Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures

Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures
اسم المؤلف
Alan Baker
التاريخ
14 نوفمبر 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures
Second Edition
Alan Baker
Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures, and Defence
Science and Technology Organisation, Department of Defenee, Australia
Stuart Dutton
Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures
Donald Kelly
University of New South Wales
Contents
Contributors
Chapter 1
Introduction and Overview
General
Drivers for Improved Airframe Materials
High-Performance Fiber Composite Concepts
Fiber Reinforcements
Matrices
Polymer Matrix Composites
Non-polymeric Composite Systems
Hybrid Metal/PMC Composites
References
Bibliography
Chapter 2
Basic Principles of Fiber Composite Materials
Introduction to Fiber Composite Systems
Micromechanical Versus Macromechanical
View of Composites
2.3 Micromechanics
2.4 Elastic Constants
2.5 Micromechanics Approach to Strength
2.6 Simple Estimate of Compressive Strength
2.7 Off-axis Strength in Tension
2.8 Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Composites
References
Chapter 3 Fibers for Polymer-Matrix Composites
3.1 Overview
3.2 Glass Fibers
3.3 Carbon Fibers
3.4 Boron Fibers
3.5 Silicon Carbide
3.6 Aramid Fibers
3.7 Orientated Polyethylene Fibers
3.8 Dry Fiber Forms
References
79xiv CONTENTS
Chapter 4 Polymeric Matrix Materials
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Thermoset and Thermoplastic Polymer Matrix Materials
4.3 Thermosetting Resin Systems
4.4 Thermoplastic Systems
References
Chapter 5 Component Form and Manufacture
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Outline of General Laminating Procedures
5.3 Laminating Procedures For Aircraft-Grade Composite
Components
5.4 Liquid Resin Molding Techniques
5.5 Filament Winding
5.6 Pultrusion
5.7 Process Modelling
5.8 Tooling
5.9 Special Thermoplastic Techniques
References
Chapter 6 Structural Analysis
6.1 Overview
6.2 Laminate Theory
6.3 Stress Concentration and Edge Effects
6.4 Failure Theories
6.5 Fracture Mechanics
6.6 Failure Prediction Near Stress Raisers and Damage Tolerance
6.7 Buckling
6.8 Summary
References
Chapter 7 Mechanical Property Measurement
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Coupon Tests
7.3 Laboratory Simulation of Environmental Effects
7.4 Measurement of Residual Strength
7.5 Measurement of Interlaminar Fracture Energy
References
Chapter 8 Properties of Composite Systems
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Glass-Fiber Composite Systems
8.3 Boron Fiber Composite Systems
8.4 Aramid Fiber Composite Systems
8.5 Carbon Fiber Systems
8.6 Properties of Laminates
262CONTENTS xv
Impact Damage Resistance
Fatigue of Composite Laminates
Environmental Effects
References
Chapter 9
Joining of Composite Structures
Introduction
Comparison Between Mechanically Fastened and
Adhesively Bonded Joints
Adhesively Bonded Joints
Mechanically Fastened Joints
References
Chapter 10
Repair Technology
Introduction
Assessment of the Need to Repair
Classification of Types of Structure
Repair Requirements
Non-patch Repairs
Patch Repairs: General Considerations
Bonded Patch Repairs
Materials Engineering Aspects
Application Technology: In Situ Repairs
Bolted Repairs
Materials Engineering Aspects
References
Chapter 11 Quality Assurance
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Quality Control
11.3 Cure Monitoring
11.4 Non-destructive Inspection of Advanced Composite
Aerospace Structures
11.5 Conclusion
References
Chapter 12
Aircraft Applications and Design Issues
Overview
Applications of Glass-Fiber Composites
Current Applications
Design Considerations
Design of Carbon-Fiber-Based Components
Design Methodologies
462xvi CONTENTS
12.7 A Value Engineering Approach to the Use of
Composite Materials
12.8 Conclusion
References
Chapter 13 Airworthiness Considerations For Airframe
Structures
13.1 Overview
13.2 Certification of Airframe Structures
13.3 The Development of Design Allowables
13.4 Demonstration of Static Strength
13.5 Demonstration of Fatigue Strength
13.6 Demonstration of Damage Tolerance
13.7 Assessment of the Impact Damage Threat
References
Chapter 14 Three-Dimensionally Reinforced Preforms and
Composites
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Stitching
14.3 Z-Pinning
14.4 Three-Dimensional Weaving
14.5 Braiding
14.6 Knitting
14.7 Non-crimp Fabrics
14.8 Conclusion
References
Chapter 15 Smart Structures
Chapter 16
Introduction
Engineering Approaches
Selected Applications and Demonstrators
Key Technology Needs
References
Knowledge-Based Engineering, Computer-Aided
Design, and Finite Element Analysis
16.1 Knowledge-Based Design Systems
16.2 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures
16.3 Finite Element Solution Process
16.4 Element Types
16.5 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures
16.6 Implementation
16.7 Design Optimization
References
569CONTENTS
Appendix Overview of Some Sensors and Actuators Used for
Smart Structure Applications
A.1 Piezoelectric Materials
A.2 Shape Memory Alloys
A.3 Optical Fiber Sensors
A.4 Electrorheological Fluids
A.5 Magnetostrictive Materials
A.6 Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems
A.7 Comparison Of Actuators
References
Index
Index
Accelerated testing, 226
Acoustic emission, 429
Acoustic excitation, 427
Acoustic impact, 430
Acoustic sensing, 417, 427
Acousto-ultrasonics, 429-30, 537
Active fiber composite system, 572
Actuators, 525, 527
smart structure applications, 578-9
Addition polymerization, 83
Adhesive spew, 312-13
Adhesive strength, strength analysis based
on, 382-3
Adhesively bonded joints, 63, 290-1,297
adhesive stress/strain behavior models,
298
advantages and disadvantages, 291
classification and applications, 293
complications, 297-8
configuration and analysis of single-lap
joint, 301
design/analysis of bonded lap joints,
296-8
design input parameters, 293
double-overlap joint, 305-13
overlap-length, balanced joint, 308
effects of defects in lap joints, 313-14
failure modes, 292-3
fatigue, 328-32
load-carrying, 294
load-transfer mechanisms in overlap
joints, 300-5
materials aspects, 319-23
moisture effects on, 332-6
overview, 292-5
properties required, 293-4
scarf joints, 317-19
model for analysis, 320
shear stress/length and shear strain/
length distribution in skin-doubler
joint, 303
skin-doubler joint
analysis, 302
with stepped ends, 305-6
step-lap joint, 314–17
manufacturing process, 317
stress analysis programs, 297
581
surface treatment, 336
types of joint, 295
Adhesives:
B-staged, 391
C-staged, 391
elastic model, 300-3
elastic/plastic model, 303-5
endurance testing, 329
film, 329
forms available, 321-2
fracture behavior, 326
fracture energy, 325-8
paste, 321,391
properties, 328
repair, 390-2
selection, 322-3
shear stress distribution in, 308
shear stress/length distribution in, 307
stress/strain properties, 298, 323-5
structural, 319-21
temperature effects, 331-2
Airborne Early Warning and Control
(AEW&C) military aircraft, 436
Airbus A300, fin box, 161
Airbus A380, 437
Aircraft applications, 435-47
cobonded blade stiffener, 446
common configurations, 443-7
fiber composite forms, 114
fixed wing civil aircraft, 436-8
fixed wing military aircraft, 438-42
integrally cured blade stiffener, 446
secondary bonded blade stiffener, 446
Aircraft wing covers, 497
Airframe materials:
drivers for improved, 3
properties assumed for, 468
weight ratios for, 471
Airframe structures, 1
certification, 480-2
certification tests, 481
growth in use of advanced composites, 2
Airworthiness, 477-89
certification requirements, 479
regulations, 477
use of term, 477
Aligned fiber sheets, 113582 INDEX
Aluminum2024 T3, 239-40
tension-tension fatigue results, 252
Aluminum7075 T6, 276
Aluminumalloy, 1, 11,440
crack growth in, 329
patches, 399
strength of, 451
tooling, 158-9
Aluminum/fiber composite hybrid laminate, 19
Aluminummatrix MMCs, 15
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 214, 218, 221-3,
234, 404-5
Amorphous structure, 83
Amorphous thermoplastic, 84
Angle-minus-loaded (AML) ply curve, 459
Anhydride-cured bisphenol A epoxies, 251
Antimony oxide, 98
ARALL, 19-20
Aramid/epoxy pre-preg laminates, 251
Aramid fiber composite systems, 249-57
applications, 250
costs, 241
cutting, drilling and machining, 251
fatigue resistance, 252
impact and ballistic properties, 254-5
manufacturing issues, 251
matrix systems, 251
mechanical properties, 251-3
pressure vessels and containment rings, 256
tensile and compression stress-strain
curves, 250
unidirection properties, 240
vibration damping, 255
Aramid fibers, 71
applications, 71
creep rate, 252-3
energy absorption during fracture,71
environmental effects, 253
failure by defibrillation process, 73
moisture absorption, 73
plastic behavior, 71
polymeric structure, 72
short-term creep, 73
stress rupture, 252-3
ultraviolet radiation, 73
Aramid/hybrid composites:
open-hole tensile strength, 257
properties of, 256-7
Aromatic rings, 83
Arrhenius-type equation, 152
Aspect ratio, 23
Autoclave, 126
Autoclave cycle, 127
Autoclave molds, 128
processing problems, 128-30
Automated tape layers (ATL), 123
Automated tow placement (ATP), 123
AV8B aircrai~,441
Average stress criterion, 206, 340
Bagging process, 116, 124-5
Ballistic properties, aramid fiber composites,
254-5
Barely visibleimpact damage (BVID), 229,
264, 273, 370-I, 455-8
fatigue strength, 274
fatigue studies, 371
residual strength, 265–6
Bearing/bypass experiments for tension or
compression loading, 354
Bearing/bypass interaction under tensile
loading, 354
Bearing failure in mechanically fastened
joints, 344-5
Bearing strength:
function of temperature, 347
vs. clamp-up pressure, 345
BeechcraR Starship, 438, 506
Bending:
of orthotropic plate, 190
of simply-supported beam, 189
of symmetric laminates, 188-90
Bending load, 186-90
Bending stiffness, 190
Benzoyl peroxide (BzP), 100
Bird strikes, 458
Bismaleimide resins (BMIs), 9, 87,
103-5
4,4-Bismaleimidodiphenylmethane,104
Bisphenol A-epichorohydrin (DGEBA)
resins, 92, 94
Block copolymer, 82
Boeing B777, 437
Bolted joints, 290
advantages and disadvantages, 291
combined with adhesively bonded
joints, 365
optimization of load sharing, 357
ply configuration in, 339–40
see also Mechanically fastenedjoints
Bolted repairs, 395-8
laminates, 399
Bonded joints, 362, 450
damage growth for, 484
Boron/aluminumcomposite, 14-15
Boron fiber composite systems, 247-9
aircrafi application, 248-9
costs, 241
handling and processing properties, 248
mechanical properties, 248
overview, 247-8
repair material for defective metallic
structures, 249
unidirectional properties, 240INDEX 583
Boron fibers, 67-9, 448
anelastic deformation, 69
coating, 69
forms available, 248
manufacture, 68
properties of, 68
Borsic, 69
Boundary layer, 184-5
Braiding, 78, 113-14, 448, 507-15
applications, 512
design of composites, 511
four-step (or row-and-column), 513
manufacturing issues, 510-11
mechanical properties, 511- 12
multi-layer interlock, 513
patterns produced by, 510
research and development, 509-10
three-dimensional
applications, 515
architecture, 513
in-plane properties, 514
mechanical properties, 514-15
out-of-plane properties, 515
process, 512-14
two-dimensional process, 508-10
two-step, 513
Braiding machine, 508-9
Branched polymers, 82
Brick elements, 564-5
B-staged epoxy pre-preg, 117-18
Buckling:
fibers, 208
laminates, 190, 207-8
specimen, 218
Buckling modes, 44
extensional mode, 42-5
shear mode, 42-5
unidirectional composite, 45
CAD/CAM, 510
Carbon/aluminum alloy composites, 14
Carbon/carbon composites, 13, 18-19
Carbon-epoxy composites, 11
allowable design range, 462
AS4/3501-6, 276
curing, 126
impact energy for, 264
patch repairs, 398
Carbon-epoxy laminates:
impact damage, 455
off-axis, 176
polyimide coated fiber in, 533
strength of, 451
Carbon fiber-based components, design
considerations, 449-62
Carbon fiber composite systems, 257-61
applications, 257
compression, 260-1
deformation, 261
effect of matrix and fiber/matrix bond
strength, 260-1
intra and interlaminar properties, 261
matrix systems, 258
mechanical properties, 257, 259
PAN-based, 257-8
tension, 260-1
unidirectional properties, 240
Carbon fiber/epoxy composites, 1
fatigue-life diagram, 269
rib, 122
tension-tension cycling, 268
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), 13
Carbon fiber reinforcements, 258
Carbon fiber tows, 149
Carbon fibers, 6, 14, 448
adhesion, 260
bonding, 260
high modulus (HM, Type I), 63-4
high strength (HS, Type II), 63-4
manufacture, 63-4
PAN-based, 64-6
pitch-based, 66-7
properties of major types, 64
strength and stiffness, 65
strength distribution, 39
structure, 67
surface treatments, 260
Carbon/magnesium alloy composites, 14
Carbon matrices, 12
Carbon nanotubes, 6
Carbonization process, 64-5
Carboxy-terminated butadiene nitrile
rubber (CTBN), 96
CATIA V5 software, 550
Ceramic fibers, 56
Ceramic materials, piezoelectric, 571-2
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs),
11-13, 17-19
Chain configurations, 81
Characteristic damage state (CDS), 270
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 6,
12-14, 68-9
Coatings, glass fibers, 62-3
Cocuring:
carbon/epoxy wing structure, 129
complex components, 128
concept of, 161
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), 127,
131, 158-9
see also Longitudinal expansion
constants; Transverse expansion
coefficient
Combined countersinking, 132
Combined loading and environmental
conditioning, 226584 INDEX
Commercial Modelling Systems, 551
Compliance calibration (CC) method,
233-4
Component form and manufacture, 113-69
Composite honeycomb, 115
Composite systems:
properties of, 239-87
unidirectional properties of, 240
Composites and metals, critical difference
between, 478
Compression:
carbon-fiber composites, 260-1
coupon tests, 217-20
Compression after impact (CAI) strength, 229
for stitched and unstitched laminates, 495
Compression fatigue, 273
Compression molding, 116, 167
Compression residual strength for XAS/914C
laminate, 275
Compression strength:
and damage diameter, 228
simple estimate, 42-5
temperature effect on, 461
Compression testing:
failure modes in, 220
fixture for, 231
open-hole, 218
Compressive matrix failure, 197
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 549,
568-9
Computer modelling, 131
Condensation polyimides, 105
Condensation polymerization, 83
Consolidation model, 155-6
Contiguity concept used for semi-empiricalelasticity solutions, 35
Continuous matrix, 113
Control surface, “hinged” and “hingeless”, 543
Copolymer, 82
Core-crashing, 130
Corrosion prevention, 364
Cost estimates for design optimization, 568-9
Cost issues, 1, 3
Cost/performance trade-offs, 467-9
Cost value analysis of weight-saving,
469-74
Costs of high-temperature thermoplastic
materials, 447
Countersinking, 361
Coupling agents, 63
Coupon tests, 482
design of program, 227-30
tension, 216-17
variabilities encountered in, 215
Crack bridging, 51
Crack growth:
aluminum alloys, 329
direction of, 52
Crack opening modes, 204, 232
Crack propagation, 52
energetic requirement for, 49
mode II, 330
under loading, 329
unidirectional composites, 48-9
Crack turning or splitting, 52
Cracked-lap shear (CLS) specimen, 236
Creep rate, aramid fibers, 252-3
Critical transfer length, 38
Cross-linked polymers, 82
Cross-ply composites, tension fatigue, 270-1
Cross-ply laminates, tensile strength, 262-3
Cross-sectional laminates, 533
Crystalline regions, 83-4
Crystalline thermoplastic, 84
Cumulative damage, Rosen model of, 39-42
Cure monitoring, 408-13
acoustic methods, 411
displacement transducers, 412-13
electrical measurements, 409-10
optical methods, 412
pressure and compaction sensors, 412-13
sensor placement, 408-9
techniques and their performance, 413
thermal properties, 412
Curing process, 83, 125-8
modelling, 152-3
polyester resins, 99-100
see also Cocuring
Cutting room, 119-20
Cyanate ester, cross-linked, 107
Cyanate ester monomer, 107
Cyanate resins, 106-7
curing chemistry, 106
properties, 106-7
Cyclic loading, 484
tests, 213
Cyclic phosphine oxide, 98
Damage detection/monitoring, 528,
533-4, 536-7
see also Impact damage
Damage diameter and compression
strength, 228
Damage effects on design allowables,484
Damage growth, 275-6
bonded joints, 484
due to fatigue, 478, 483-4
prediction, 458
Damage in service:
major types, 370
sources of, 369
Damage mitigation, 540-3
Damage tolerance, 204-7, 478-9
demonstration of, 487
effect of stitching, 494INDEX 585
general requirement, 480
improvements, 458-60
laminates, 207, 457
Darcy’s law, 140, 153–4
DASH-8 aircrat~, 534
Debagging, 131
Defects during manufacture and service, 228
Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA), 541
Deformation, carbon-fiber composites, 261
Degree of contiguity, 33
Degree of crystallinity, 83-4
Delamination, 185, 194, 232, 264, 275
fracture toughness, 460
injection repairs, 375-7
sources, 452
suppression of, 495-6
Delamination growth, 195
Delamination pattern, 265
Delta wing unmanned aerial vehicles, 543
Design allowables, 227
aircraft structures, 482-4
influence of damage, 484
Design considerations, 447-53
carbon-fiber-based components, 449-62
choice of materials, 447-8
general guidelines, 448-9
Design methodologies, 462-6
Design optimization, 568-9
cost estimates for, 568-9
Design process:
automation, 551,568
outline, 464
Design systems:
knowledge-based, 549-51
structural component, 551
Destructive tests, 407-8
DGEBA, 92, 94
Diaminodiphenylmethane precursor, 104
Diaphragm forming:
in autoclave, 166
in mold, 166
process, 122
thermoplastic composites, 165-6
Dielectric loss factor and cure temperature
vs. time, 410
Dielectrometry, 409-10
Diffusion bonding, 11
Diffusion coefficient, 333
Diffusion constant, 279
Diffusion of moisture s e e Moisture diffusion
Diluents, 94
Disbond growth under cyclic loading
conditions, 330
Disbond propagation, 329
Distortion, 130
process-induced, 156-7
Double-cantilever-beam (DCB) specimens,
233
Drape test, 405
Drill-bit configuration, 132
Drilling, 131-2
Durability allowables, 483
Durability/economic requirement, 480-1
Edge crack torsion test (ECT), mode III, 237
Edge effects, 192-4
Edge-notched flexural specimen, 331
Effective stress concetration factor, 342
E-glass composites, costs, 242
E-glass fibers, 241,435
stress rupture strength of, 246
E-glass laminates, 435
E-glass/vinyl ester knitted composites, 518
E-glass/vinyl ester three-dimensional
orthogonal weave, 504
Elastic constants:
direct approaches, 33
energy approach, 32-3
mechanics of materials approach, 26-31
theory of elasticity approach, 32-5
Elastic modulus, silicon carbide, 70
Electrical conduction, measurement of, 410-11
Electro-discharge machining (EDM), 578
Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT),
424
Electrorheological fluids, 577
Embroidery, 498
producing local, optimized reinforcement,
498
End-loaded split (ELS) specimen, 235-6
End-notched flexure (ENF) specimen, 235-6
Energy release rate, 52
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU), 297
ENSTAFF, 226
Environmental effects, 460, 478-9, 484-5, 533
aramid fibers, 253
glass-fiber composites, 246-7
laboratory simulation, 225-6
mechanical properties, 276-86
Epoxy-nitrile film adhesives, 328
Epoxy resins, 87-98, 258
additives, 94
advantages and disadvantages, 98
anomalies in behavior, 97
curing, 92-4
flame retardants, 97-8
formulating with, 94
fracture energy, 96
moisture sensitivity, 96-7
properties, 9
pultmsion, 147586 INDEX
structural I-beam, 149
thermal resistance, 97-8
toughening, 95
use in aerospace composite matrices, 92
Expansion constants ctUlu and ctU2u, 33-5
Experimental validation, process modelling,
157
Extended airframe life, 530-1
Extensional bending stiffness matrix, 188
Extensional modulus off-axis laminate, 176
F-15 aircraft, 543
F-18 E/F aircraft, 1-2, 440
F-22 aircratL 440
F-35 aircraft, 506
FAA AC 20-107A document, 479
Fabrics:
orientations, 151
tensile testing, 404
see also Weaving
Failure, in laminates, 194
Failure categories, weight ratio equations
for, 470
Failure criterion, 195–6
Failure loci in composites, 326
Failure modes, 86, 325-6
adhesively bonded joints, 292-3
compression testing, 220
cyclic loading, 331-2
mechanically fastened joints, 338
tensile testing, 217
weight-saving as function of, 467-9
Failure prediction:
comparison of models, 202-3
near stress raisers, 204-7
Failure strain, lay-up effect on, 459
Failure stresses for circular holes,
comparison of predicted and
experimental, 206
Failure theories, 194-203
stress-based, 195-9
Fasteners:
for composites, 361-2
metallic, 362
non-metallic, 362
Fatigue:
adhesively bonded joints, 328-32
damage growth due to, 478, 483-4
Fatigue cycling, 230
Fatigue damage:
changes in stiffness and residual
strength due to, 272
laminates, 271
Fatigue design allowables, 483-4
Fatigue life, 487
Fatigue-life curves for tension-tension
loading, 244
Fatigue-life diagrams, 268-70
Fatigue loading, 230-1
fi’cquency effect, 272-3
mechanically fastened joints
loaded holes, 360
open holes, 359-60
thermography, 232
Fatigue performance, 224-5
glass/epoxy composites, 243-4
glass-fiber systems, 243-5
stitched composites, 496
Fatigue resistance:
aramid composites, 252
laminates, 266-76
testing, 267
Fatigue strength:
alternate load path, 480
and BVID, 274
demonstration of, 486-7
fail-safe approaches, 480
safe life approach, 480
slow crack growth approach, 480
Fatigue studies, BVID, 371
Fatigue tests, 477, 483
full-scale, 486
Fiber architecture, z-direction, 491
Fiber Bragg grating sensor, 534-5, 575-6
Fiber buckling, 208
Fiber bundles, chain of, 40, 43
Fiber composites:
basic principles, 23-54
classification, 24
constituents, 23
forms, structure and application, 75-6, 114
macromechanics, 23
micromechanics, 23-6
typical models for exact elasticity solutions,
34
Fiber crimping, 7
Fiber-dominated properties, 461
Fiber debonding, 49, 51
Fiber directions, tailoring, 5
Fiber fractures:
ineffective length at break, 41
perturbation of stress in adjacent fiber, 41
vs. fraction of ultimate composite strength,
40
Fiber/matrix bond strength, 38
Fiber/matrix debonding, 38
Fiber/matrix interaction, 38
Fiber/matrix interface, 4, 49
Fiber/matrix stiffness ratio, 267
Fiber orientation, 5, 113, 182
Fiber reinforcement, 6-7, 113
resin flow through, 153-5
Fiber stress, 44
Fiber types:
maximum operating temperature, 58-9INDEX 587
mechanical properties, 58-9
vs. specific strength, 56-7
Fiber volume fraction, 36, 56-7, 155-6
Fiber waviness, 144
Fibers:
compressive failure, 197
dry forms, 74-9
flaws in, 55, 61
manufacturing processes, 55
microbuckling of, 218
polymer, 56
for polymer-matrix composites, 55-80
testing, 403-4
see also specific fiber types
Fickian/non-Fickian diffusion, 278, 333
Fick’s first law of diffusion, 278
Fick’s second law of diffusion, 278
Fictive temperature, 60
Fighter aircraft:
structural breakdown, 469
value indices for, 473
Filament winding, 113-14, 140-5
applications, 144-5
basic machine, 141-2
design and properties of structures, 144
design of mandrels, 142
materials, 142-4
overview, 140
thermoplastics, 143-4, 164
thermosets, 143
winding patterns, 142, 144
Filled-hole tension (FHT), 459
Filler repairs, 374
Fillers, inert, 95
Film adhesives, 321-2
for repair work, 391
Finishes, 63
Finishing, 131
Finite element analysis (FEA), 184, 330,
453, 549, 552
1-D example, 554
element types, 562-3
element types in element library, 561
Finite element modelling (FEM), 171,
481,552-3
basic steps, 554-62
composite structures, 563-6
implementation, 566-7
plate and shell elements, 564-6
wing spoiler, 553
Finite element solution process, 553-62
First invariant strain criterion for matrix
failure, 201
First ply failure (FPF), 194-5, 262, 270
Flammability, 479
Flat panel molding, 167
Flaws in fibers, 55, 61
Flexibilizers, 95
Flexible mandrels, 161
Flexure tests, 220-2
four-point bending, 221
three-point bending, 221
Flow control, 541-2
Forming:
mapping or kimematic approach, 150-1
mechanics approach, 151
process, 113
process modelling, 150-1
Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), 97
Fracture behavior:
brittle fiber/brittle matrix composite, 50
brittle fiber/ductile matrix composite, 50
Fracture energy:
adhesives, 325-8
joint strength estimation based on, 327-8
Fracture energy/area method, 234-5
Fracture mechanics, 49-52, 195, 203-4
design of joints, 327
Fracture mechanics-type lap joint tests, 329
Fracture surface energy, 47-9
Fracture toughness:
Mode I, 518
unidirectional composites, 47-52
Full-scale tests, 230-1,485-6
Fusion repairs for thermoplastics, 376
Gating, 135
Gause Error Function, 334
GLARE, 19-20
Glass-ceramic matrices, 12
Glass/epoxy composites:
fatigue performance, 243
fatigue performance of, 244
Glass fiber composites, 435–6
costs, 241
environmental effects, 246-7
fatigue performance, 243-5
impact strength, 245
mechanical properties, 241-7
stress effects, 246
tensile strength, 243
unidirectional properties, 240
Young’s modulus, 242
Glass fibers:
chemical composition, 62
coatings, 62-3
effect of flaws, 61
E-glass, 62
manufacture, 57-61
S-glass, 62
types, 61-2
Glass matrices, 12
Glass/polyester systems:
EUlu versus VUfu,29
EU2u versus VUfu,30588 INDEX
Glass transition temperature, 84-5, 194, 460
Glassy state, 94
Graft copolymer, 82
Graphite, 63
Graphitisation, 66
Griffith equation, 51
Gurney and Hunt critical strain energy
release state, 233
Hardwood, 160
Harrier aircraft, 440
Hashin-Rotem failure criterion, 197
Health and usage monitoring system
(HUMS), 528-9
Heat transfer, process modelling, 152-3
Heating/pressure cycles, 127
Helical winding, 142
Helicopters, 443
High modulus polyethylene fibers, 73
High-performancefiber composite concepts, 3-6
Hi-Nicalon, 71
Hole preparation, 362-3
Hole-strengthening procedures, 363-4
Holography, 417, 427
Homopolymer, 82
Honeycomb construction, 115, 445
Honeycomb core, 130
Honeycomb panel, 445
moisture problems, 394
scarf repairs, 385
Honeycomb sandwich structures, 445, 506
Honeycomb structures:
external patch repairs, 381
repair, 369, 375
Hot-melt film pre-pregging process, 118
Hot-pressing, 11, 87
Humidity and moisture uptake, 280
Hy-Bor, 248
Hybrid metal/PMC composites, 19-20
Hydrogen bonding, 72
Hydroxyl group reaction, 93
Illinois Institute of Technology Research
Institute (IITRI) method, 218
Impact damage, 453-7
assessment of threat, 487-8
assumptions, 456
carbon/epoxy laminates, 455
categories, 454-6
effect of stitching, 494
and residual strength, 457
resistance, 263-4
strength loss associated with, 457
XAS/914C laminate, 265
Impact energy:
carbon/epoxy composites, 264
dropped tools, 454
vs. residual compression strength, 266
Impact energy absorption of composite and
non-composite materials, 246
Impact properties, aramid fiber composites,
254-5
Impact strength of glass-fiber systems, 245
Improved operations, 528-31
In-plane elastic properties, 215
In-plane shear modulus, 23, 31
In-plane stiffness matrix, 179
Inspection, 407-8
Intellectual property (IP), 551
Interracial strength degradation due to
moisture absorption, 335–6
Interlaminar failure, 199
Interlaminar fracture energy, measurement
of, 231-7
Interlaminar fracture resistance, 232
Interlaminar fracture test:
mixed mode, 236
mode I, 233
mode II, 235-6
mode IIl, 237
Interlaminar fracture toughness, area
method, 235
Interlaminar shear failure, 198
Interlaminar shear stress, 194, 260
Interlaminar strength, 199
Interlaminar tension, 198
Intermediate forms, 162-3
Interphase, 7
Invar tooling, 159
Iosipescu test, 222
Iron-based matrix, 16
Joining of composite structures, 289-368
adhesively bonded joints, 292-336
design parameters, 290
joint types, 289
multiple load path joints, 290
overview, 289-90
quality control, 290
single load path joints, 289-90
techniques, 1
see also Adhesively bonded joints;
Bolted joints; Mechanically
fastened joints; Riveted joints
Joint Airworthiness Authority (JAA), 456
Joint Airworthiness Committee, 477
Joint Strike Fighter aircrafi, 440, 442
KBE tools, 569
Kevlar fibers, 71-2, 255, 448
physical and mechanical properties, 71
see also Aramid fiberINDEX 589
Kevlar-49, 254
moisture absorption, 73
Kevlar-49/epoxy, tension-tension fatigue
results, 252
Kevlar-49/epoxy composites, 249
Kevlar-149, moisture absorption, 73
Kink band formation, 218
Knitting, 515-19
applications, 518-19
in-plane properties, 517-18
mechanical properties, 517-18
out-of-plane properties, 518
structural modelling, 564
weft and warp, 516
Knitting machines, 517
Knockdown factor, 229, 231,464-6
compression residual strength, 465
for tension- and compression-dominated
fatigue spectrum loading, 466
Knowledge-based design systems, 549-51
Knowledge-based engineering (KBE),
549-69
application, 550
Kozeny-Carman equation, 156
Kozeny constant, 156
Ladder polymers, 82
Lamina, 171
failure criterion, 198
Laminate axes, 171
for single ply, 174
Laminate codes, 185~5
Laminate stiffness matrix, 177-9
Laminate strength, 215
Laminate thickness, 177, 184
Laminated plates, buckling of, 190
Laminates, 52, 114
bolted repair, 399
buckling, 190, 207-8
compression after impact (CAI) strength
for stitched and unstitched, 495
cross-plied, 262
damage tolerance, 207, 457
failure in, 194
fatigue damage, 271
fatigue resistance, 266-76
loaded hole strength, 343
mois~tre problems, 393-4
oahotropic in bending, 188-9
orthotropic ply material for, 564
performance of, 450
properties of, 262-3
quasi-isotropic, 183, 496
SIFT applied to, 202
stitched, 495
stress-based failure theories, 198-9
stress concentration factors, 450
stress-strain law for, 179
subjected to plane stress and bending
loads, 186–90
symmetric and non-symmetric eight-ply, 177
tests, 405
with unloaded holes, stress concetrations
in, 340-5
Laminating:
procedures, 115-32
woven cloth, 113
Laminiates:
theory, 172-90
assumptions, 172
Laser beam ultrasound, 424
Laser cutting, 120-1
Lay-up, 171, 181,450
automated, 122-4
effect on failure strain, 459
process, 121
under vacuum, 126
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), 571
Life extension, 528
Lightning effects, 461-2
Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM),
265
Linear molecules, 82
Linear polymers, 82, 84-5
Liquid molding, 113
Load measurement, 216
Load monitoring, 533-4
Load transfer behavior, metals vs.
composites, 353
Loaded hole strength of laminates, 343
Lockheed Martin air inlet duct, 506
Longitudinal expansion coefficient, 34
Longitudinal modulus, 23, 26, 32
LSDYNA, 266
Magnetostrictive materials, 577
Major Poisson’s ratio, 23, 31
Mandrels, 161-2
Manufacturing defects, 453
Matched-die molding, 116-17
Material axes for single ply, 172
Material behavior, linear and non-linear, 559
Material control, 406-7
Matrix, 7-13, 81
ceramics, 11-13, 17-19
chemical changes, 286
cracking, 194
economic production, 8
functions, 81
manufacture, 9
metals, 10-11, 13-16
polymers, 8-10, 81
softening, 460
toughness, 8590 INDEX
Matrix-dominated properties, 81
Matrix equation, 556
Matrix failure envelopes, 202
Matrix materials, 81-112
overview, 87-8
properties of, 91
thermoplastics, 86-8
thermosets, 86-8
see also specific materials
Matrix plastic deformation, 49, 51
Mats, 77
Maximum strain failure envelope, 200
Maximum stress theory, 195
MD Explorer, 444
Mechanical properties:
environmental effects, 276-86
measurement, 213-38
moisture effect, 282-4
temperature effect, 282-4
see also specific materials
Mechanical testing:
machines for, 214
objectives, 213
special requirements for composites, 214-15
standardization, 214
types, 213-14
Mechanically fastened joints, 290-1,337-65
allowable strain and joint efficiency for
multi-row and single fastener
composite joints under tensile loading,
356
allowable stresses, 339
beating failure in, 344-5
combined with adhesively bonded joints,
365
component alignment, 364-5
design considerations, 337-40
design criteria for failure of single-hole
joints under static tensile loads, 340-6
double-lap bolted joint used to obtain test
data, 341
double-shear joints, 360-1
failure modes, 338
general materials engineering aspects, 361-5
loaded holes, fatigue loading for, 360
multi-row joints, 349-59
open holes, fatigue loading for, 359-60
shear-out failure, 345-6
single fastener joint loading efficiency
in compression, 348-9
in tension, 347-8
single-shear joints, 360-1
tension failure in, 342
see also Bolted joints; Joining of composite
structures
Medium-density fiberboard (MDF), 160
Mesophase (MP) based fibers, 66-7
Metal dies, 168
Metal mandrels, 162
Metal-matrix composites (MMCs), 10-11,
13-16
Metallic honeycomb, 115
Metals and composites, critical difference
between, 478
Methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP), 100
Micro-buckling of fibers, 208, 218
Micro-cracking, 262
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS),
527, 577-8
shear stress sensors, 543
technology, 543-4
Micro-electro-opto-mechanical systems
(MEOMS), 527
Micro-Fiber Composite system, 572
Micromechanics:
approach to strength, 36–42
finite-element (F-E) approach, 25
mechanics of materials approach, 25
theory of elasticity approach, 25
Micro-sloughing, 147
MIL-HDBK 17, 214-15, 223, 226, 284
Modified beam theory (MBT) method, 234
Modified compliance calibration (MCC)
method, 234
Moisture absorption, 277-80, 332-6, 478-9
and relative humidity, 280
Moisture concentration gradient, 278
Moisture conditioning, 225-6
Moisture diffusion, 277-8, 280, 333-5
Moisture effects:
on adhesively bonded joints, 332-6
on mechanical properties, 282-4
Moisture exposure, 460-1
Moisture flux, 278
Moisture problems, 393-4
honeycomb panel, 394
laminates, 393-4
Moisture uptake:
and humidity, 280
concentration, 279
vs. root time, 278
Molecular chains, 83
Molecular configuration, 82
Molecular weight, 85
Multi-functional structures, 543-4
Multi-layered fabrics, 519
Multi-row joints, 349-59
optimum design, 357-9
Network formation, 83
Nicalon:
applications, 71
creep resistance, 71
properties, 70
resistivity, 71INDEX 591
Nickel, electroplated or electroformed
tooling, 159
Nickel-titanium alloy, 573
Non-crimp fabrics, 78-9, 519-23
Non-destructive inspection (NDI), 290, 374,
392, 407, 414-30, 486
common defects found, 415
current technologies, 418
emerging technologies, 422-30
miscellaneous techniques, 416-17
optical methods, 427
requirements for quality assurance, 414
see also specific techniques
Non-polymeric composite systems, 13-19
Non-woven fabrics, 77
Notch-sensitive and notch-insensitive
behavior, 53
Notched/unnotched strength ratio, 206
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 97
Nylon, 72
Occupational health and safety (OH&S)
concems, 115
Off-axis laminates, 174-6
Off-Axis tensile shear test, 223
Off-axis tension, 45-7
resolution of forces and areas, 46
Open die molding, 115-16
Open-hole compression (OHC), 459
Open-hole compression strength, 282
effect of temperature and temperature
and moisture, 283
Open-hole compression testing, 218
Open-hole knockdown factors, 464
Optical fiber buffer coatings, 574
Optical fiber sensors, 533-4, 574-7
connection systems, 534
Optical fiber systems, earliest uses, 534
Optimization algorithms, 568
Orthotropic laminates, 179-80
moduli of, 180-3
stress analysis, 183-5
stress concentration around holes, 191-2
stress-strain law, 180
Orthotropic material, 173
Orthotropic panel under uniform tension,
reference axes for hole in, 205
Orthotropic plate, bending of, 190
Orthotropic ply material for laminates, 564
Orthotropic stress concentration factor, 205
Outdoor exposure, real-time, 280-1
Outer mold line (OML), 158
Painting, 131
PAMFORM, 151
PAMSHOCK, 266
PAN-based carbon-fiber composites, 257-8
PAN fibers, 64-6
Partial impregnation, 163
Particulate MMCs, 16-17
Paste adhesives, 321
two-part, 391
Patch repairs:
adhesives, 390-2
basic approaches, 377
bolted, 397-8, 400-1
bonded, 379-90
carbon/epoxy, 398
design approaches, 379-80
external, 380-6
general considerations, 377-9
installation, 399-401
joint configuration, 380
materials, 390-2
modified load path: 2D effects, 384-5
requirements for, 378
scarf, 385-9
titanium alloy, 398-9
vacuum bag assembly for, 395
Patching techniques, 373-4
s e e also Smart patch
Peel-strength limitation in double overlap
joint, 310-12
Peel stresses, 193-4, 453
methods for alleviating, 312
Phenolic resins, 101-3
advantages and disadvantages, 102-3
cross-linked, 102
pre-polymers, 102
pultrusion, 146-7
Phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI), 106
Photoelastic fringe patterns, 542
Piezoelectric ceramic actuators, 539-40
Piezoelectric ceramic sensor, 538
Piezoelectric materials, 571-2
Piezoelectric properties, 572
Piezoelectric sensor network, 539
Piezotransducers, 536-7
stress-wave concept, 536-7
Pitch-based fibers, 66-7
properties, 67
Plane stress, 186-90
symmetric laminates, 176-86
Ply-by-ply model, 389
Ply configuration, 6, 331,449
in bolted joints, 339-40
Ply coordinates in thickness direction, 178
Ply orientations, 182
Ply/ply interface, 272
Ply stack for wing rib, 120
Ply strain compatibility, 193
PMR-15, 105, 107
Point strain, 465
Point stress criterion, 206, 341592 INDEX
Poisson’s ratio, 23, 31, 173, 180, 183,
192, 216, 267
Polar winding, 142
Polyacrylonitriles e e PAN
Polyaryl sulfone (PAS), 111
Polycarbonsilanepolymer, 70
Polyester resins, 98-100
advantages and disadvantages, 100
curing, 99-100
fire retardant formulations, 99
initiators, 100
pultrusion, 146
types, 99
unsaturated, 98
Polyether sulfone (PES), 111
Polyetheretherketone(PEEK), 9, 20, 87, 109,
251,258, 447
molecular structure, 109
Polyetherimide (PEI), 112, 115, 447
Polyetherketone (PEK), 9, 87, 109
Polyetherketoneketone(PEKK), 109
Polyethylenefibers, 73-4
high toughness, 74
oriented, 73-4
temperature limitations, 73
tensile properties, 73
Polyfluoroethylene(PTFE) film, 235
Polyimide, 9
Polyimide coated fiber in carbon/epoxy
laminate, 533
Polyimide resins, 104–6
advantages and disadvantages, 106
matrices, 87, 105
molecular structure, 111-12
Polyketones, 109
Polymer branching, 82
Polymer matrix composites (PMCs), 13
embedded approach, 527
properties, 81
resistance to interlaminar fracture, 231
Polymeric materials:
mechanical properties, 83-6
overview, 81-3
structure, 83-6
Polymerizablemonomeric reactant (PMR) type
polyimides, 105
Polymerizationprocess, 83
Polymethacrylimide(PMI) polyimide foams,
115
Poly pam-phenylene terphalamide (PPD-T), 72
Polyphenylenesulfide (PPS), 109-10, 258, 447
Polysulfone (PSU), 111, 251
Polyurethane modelling board, 160
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 62-3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 115
Post-buckling performance, 566-7
Potting repairs, 374
Precursors, 56, 83
preforms, 7
permeability, 134
Premier 1 fuselage, 438
Pre-preg, 87, 113
chemical tests, 405
cutting and knitting, 119-21
dispensing machines, 115
materials, 158, 392
production, 118-19
tests, 404
thickness for unidirectional materials, 119
transport and storage, 119
Pre-preg stacks, automated forming, 121-2
Primary Adhesively Bonded Structure
Technology (PABST)program, 294
Primary amine-epoxy reaction, 93
Primers, 63
Process control, 407
Process modelling, 149-57
advanced composites, 150
curing, 152-3
experimental validation, 157
forming, 150-1
heat transfer, 152-3
overview, 149-50
pultrusion, 153
reinforcement stacks, 150-1
residual stress, 156-7
Process verification, 406-7
Processors, 525, 527
Proof tests, 486
PTFE film, 235
Pull-out, 49, 51
Pultrosion, 113-14, 145-9
applications, 149
docking system, 148-9
epoxy resins, 147
in-feed system, 147
key stages, 147
overview, 145-6
phenolic resins, 146-7
polyester resin, 146
process modelling, 153
pulling system, 148-9
reinforcements, 146
thermal equilibrium, 148
thermoplastics, 165
thermosets, 165
tooling system, 147-8
transient time, 147
Pultrusion Dynamics Technology Center, 148
PVDF polymer films, 572
Quality assurance, 403-33
Quality control, 403-8
raw materials, 403-6
Quasi-isotropic laminates, 183, 496INDEX 593
R ratio, 267, 273
Race-tracking, 135, 137
Radiography, 416, 422
real time, 424
Rail shear test, 222
Random copolymer, 82
Ratio of joint strength to basic laminate
strength vs. ratio of bolt diameter to
strip width, 343
Reduced stiffness coefficients, 173
Regular copolymer, 82
Reinforcement:
consolidation of, 155-6
materials, 448
pultrusion, 146
Reinforcement stacks, process modelling,
150-1
Relative humidity and moisture absorption,
280
Repair:
application technology, 394-5
assessment, 369–71
classification of types of structure, 371
in situ, 394-5
joint preparation, 392-3
materials engineering aspects, 390–4,
398-401
non-patch, 373-7
requirements, 371-3
see also Patch repairs
Repair levels, 372-3
Repair options, flow diagram, 373
Repair procedures:
for major damage, 374
non-patch repair for minor damage, 373
Repair technology, 369–402
Residual compression strength vs. impact
energy, 266
Residual strength, 456-7
and BVID, 265-6
function of spectrum cycles, 276
and impact damage, 457
improving, 494
measurement of, 227
reduction under spectrum loading, 275
testing, 230
Residual stress, process modelling, 156-7
Resin content, 405
Resin film infusion (RFI), 87, 137-8, 497
applications, 137-8
tooling, 158
Resin flow through fiber reinforcement,
153-5
Resin injection repairs, 375
Resin molding techniques, 132-40
Resin pressure equation, 155-6
Resin transfer molding (RTM) process,
87, 102, 105-6, 132, 440, 459, 492
advantages, 135-6
applications, 135-7
complex hollow section, 136
fiber-wash, 133
gating arrangements, 135
high injection pressures, 133
isothermal dynamic viscosity curves, 134
materials systems, 133-4
pot-life, 133
preforms, 133
rectilinear mold, 139-40
sequential predicted flow fronts, 155
tooling, 134-5, 158
vacuum-assisted, 138
Resins, 83
testing, 404
Rigid rings, 83
Riveted joints, 290, 362
design detail, 550
Robot-drilling, 132
Robotic CNC filament winders, 142
Robotic painting, 131
Rod and beam elements, 565-6
Roll-forming, 164
Rosen model of cumulative damage, 39-42
Rotorcrafi applications, 443
Routing, 132
Rovings, 74
Royal Aircratt Factory, 477
Rubber, 84
Rubber bladder expansion, 129
Rubber die, 168
Rubbery state, 94, 100
Rule-of-mixtures prediction, 37
Rule-of-mixtures relationship, 26
Safety factor, 477
Saint-Venant principle, 184
Sample cross-section and strength
distribution, 56
Sandwich construction, 114, 222
Scale effects, 215
Scarf repairs, 385-9
failure of loads and strains for carbon/
epoxy, 388
honeycomb panel, 385
shear stress distribution, 389
vacuum bag, 396
Second deviatoric strain criterion, 201-2
Secondary amine-epoxy reaction, 93
Self-healing, 18
Self-similar propagation, 52
Sensors, 525, 527
Sewing machine, 492
S-glass, tension-tension fatigue results, 252
S-glass composites, 241,436
costs, 242594 INDEX
S2 glass, 436
Shape adaptive structures, 541-2
Shape memory alloys (SMA), 540-3, 573-4
Shape memory effect, 573
Shaped panel molding, 167
Shear modulus, 182
Shear-out failure in mechanically fastened
joints, 345-6
Shear stress, 193
parallel to fibers, 46
Shear stress distribution:
in adhesive, 308
scarf repairs, 389
Shear stress/length distribution in adhesives,
307
Shear testing, 222-3
Shearography, 417, 427
Shimming, 364-5
SIFT, 200-1
applied to laminates, 202
failure envelope for polymeric materials,
204
matrix failure envelope, 203
Silica fiber/aluminum matrix composite, 12
Silica fiber-reinforced aluminum, 11
Silicon carbide:
coatings, 18
elastic modulus, 70
Silicon carbide fibers, 69-71
based on polymeric precursor, 70-1
chemical compatibility, 70
CVD-based, 69-70
manufacture, 70
Silicon nitride coatings, 18
Silicon robber bladder, 117
Simply-supported beam, bending of, 189
Single ply, 171
laminate axes, 174
material axes, 172
modulus data, 181
Six-axis robots, 132
Skin-doubler specimen, 538
Smart behavior of biological structures, 525
SMART layers, 537, 539
Smart patch, 531-3
concept, 531-2
monitoring, 532-3
objectives, 531
Smart structures, 525-47
active, 539-43
actuator properties, 578-9
components, 526
engineering analogies, 527
engineering approaches, 526-31
key technology needs, 544-5
potential applications, 528
selected applications and demonstrators,
531-44
Smart Wing Program, 541-2
S-N curve, 267, 269-70
Solvent resistance, 84
Specimen buckling, 218
Specimen impactor, 230
Splitting in curved beam, 199
Stamp-forming, 167-8
dies, 168
Starch, 62
Static strength, 449, 465, 480
demonstration of, 484-6
design, 481
predictions, 207
vs. clamp-up torque for single-hole
joint, 346
Static strength allowables, 482-3
A-allowable, 482-3
B-allowable, 482-3
Static tests, 213
Steel tooling, 159
Stiffened panels, external patch repairs, 381
Stiffener separation, 195, 566-7
Stiffness, 4, 7, 84
Stiffness analysis, 383–4
Stiffness imbalance in double-overlap joint,
309
Stiffness matrix, uncoupling, 188
Stiffness reduction method, 198
Stitching, 492-8
applications, 497
in-plane properties, 495
mechanical properties, 493-7
modified, 498
out-of-plane properties, 493-4
vs. z-pinning, 501-2
Strain-based failure theory, 199-202
for fiber failure in tension, 199
Strain compatibility, 44
Strain energy release rate, 235, 237, 329-30
mode I, 234-5
Strain Invariant Failure Theory s e e SIFT
Strain response, open-loop and closed-loop,
541
Strain values, 465
Strands, tensile testing, 404
Strength analysis based on adhesive strength,
382-3
Strength distribution and sample cross-section,
56
Strength reduction data, 206
Stress analysis:
bonded joints, 297
orthotropic laminates, 183-5
Stress-based failure theories, 195-9
failure modes, 196-8
laminates, 198-9
Stress concentration, 191,271-2
circular hole in infinite tension panel, 192INDEX 595
holes in orthotropic laminates, 191-2
laminates with unloaded holes, 340-5
Stress concentration factor (SCF), 191
circular hole in tension panel, 192
laminates, 450
Stress distribution, 184
in doublers with scarfed stepped skin ends,
305
Stress effects, 285
glass-fiber composites, 246
Stress failure envelopes for unidirectional
carbon fiber, 197
Stress function, 183-4
Stress intensity factor K, 49
Stress raisers, failure prediction near, 204-7
Stress relaxation, 49, 51
Stress resultants, 178, 187
Stress rupture, aramid fibers, 252-3
Stress rupture strength, E-glass fibers, 246
Stress/strain properties, adhesives, 298, 323-5
Stress-strain law, 171
laminates, 179
orthotropic laminate, 180
orthotropic material, 173
single ply in laminate axes, off-axis
laminates, 174-6
Stress-strain law, single ply in material axes,
unidirectional laminates, 172-4
Stress testing, 85
Structural analysis, 171-211
Structural behavior, linear and non-linear, 560
Structural detail tests, 482, 485
Structural health monitoring (SHM), 529-37
Structural reaction injection molding (SRIM),
155
Sub-component tests, 484-5
Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials
Association (SACMA), 214, 218, 405
Surface blemishes, 131
Surface ply orientation, 331
Surface porosity, 130
Surface treatment:
adhesive bonding, 336
pre-bonding, 393
Surfacing resin film, 130
Swelling strains, 285
Symmetric laminates:
bending of, 188-90
plane stress problems for, 176-86
Tack test, 405
Tapes, 79
Temperature effect, 284-5, 460-1
on adhesives, 331-2
on compression strength, 461
on mechanical properties, 282-4
on weight-gain profile, 281
Tensile failure:
mechanically fastened joints, 342
modes, 42
Tensile matrix failure, 197
Tensile strength:
cross-ply laminates, 262-3
effect of temperature and temperature and
moisture, 283
simple estimate, 36
statistical analysis, 38
Tensile stress:
normal to fibers, 46
parallel to fibers, 46
Tensile testing, failure modes in, 217
Tension, carbon-fiber composites, 260-1
Tension/compression fatigue, 273
Tension fatigue of cross-ply composites, 270-1
Tension-tension fatigue properties, 267-70
Terbium-iron alloys, 577
Testing Pyramid, 215
Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, 99
Tetraglycidyl derivative of diaminodiphenyl
methane, 88, 92, 94, 97
Tetra-oxirane ring, 98
Textile preforming techniques, 79, 460
Textile technology, 7
Textron Speciality Materials, 248
Thermal expansion mismatch:
in double-overlap joint, 309-10
in scarfjoints, 319
Thermal spiking, 97, 284-5
Thermography, 417, 424-6
fatigue loaded specimens, 232
Thermoplastic matrices, 447
materials used in aerospace composites, 90
Thermoplastic polymers, 9
Thermoplastics, 83, 108-12
aerospace-grade, 88
amorphous, 108
fabrication, 87
filament winding, 143-4
fusion repairs, 376
intermediate material forms, 162-3
matrix materials, 86-8
processing technology, 163-8
properties, 86-8
semi-crystalline, 108-9
special techniques, 162-8
sulphur-containing, 110
see also specific materials
Thermosets, 9, 83-4
matrices, 478
matrix materials, 86-9
properties, 86
see also specific materials
Thermosetting resins, 88-107
filament winding, 143
properties, 87596 INDEX
Three-dimensional textile manufacturing
techniques, 492
Three-dimensional woven carbon–carbon
preforms, 505
Three-dimensionally reinforced preforms and
composites, 491-524
overview, 491-2
Through-thickness failure, 195, 198-9
Through-thickness strength, 451-3
Time-temperature-transformation diagram,
94-5
Titanium alloy, 1, 20, 239-40, 440
MMCs, 15
patch repairs, 398-9
Titanium aluminide MMCs, 15
Tooling, 158-62
ACG “Toolbrace”, 162
airpad brand inflatable, 161
closed-mold, 158
composite materials, 159-61
materials selection, 158
metallic materials, 158-9
open-mold, 158
Top-hat stiffened component, 117
Toughening agents, 95
Toughness, 4
Tow placement, 113-14
Tows, 74, 149
Transverse expansion coefficient, 34-5
Transverse failure, 194
Transverse modulus, 23, 32
Triglycidyl derivative of p-aminophenol
(TGAP), 88, 92, 94
Trimming, 131-2
Tsai-Hill criterion, 340
Tsai-Hill theory, 195
Tsai-Wu Theory, 196
Tungsten alloy wires, 16
Ultimate failure, 194
Ultrasonic insertion gun, 500
Ultrasonic inspection, 416, 419-22
non-contact, 424-5
Ultrasonic vibrator method of z-pinning,
500
Ultraviolet damage, 285
Unidirectional composites:
buckling mode, 45
crack propagation, 48-9
failure modes, 45
fracture toughness, 47-52
properties of, 240
tensile strength vs. orientation, 47
Unidirectional laminates, 172-4
Unidirectional ply, model and representative
volume element, 27
Ureol tooling, 160
U.S. Department of Defense Military
Handbook see MIL-HDBK 17
U.S. Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), 479
U.S. Navy (USN), 477-8
USAF B-2 bomber, 438
V-22 tiltrotor, 443
Vacuum-assisted RTM (VARTM), 102, 138
Vacuum bag:
lay-up, 125
scarf repair, 396
Vacuum bag assembly for patch repairs, 395
Vacuum bag resin infusion (VBRI), 158
Value engineering, 466-74
Value indices for fighter aircratt, 473
Van der Waals bonding, 63
Vibration damping, aramid fiber composites,
255
Vinyl ester resins, 101,251
formation, 101
Visible impact damage (VID), 455
Voids, formation, 129
Von Mises yield criterion, 195-6
Weaving, 7, 448
structural modelling, 564
three-dimensional, 502-5
applications, 506-7
architectures, 503
in-plane properties, 505-6
mechanical properties, 505-6
out-of-plane properties, 506
see also Woven fabrics
Weibull distribution, 39
Weibull statistics, 55
Weight changes for unpainted composite
coupons, 281
Weight-gain profile, temperature effect on, 281
Weight ratio:
airframe materials, 471
equations for failure categories, 470
Weight saving:
cost value analysis, 469-74
function of failure mode, 467-9
through increased specific strength or
stiffness, 3
Wet laminating procedures, 116
Wet-winding procedure, 141
Whirling winding, 142
Whiskers, 6-7
World War I, 477
World War II, 435
Woven carbon/epoxy composites, effect
of impact energy on compressive
strength of two-dimensional and
three-dimensional, 507INDEX 597
Woven fabrics, 77-8
Wrapping, 117
XAS/914C laminate:
compression residual strength, 275
impact damage, 265
X-ray probe, 425
Yams, 74-7, 113, 492
tensile testing, 404
three-dimensional weaving, 503
z-direction, 503
Yield stress, 478
Young’s modulus, 65-7, 173, 176, 180, 183
glass-fiber composite, 242
and temperature, 85
Z-pinning, 498-502
foam method, 499
mechanical properties, 501
process, 499
ultrasonic vibrator method, 500
vs. stitching, 501-2
Z-reinforcement, stitches for, 49
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