Build Your Own CNC Machine

Build Your Own CNC Machine
اسم المؤلف
Patrick Hood-Daniel, James Floyd Kelly
التاريخ
28 ديسمبر 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Build Your Own CNC Machine
Patrick Hood-Daniel, James Floyd Kelly
Contents at a Glance
About the Authors x
About the Technical Reviewers xi
Acknowledgments . xii
Introduction xiii
Chapter 1: Your CNC Machine . 1
Chapter 2: Hardware and Tools 5
Chapter 3: Tips and Advice . 13
Chapter 4: Movement Using Rails 23
Chapter 5: Joining Methods 35
Chapter 6: The Electronics 49
Chapter 7: X-Axis, Part 1 . 73
Chapter 8: X-Axis, Part 2 . 81
Chapter 9: X-Axis, Part 3 . 91
Chapter 10: Y-Axis, Part 1 . 99
Chapter 11: Y-Axis, Part 2 . 109
Chapter 12: Y-Axis, Part 3 . 121
Chapter 13: Preparing for the Z-Axis . 135
Chapter 14: Z-Axis, Part 1 . 149
Chapter 15: Z-Axis, Part 2 . 159
Chapter 16: Z-Axis, Part 3 . 167
Chapter 17: Mounting the Electronics . 183
Chapter 18: Software and Testing 197
Chapter 19: Where to Go from Here . 209
Index 217 CONTENTS
v
Contents
About the Authors x
About the Technical Reviewers xi
Acknowledgments . xii
Introduction xiii
Chapter 1: Your CNC Machine 1
What is CNC? 1
Industrial Uses . 2
Personal Uses 2
Your DIY CNC Machine 3
What’s Next? . 4
Chapter 2: Hardware and Tools . 5
The Tools 5
The Electronics Vendors 12
What’s Next? . 12
Chapter 3: Tips and Advice 13
Cut Once . 13
Protect Yourself . 14
Protect Your Lungs 15
Label Parts 16
MDF Sheets and Sizes . 17
Limit Your Cuts 18
Time Your Cuts 20
Encouragement . 20
What’s Next? . 21
Chapter 4: Movement Using Rails 23
Bearing-Rail Assembly 23
Riding the Rail . 32
Tips and Advice . 33 CONTENTS
vi
What’s Next? . 33
Chapter 5: Joining Methods . 35
Two Pieces of MDF . 35
Method 1: Cross Dowels 38
Method 2: Bolt, Washer, and Nut .43
Which Method Is Best? 44
Building a Jig to Drill . 45
What’s Next? . 47
Chapter 6: The Electronics . 49
The Required Components 49
Preparing the Stepper Motor Wires 53
Preparing the Power Supply 56
Preparing the Breakout Board 59
Providing Power to the Stepper Motor Drivers 62
Wiring Motor Drivers to the Breakout Board . 64
Connecting Power to Motor Drivers . 65
Connecting Stepper Motors to Motor Drivers . 67
Wiring the Cooling Fan 69
Testing the Electronics 70
What’s Next? . 71
Chapter 7: X-Axis, Part 1 73
The X-Axis MDF Parts 73
The X-Axis Table . 74
Cutting Rails for Tabletop Sides . 79
Summary of Work . 80
What’s Next? . 80
Chapter 8: X-Axis, Part 2 81
Drilling the Table . 81
Drilling Holes for Legs . 85
Cutting the Table Ends 86
Summary of Work . 90
Hardware Required . 90
What’s Next? . 90
Chapter 9: X-Axis, Part 3 91
Drilling the Table Ends (Legs) 91 CONTENTS
vii
Drilling and Mounting the Rail . 95
Attaching the Table Legs . 96
Cutting the X-Axis Lead Screw 97
Summary of Work . 98
Hardware Required . 98
What’s Next? . 98
Chapter 10: Y-Axis, Part 1 99
The Y-Axis MDF Parts 99
Parts Q and R: The Y-Axis Gantry Sides 100
Building BRAs for Gantry Sides . 105
Summary of Work . 108
Hardware Required . 108
What’s Next? . 108
Chapter 11: Y-Axis, Part 2 109
The Y-Axis MDF Parts 109
Attaching BRAs and Gantry Sides 110
Part P: The Y-Axis Gantry Bottom Support . 114
Summary of Work . 119
Hardware Required . 120
What’s Next? . 120
Chapter 12: Y-Axis, Part 3 121
The Y-Axis MDF Parts 121
The Rail Support 122
Finishing the Y-Axis Frame 128
Tips on Final Frame Assembly .132
Summary of Work . 132
Hardware Required . 132
What’s Next? . 133
Chapter 13: Preparing for the Z-Axis . 135
The Y-Axis BRA Supports 135
Cutting and Drilling Parts C and D .136
Measuring for the Z-Axis . 144
Summary of Work . 146
Hardware Required . 147
What’s Next? . 147 CONTENTS
viii
Chapter 14: Z-Axis, Part 1 149
The Z-Axis MDF Parts 149
Part F: The Z-Axis Rail Support 150
Parts W and X: The Z-Axis Bearing Supports . 154
Z-Axis Bearing-Rail Assemblies .155
Summary of Work . 157
Hardware Required . 157
What’s Next? . 157
Chapter 15: Z-Axis, Part 2 159
Preparing to Drill . 159
Drilling Part F: The Z-Axis Rail Support 159
Drilling Parts W and X: The Z-Axis Bearing Supports 161
Mounting the Z-Axis Bearing-Rail Assemblies 164
Summary of Work . 166
Hardware Required . 166
What’s Next? . 166
Chapter 16: Z-Axis, Part 3 167
Cutting the Z-Axis Rail Support Rails . 167
Cutting and Drilling Parts M and N . 169
Cutting and Drilling Part V 173
Assembling the Z-Axis . 174
Attaching the Z-Axis to the Machine 176
Summary of Work . 181
Hardware Required . 181
What’s Next? . 181
Chapter 17: Mounting the Electronics 183
Cutting and Drilling the Motor Mounts . 183
Mounting Your Router 191
Summary of Work . 194
Hardware Required . 195
What’s Next? . 195
Chapter 18: Software and Testing . 197
CAD, CAM, and Control Software . 197
The Mach3 Control Software .197
Downloading and Installing Mach3 198
Index
  
5V adapter, 59
A
assembling z-axis, 174–176
attaching z-axis to machine, 176–181
B
Back Supports, cutting y-axis, 176–178
bar clamps, 9
barrel nuts (cross dowels), 38
bearing supports, 154–155, 161–164
bearing-rail assemblies (BRAs). See BRAs
(bearing-rail assemblies)
bolt-bearing-nut assemblies, 26, 107, 164
bolt/washer/nut MDF joining method,
43–44
Bosch Laminate Router (Colt model), 191
brad point drill bits, usage of, 6
BRAs (bearing-rail assemblies)
adjusting on rails (y-axis), 132
attaching to gantry sides, 110–114
building for gantry sides (y-axis),
105–108
building for z-axis, 155–157
*components of, 23–31
mounting (z-axis), 164–166
mounting on linear bearing supports,
141–142
y-axis supports for, 135–136
breakout board
connecting EStop to, 212–213
Keling C10, 50
preparing, 59–62
wiring motor drivers to, 64
breathing masks, 15
Burt, Jim, 5
C
C clamps, 9
CAD (computer-aided design) software
defined, 197
overview, 209–210
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing)
software
defined, 197
overview, 210
center punch, 9, 100
chamfering
chamfer bit (45 degree), usage of, 10
Part F, 152–153
tabletop edges (x-axis), 77–79
CNC (computer numerical control)
discussion forum, 11
do-it-yourself machine. See DIY CNC
machine
industrial uses for, 2
machine, protecting and painting, 215
overview, 1
personal uses for, 2
software, 50
components
electronic, 49–53
EStop, 210
configuring Mach3 Control application,
200–203
connecting
power to motor drivers, 65
stepper motors to motor drivers, 67–69
Control software
defined, 197
Mach3. See Mach3 Control application
cooling fan, wiring, 69
counterboring
holes, drilling depth of, 163
*surfaces of Parts O and S, 124–126
countersink drill bits, 10, 86–90
cross dowels
attaching Router base with, 176
for attaching table legs, 96
drilled holes in Part F for, 161
drilling holes for, 127
drilling holes in back supports for,
169–171
MDF joining method, 38–42
securing Back Supports with, 174–176
Cut List PDF file, 82 INDEX
cuts
limiting, 18
timing, 20
cutting and drilling
Back Supports (z-axis Parts M and N),
169–173
gantry sides (y-axis), 100–104
motor mounts, 183–190
Router Base (z-axis Part V), 173–174
cutting rails for tabletop sides, 79–80
D
default motor units (Mach3 config), 203
detail metal rulers (1/2″), usage of, 8
dip switches, configuring (stepper motor
drivers), 68–69
DIY CNC machine
history of, 3–4
overview, 3
downloading Mach3 Control application,
198–200
drill bits, twisted and spade, 6–7
drill press, usage of, 7
drilling. See also cutting and drilling
building jig for, 45
gantry sides (y-axis), 100–104
and mounting rails, 95–96
E
electronics
breakout board, preparing, 59–62
*components, documentation for, 12
components, required, 49–53
overview, 49
power supply, preparing, 56–59
stepper motor drivers, connecting
power to, 65
stepper motor drivers, connecting
stepper motors to, 67–69
stepper motor drivers, providing power
to, 62
stepper motor drivers, wiring to
breakout board, 64
stepper motor wires, preparing, 53–56
testing, 70–71
vendors, 11–12
wiring cooling fan, 69
EStop (emergency stop), installing, 210–213
extension cords, 53
F
fan, 120V, 53
formaldehyde-free MDF, 15
Forstner drill bits, usage of, 6
frame, finishing (y-axis), 128
G
Gantry Bottom Support, 20, 114–119
gantry sides
attaching BRAs to, 110–114
building BRAs for, 105–108
cutting and drilling, 100–104
G-Code
language, 197
projects, 209
glasses, safety, 14
ground wire connection, 57
H
hand router, 191
hardware required
mounting electronics, 195
preparing for z-axis, 147
for x-axis, 90, 98
for y-axis, 108, 120, 132
for z-axis, 157, 166, 181
heat-shrink tubing, 54
Hood-Daniel, Patrick, 3, 12
hot wire
connecting, 57
identifying, 56
I
industrial uses for CNC, 2
Input Signals tab (Mach3 config), 201–202
installing Mach3 Control application,
198–200
J
jigs
for drilling MDF pieces, building, 45–47
to hold rail, building, 95
joining methods
bolt/washer/nut method, 43–44
building jig for drilling, 45–47
comparison of methods, 44–45
cross dowels method, 38–42
overview, 35
for two MDF pieces, 35–37 INDEX
K
Keling Technology
C10 breakout board, 50
KL-320-36 36V/8.8 power supply, 52
KL4030 stepper motor driver, 50
site for ordering electronic parts, 12
Kelly, Darrell A., 5
Kelly, James Floyd, 5
knockdown nuts (cross dowels), 38
L
labeling
parts, 16
surfaces of Parts O and S, 124
LazyCam application, 199
lead screw, cutting (X-Axis), 97
legs for table
attaching, 96–97
cutting, 86–90
drilling, 91–94
limit switches, adding (CAD machines),
213–214
linear bearing supports (Parts C & D)
cutting/drilling (y-axis), 136–141
mounting BRAs on, 141–142
lock washers and nuts, 44
lockdown version of Mach3, 198
lungs, protecting, 15
M
Mach3 Control application
configuring, 200–203
downloading and installing, 198–200
overview, 197–198
Mach3 software, 209
magnetic bowl, usage of, 7
masks, breathing, 15
MDF (medium-density fiberboard)
*defined, 2
formaldehyde-free, 15
jig for drilling pieces of, 45–47
methods for joining two pieces of, 35–
37
parts for drilling (z-axis), 159
parts for x-axis, 73
parts for y-axis, 99, 109–110
parts for y-axis frame, 121–122
parts for z-axis, 149
Parts Layout PDF files, 82
sheets, purchasing, 75
sheets, sizes of, 17–18
MDI (manual data input) tab (Mach3),
203–204
measure twice/cut once rule, 13–14
measuring for z-axis, 144–146
metal band saw, usage of, 5
metal file, usage of, 10
metal square, 8
mitre box, usage of, 6
motor drivers
connecting power to, 65
connecting stepper motors to, 67–69
wiring to breakout board, 64
motors
attaching to CNC, 188–190
motor mounts, cutting/drilling, 183–
190
Motor Outputs tab (Mach3 config), 201
Motor Tuning (Mach3 config), 202–203
testing, 203–206
mounting
BRAs to bearing supports (z-axis),
164–166
electronics, 183
rails, 95–96
router, 191–194
multimeter, 11, 52, 57
N
NO/NC (normal opened/closed) label
(EStop), 212
P
painting/protecting CNC machines, 215
Part Y, surface of, 81–82
Part Z
bottom of, 83
drilling holes in bottom of, 82–83
parts, labeling, 16
Parts O and S, 121–122
Parts Q & R (y-axis gantry sides), 100–104,
114
Parts T and U (table legs), cutting out, 86–90
Parts Y and Z, connecting, 83–85
personal uses for CNC, 2
Philips head screwdriver, 42–43
pilot holes, 29, 106
plastic wire conduit, 53, 68
Ports and Pins (Mach3 config), 200
power
connecting to motor drivers, 65
providing to stepper motor drivers, 62 INDEX
power drill (1/2″), usage of, 7
power supply
Keling’s KL-320-36 36V/8.8, 52
preparing, 56–59
predrilling (pilot holes), 26
R
rail supports
drilling (z-axis Part F), 159–161
for y-axis, 122–128
for z-axis (Part F), 150–153
rails
adjusting BRAs on (y-axis), 132
bearing-rail assemblies, 23–32
bolting to frame (y-axis), 130–132
*cutting (z-axis), 167
cutting for tabletop sides, 79–80
drilling and mounting, 95–96
riding, 32–33
routers
mounting, 191–194
precautions, 14
Router Base, cutting/drilling (z-axis),
173–174
safe use of, 77
testing, 206–207
usage of, 9
S
safety precautions, 14
sanding block, usage of, 10
screw drivers, 6
screw terminal, 59–62
Select Native Units (Mach3 config), 203
shrink tubing, 53
slot screwdriver, 39, 42
soldering
gun, 10, 52
wires, 54
solid state relay (SSR), adding, 214
spade drill bits, 7
SSR (solid state relay), 214
stepper motor drivers
Keling KL4030, 50
providing power to, 62
stepper motors
connecting to motor drivers, 67–69
wires, preparing, 53–56
T
table, drilling, 81–85
table legs (ends)
attaching, 96–97
cutting, 86–90
drilling, 91–94
drilling holes for, 85–86
table saw, usage of, 5
tabletop
sides, cutting rails for, 79–80
x-axis, 74–79
tape measures, 8
tapping
bit and holder, usage of, 9
holes, 26
rails, 107
tap tool, 30, 33
templates, pilot hole, 28, 106
testing
CNC motors, 203–206
electronics, 70–71
router, 206–207
third hand clamp, usage of, 11
tinning wires, 57
tips and advice
cuts, limiting, 18
cuts, timing, 20
lungs, protecting, 15
MDF sheets, sizes of, 17–18
measure twice/cut once, 13–14
part labeling, 16
positive attitude, 20–21
for riding rails, 33
safety precautions, 14
tools for building CNC machine, 5–11
transfer punches, usage of, 7
twisted drill bits, 6
V
vendors, electronics, 12
voltage, verifying, 49
W
websites, for downloading
Cut List PDF file, 82
Parts Layout PDF files, 16, 82
rail piece pilot hole template, 28 INDEX
websites, for further information
building your own CNC, 12
CAD software, 209–210
CAM software, 210
CNC discussion forum, 11
detailed wiring diagram, 71
electronic parts vendors, 12
limit switches, 214
tap usage demo video, 32
wires
18-gauge, 52
connecting to stepper motor drivers,
62, 67
cutters and strippers, 11, 52
stripping and pairing, 53–54
wiring
cooling fan, 69
motor drivers to breakout board, 64
wrenches for 1/4″ nuts, 8
X
x-axis
cutting rails for tabletop sides, 79–80
lead screw, cutting, 97
MDF parts for, 73
table, drilling, 81–85
table legs, cutting, 86–90
table legs, drilling holes for, 85–86
tabletop, 74–79
Y
y-axis
adjusting BRAs on rails, 132
Back Supports, cutting, 176–178
BRA supports, 135–136
BRAs for gantry sides, building, 105–108
cutting/drilling linear bearing supports,
136–141
finishing frame, 128
frame rail support, 122–128
gantry bottom support (Part P), 114
gantry sides, 100–104
hardware required, 132
MDF parts for, 99, 109–110
MDF parts for frame, 121–122
Rail Support, 20
Z
z-axis
assembling, 174–176
attaching to machine, 176–181
bearing supports (Parts W and X), 20,
154–155, 161–164
BRAs, building for, 155–157
BRAs, mounting, 164–166
cutting/drilling Back Supports (Parts M
and N), 169–173
cutting/drilling Router Base (Part V),
173–174
hardware required, 166, 181
MDF parts for, 149, 159
measuring for, 144–146
preparing for, 135
rail support (Part F), 20, 150–153,
159–161
rail support rails, cutting, 167
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