CNC Robotics – Build Your Own Workshop Bot

CNC Robotics – Build Your Own Workshop Bot
اسم المؤلف
Geoff Williams
التاريخ
13 سبتمبر 2021
المشاهدات
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CNC Robotics
Build Your Own Workshop Bot
Geoff Williams
Contents
1 Design 1
Why Build My Own I
Gantry Style 2
Motors 2
Lineal Motion 4
Motor Drivers 9
Acme Screw 9
Deciding on the Dimensions of the Machine 9
Software 10
2 Electronics 13
Stepper Motor Driver and Computer Interface Boards 13
Stepper Motor Driver Circuit 15
The Interface Board 19
3 Making the Printed Circuit Board 77
Tools and Material 77
Artwork 78
Board Cutting and Cleaning 82
Toner Transfer 85
Etching 93
4 Driver Assembly 99
The Interface Board III
vGNG Robotics
5 Softwa re Setup and Driver Testing 113
Material Needed 113
Creat ing Test Files 121
Triangle Test 122
Circle Test 123
Putting the Elect ronics in a Case 124
6 The Frame 133
Tools and Ma terial 133
Bolting 138
Assemb ly 141
Bearing Ra il Support Bolt Holes 144
Paint the Frame 151
7 The Gantry and X-axis 1 53
The Gantry 153
The X-axis: Installing the Gantry Bearing Guide Rail 160
Beari ng Holder 164
8 The Z and Y Axes 175
The Z-Axis 175
The Y-Axls 184
9 Motor and Lead Screw Insta llat ion 189
Tools and Ma teria l 189
X-axis 190
Y-axls 199
Z-axis 203
Limit Switc h Install ation 206
X -axis Limi ts 208
Y-axis Limi ts 209
Z-axis Limits 211
10 File Creation and KCam 215
KCam CNC Control ler Software 215
KCam File Requirements 219
How to Create a File to Import 222
CorelDraw 223
ACME Profile r 239
viContents
11 Tool Holders and Testing 245
Tool Holders 245
Penholder Tool 246
Router/Dremel Holder 252
Testing the CNC Machine 257
12 Examples 263
Plotter 263
Mechanical Engraving Tool 268
Dremel Tool 271
Ma ster Craft Rotar y Tool 274
Router 278
Sources of Material 293
Electronic Components 293
L297 /L298 Integrated Circuits 293
CANADA 293
United States, California 294
Lineal Motion 296
Distributor 296
Manufacturers 29 7
Stepper Motors 300
Metal 301
Index 303
1Index
Note: Boldface numbers indicate illustrations.
ACME Profiler, 239 -243 , 240-242
acme screw, 9
Arrow Corporation, 292, 293
AutoCad, 12
AVNET Corpo ration, 293, 294
back EMF, in motors, 73-74
bearing guide rails
bearing holder in, 164- 173, 165-17 3
boll ho les in, 144- 150, 144- 150
X axis, 160- 164, 161- 164
Z axi s fit and, 182, 182
beari ngs. lineal motion. 8
bipo iar motors, 48, 59, 64
Bishop- W isecarver Corporation. 296
bo lti ng the fra me together, 138- 140, 138 – 141
cabinetry, 281 -292
Canad ian Beari ngs Ltd” 295
capacitor installation in driver, 109-110, 110
case enclosure for electronics. 124-1 32, 125. 132
changing bi t size, 236, 237
chopper co ntro l and ci rcuit, 54- 5 7, 54 , 55, 56, 65, 66-67, 67
ci rcl e test fil e, 123- 124, 124
cleaning steel, 137, 137 , 138
cl eaning the pr inted circuit board , 82-84 , 83, 84
cl ock pulse do ub ler, L297, 59
303304
CNC Robotics
CNC controls setting, 11 7, 11 7, 120, 120 ,218-219, 218, 219
computer connection
driver and interface board, 118-120, 118, 119
interface board between motors and. 13-15 . 13
interface board to limit switches. 19- 21. 20
continuity checking . 107
contro ller software, Ke arn, 215-2 19
controllers. motor, ST M icroelectronics manual on (Seealso L297; L298). 22-75
CorelD raw, I I, 12, 223 -239 , 223
exporting fil es to KCam fro m, 226, 22 6, 227, 22 8
KCam use of, 224, 225, 226
layout options for, page size, shape . etc., 224, 225
offsetting G code to center the project, 238, 238, 239
texttes t.plt file in, 233, 234 , 234
vector grap hics V5. raster graphics in, 238-239
cost of CNC machines. 1- 2
cutting depth settings, 258
cutting steel , t 36, 136
cutting the printed circuit board. 82-84. 83 . 84
Data Exchange File ISee also DXF files) , 223
design, 1- 12
acme screw in. 9
dimensions in. 9- 10
front view, JJ
ganl ry sty le in, 2
lineal motion in, 4-8
motor drivers, 9
motors for. 2-4 , 3
side view, 10
software selection. 10-1 2
dimensions of machine, 9- 10
doo rs, 281- 282, 281, 28 2
dovetail jo ints, 283-286, 283, 284, 28 5, 286
Oremel tool
engraving with, 271- 274, 271-2 73
holder for, 252- 257 , 252-2 5 7
dr illing holes in PCB, 100-101 , 100, 101, 10 2
drills, 100, 100
driver, motor, 9. 15- 19. 17. 99- 112
bottom ar tw or k for, 79-80, 79
cables for, 128, 129
capacitor installation in. 109-110, 110
component placement and installation in. 104-108 , 105, 106
continuity checking in. 107
dr illing holes in , 100-1 01, 100, 101 , 102
finished product, 112
headers for, 108- J09, 109
heat sink for, III, IIIIndex
driver, motor (continued)
interface board connection to. 11 8- 120, 118, 119
interfa ce board for, 111 – 112, 112
L298 ins talla tion in, 109, 109
leads in, 108
materials and tools for, 99 . 100
mo therboa rd mounting of, 126, 126
power supply for, 11 8
soldering in, 101, 103, 103
static electricity protection in, 104, 104
testing, 113- 132
top of driver boa rd, 80, 80
w iri ng , 110- 111, III
DXF file s, 12, 219, 22 2-22 3
electronics, 13-75
case enclosure for, 124- 132, 125, 13 2
interface bo ard, 19- 21 , 20
interface boards, stepper motor driver and computer. 13- 15, 13
source s, 29 3-296
stepper motor driver circuit. 15-19 . 17
engravlng
Drcmel tool for, 271 -2 74, 271-2 73
engra ving tool fo r, 268- 271, 268 – 27 1
Mas ter Craf t rotary tool for, 274-277, 274-277
etch ing process in PCB, 93-97, 93, 95, 96
Exellon fil es, 219
fan, 125, 128- 129
file format s, in programming, 12
frame, 133- 151
assembly of, 141 -144, 141, 142, 143
bearing rail support bolt ho les in , 144-150, t 44-1 50
bolting together, 138- 140, 138- 14 1
clean ing, 137, 137, 138
cutt ing steel for, 136, 136
dimensions of. 133- 134, 134
pa in tin g, 151
squa rin g and levelin g of, 141 -i 44, 141
tools and materia ls for, 122- 125
we ldi ng together, 143- 144, 143
front view of CNC machine, II
Future Electronics. 293, 294
G code , i i, 219
ga nt ry, 2, 153-160, 154
bear ing ho lde r in , 164- 173, t 65 -1 73
bol t ho le locations in, 157 – 158, 158, 159
mounting and access hol es on uprigh ts, 156, 156, 157
305306
CNC Rob otic s
gant ry (continued)
spanning beams for. 155-1 56. 155. 156
tools and materials for, 153
upr ights and feet for. 155. 155. 159-1 60. 159 . 160
X ax is in . 160- 164. 161-164
Gerber fil es. 219
glass etching. 266- 26 7. 266. 267
guide rail s. 7. 7. 8
half- step sequence, in motor, 52, 52
heat sink for driver. 111, III
Hew lett Packard Graphics Language (Sec also HPGL files) . 222
HPGL files. 12. 21 9. 222- 223
import file creation for Ke arn, 222-223
INA Inc.• 296
in terface board. 19- 21 . 20
artwork for, 80, 8 1
cables for. 128. 129
driver board connection to. 118-120, 11 8, 11 9
motherboard mounting of. 127. 127
stepper motor driver and computer. 13- 15. 13
joints. cabinetry. 283-286. 283. 284. 285 . 286
KCam and programm ing . 11- 12. 12. 13
ACME Profil er and . 239-243. 240-242
AutoCad in, 12
changing bit size and . 23 6. 23 7
CNC con trol selling in. 218-2 19. 218. 219
CNC Controller softw are for. 215- 219
converting text to curves in. 23 7, 237
CorelDra w and. II. 12. 223-239 . 223
cutting depth settings in, 258
downloading cop y of. 11 3- 11 4
file formats in . 12.219- 222
G code and com mands fo r. 11 . 21 9- 221
impo rt file creati on for, 222 – 223
insta llat ion of. II 3. 215
lathecorej .plt fil e. 28 7- 291
li netest. plt file in. 228 -230. 230
Iinetest2 .plt fil e in . 231 – 232. 233
M code and commands for, II, 220-222
machine setup file for. 258
offsetting G cod e to center the project. 238. 238. 239
openi ng. 21 5
port assignment in, 216, 217
shapes.plt file for. 261-262. 26 1. 262
software selectio n, 10-1 2Index
Kearn and programming (continued)
system timing in , 217, 217
Table Setup w indow in, 215, 216
testtexl.plt file for, 260, 260, 26 1
textt est.plt file in , 233, 234, 234
tool size setting in, 234, 235, 236
user defined M codes for, 222
KellyWare (See also KCam), 113
L297 stepper motor con troller, IS , 18- 19,22- 75,22, 23 ,46
a version of (L297A), 57-58, 58
advantages of, 46-47
applicalion for, 29
bipolar steppe r motor and, 59
block diagra m of, 23
circuit operation in, 2S
clock pulse doubler In, 59
DIP packa ge mechanical data for, 30- 31, 30, 31
electrical characteristics of, 27- 28, 28
half step mod e in, 26, 26
L293E vs. 47
normal drive mode in, 26. 26
phase sequence in. 26
pin connections for. 23 , 62
pin function chart for. 24- 25
pin functions for, 61
sources for, 29 2
synchroni zation in. 29
unipolar motors and , 59
wave drive mode in. 27, 2 7
L298 H br idge IC, I S, 18-19, 33- 75, 33
application informat ion in. 39
bidirectional control in. 38 . 40
block diagram of , 33
dimension data for. 42, 4 2
electrical cha racteristics of, 35 -36
installing in driver, 109. 109
ma xim um rat ings tor, 34
muiti watt ISH, 43, 43
multiwatt 15V, 42, 42
PCB layout for, 4 1
pin connections for. 34
pin funct ions for, 35
PowerS020, 44, 44
satu ration voltage in, 36
sink current in, 38
sources for, 29 2
sw itching times in, 36, 3 7
thermal data on, 34
307308
CNC Robot ics
lath e, 286-292, 287
lathecore3.plt file, 28 7-291
limit switch
installa tion, 206-21 4, 207 , 208
interface board to computer. 19-2 1, 20
lineal motion . 4-8
bea rings in, 8
guide rails in. 7. 7. 8
suppliers of mat er ial for, 296 -300
TV gli de tray assembly in, 8
Iinetest.plt file, 228-230, 230
linetest2.plt file in, 231 -232, 233
load current regulation. motor, 53-54. 54
losses. motors, 68
M code, II , 220-222
machin e setup file. Ke arn. 258
Mas ter Craft rotary tool engraving, 274-277 . 274- 277
materials, sources, 29 3-301
MDF as table board, 25 7, 258
mechanical engraving tool, engravings. 268- 271, 268-2 71
Me tal Supermarkets, 300
metal , suppliers of, 300
motor mo unts, 190, 190 , 191 , 19 2
motors, 2- 4 , 3 , 14
back EMF and, 73-74
bipolar, 48, 59 , 64
cable connection s to, 130- 131, 130 , 13 1
chopper contro l fo r, 54- 57, 54, 55, 56, 65, 66 -67, 67, 70- 73, 71
controllers for, ST M icroelectronics manua l on (Seea/so L297; L298). 22-75
drive top ology select ion for, 64-6 5, 64
dri ver for, 9, 15- 19, 17
flexi ble shaft coupling for, 198, 198
half step drive, 49, 52, 52
installation of. 189-2 14
interface board to comp uter and. 13- 15. 13
L29 7 step per motor co ntroller Ie for (See also L2971, I S, 18- 19, 22-75,
22, 23
L298 H bridge IC (See also L298), IS, 18- 19, 33-75, 33
lead screw centering and mounting. 193- 196. 193-196. 197
limit sw itch installa tion for, 206- 21 4, 20 7. 20 8
load current regulation in, 53-54 , 54
losses in, 68
minim um current in. 68 , 69
mounts for. 190. 190. 191. 19 2
noise and , 70-73 , 71. 72, 73
peak detect current in, 68. 69
phase sequence generation in, SO-53. 51. 5 2. 53
power dissipation in bridge Ie in. 68 . 71Index
motors (continued)
power supply for. 4. 15
problem s and soluti ons for. 64-75
ripple current in. 68
selection of, unipolar Y5. bipolar, 64
sources for used/ second-hand, 4
stepper motors, 4 8
stuck condition in. 74
suppliers for. 300- 301
tools and materia ls for installation of. 189
two pha se drive in . 49 . 52. 52
unipolar. 48. 50 . 60. 64. 66
variable reluctanc e, 50, SO
wa ve drive state sequence in, 53. 53
wind ing current in. 69, 70
w iring diagram for, S
X axis and. 190- 199. 193
X axis limit setting for. 208-209. 208. 209
Y axis and. 199- 203. 199-203
Y axis limit sett ing for. 209 -210. 210
Z axi s and. 203-206 . 20 4- 206
Z axi s li mit setting for. 211-2i 4. 211-214
Mo user Electron ics. 294
noise, in motors, 70-73, 71, 72, 73
NSK Inc.• 297
NU Horizons Electronics, 294
NuArc Model SST 1418 hori zontal camera. exploded view. 6, 7
Pacifi c Scient ific , i 3. 15.299
pain ting the frame. 151
peak detect current. in motors, 68, 69
pen holder, 246-252. 246- 252
phase sequence generation in motors, 50-53, 51, 52 . 53
Pioneer Standa rd. 293 . 295-296
plotter. 263-268, 26 4, 265
port assignment. 11 5. 116, 11 6. 118, 21 6.2 17
power supplies, 4, 15. 11 8, 129
connecting. 128, 128.
connector strips for. 127, 12 7
fan connection to, 128 -129
wi ring diagram for motors, S
Princess Auto, 13, 299
printed circuit board construction. 77- 97
aligning the artwork for, 85 , 85. 8 6
art work for, 78-82
bottom of driver board, 79-80. 79
cleani ng, 82-84
cutting, 82- 84
309310
CNC Robotics
printed circuit board construction (continued)
drilling holes in , 100- 101 , 100, 101, 102
etching process in, 93-9 7, 93, 94, 9 5, 96
interface board, 80 . 81
materials and too ls for, 77, 78
photo resist process in. 78
printing th e artwork for, 80-82
soldering in, 101, 103, 103
static electricity protection in, 104, 104
tinning in, 96. 9 7
toner transfer process in, 85-92 , 87 , 88, 89, 90, 91,92
top of driver board, 80, 80
printers, for PCB construction. 80-82
programming (See KCam and programming)
raster graphics, 238 – 239
read y rod, 9
Richardson Electro nics. 293. 295
ripple current. in motors. 68
rotar y tool eng raving (Master Craft), 274-2 77, 274- 277
route r
holder for, 252 -25 7, 252-25 7
routing with , 278 -292, 278-292
Sanyo Denki, 16, 300
shapes.pit file , 26 1- 262, 261, 262
side view of CNC machine. 10
sign makin g. 278-28 1, 278-280
SKF Inc., 298-2 99
software setup and driver testing. 10- 12, 113-13 2
case enclo sure for electronics and , 124- 132, 125, 132
circle test tile in, 123- 124, 124
CNC co ntrols sett ing in , 117, 117, 120, 120
Kea rn installat ion for. 11 3-11 4
materials nceded for. 113
port assignment in. 115. 11 6, 116. 11 8
Square-gc.txt test file for, 121, 122
steps setting <table setup) for motor in, 11 6-117 . 11 7
System Timing window for, 114-1 15. J14. J15
test file creation in. 121- 122
triangle test file tor, 122- I 23, 123
solder ing, 101, 103, 103
sources of materials, 293-301
springs tor tool holders, 249 , 250
Square- gc.txt test file, 121, 122
stained glass w indow plotter, 263 – 268 , 264
static electricity protection, 104, 104
stepper motor (See motors)
steps sett ing (table setup) tor motor, 116- 117, 117
system timing, 114-115 , 114, 115, 217,217Index
Table Setup w indow, 215, 216
test tile creation. 121 – 122
testi ng the CNC machi ne, 25 7- 262
testtext.plt file, 260 , 260, 26 1
texttest.plt file, 23 3, 234 , 234
THK Inc., 298
Thompson Ind ustries, 299- 300
tinning th e PCB, 96 , 97
toner tran sfer process in PCB, 85- 92, 8 7. 88. 89, 90, 9\, 92
tool holders, 245- 285
Dremel tool holder. 252- 257, 252-257
pen holder, 246-252, 246-2 52
rou ter holder, 252- 257, 25 2-25 7
springs for, 249, 250
tool size setting in KCam, 234, 235, 236
tr ian gle test file, 122- 123, 123
TV glide tray assembly, li neal motion. 8, 175, 176
two – phase sequence, in motor, 52, 52
un ip olar motors, 48, 50, 60 , 64, 66
user defined M codes, 222
variable reluctance motors, 50, 50
vector grap hics , 238-239
wa ve drive state sequence, motor, 53 , 53
w elding th e frame together, 143- 144, 143
wi nding current, in motors, 69, 70
X axi s, 160-1 64, 161-1 64
limi t sett ing for, 208- 209, 20 8, 20 9
motor installation and, 190- 199. 193
Y axis, 184- 187, 185-1 8 7
limit sett ing for. 209- 210, 210
motor installation and, 199-203, 19 9-203
tools and materials for, 184 – 185
Z axis mounting holes for, 185, 185
Z axi s, 175-1 84, 176
acme screw location in. 181, 181
bearin g ho lde r fit and. 182, 182
centering and mounting, 182- 184, 183 , 184
li mit setting for, 211 – 214, 211 -214
motor installation and. 203- 206, 204- 206
tools and materials for, 175
TV gli de tray for, 175, 176
Y slide atta chment in, 177, 177 , 185, 18 5
z tool mounting surface for, 180 – 181 , 180, 18

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