII] . 38
    GRAPH 2-GRAPH OF LATERAL LOAD TRANSFER OF A RACE CAR WITH THE SUSPENSION ROLL STIFFNESS OF
    5000 NM/DEG FOR 50:50 WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS [XIV] . 39
    GRAPH 3-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE CHASSIS 1 (CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 56
    GRAPH 4-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE CHASSIS 1 (COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE) 56
    GRAPH 5-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 60
    GRAPH 6-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 62
    GRAPH 7-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 64
    GRAPH 8-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 66
    GRAPH 9-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 69
    GRAPH 10-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 73
    GRAPH 11-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 75
    GRAPH 12-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 77
    GRAPH 13-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 81
    GRAPH 14-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 (CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 138
    GRAPH 15-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 (COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 138
    GRAPH 16-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 140
    GRAPH 17-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 141
    GRAPH 18-WEIGHT OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 142XXVI
    GRAPH 19-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 1 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT LONGITUDINAL LOCATION
    . 144
    GRAPH 20-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT LONGITUDINAL LOCATION
    . 145
    GRAPH 21-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 1 & CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT
    LONGITUDINAL LOCATION 146
    GRAPH 22-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS (CLOCKWISE TORQUE)
    . 153
    GRAPH 23-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS (COUNTERCLOCKWISE TORQUE) 153
    GRAPH 24-GRAPH OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL . 157
    GRAPH 25-GRAPH OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF MANUFACTURED FRAME 158
    GRAPH 26-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS
    . 166
    GRAPH 27-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG
    MASS . 167
    GRAPH 28-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS
    . 168
    GRAPH 29-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS
    . 169
    GRAPH 30-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)
    . 170
    GRAPH 31-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG
    MASS . 172
    GRAPH 32-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT RIGHT
    UNSPRUNG MASS . 173
    GRAPH 33-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG
    MASS . 174
    GRAPH 34-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR RIGHT
    UNSPRUNG MASS . 175XXVII
    GRAPH 35-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY
    (CG) . 176
    GRAPH 36-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 193
    GRAPH 37-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 195
    GRAPH 38-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 197
    GRAPH 39- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS & STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF
    THREE FRAMES 199
    GRAPH 40-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME 201
    GRAPH 41-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 203
    GRAPH 42-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 205
    GRAPH 43– SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS & STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF THREE
    FRAMES . 206
    GRAPH 44-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL 213
    GRAPH 45-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF THE CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 214
    GRAPH 46-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD 215
    GRAPH 47-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 216
    GRAPH 48-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 216
    GRAPH 49-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 217
    GRAPH 50-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD
    . 219
    GRAPH 51-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 220
    GRAPH 52-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP 221
    GRAPH 53-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 222
    GRAPH 54-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT 223XXVIII
    GRAPH 55-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 224
    GRAPH 56-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 225
    GRAPH 57-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 226
    GRAPH 58-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 227
    GRAPH 59-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 228
    GRAPH 60-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD 229
    GRAPH 61-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
    HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 229
    GRAPH 62-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL IN COUNTER-CLOCKWISE LOADING
    SCENARIO . 268
    GRAPH 63-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL IN CLOCKWISE LOADING SCENARIO. 269
    GRAPH 64-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 1) 269
    GRAPH 65-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 2) 270
    GRAPH 66-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 3) 270
    GRAPH 67-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 4) 271
    GRAPH 68-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 5) 271
    GRAPH 69-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 6) 272
    GRAPH 70- LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 288
    GRAPH 71-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 289
    GRAPH 72-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 290
    GRAPH 73-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 291
    GRAPH 74-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    RACE CAR AT THE CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) 292XXIX
    GRAPH 75-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 293
    GRAPH 76-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 294
    GRAPH 77-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 295
    GRAPH 78-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 296
    GRAPH 79-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
    RACE CAR AT THE CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) 297
    GRAPH 80-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 1) 298
    GRAPH 81-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 2) 299
    GRAPH 82-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 3) 300
    GRAPH 83-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 4) 301
    GRAPH 84-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 5) 302
    GRAPH 85-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 6) 303
    GRAPH 86-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 1) 304
    GRAPH 87-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 2) 305
    GRAPH 88-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 3) 306
    GRAPH 89-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 4) 307
    GRAPH 90-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 5) 308
    GRAPH 91-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 6) 309
    GRAPH 92-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 1) 310
    GRAPH 93-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 2) 311
    GRAPH 94-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 3) 312
    GRAPH 95-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 4) 313
    GRAPH 96-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 5) 314
    GRAPH 97-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 6) 315
    GRAPH 98-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 1) . 316
    GRAPH 99-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 2) . 317XXX
    GRAPH 100-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 3) . 318
    GRAPH 101-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 1) . 319
    GRAPH 102-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 2) . 320
    GRAPH 103-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 3) . 321
    GRAPH 104-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 1) . 322
    GRAPH 105-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 2) . 323
    GRAPH 106-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 3) . 324XXXI
    List of Equations
    EQUATION 1-EXPRESSION USED IN DESCRIBING IDEALIZED MODEL OF CHASSIS AND SUSPENSIONS OF
    FIGURE 21 AND PRODUCING GRAPH OF GRAPH 1 . 38XXXII
    List of Symbols
    KT = Structural torsional stiffness
    KTFM = Structural torsional stiffness of frame model
    KTMF = Structural torsional stiffness of manufactured frame
    KB = Structural bending stiffness
    F = Force applied
    L = Width of measurement
    Lm = Moment arm
    ϴ = Angular deflection
    y1 = Left vertical displacement
    y2 = Right vertical disp

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