CNC Programming for Machining

CNC Programming for Machining
اسم المؤلف
Kaushik Kumar , Chikesh Ranjan , J. Paulo Davim
التاريخ
25 مارس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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CNC Programming for Machining
Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology
Kaushik Kumar , Chikesh Ranjan , J. Paulo Davim
Contents
Part I Introduction
1 CNC Programming . 3
1.1 Part Programming 3
1.1.1 Methods of Part Programming 3
1.2 Part Programming Structure . 5
1.2.1 Character 5
1.2.2 Word . 6
1.2.3 Block 7
1.2.4 Program . 8
1.3 Programming Formats . 8
1.3.1 Fixed Block Format 8
1.3.2 Tab Sequential Format 9
1.3.3 Word Address Format 9
1.4 Standard Codes 9
1.4.1 Preparatory Functions (G) 9
1.4.2 Miscellaneous Functions (M) . 10
1.5 Co-ordinates System 10
1.5.1 Absolute System 10
1.5.2 Incremental System 10
1.6 Reference Points . 11
1.6.1 Zero Points and Reference Points 11
1.6.2 Machine Zero . 11
1.6.3 Work Zero . 11
1.6.4 Zero Shift . 12
1.7 Conclusion . 12
ixPart II Programming for Conventional Machining
2 Lathe Operation . 15
2.1 Facing Operation 15
2.1.1 Introduction 15
2.1.2 Problem Description 15
2.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 15
2.1.4 Programming . 16
2.2 Straight Turning Operation . 17
2.2.1 Introduction 17
2.2.2 Problem Description 17
2.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 17
2.2.4 Programming . 18
2.3 Step Turning Operation 18
2.3.1 Introduction 18
2.3.2 G Code and M Code Used . 18
2.3.3 Problem Description 20
2.3.4 Programming . 20
2.4 Taper Turning Operation . 20
2.4.1 Introduction 20
2.4.2 Problem Description 20
2.4.3 G Code and M Code Used . 22
2.4.4 Programming . 22
2.5 Grooving Operation 23
2.5.1 Introduction 23
2.5.2 Problem Description 23
2.5.3 G Code and M Code Used . 23
2.5.4 Programming . 24
2.6 Threading Operation 24
2.6.1 Introduction 24
2.6.2 Problem Description 24
2.6.3 G Code and M Code Used . 25
2.6.4 Programming . 26
2.7 Contour Turning Operation . 26
2.7.1 Introduction 26
2.7.2 Problem Description 27
2.7.3 G Code and M Code Used . 28
2.7.4 Programming . 28
2.8 Conclusion . 29
3 Milling Operation 31
3.1 Profile Milling 31
3.1.1 Introduction 31
3.1.2 Problem Description 31
x Contents3.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 31
3.1.4 Programming . 32
3.2 Circular Interpolation . 32
3.2.1 Introduction 32
3.2.2 Problem Description 32
3.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 33
3.2.4 Programming . 34
3.3 Circular Pocket Milling 35
3.3.1 Introduction 35
3.3.2 Problem Description 36
3.3.3 G Code and M Code Used . 36
3.3.4 Programming . 36
3.4 Rectangular Pocket Milling . 37
3.4.1 Introduction 37
3.4.2 Problem Description 37
3.4.3 G Code and M Code Used . 37
3.4.4 Programming . 38
3.5 Surface Milling 38
3.5.1 Introduction 38
3.5.2 Problem Description 39
3.5.3 G Code and M Code Used . 39
3.5.4 Programming . 40
3.6 Conclusion . 40
4 Drilling Operation 43
4.1 Point to Point Drilling Operation . 43
4.1.1 Introduction 43
4.1.2 Case-1 43
4.1.3 Case-2 44
4.2 Peck Drilling Operation 46
4.2.1 Introduction 46
4.2.2 Problem Description 46
4.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 46
4.2.4 Programming . 47
4.3 Conclusion . 48
5 Boring Operation 49
5.1 Boring Operation 49
5.1.1 Introduction 49
5.1.2 Problem Description 49
5.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 49
5.1.4 Programming . 50
5.2 Conclusion . 51
Contents xiPart III Programming for Machining Centre
6 Drilling and Milling Operation 55
6.1 Drilling and Milling Operation 55
6.1.1 Introduction 55
6.1.2 Problem Description 55
6.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 55
6.1.4 Programming . 56
6.2 Milling and Drilling Operation 57
6.2.1 Introduction 57
6.2.2 Problem Description 57
6.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 58
6.2.4 Programming . 59
6.3 Conclusion . 60
7 Five Axis CNC Machines 61
7.1 Multiple Machining Process 61
7.1.1 Introduction 61
7.1.2 Problem Description 61
7.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 61
7.1.4 Programming . 62
7.2 Straight Line Multiple Machining 62
7.2.1 Introduction 62
7.2.2 Problem Description 64
7.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 64
7.2.4 Programming . 66
7.3 Multiple Machining in an Arc . 67
7.3.1 Introduction 67
7.3.2 Problem Description 67
7.3.3 G Code and M Code Used . 67
7.3.4 Programming . 68
7.4 Conclusion . 69
Part IV Programming for Non-conventional Machining
8 Non-conventional Machining 73
8.1 Electrical Discharge Machining 73
8.1.1 Tapered Polygon Cycle EDM . 73
8.1.2 Tapered Vector Cycle EDM 75
8.1.3 Vector Circular Orbit EDM . 76
8.1.4 Vector Cycle EDM . 78
8.1.5 Spherical Cycle EDM . 80
8.1.6 Polygon Cycle EDM . 82
xii Contents8.2 Wire Electrical Discharge Machining 83
8.2.1 Introduction 83
8.2.2 Problem Description 84
8.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 85
8.2.4 Programming . 85
8.3 Wire Cutting EDM Machine 85
8.3.1 Introduction 85
8.3.2 Problem Description 86
8.3.3 G Code and M Code Used . 86
8.3.4 Programming . 87
8.4 Conclusion . 87
Part V Programming for Auxiliary Operation
9 Canned Cycle . 91
9.1 Canned Cycle Formats 91
9.1.1 Multiple Turning Cycle . 91
9.1.2 Multiple Facing Cycle 92
9.1.3 Multiples Turning Cycle . 92
9.1.4 End Face Peck Drilling Cycle . 94
9.2 Drilling Canned Cycle . 94
9.2.1 Introduction 94
9.2.2 Problem Description 95
9.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 95
9.2.4 Programming . 96
9.3 Drilling Canned Cycle with Tool Length . 96
9.3.1 Introduction 96
9.3.2 Problem Description 97
9.3.3 Tool Used . 97
9.3.4 G Code and M Code Used . 98
9.3.5 Programming . 98
9.4 Rectangular Pocket Milling Canned Cycle 98
9.4.1 Introduction 98
9.4.2 Problem Description 99
9.4.3 Tool Used . 99
9.4.4 G Code and M Code Used . 100
9.4.5 Programming . 100
9.5 Conclusion . 101
10 Do Loop Cycle 103
10.1 Drilling Operation 103
10.1.1 Introduction 103
10.1.2 Case 1 103
10.1.3 Case 2 105
Contents xiii10.2 Equally Spaced Grooves Operation . 106
10.2.1 Introduction 106
10.2.2 Problem Description 106
10.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 107
10.2.4 Programming . 107
10.3 Conclusion . 108
11 Subroutine . 109
11.1 Drilling Operation 109
11.1.1 Introduction 109
11.1.2 Problem Description 109
11.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 109
11.1.4 Programming . 110
11.2 Square Recess 111
11.2.1 Introduction 111
11.2.2 Problem Description 111
11.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 111
11.2.4 Programming . 112
11.3 Conclusion . 112
12 Polar Coordinates 113
12.1 Profile Making Operation 113
12.1.1 Introduction 113
12.1.2 Problem Description 113
12.1.3 G Code and M Code Used . 113
12.1.4 Programming . 114
12.2 Spiral Making Operation . 115
12.2.1 Introduction 115
12.2.2 Problem Description 115
12.2.3 G Code and M Code Used . 115
12.2.4 Programming . 116
12.3 Conclusion . 117
Appendix A . 119
Appendix B . 123
Appendix C . 127
Appendix D . 129
Appendix E . 131
Suggested Readings . 133
Index .
Index
A
Absolute system, 10
B
Block, 4–10, 74, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 86,
91–94, 116, 119, 129, 131
Boring operation, 49–51
C
Canned cycle, 91, 94–101, 127, 128
Canned cycle formats, 101
Character, 5–7, 9, 129, 131
Circular interpolation, 6, 32–35, 40, 49, 58,
85, 113, 119
Circular pocket milling, 35–37, 40
Computer-assisted part programming, 4
Contour turning operation, 26–29
Co-ordinates system, 12
Coordinates (X, Y And Z-words), 6, 31
D
Do loop cycle, 103–106, 109
Drilling and milling operation, 55, 60
Drilling canned cycle, 94–99, 101
Drilling canned cycle with tool length, 97–
99, 101
Drilling operation, 43–48, 55, 57–59, 95,
104, 108–110, 112
E
End face peck drilling cycle, 94, 101
Equally spaced grooves operation, 106, 108
F
Facing operation, 15–17, 29
Feed function (F-word), 6
Five axis CNC machines, 61, 63, 67
Fixed block format, 8
G
Grooving operation, 23, 24, 106, 107
I
Incremental system, 10, 11
M
Machine zero, 11, 12, 24, 47, 49, 56, 74, 76,
77, 79, 81, 82, 86, 107, 120
Manual part programming, 3, 4
Methods of part programming, 3, 12
Milling machining, 35, 37
Miscellaneous function (M-word), 6, 7, 10
Multiple facing cycle, 92, 93, 101
Multiple machining in an arc, 67–69
Multiple machining process, 61, 62, 66, 67,
69
Multiple turning cycle, 91, 101
N
Non-conventional machining, 83
P
Part programming structure, 5, 12
Peck drilling operation, 46–48
Point to point drilling operation, 44, 45, 48
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
K. Kumar et al., CNC Programming for Machining, Materials Forming, Machining
and Tribology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41279-1
135136 Index
Polar coordinates, 113–117, 119
Polygon cycle EDM, 87
Preparatory function (G-words), 6, 9
Profile making operation, 113
Profile milling, 31–34, 36
Programming formats, 8, 12
R
Rectangular pocket milling, 37–40, 98–101
Rectangular pocket milling canned cycle, 98
Reference points, 10, 11, 12, 22, 58, 122
S
Sequence number, 8
Spherical cycle EDM, 80, 87
Spiral making operation, 117
Square recess, 111, 112
Standard codes, 9, 12
Step turning operation, 18–21, 29
Straight line multiple machining, 62, 64, 69
Straight turning operation, 17–19, 29
Subroutine, 32, 34, 109–112, 120, 127, 128
Surface milling, 38–41
T
Tab sequential format, 8, 9
Tapered polygon cycle EDM, 87
Tapered vector cycle EDM, 75
Taper turning operation, 20–22, 29
Threading operation, 24–26, 29
Tool selection function (T-word), 7
V
Vector circular orbit EDM, 76
Vector cycle EDM, 75, 87
W
Wire cutting EDM machine, 85, 87
Wire electrical discharge machining, 73,
83–85, 87
Word, 5–9, 11
Word address format, 9
Work zero, 11
Z
Zero shift, 11, 12
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