CNC Machining Handbook

CNC Machining Handbook
اسم المؤلف
Alan Overby
التاريخ
6 مارس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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CNC Machining Handbook
Building, Programming, and Implementation
Alan Overby
Contents
Preface ix
Part I The Physical Architecture
1 CNC Machines 3
Common CNC Applications 5
2 Guide Systems 23
Round Rail 26
Profile Rail 27
V-Style Roller 29
Hybrid Roller Guides 32
3 Transmission Systems 33
Screw and Nut 35
Lead Screw and Nut 38
Ball Screws 41
Rotating Nut 42
Rack and Pinion 42
Reducers 46
Timing Belt and Pulleys 47
Constructing a Pulley-Reduction Unit 49
4 Motors 55
Stepper Motors 57
Servo Motors 61
Stepper versus Servo: Pros and Cons 63
Encoders 64
Part II The CNC Controller
5 Controller Hardware 69
Enclosure 71
Breakout Board 72
Drives 75
Power Supply 76
Adjunct Devices for Controller Hardware 78
Pendant 79
Wiring 83
Vvi Contents
6 Control Software 85
Mach3 Control Software 87
Enhanced Machine Controller, Version 2 (EMC2) 88
A Foreword on Computer Operating Systems and Applications 89
G-Code Editors 90
G-Code 90
Part III Application Software
7 The Cartesian Coordinate System 127
The Table or Mill Topology 130
Lathe/Rotary Topology 131
8 CAD and Graphics 133
Raster to Vector Conversion Utilities 137
Difference between 2D and 3D 138
Listing of CAD Vendors 138
Graphics Programs 140
9 CAM Software 141
Understanding and Using CAM 144
Generalized Milling Options 151
CAD and CAM Combination Software 155
Part IV Building or Buying a CNC Machine
10 Choosing a Ready-Made CNC System 159
Router/Plasma Table 166
Mills and Lathes 167
Do-It-Yourself (DIY) 168
Vendor Listing 168
11 Building Your Own CNC Plasma Table 171
Part V Appendices
A Project Implementation and Examples 187
Examples of Items that Can Be Produced on a CNC Router 189
Unlimited Possibilities 218
Programming Examples 219
B Programming Examples in G-Code 225
Example 1 228
Example 2 229Contents VII
C Engineering Process of Selecting a Ball Screw 231
D NEMA Motor Mounting Templates 247
Index 251
ex
Note: Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables.
msamm A ^swssr®?*
Absolute distance mode (G90), 112-113,
113f
Absolute IJ mode, 97
Accented fonts, 197-198,198f
Acme screws, 38
teeth per inch (TPI), 41
ADA (American Disabilities Act),
21
ADA signage, 192-194
ADA restroom sign, 193f
ADA sign, 194f
Adjunct devices for controller
hardware, 78-79
Adobe Illustrator, 140
Aftermarket engraving spindle,
10, llf
Alpha-numeric ASCII-based
machine-command, 90-93, 92t-93t
Alternating current (AC) motors, 62
Aluminum, 12,18-19
American Disabilities Act, 21. See also
ADA signage
Angle bracket (with lead screw nut),
180f
Angular contact bearings, 35
Antares, 21
Antibacklash nut, 38, 39f, 40f
Arc at feed rate (G02, G03), 96-99, 96f
ArtCAM (by DelCAM), 155
Assembly with carriage traveler plate,
180f
ATC. See Automatic tool changer
AutoCAD, 138-139
AutoCAD-LT (light), 138-139
AutoEditNC, 90
Automatic tool changer, 5,10
Q mmmm
B and B Plasma (company), 166,
166f
Background texture, 197,197f
Backlash, 38
Backlit acrylic LED sign, 201,202f
Ball nose, 20
Ball screw(s), 41^12
selection. See Precision rolled ball
screws product overview
Ball screw life, 237
Bearing removal tool, 8
Belt reduction unit, 51 f
Belt tensioning tool, 52f
Bevel-edge lettering, 195-196,196f
BHCS. See Button head cap screws
Bipolar series wiring, 58
BOB. See Breakout board
Braille lettering, 21,193-194
Breakout board, 72-75. See also under
Controller hardware
Button head cap screws, 178
X&m&i C S^SR^
CAD and graphics, 135
graphics programs
2512 5 2 I n d e x
CAD and graphics (continued)
Adobe Illustrator, 140
GIMP, 140
Rhino, 140
SolidWorks, 140
pixilation, 137f
raster to vector conversion utilities,
137-138
stick font text, 136,136f
TrueType text, 136,136f
2D and 3D, difference between, 138
vendors, listing of, 138
AutoCAD, 138-139
AutoCAD-LT, 138-139
free CAD, 139
low-cost CAD, 139
QCAD, 139-140
TurboCAD, 139
CAM software, 143,156
CAD and CAM combination software
ArtCAM (by DelCAM), 155
CAM-Only Software, 156
FreeMill, 156
MasterCAM, 156
SheetCAM (by Stable Design), 156
Vectric Software, 155
VisualMill, 156
milling options, generalized
climb milling, 152-153
conventional milling, 152-153
finish profiling, 153-154
lead in position, 154
lead out position, 154
nesting, 154-155
part tabbing, 154
ramped entry cut, 154
step-down, 153
step-over, 153
uses of, 144-146
area clearance, 147
CAM machining parameters, 146
cuts, decorative types of, 148
drilling function, 148-149
incised carving, 150-151
inlay function, 149
profiling, 146-147,145f, 146f
3D carving, 150-151
Campaign buttons, 201
Carriage(s), 28
assembly, 31, 32f
with 43/4-in riser tubing, 177f
Cartesian coordinate system
definition, 129-130,129f
lathe/rotary topology, 131-132,131f,
132f
table or mill topology, 130-131,131f
C-channel, 19
Ceramic-style bearings, 8
Clamp-on mechanism, 37
Clam-shell method, 184
Climb milling, 152-153
Closed bearing style, 27
CNC
engraving machine, 193
plasma table, 15
offered by B and B Plasma, 166f
CNC machines
construction materials
(router/plasma)
aluminum, 18-19
joining materials together, 19
wood composites, 18
engraver, 5
hold-down methods
double-sided tape, 12
dual Z, 15-16
fat mat, 12
limit and homing switches, 16
mechanical probing, 13
optical probing, 13
plasma cutters, 14-15
probing, 13
rotary A axis, 13-14
T track grid work, 12
vacuum, 12
lathes, 18
mills
accuracy versus repeatability,
17-18
resolution, 11
router, 5
router head, 6-8
spindle head, 8-11
tooling, 19-21, 21-22
CNC plasma table, 173,175f
complete leg bottom, 174fI n d e x 2 5 3
completed table, 183f, 184f
gantry end caps, 177,177f
leg members, 175f
leg replacement, 175f
leg-leveling system, 173,174f
materials assembled for, 174f
table assembly, 184
X-axis members, 175f
Z-axis assembly, 181f, 182f
CNC router, items produced on
accented fonts, 197-198,198f
ADA signage, 192-194
ADA restroom sign, 193f
ADA sign, 194f
backlit acrylic LED sign, 201,
202f
bevel-edge lettering, 195-196,196f
engraving using engraving stock,
205, 206f
filled-shallow engraving, 197
furniture, 189
shop cabinetry, 189f
monument sign, 189,190f
musical instrument. See Solid-body
electric guitar
oversized projects, 200, 201f
panel with removed lettering,
204-205, 205f
programming examples, 219-223
pulley blocks, 198-199,199f, 200f
raised/recessed-lettering effects, 196,
196f
relay cover removal job, 216-218,
218f, 220f
stud-mounted lettering and logos,
214-216, 215f, 216f
textured background effect, 197,197f
3D routing, 202-204, 203f
tools and templates, 189
dovetail jig, 190f, 191f
DT joint cut, 192f
fret wire bending tool, 193f
V carving, 194-195,195f
Coating, ball screw, 234
Compression loads, 242
Computer operating systems and
applications, 89
Concentric bushing, 30, 30f
Conical tooling, 20f, 21f
Construction materials. See under CNC
machines
Control software
computer operating systems and
applications, 89
enhanced machine controller, version
2 (EMC2), 88-89
feed rate (F), 123
G code, 90-93,92t-93t
GOO (rapid linear motion), 93-95
G01 (linear motion at feed rate), 95-96
G02 and G03 (arc at feed rate), 96-99
G04 (dwell), 99
G10 (coordinate system data tool and
work offset tables), 99-100
G12 and G13 (clockwise/
counterclockwise circular
pocket), 100
G15 and G16 (exit and enter polar
mode), 100
G17, G18, and G19 (plane selection),
100, lOOf, lOlf
G20 and G21 (length units), 101
G28 and G30 (return to home), 101
G28.1 (reference axes), 101-102
G31 (straight probe), 102-103
G40, G41, and G42 (cutter radius
compensation), 103-104
G43, G44, and G49 (tool length
offsets), 104
G50 and G51 (scale factors), 104
G52 (temporary coordinate system
offset), 105
G53 (move in absolute coordinates),
105
G54 to G59 and G59 P (select work
offset coordinate system), 105
G61 and G64 (path control mode), 106
G68 and G69 (coordinate system
rotation), 106
G73 canned cycle (High-Speed Peck
Drill), 106-107
G80 (modal motion cancellation), 107
G81 cycle, 109
G81 to G89 (canned cycles), 108-109,
llOf
G82 cycle (for drilling), 1102 5 4 I n d e x
Control software (continued)
G83 cycle (peck drilling), 110
G85 cycle (for boring or reaming),
111, lllf
G86 cycle (for boring), 112
G88 cycle (for boring), 112
G89 cycle (for boring), 112
G90 and G91 (distance mode),
112-113
G92, G92.1, G92.2, and G92.3 – G92
Offsets, 113-114
G93, G94, and G95 (path control
mode set), 114-115
G98 and G99 (canned cycle return
level), 115-116
G-Code editors, 90
M codes, 116,116t
MO, Ml, M2, and M30 (program
stopping and ending), 116-117
M3, M4, and M5 (spindle control),
117
M47 (rerun from first line), 118
M48 and M49 (override control),
118
M6 (tool change), 117-118
M7, M8, and M9 (coolant control), 118
M98 (subroutine call), 118-119
M99 (return from subroutine),
119
M998 (tool change position), 121
Mach3 Control Software, 87-88
modal groups, 122,122t
select tool (T), 123
self-reversing tapping cycles,
119-121,120t-121t
spindle speed (S), 123
user-defined M codes, 122
Controller hardware
adjunct devices, 78-79
spindle-speed controller, 79
breakout board, 72-75
dual-port BOB with spindle-speed
controller, 79f
dual port from sound logic, 75f
five axis multipurpose, 74f
four-axis BOB from PMDX, 74f
functions of, 72
drives, 75-76
enclosure, 71-72, 72f
wiring, 73f
pendant, 79-81
micro switches, 81-83
Z touch-off tool, 83
power supply, 76-78, 77f, 78f
wiring, 83
Controller software, 163
console, 10
Conventional milling, 152-153
Conversational programming, 88
Coolant control, 118
CorelTrace, 137
Critical nut speed, 238
Critical speed, 242
Current spikes, 7
Cut relay in tray socket, 219f
Cuts, decorative types of, 148
Cutter radius compensation (G40, G41,
and G42), 103-104,105
Cutter ramping, 154
Cutter step-downs, 153
Digital readout device, 65
DRO device. See Digital readout
device
Direct current motors, 62
DC motors. See Direct current motors
Do-it-yourself (DIY), 168
Double-nut adjustable preload,
240
Double-sided masking tape, 12
Dovetail jig, 190f, 191f
Drilling function, 148-149
Drives, 75-76
Driving method, 37
Dual Z, 15-16
Duality lathe, 169
m £ mmmm
Eccentric bushing, 30, 30f
EMC2. See Enhanced machine
controller, Version 2
Emergency power off (EPO),
71,72
Encoders, 64-65, 65f
assembly, 65fI n d e x 2 5 5
with dual-shaft configuration, 64f
linear glass scales, 65
Enclosure, 71-72, 72f
End fixity, 35-36
End journals and bearing supports,
234
End mill, 19-20, 20f
Engraving, 20, 20f
filled-shallow, 197
machines, 5
with stick fonts, 148f
stock, 205, 206f
Enhanced machine controller, Version 2
(EMC2), 88-89
EPO. See Emergency power off
Epoxy-filled engraving, 198f
ER25 collet system, lOf
EZ-Router, 164,164f
Fat mat, 12
FDA. See Food and Drug
Administration
Feed rate, 123
FenderStratocaster, 207
Filled-shallow engraving, 197
Flanges, 48,234
Food and Drug Administration, 46
FreeMill, 156
Freeware, 139
Fret wire bending tool, 193f
Furniture, 189,190f
GOO (rapid linear motion), 93-95, 94f
improper use ot, 94f
GOl (linear motion at feed rate), 95-96,
95f
G02 (arc at feed rate), 96-99, 96f
G03 (arc at feed rate), 96-99, 96f
G04 (dwell), 99
G10 command (coordinate system data
tool and work offset tables),
99-100
G12 (clockwise/counterclockwise
circular pocket), 100
G13 (clockwise/counterclockwise
circular pocket), 100
G15 (exit and enter polar mode),
100
G16 (exit and enter polar mode), 100
G17 (plane selection), 100, lOOf, lOlf
G18 (plane selection), 100, lOOf, lOlf
G19 (plane selection), 100, lOOf, lOlf
G20 (length units), 101
G21 (length units), 101
G28 command (return to home), 101,
102f
G28.1 (reference axes), 101-102
G30 (return to home), 101
G31 (straight probe), 102-103
G40 (cutter radius compensation),
103-104
G41 (cutter radius compensation),
103-104
G42 (cutter radius compensation),
103-104
G43 (tool length offsets), 104
G44 (tool length offsets), 104
G49 (tool length offsets), 104
G50 (scale factors), 104
G51 (scale factors), 104
G52 ^temporary coordinate system
offset), 105
G53 (in absolute coordinates), 105
G54 to G59 (select work offset
coordinate system), 105
G59 P (select work offset coordinate
system), 105
G61 (path control mode), 106
G64 (path control mode), 106
G68 (coordinate system rotation), 106
G69 (coordinate system rotation), 106
G73 canned cycle (high-speed peck
drill), 106-107,107f
G80 (modal motion cancellation),
107
G81 canned cycle drilling, 109, llOf
G81 to G89 (canned cycles), 108-109,
llOf
G82 cycle (for drilling), 110
G83 (canned cycle peck drilling), 107f,
110, lllf
G85 (for boring/reaming canned cycle),
111, lllf
G86 cycle (for boring), 1122 5 6 I n d e x
G88 cycle (for boring), 112
G89 cycle (for boring), 112
G90 (absolute distance mode), 112-113,
113f
G91 (incremental distance mode),
112-113,113f, 114
G92, G92.1, G92.2, and G92.3 – G92
(offsets), 113-114
G93 (path control mode set), 114-115
G94 (path control mode set), 114-115
G95 (path control mode set), 114-115
G98 (canned cycle return level), 115-116
G99 (canned cycle return level), 115-116
Gantry end caps, 177,177f
Gas metal arc welding, 19
Gas tungsten arc welding, 19
G-code commands, 10
G-code controlled system, 162
G-code editors, 90
G-code file processing, 16
G-code programming editor. See
Programming examples in G code
Geared reducers, 46
GIMP, 140
GMAW. See Gas metal arc welding
Graphics programs. See under CAD and
graphics
GTAW. See Gas tungsten arc welding
Guide systems. See Linear guide
systems
MKSHK H mmtmg
Half-moon profile rollers, 31
Hall-effect sensor, 62
Handy touch-off tool, 82f
Hardware abstraction layer, 88
Hardware enclosure cabinets,
72f
HDU foam. See High-density urethane
foam
HerSaf, 151
v-bit cutters, 19
High-density urethane foam,
196, 200
Hold-down methods. See under CNC
machines
Hole drilling, 149
Holes, 178
Homing switches, 16
Horsepower
actual, 7
theoretical, 6
Hybrid roller guides, 32, 32f
Incised carving, 150-151
Incremental distance mode (G91), 108f,
112-113,113f
Induction motor, 6, 7
Inlay function, 149
In-rush current, 7
K2-CNC (company), 166
I
Lathes, 18,166-168
Lathe topology, 131-132,131f, 132f
Lead screw, 11,18
assembly, 39f
nuts, 38—41
Lead values, 36-37, 38t
Leg-leveling system, 173,174f
Life expectancy for precision ball screw
assemblies, 244
Linear glass scales, 65
Linear guide systems, 25
hybrid roller guides, 32, 32f
profile rail, 27-29, 28f
round rail, 26-27, 26f
continuous support, 27
from Danaher Motion, 26f
end mounting, 27
V-style roller, 29-32
Linear motion at feed rate (G01), 95-96,
95f
Linux operating system, 89
Load locking spring, 234
Lube holes, 234
Lubrication, 28
Luthier shops, 206
M codes, 116,116t
user-defined, 122I n d e x 2 5 7
MO, Ml, M2, and M30 (program
stopping and ending), 116-117
MOO and M01 commands, 99
M3 (spindle control), 117
M4 (spindle control), 117
M47 (rerun from first line), 118
M48 (override control), 118
M49 (override control), 118
M5 (spindle control), 117
M6 (tool change), 117-118,118f
M7 (coolant control), 118
M8 (coolant control), 118
M9 (coolant control), 118
M98 (subroutine call), 118-119
M99 (return from subroutine), 119
M998 (tool change position), 121
Mach3 control software, 13, 87-88,163,
164,166
Machine service life, 237
Machine torch, 184
Magnetic switches, 17,17f, 82, 82f
MasterCAM, 156
MDA precision, 168
MDF. See Medium density fiberboard
Mechanical probing, 13
Medium density fiberboard, 18,197
Metal inert gas, 19
Micro switches, 16,16f, 81-83, 81f
Microsoft Windows, 89
Microstepping drives, 75, 76f
MIG. See Metal inert gas
Mills, 17-18,166-168
Mill topology, 130-131,131f
Modal groups, 122,122t
Monument sign, 189,190f
Motor(s)
encoders, 64-65, 65f
power, 163
servo motors, 61-63
advantages of, 64
stepper motors, 57-61, 64f
advantages of, 63
specifications for, 60t
Motor-assembly pivot, 177f
Mounted reduction unit, 178
Mounting blocks, 27
MPG from Nidec Nemicon, 81f
Multistage reduction unit, 53
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association, 57
NEMA (National Electrical
Manufacturers Association), 57
NEMA 23 motors, 58f, 178
NEMA 34 motors, 58f
NEMA / 34-stepper motor, 49, 50f
NEMA motor mounting templates
NEMA 17 footprint, 249f
NEMA 23 footprint, 250f
NEMA 34 footprint, 250f
Nested vector artwork, 217f
Nesting, 154-155
Nidec Nemicon Corporation, 81, 81 f
Nut
lead screw and, 38^11
loading, 241
mounting, 37, 241
rotating, 42
0 ^smkess^
Offset spur gear reduction, 46^7,47f
Online calculator, 49,183
Optical probing, 13
Override control, 118
xsKtm* P mmmt^
Pacific bearing, 32
Part tabbing, 154
Particle image velocimetry, 62-63
PD. See Pitch diameter
Peck drilling, 107f, 110
Pendant. See under Controller hardware
Permissible compression loading, 238
Permissible rotational speed, 238
PID. See Proportional integral
derivative
Pinion gear, 11,43,44, 45
Pinion transmission system, 42,46
Pitch, 42-43,47
diameter, 43,44,45
PIV (particle image velocimetry),
62-63
Pixelation, 137,137f
Planetary gear reduction, 46
Plasma cutters, 14-15
Plasma table, 164-166,165f, 166f2 5 8 I n d e x
Plate-bearing hole, 183
Port, definition of, 72
Power supply, 76-78, 77f, 78f
Precision rolled ball screws product
overview, 234
acceptable speed, 243
accuracy, 239
ball screw assembly selection, 235
example, 236
bearing support reference drawings
(end fixity), 242
compression load, 246
design formulas, 237-239
length
for designated ball screws, 246
for screws, 243
life expectancy
for precision ball screw assemblies,
244
for precision plus preloaded ball
screw assemblies, 245
lubrication guidelines, 241
preload types, 240
Pressure angle (PA), 42
Probes, 13
Profile rail, 27-29, 28f
Profiling, 146-147,145f, 146f,
153-154
Programming examples, 219-223
in G code, 227-230
Proportional integral derivative (PID),
62
Pulley blocks, 198-199,199f, 200f
Pulley reducers. 49-53
QCAD, 139-140
Rack, 11
and pinion combination, 42-46
Rack transmission system, 42,46
Radial ball bearing, 36
Radius format command, 97
Rail assembly, 31
Raised/recessed-lettering effects, 196,
196f
Ramped entry cut, 154
Rapid linear motion (GOO), 93-95, 94f
improper use of, 94f
Ready-made CN system, 161-164
do-it-yourself (DIY), 168
lathes, 166-168
mills, 166-168
plasma table, 164-166,165f
router, 164-166
vendor listing, 168-169
Reducer mechanism, 11
Reducers, 44. See also under
Transmission systems
Relay cover removal job, 216-218, 218f,
220f
Relay holding tray, 218f
Remote pendant controller from Texas
Micro, 80f
Rest machining, 146
Rhino, 140
Rotary A axis, 13-14
Rotary encoder, 65f
Rotary topology, 131-132,131f, 132f
Rotating nut, 42
Round rail. See under Guide systems
Roufer, 5,164-166
head, 6-8, 7f
RTA motion control systems, 75
Screw, 11
lead, 37-38
lead value of, 42
and nut. See under Transmission
systems
Select tool, 123
Self-reversing tapping cycles, 119-121,
120t-121t
Serial-controlled spindle-speed
controller card, 80f
Servo motors, 61-63
advantages of, 64
closed-loop functionality, 62
tuning parameters
PID (proportional integral
derivative), 62
PIV (particle image velocimetry),
62-63
velocity versus acceleration, 62fI n d e x 2 5 9
Shareware, 139
SHCS. See Socket head cap screws
SheetCAM (by Stable Design),
156
Shop cabinetry, 189f
Shuttle Pro, 80
Signage industry, 12
Single-pole double-throw, 16
Six-wire motors, 58
Skip-lead preload, 240
Socket head cap screws, 178
Solid-body electric guitar, 206-214,
21 Of, 211f, 215f
channel with installed truss rod, 211 f
3D contouring cuts, 209f
3D routing, 213f
face shot of, 208f
inlay markers, 214f
neck headstock, 213f
neck holding jig, 210f
partially cut fret slots, 213f
routing fret board, 212f
SolidWorks, 14
Sound logic, card by, 80f
SPDT. See Single-pole double-throw
Spindle chuck, 21 f
Spindle control, 117
Spindle drive, 8
Spindle head, 8-11
3 horsepower, 9f
Spindle speed, 123
controller, 79, 80f
Spoil board, 131
Stand-alone regulated power supply
units, 76
Stand-off supports, 27
Start-up current, 7
Stepper motors, 57-61, 64f
advantages of, 63
maximum performance, 61
power supply, 60-61
specifications for, 60t
Stick font, 148,148f
engraving, 206f
text, 136,136f
Straight-probe command, 102
Stud-mounted lettering and logos,
214-216, 215f, 216f
Subroutines, 228-230
Swarf removal, 28
s^-w^ J vtmwm
T track grid work, 12
Table assembly, 184
Tangential ball return, 234
Teeth per inch Acme screw, 41
Temporary coordinate system offset
(G52), 105
Tension loads, 242
Texas Micro circuits, 80
THC. See Torch height controller
Thin-wall gantry tubing, 176,176f
Threading, 18
3D carving, 150-151
3D cutting, 138
3D routing, 202-204
TIG. See Tungsten inert gas
Tiger Tek CNC, 166
Timing belt, 38,47-49,48f
Timing pulleys, 47-19, 48f
Tool length offsets, 104
Tooling, 19-21, 21-22
Topolbgy
lathe, 131-132,131f, 132f
mill, 130-131,131f
rotary, 131-132,131f, 132f
Torch height controller, 14,15f
Tormach CNC mill, 167f
Tormach tooling system, 21, 22f, 169
Torque, 238
Torroidal-style transformer, 78f
Transmission systems
ball screws, 41^2
lead screw and nut, 38—11
pulley-reduction unit construction,
49-52
variations on, 52-53
rack and pinion combination, 42-46,
43f
reducers
geared reducers, 46
offset spur gear reduction, 46-47
planetary gear reduction, 46
rotating nut, 42
screw and nut
driving method, 372 6 0 I n d e x
Transmission systems (continued)
end fixity, 35-36
lead values, 36-37, 38t
nut mounting, 37
screw lead, 37-38
timing belt, 47-49
timing pulleys, 47-49
Tray socket
cut relay in, 219f
uncut relay in, 219f
Trucks, 28
TrueType font, 144,150,197
engraving, 206f
TrueType text, 136,136f
TTS. See Tormach tooling system
Tungsten inert gas, 19
TurboCAD, 139
Twelve-volt relay, 218f
Mllllllltlllll ^J iitlllillllllil
Ubuntu, 89
Uncut relay in tray socket, 219f
Unipolar motors, 58
United States Department of
Agriculture, 46
Universal serial bus technology, 162
USB technology. See Universal serial
bus technology
USB-based microscope camera, 13
USDA. See United States Department of
Agriculture
User-defined M codes, 122
User input, 164
V bit engraving, 150f
V carving, 194-195,195f
V router bits, 194
V style cutter, 150
V style roller, 29-32
Vacuum hold-down method , 12
Variable-frequency drive, 8, 9f
Vector artwork, 215f
nested, 217f
Vector files, 137
Vector quad, 30
Vectric software, 155
VFD. See Variable-frequency drive
VisualMill, 156
— w « •
WAGO connectors, 83f
Wall support blocks, 27
Warp 9 Computers, 164,168
Wattage, 6
Whip, 36
critical speed, 36
Wiper kit, 234
Wiring, 83
Wood composites, 18
Wood grain pattern in MDF, 197
Woodworking router head, 7f
X-axis rails, 176
Y-axis rail, 176
Z-axis assembly, 181f, 182f
Z-axis back plate
mounting structure of, 179
with spacer and guide, 179
Z retraction level (for canned cycle), 115f
Z Touch-Off Tool, 83
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