Brydson’s Plastics Materials

Brydson’s Plastics Materials
اسم المؤلف
Marianne Gilbert
14 ديسمبر 2021
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Brydson’s Plastics Materials
Eighth Edition
Edited by
Marianne Gilbert
Abbreviations for Plastics
Many abbreviations for plastics materials are in common use. Some of these have now been incorporated into national and
international standards relating to both plastics and additives.
Relevant standards published by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) and the International Standards
Organisation (ISO) are listed here. The ISO standards listed here are British Standard (BS) versions; equivalent versions
are published by many other ISO members, for example, the Deutsches Institut fur Normung E.V. (DIN) in Germany.
ASTM D1600-14 Standard Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics
BS EN ISO 1043-1:2011 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Basic polymers and their special characteristics
ASTM D5538-13 Standard Practice for Thermoplastic ElastomersdTerminology and abbreviations
BS EN ISO 18064:2014 Thermoplastic Elastomers. Nomenclature and abbreviated terms
BS EN ISO 1043-2:2011 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Fillers and reinforcing materials
BS EN ISO 1043-3. Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Part 3. Plasticizers
BS EN ISO 1043-4:1999 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Flame retardants
Table 1 based on the list available from the British Plastics Federation, with some additions, provides plastics
abbreviations in common use (British Plastics Federation, 2008).
TABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plastics
ABS Acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene
ASA Acrylateestyreneeacrylonitrile
ATH Aluminum trihydrate
BDS Butadieneestyrene block copolymer
BMC Bulk molding compound
BOPP Biaxially oriented polypropylene
BR Butadiene rubber
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetateebutyrate
CAP Cellulose acetate propionate
CE Cellulose
CMC Carboxymethyl cellulose
xxiiiTABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
CN Cellulose nitrate
CP Cellulose propionate
CSM Chopped strand mat (or) chlorosulfonated polyethylene (rubber)
DMC Dough molding compound
ECTFE Ethylene chlorotrifluoro ethylene copolymer
EPDM Ethyleneepropyleneediene monomer (elastomer)
EPM Ethyleneepropylene rubber ¼ EPR
EPR Ethyleneepropylene rubber ¼ EPM
EPS Expanded polystyrene
EVA Ethylene vinyl acetate
EVOH Ethylene vinyl alcohol
FEP Fluorinated ethyleneepropylene
FEPM Copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene
FRP Fiber-reinforced polyester/plastics
FPU Fluorinated polyurethane
FTPE Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomer
FVE Fluorovinyl ether
GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
GPPS General-purpose polystyrene
GRP Glass-reinforced plastic
HDPE High-density polyethylene
HEMA Hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer
HIPS High-impact polystyrene ¼ TPS
HFP Hexafluoropropylene
LCP Liquid crystal polymer ¼ SRP
LDPE Low-density polyethylene
LLDPE Linear low-density polyethylene
MBS Methacrylateebutadieneestyrene terpolymer
MDPE Medium-density polyethylene
MF Melamine formaldehyde
NBR Nitrile rubber ¼ acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
NR Natural rubber
OPP Oriented polypropylene
PA Polyamide
PA11 Polyamide 11
PA12 Polyamide 12
PA46 Polyamide 46
PA6 Polyamide 6
xxiv Abbreviations for PlasticsTABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
PA610 Polyamide 610
PA66 Polyamide 66
PA66/610 Polyamide 66/610 copolymer
PAA Polaryl amide
PAI Polyamide imide
PAN Polyacrylonitrile
PAVE Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
PB Polybutylene
PBT Polybutylene terephthalate ¼ PTMT
PC Polycarbonate
PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PE Polyethylene
PEBA Polyether block amide
PEEK Polyetheretherketone
PEEL Polyester elastomer
PEI Polyester imide
PEK Polyetherketone
PES Polyethersulfone
PETG PET copolymer
PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
PF Phenol formaldehyde
PFA Perfluoro alkoxyl alkane
PFEVE Poly(fluoroethylene vinyl ether)
PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate
PI Polyimide
PIR Polyisocyanurate rigid (foam)
PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate
PMP Polymethyl pentene
PMVE Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
PPVE Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
POM Polyoxymethylene
PP Polypropylene
PPE Polyphenylene ether
PPO Polyphenylene oxide
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSS Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone
PS Polystyrene
PSU Polysulfone
Abbreviations for Plastics xxvMore systematic methods of naming polymers have been proposed; for example, the Commission on Macromolecular
Nomenclature of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published a nomenclature for singlestrand organic polymers (Jones et al., 2008). Two approaches have been used, namely structure-based names, and sourcebased names. The source-based names refer to monomers used to produce the polymer; the structure-based name describes
TABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMT Polytetramethylene terephthalate ¼ PBT
PUR Polyurethane
PVA Polyvinyl acetate
PVB Polyvinyl butyral (butyrate)
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVCC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
PVCP Polyvinyl chloride plasticized
PVCU Polyvinyl chloride unplasticized
PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
SAN Styrene acrylonitrile (copolymer)
SBR Styreneebutadiene rubber
SBS Styreneebutadieneestyrene (block copolymer)
SEBS Styreneeethyleneebutadieneestyrene
SIS Styreneeisopreneestyrene
SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
SMC Sheet molding compound
SRP Self-reinforcing polymer ¼ LCP
TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
TPO Thermoplastic olefin (rubber)
TPR Thermoplastic rubber
TPS Toughened polystyrene ¼ HIPS
TPU Thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) ¼ TPUR
TPUR Thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) ¼ TPU
TPX Polymethyl pentene copolymer
UF Urea formaldehyde
UHMWPE Ultra high molecular weight PE
VC Vinyl chloride ¼ VCM
VCM Vinyl chloride monomer ¼ VC
XLPE Cross-linked polyethylene
Reproduced with permission from the British Plastics Federation.
xxvi Abbreviations for Plasticsa polymer as “poly(constitutional repeating unit),” wherein the repeating unit is named as a divalent organic substituent
according to the usual nomenclature rules for organic chemistry. While more systematic, resulting names can be complex.
Some examples of this nomenclature compared with normal usage are given for common polymers in Table 2.
In this book the policy has been to use normal usage scientific terms.
British Plastics Federation, 2008. Plastics Abbreviations. Available:
Jones, R.G., Kahovec, J., Stepto, R., Wilks, E.S., Hess, M., Kitayama, T., Metanomski, W., 2008. Compendium of Polymer Terminology and
Nomenclature IUPAC Recommendations 2008. RSC Publishing, Cambridge.
TABLE 2 Nomenclature for Some Common Polymers
Traditional Name Structure-Based Name Source-Based Name
Polyethylene (PE) Poly(methylene) Polyethene
Polypropylene (PP) Poly(1-methylethane-1,2-diyl) Polypropene
Polystyrene (PS) Poly(1-phenylethane-1,2-diyl) Poly(ethynylbenzene or poly(vinyl benzene)
Polymethyl methacrylate Poly[1-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-methyl ethane-1,2-diy
Standard Test Methods
ASTM D149-09 (2013) Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid
Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies.
ASTM D150-11 (2011) Standard Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid
Electrical Insulation.
ASTM D256-10e (2010) Standard Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics.
ASTM D257-14 (2014) Standard Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials.
ASTM D495-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical
ASTM D523-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss.
ASTM D542-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Index of Refraction of Transparent Organic Plastics.
ASTM D569-90 Method for Measuring the Flow Properties of Thermoplastic Molding Materials (Withdrawn, 1995).
ASTM D570-98e1 (2010) Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics.
ASTM D635e14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Plastics in a
Horizontal Position.
ASTM D638-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics.
ASTM D648-16 (2016) Standard Test Method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position.
ASTM D696-16 (2016) Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between 30C
and 30C With a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer.
ASTM D785-08 (2015) Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness of Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D790-15e2 (2015) Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and
Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D792-13 (2013) Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by
ASTM D955-08 (2014) Standard Test Method of Measuring Shrinkage From Mold Dimensions of Thermoplastics.
ASTM D1003-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics.
ASTM D1238-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer.
ASTM D1525-09 (2009) Standard Test Method for Vicat Softening Temperature of Plastics.
ASTM D2863-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support CandleLike Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index).
ASTM D3418-15 (2015) Standard Test Method for Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization
of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
ASTM D3638-12 (2012) Standard Test Method for Comparative Tracking Index of Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D4039-09 (2015) Standard Test Method for Reflection Haze of High-Gloss Surfaces.
ASTM D5205-10 (2010) Standard Classification System and Basis for Specification for Polyetherimide (PEI) Materials.
ASTM D5336-15a (2015) Standard Classification and Basis for Specification for Polyphthalamide (PPA) Injection
Molding Materials.
ASTM D6002-96e1 (2002) Standard Guide for Assessing the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable Plastics
(Withdrawn, 2011).
ASTM D6866-16 (2016) Standard Test Methods for Determining the Bio-Based Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous
Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis.
ASTM E313-15e1 (2015) Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally
Measured Color Coordinates.
xxixBS 1322:1992, ISO 2112:1990 Specification for aminoplastic molding materials.
BS 2782-1: Method 130A:1991, ISO 182e1:1990 Methods of testing plastics. Thermal properties. Determination of the
thermal stability of polyvinyl chloride by the Congo red method.
BS 2782-3 Method 350:1984 Methods of testing plastics. Mechanical properties. Determination of Izod impact strength of
rigid materials. (Withdrawn, see ASTM D256-10e, 2010.)
BS 3505:1986 Specification for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) pressure pipes for cold potable water.
BS EN ISO 877-1:2010dPlastics. Methods of exposure to solar radiation. General guidance.
DIN 53388-04 (1984) Testing of plastics and elastomers; exposure to daylight under glass. Supersededdsee DIN-ENISO-877.
DIN 53453 (1975) Testing of plastics: impact flexural test. Supersededdsee DIN-53435 DIN-EN-ISO-178 DIN-EN-ISO-
DIN 53455 (1981) Testing of plastics: tensile test. Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-527-1 DIN-EN-ISO-527-2 DIN-ENISO-527-3.
DIN 53457 (1987) Testing of plastics; determination of the elastic modulus by tensile, compression and bend testing.
Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-178 DIN-EN-ISO-527-1 DIN-EN-ISO-527-2 DIN-EN-ISO-604.
DIN 53460 (1976) Testing of plastics: determination of the Vicat softening temperature of thermoplastics. Supersededd
see DIN-EN-ISO-306 DIN-ISO-306.
DIN 53479 (1976) Testing of plastics and elastomers; determination of density. Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-1183-1
FED-STD-191A (1989) Method 590.1 Federal Standard: textile test methods. Inactive.
IEC 60243-1 (2013) Electric strength of insulating materialsdTest methodsdPart 1: Tests at power frequencies.
IEC 60695-2-11 (2000) Fire hazard testingdPart 2e11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methodsdGlow-wire flammability
test method for end-products. Withdrawn.
ISO 62:2008 PlasticsdDetermination of water absorption.
ISO 75-1:2013 PlasticsdDetermination of temperature of deflection under loaddPart 1: General test method.
ISO 105-A02:1993 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart A02: Gray scale for assessing changes in color.
ISO 105-B01:2014 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart B01: Color fastness to light: Daylight.
ISO 105-B06:1998 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart B06: Color fastness and aging to artificial light at high temperatures: Xenon arc fading lamp test.
ISO 178:2010 PlasticsdDetermination of flexural properties.
ISO 179-1:2010 PlasticsdDetermination of Charpy impact propertiesdPart 1: Noninstrumented impact test.
ISO 294-4:2001 PlasticsdInjection molding of test specimens of thermoplastic materialsdPart 4: Determination of molding shrinkage.
ISO 305:1990 PlasticsdDetermination of thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride), related chlorine-containing homopolymers and copolymers and their compoundsdDiscoloration method.
ISO 307:2007 PlasticsdPolyamidesdDetermination of viscosity number.
ISO 527-2:2012 PlasticsdDetermination of tensile propertiesdPart 2: Test conditions for molding and extrusion plastics.
ISO 1043-1: 2011 PlasticsdSymbols and abbreviated termsdPart 1: Basic polymers and their special characteristics.
ISO 1110:1995 PlasticsdPolyamidesdAccelerated conditioning of test specimens.
ISO 1210:1992 PlasticsdDetermination of the burning behavior of horizontal and vertical specimens in contact with a
small-flame ignition source. Withdrawndsee IEC 60695-11-10:1999.
ISO 1218:1975 PlasticsdPolyamidesdDetermination of “melting point.” Withdrawn.
ISO 1628-2:1998 PlasticsdDetermination of the viscosity of polymers in dilute solution using capillary viscometersdPart
2: Poly(vinyl chloride) resins.
ISO 8295:2004 Plastics Film and sheetingdDetermination of the coefficients of friction.
ISO 10993-10:2010 Biological evaluation of medical devicesdPart 10: Tests for irritation and skin sensitization.
ISO 11357-2:2013 PlasticsdDifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC)dPart 2: Determination of glass transition temperature and glass transition step height.
ISO 11357-3:2011 PlasticsdDifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC)dPart 3: Determination of temperature and enthalpy
of melting and crystallization.
ISO 11359-2:1999 PlasticsdThermomechanical analysis (TMA)dPart 2: Determination of coefficient of linear thermal
expansion and glass transition temperature.
ISO 15874-2:2013 Plastics piping systems for hot and cold water installationsdPolypropylene (PP)dPart 2: Pipes.
xxx Standard Test MethodsISO 18373-1:2007 Rigid PVC pipesdDifferential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) methoddPart 1: Measurement of the
processing temperature.
ISO 18373-2:2008 Rigid PVC pipesdDifferential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) methoddPart 2: Measurement of the
enthalpy of fusion of crystallites.
ISO 19069-2:2016 PlasticsdPolypropylene (PP) molding and extrusion materialsdPart 2: Preparation of test specimens
and determination of properties.
SAE J1960 (2008) Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Exterior Materials Using a Controlled Irradiance Water-Cooled
Xenon Arc Apparatus (Canceled January 2008, to be superseded by J2527dPerformance Based Standard for Accelerated
Exposure of Automotive Exterior Materials Using a Controlled Irradiance Xenon-Arc Apparatus).
SAE J2412_201508 (2015) Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Components Using a Controlled Irradiance
Xenon-Arc Apparatus.
SAE J2572_201410 (2014) Recommended Practice for Measuring Fuel Consumption and Range of Fuel Cell and Hybrid
Fuel Cell Vehicles Fueled by Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen.
UL 746B (2013) Standard for Polymeric MaterialsdLong-Term Property Evaluations.
UL 94 (2013) Standard for Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances.
ASTM International, 2016. West Conshohocken, PA.
British Standards Institution, 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL.
German Institute for Standardization (DIN).
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Webstore.
International Organization for Standardization. ISO Central Secretariat, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401 1214 Vernier,
Geneva, Switzerland.
SAE International.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL).
Chapter 1
Plastics Materials: Introduction and Historical Development
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 2
The Chemical Nature of Plastics Polymerization
Dr. Steve Edmondson and Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 3
States of Aggregation in Polymers
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 4
Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 5
Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 6
Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties
Dr. Carole Raymond and Dr. Sara Ronca
Chapter 8
Fillers (Including Fiber Reinforcements)
Professor Roger Rothon and Dr. Christopher DeArmitt
Chapter 9
Processing, Design, and Performance of Plastics Products
Professor Anto´ nio S. Pouzada
Chapter 10
Dr. Sara Ronca
Chapter 12
Plastics Based on Styrene
Ms. Kerry Satterthwaite
Chapter 15
Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 16
Acrylic Plastics
Mr. Adam P. Mosley
Chapter 17
Dr. Deny Kyriacos
Chapter 18
Aliphatic Polyamides
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 19
Mr. Daniel L. Jarvis
Chapter 20
Thermoplastic Polyesters
Dr. Henry C.A. Lim
Chapter 22
Cellulose Plastics
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 25
Aldehyde Polymers: Phenolics and Aminoplastics
Dr. Richard Heath
Chapter 26
Unsaturated Polyester Resins
Professor Frank R. Jones
Chapter 27
Epoxy Resins
Professor Geoff Gibson
Chapter 28
Isocyanate-Based Polymers : Polyurethanes, Polyureas, Polyisocyanurates, and their Copolymers
Dr. Richard Heath
‘Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.’
A-stage resins, 712
AA. See Acetaldehyde (AA)
AeBeA block copolymers, 403
Abrasion, 198
ABS. See Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
AC copolymer. See Acrylic copolymer (AC
Accelerator, 719
AcCL. See Acetylcaprolactam (AcCL)
Acetaldehyde (AA), 529
Acetal polymers, 522e523
Acetalepolyurethane alloys, 524
Acetal resins, 513, 516e521, 518t, 519f
additives, 522
applications of acetal polymers and
copolymers, 522e523
developments, 524
polymerization of formaldehyde, 514e516
processing, 521e522
Acetic acid, 620
Acetone, 707
cyanohydrins, 442, 442f
Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), 359
Acetylation, 620
Acetylcaprolactam (AcCL), 492
ACH route, 442
Acicular fillers, 190
Acid anhydride hardeners, 781e784, 785t.
See also Amine hardeners
Acid chloride route, 570
Acid functional saturated polymers, 186
Acrylic copolymer (AC copolymer),
Acrylic modifiers, 363
Acrylic plastics. See also Plastics
acrylic polymers, 455e456, 456f
adhesives, 454
hydrophilic polymers, 454e455
MMA, 453, 453t
PMMA, 442e452
poly(methacrylamide), 455
Acrylic polymers, 441, 441f, 448f, 450f,
455e456, 456f
Acrylic sheet, 452
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 100,
135e136, 151, 205, 293e294, 311,
applications, 319
copolymer, 639
polymers, 447
processing, 319
terpolymer, 6, 363
modifiers, 363
Active hydrogen-containing reactants, 799
Acyclic aliphatic resins, 787e788
ADC. See Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC)
ADCA. See Azodicarbonamide (ADCA)
Additive(s), 86, 145e150, 294e297, 363,
429, 449, 501e502, 789e791,
aliphatic polyamides, 501e502
flame retardants, 155
LCPs, 611
PAEKs, 586e589
PBI, 600e601
PE, 263e265
for plastics, 127, 160e165
antioxidants, 128e143
blooming in polymer compounds, 128t
blowing agents, 158e160
colorants, 143e150
fire retardant additives, 154e158
impact modifiers, 151e154
lubricants and flow promoters, 150e151
plasticizers and softeners, 150
polyetherimides, 579e581
PPS, 564
sulfones, 556e557
Adhesive(s), 306, 831e832
applications for PF, 732e733
epoxy resins in, 796
MF, 733
tape for PEEK, 593
Adipic acid, 489, 489f, 494f
Agglomerates, 172, 173f
Aggregates, 172, 173f
Aggregation states in polymers, 39
amorphous polymers, 39e44
cross-linked structures, 52e53
crystalline polymers, 44e52
impact modification of plastics, 54e56
Aging, 93e94
AIBN. See Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)
Air plasma treatment, 124e125
Aldehyde polymers. See also Fluorinecontaining polymers
aldehyde-based and-related polymers,
aldehyde-related polymers, 737e741
applications, 732e737
formaldehyde-based polymers, 705
laminates, 728e732
molding materials, 717e728
monomers, 706e710
oligomerization or resinification of aldehyde
systems, 710e717
Aldehydes, 705
aliphatic links, flexible, 606
biodegradable polyesters, 640
esters, 357
polyamides, 547
polyester, 527e528
polyisocyanates, 804
saturated acids, 756
Aliphatic polyamides, 487, 493e495
applications, 506e509
fiber-filled polyamides, 502e505
intermediates, 489e491
polymerization, 491e493
processing, 505e506
properties, 495e500
solubility, 509e510, 510f
Alkali cellulose, 618
Alkoxy-silanes, 184, 281
Alkyds, 770e771
Alkyl 2-cyanoacrylates, 454
Alkyl substituted molecule poly-(2,6-
dimethyl-p-phenylene ether), 325
Alkyl sulfonic phenyl esters (ASE), 359
Alkylene oxides, polyethers from,
Alkylperoxyl radicals, 130
Allophonate formation, 805
Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC), 769, 769f
Allyl resins, 769e770
DAP resin, 769e770
Alpha process, 443, 443f
Altam, 490
Alternating copolymers, 23
Alumina trihydrate (ATH), 178, 793
Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), 33
Aluminum flakes, 149
Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), 178
fillers, 202
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH), 361, 451
Ambient lighting, 327
Amine hardeners, 778e781, 779te780t,
782t. See also Acid anhydride
u-Amino acid, 488, 488f
Amino silanes, 162
u-Aminocaproic acid, 490
837Aminoplastics, 705, 723, 728e729
world production, 706
Aminoresin. See Aminoplastics
u-Aminoundecanoic acid, 490e492, 491f
Ammonium borate, 157
Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), 157e158,
Ammoximation reaction, 490
density, 89
materials, 226, 446
polymers, 79, 82
solvents, 79
perfluoropolymers, 404
applications, 420
processing, 413
plastics, 118
polar polymers, 82e83
solvents, 79e83
Amorphous polyethylene terephthalate
(APET), 417
Amorphous polymers, 39e44. See also
Crystalline polymers
glass transition temperature, 41e42
orientation, 43e44
physical aging, 42e43
physical states, 39e41
g transitions, 42
Anaerobic acrylic adhesives, 454
Anatase grade, 146
“Andomness”, 290
Angiosarcoma of liver (ASL), 329e330
Anhydrides, 184
Anilineeformaldehyde polymers, 740, 740t
Anionic polymerization, 32e35,
Anisotropic behavior, 43
Anisotropy, 225e227
amorphous materials, 226
reinforced thermoplastics, 226e227
semicrystalline materials, 226
Annealing process, 407
Antagonism, 142
Antiaging additives, 127
Antiblocking agents, 163, 263, 296
Antidegradants, 294e297, 579
Antimony oxides, 156
Antioxidant(s), 128e143, 264, 294,
346e347, 467e468, 557, 564, 589,
antagonism, 142
biological, 141
classes and mechanisms of action, 132e135
high molar mass, 141e142
MDs, 140e141
oxidation of hydrocarbon polymers,
photoactivators, 137e140
photostabilizers, 137e140
reactive antioxidants, 141e142
stabilizers against dehydrochlorination, 143
synergism, 142
thermal stabilizers, 135e137
UV absorbers, 347
Antiplasticization, 348, 349f
Antireflection coatings, 122e123
Antistatic additives, 264e265
Antistatic agents, 163, 296, 363
APET. See Amorphous polyethylene
terephthalate (APET)
APP. See Ammonium polyphosphate (APP)
aPP. See atactic PP (aPP)
Aquanyl, 509
Aqueous PTFE dispersion applications, 414,
Aqueous suspension polymerization, 401
p-Aramid, 604
Aramid-fiber-filled polyamides, 504
amide copolymer, 596
amines, 136e137
compounds, 8
diacids, 646f
dicarboxylic acids, 527e528, 527f
isocyanates, 801e802
polyamides, 547
polybenzimidazoles, 594
polyesters, 528, 645
Artificial weathering, 94
Aryl etherketones, 587t
Aryl phosphite esters, 137
ASE. See Alkyl sulfonic phenyl esters (ASE)
ASL. See Angiosarcoma of liver (ASL)
Aspect ratio, 174
Asymmetric aromatic molecules, 606e607
Atactic polypropylene, 65e66
Atactic PP (aPP), 282, 286e287
Atactic structure, 65
ATBC. See Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC)
ATH. See Alumina trihydrate (ATH);
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH)
ATL process. See Automated tape-laying
process (ATL process)
Atlac 580, 767
Atom, 103
Atom transfer radical polymerization
(ATRP), 32e33
Atomic force microscopies. See Scanning
force microscopies (SFM)
ATRP. See Atom transfer radical
polymerization (ATRP)
Aurum, 565
Auto-acceleration effect, 444
Automated tape-laying process (ATL
process), 774
Automatic molding, 407
Automotive industry PEEK, 593
Autoxidation reaction, 129
Average kinetic chain length, 29
Azelaic acid, 489
Azelates, 357
Azo pigments, 147
Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), 26
Azodi-isobutyronitrile, 444
Azodicarbonamide (ADCA), 160, 363
B-stage resins, 712
Ba/Cd systems, 345
Ba/Zn systems, 345
“Back-biting” mechanism, 253, 253f
Barely visible damage (BVD), 791
Barrier properties, 198e199
BASF, 264, 490
Bassalli solution, 235
BCF. See Bulked continuous filament (BCF)
BDO. See 1,4-Butanediol (BDO)
Beckmann rearrangement, 490
Benzene, 91, 311
Benzimidazole, 596
Benzoate esters, 359
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 26, 314,
Bi-material injection molding, 220
orientation, 298, 385
process, 117
stretching of amorphous polymers, 43e44
coupling agents, 35
hindered phenol semiacrylate antioxidant,
reactions, 738
Bimodal polymers, 24
Bio-based eco-products, 631
Bio-based intermediates, 644e647
Bio-based materials, 8
Bio-based polymers, 642e643
Bio-based polyols, 646
Biocellat, 624
Bioceta, 624
Biocides, 164, 363
Biocomposites, 771
Biodegradable blends, 637
Biodegradable plastics, 10, 15, 631
PBS, 642e643
PHAs, 640e642
PLA, 634e640
Biodegradable polycarbonates, 462
Biodegradable polymers, 631
principles and testing procedures, 647e648,
standards, 648
Biological antioxidants, 141
Bioplastics, 631, 632f
bio-based intermediates, 644e647
biodegradable and compostable plastics,
biodegradation and compostability
principles, 647e648
blends and composites, 632e633
recycling and life-cycle analysis, 631e632
Biopol, 7
Bioresins, 771
838 IndexBiphenyls, 607e608
Birefringence, 116e118
implications in plastics, 117e118
measurement, 118
Bis(hydroxyphenyl)-methane (HPM), 711
Bisphenol (BP), 606
Bisphenol A (BPA), 346, 457, 457fe458f,
464t, 528
dianhydride, 572e573
preparation from propylene and allyl
chloride, 775f
resin preparation from, 774e776
unit cell structure, 465f
Bisphenol H, 785e786
dioxole (PDD), 404
Biuret formation, 805
Black pigments, 146
Bleeding, 128, 633
Blends, 22e23, 524, 581, 632e633
PCs, 480e483
PHAs, 642
PLA modification, 637
Block copolymers, 22e23, 53, 68, 280, 291,
block copolymer polyurethane, polyester,
and polyamide TPE morphology, 671,
Block process, 821
Blocked isocyanates, 806, 831
Blooming, 128, 128t
Blow molding, 266, 277, 300, 371, 381,
extrusion blow molding, 477, 478f
injection blow molding, 478
Blow-up ratio (BUR), 266e267
Blowing agents, 158e160, 264, 809e810
chemical blowing agents, 159e160
physical blowing agents, 159
Blue Wool scale, 144
BMC. See Bulk molding compounds (BMC)
Bonded interpenetrating network (Bonded
IPN), 760e762
Bonded IPN. See Bonded interpenetrating
network (Bonded IPN)
Borates, 157
Borax, 157
Boric acid (H3BO3), 157
Boron trifluoride (BF3), 33, 76f
Borstar PP technology, 285, 286f
Bottle tops, 385
BP. See Benzoyl peroxide (BPO); Bisphenol
BPA. See Bisphenol A (BPA); 2,2-bis-(pHydroxy-phenyl)propane (BPA)
BPAephenol adduct, 459
BPF. See British Plastics Federation (BPF)
BPO. See Benzoyl peroxide (BPO)
BR. See Butadiene rubber (BR)
Branched phthalates, 353e356, 356t
Branching, 253, 461
British Plastics Federation (BPF), 2
Bromine, 156
Building, PVC use in, 380
Bulk molding compounds (BMC), 758, 765,
Bulk polymerization, 28, 284, 333, 444
Bulk polymers, crystalline structure in,
Bulked continuous filament (BCF), 302
BUR. See Blow-up ratio (BUR)
Butadiene rubber (BR), 151
1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 642, 645e646
Butyl glycidyl ether, 789, 789f
Butyl lithium, 656
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). See
N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide, 501
Butylbenzyl phthalate, 356
4,40-Butylidenebis-(3-methyl-6-tbutylphenol), 516
BVD. See Barely visible damage (BVD)
C-blacks. See Carbon blacks (C-blacks)
13C-NMR spectroscopy, 287
C-stage resins, 712
CA. See Cellulose acetate (CA)
Ca/Zn systems, 345
CAB. See Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)
CAGR. See Compound annual growth rate
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 292e293,
minerals, 176e177
Calcium stearate, 345
Calcium-based stabilizers, 344
Calendering processes, 268
CAP. See Cellulose acetate propionate
Capacitance, 104
Caprolactam (CL), 490, 490f, 493f
Carbanion, 33f
Carbocation, 33f
Carbon, 75e76
Carbon blacks (C-blacks), 92, 138, 138f,
146, 176, 263e264
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites
(CFRP composites), 791
Carbon fibers (CF), 293e294, 579, 768
Carbon nanofiber (CNF), 469, 469f, 589
Carbon-fiber-filled polyamides, 504, 505f
Carbonate fillers, 202
Carboxyl groups (COOH groups), 531
Carboxylic acid, 535
anhydride route, 570e571
and related compounds, 185e186
Carother’s equation, 744
Casein, 4
Cast polyamides, 509
Cast resins, 756e757
Catalysts, 809
Catalytic peroxide decomposers (PD-C), 135,
Catalytic peroxidolytic agents, 133e135
Catalytic pyrolysis, 400
Cationic antioxidants, 163
Cationic polymerization, 33, 34f
“Cationic resins”, 736
CB antioxidants. See Chain-breaking
antioxidants (CB antioxidants)
CB-A antioxidants. See Chain breaking
acceptor antioxidants (CB-A
CB-D antioxidants. See Chain-breaking
donor antioxidants (CB-D
Cell-forming additives, 809e810
Cellophane, 629
Cellular PE, 264
Cellular thermoplastics, 324, 468
Celluloid, 619
Cellulose, 94, 178, 618f
acetate, 5
caprate, 625
esters, 619e626, 633
applications, 625e626
ethers, 626e628
EC, 626e628, 627t
miscellaneous ethers, 628
fully substituted, 626f
nature and occurrence, 617e619
production, 619
properties and applications, 619e620
regenerated, 628e629
triacetate film, 625
tripropionate, 444
Cellulose acetate (CA), 619e621
biodegradable CA compounds, 624
compounding, 621e622
plasticizers, 621f, 624t
properties, 622e624, 622t
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 619, 625
Cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), 624
Cellulose propionate (CP), 619
Cenospheres, 202
Centrifugal casting, 763
CF. See Carbon fibers (CF); Continuous
filament (CF)
CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
CFRP composites. See Carbon fiberreinforced plastic composites (CFRP
branching, 335
extenders, 808
folding, 46, 47f
regularity, 64
transfer agents and regulators, 27
Chain breaking acceptor antioxidants (CB-A
antioxidants), 132
Chain reaction polymerization, 21, 26e36.
See also Step reaction polymerization
CRP, 32e33
decomposition of radical initiators, 26f
emulsion polymerization, 28f
free-radical polymerization, 26e29
ionic polymerization, 33e35
kinetics of free-radical addition
polymerization, 29e32
metallocene polymerization, 35e36
Index 839Chain reaction polymerization (Continued)
reaction of propagating radical with
hydroquinone, 27f
ZieglereNatta polymerization, 35e36
Chain-breaking antioxidants (CB
antioxidants), 131e132
Chain-breaking donor antioxidants (CB-D
antioxidants), 132
Chalk. See Calcium carbonate
“Chalking”, 130e131
Charpy test, 239
CHDM. See Cyclohexanedimethanol
blowing agents, 468
bonds, 75e77
defect structures, 335
imidization-precipitative process, 567
reactivity, 90e91
resistance, 496, 497t
Chemical-resistant E-glass (ECR), 758e759
Chemolysis. See Secondary recycling
Chill-roll process, 268
Chlorendic acid. See Het acid
Chlorendic anhydride, 750f, 784
Chlorinated paraffin plasticizers, 358
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), 363
impact modifiers, 363
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC), 382e383, 383t
Chlorinated solvents, 473
Chlorinated waxes, 150
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 159
Chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (CTFE
copolymer), 400
Chopped strand mat (CSM), 757
CIE system. See Commission Internationale
de l’Eclairage system (CIE system)
Cisetrans isomerization of maleate to
fumarate, 748
Citrate-based esters, 359
CL. See Caprolactam (CL)
Clarifying agents, 164e165
Classical azo pigments, 147
ClausiuseClapeyron equation, 86
Clear rigid extruded sheet formulation, 365t
“Clearing agents”, 4
Cling film, 381
CNF. See Carbon nanofiber (CNF)
Coagulated rubber, 2
Coal tar, 8
Coating(s), 374, 508, 759e760, 810,
antireflection, 122e123
coil, 374
dip, 374
electrostatic, 592
epoxy coating, 794
foams and extrusion, 301e302
in-mold, 810
in-mold surface, 828, 828f
powder, 592
PU-based, 831
screen, 374
spray, 374
stearate, 185
surface, 774, 794, 799, 810
urethane-based, 831
wire, 592
Coefficient of friction (COF), 198
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), 175,
197e198, 567
COF. See Coefficient of friction (COF)
Cohesive energy density, 78e79
Coil coating, 374
Coining method, 407
Cold molding process, 820
Cold-curing foams, 820
“Cold-drawing” process, 51
Color, 123e125, 176, 199e200
dyes, 124
pigments, 124
printability, 124e125
production, 143e144
Colorants, 143e150
additives for coloration, 145e150
color production, 143e144
Commercial polypropylenes, 65e66
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage
system (CIE system), 123e124
plastics, 9
thermoplastics, 545
Comonomers, 255
Compatibilizers for polymer blends, 163
Compensator, 118
Composite materials, 632e633, 774
epoxy resins in, 795e796, 795t
Composite properties, filler effects on,
abrasion, 198
barrier properties, 198e199
creep, 196
electrical conductivity, 196e197
flame retardancy, 201
friction, 198
hardness, 198
HDT, 193e194
modulus, 191e193
optical properties, 199e200
permeability, 198e199
scratch resistance, 198
strength, 191
thermal properties, 197e198
thermal stability, 194
toughness, 195e196
wear, 198
Compostability principles and testing
procedures, 647e648, 647t
Compostable plastics
PBS, 642e643
PHAs, 640e642
PLA, 634e640
Compostable polymers, 631
Compound annual growth rate (CAGR), 698
Compounding, 466e469
ingredients, 342e363, 467e469
additives, 363
antioxidants, 467e468
antioxidants and UV stabilizers,
dyes and pigments, 468
fillers, 360e361
flame retardants, 468
foaming agents, 468
heat stabilizers, 343e346
lubricants, 359e360
nanocomposite, 468e469
pigments, 361e362
plasticizers, 347e359
polymeric processing aids and impact
modifiers, 362e363
reinforcing fillers, 469, 470t
UV stabilizers, 467, 467f
techniques, 467
Compression molding, 266, 371, 602
Condensation polymerization, 21
Condenser, 104
Conduction mechanism, 112e115
applications of ICPs, 113e115, 114t
Conductive fibers, 176
Cone calorimeter, 101
Constrained geometry catalysts, 281
homogeneous catalysts, 250
epoxy resins in, 796
PVC, 380
Consumption of plastics, 12, 14t
adhesives, 831e832
resins, 750
Continuous filament (CF), 302
Continuous melt mixing, 370
Continuous random fibers (CR fibers), 758
Continuous random mat (CRM), 758
Continuous use temperature (CUT), 545
Control unit, 218
Controlled orientation injection molding,
Controlled radical polymerization (CRP),
Controlled rheology process, 294
COOH groups. See Carboxyl groups (COOH
Coordinate bond, 76, 76f
Coordination polymerization, 35, 250
Copolyester-based TPE, 692, 693te694t
Copolyesteramides (PEA), 661, 661f
Copolyesters, 528, 537e538, 538t
applications, 540e541
color shift measured using CIELAB color,
new-generation, 538e539
properties of Tritan, 539e540
Copolyetheresteramides (PEEA), 661, 661f
Copolymerization, 32, 254, 462f, 495
biodegradable polycarbonates, 462
with dicarboxylic acids, 462, 462f
effect, 62e63
of fluoroacrylates, 405
with hydroquinone, 462
PLA modification, 637
with siloxanes, 461, 461f
840 IndexCopolymers, 22e23, 54e55, 382, 493, 596,
alternating copolymers, 23
applications, 522e523
block copolymers, 22e23
of ethylene
ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers,
ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, 273
ethyleneecarbon monoxide copolymer,
ionomers, 273e274
graft copolymers, 23
methods of combining polymers, 23
PVC, 382
random copolymers, 22
rubber-modified SAN, 319e320
transition temperatures, 68e70
Copper, 140e141
elastomer impact modifier particles,
modifiers, 153
polymers, 392
Corona plasma treatment, 124e125
Corotating twin-screw compounding
extruder, 370
fabric laminates, 731
flock, 718
linters, 617
Covalent bond, 75, 76f
CP. See Cellulose propionate (CP)
CPE. See Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
CPVC. See Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CR fibers. See Continuous random fibers
(CR fibers)
CR-39 Plastic, 769, 769f
Crack pinning method, 195
Creep, 196
curves, 231
Cresols, 708
CRM. See Continuous random mat (CRM)
additives, 160e162
agents, 264, 808e809, 818e820
density, 52
effect, 63
molecules, 19e22, 20t
PE, 270e271
polybenzimidazole structure, 597
of prepolymer, 738
PVC, 385e386
structures, 52e53
swelling of cross-linking polymers, 87
CRP. See Controlled radical polymerization
Crude MDIs. See polymericdMDIs
Crystal nucleating agents, 296e297
Crystalline, 96
materials, 830e831
melting point, factors affecting, 68
nonpolar polymers, 79e82
polar polymers and solvents, 83e84
Crystalline polymers, 44. See also
Amorphous polymers
crystallinity in polymers, 45e48
liquid crystal polymers, 52
orientation in, 51e52
Crystallinity, 188, 287e288, 336e338,
higher crystallinity PVC, 337e338
polar attractions in PVC, 339f
in polymers, 45e48
X-ray diffraction peaks, 338f
Crystallites, 44
Crystallization, 44, 64e67
crystallizing solvents, 82
CSM. See Chopped strand mat (CSM)
CTE. See Coefficient of thermal expansion
CTFE copolymer. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (CTFE
Cumene process, 707
Curing, 750
chemistry, 752e755
of epoxy resins, 776e784
of polyester resins, 750e755
Cushioning materials, 800, 823e824
CUT. See Continuous use temperature
Cyanoacrylate adhesives, 454
aliphatic resins, 787, 787t
carbonate, 457
ether, 515, 515f
monomers, 21
trimer, 514
Cyclization, 586
Cyclo-aliphatic amines, 781
Cyclohexane, 707
Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), 536,
Cyclohexanone, 490
Cyclopentane, 159
D65, 124
DABCO. See 1,4-Diazabicyclo [2,2,2]octan
DAP resin. See Diallyl phthalate resin (DAP
DBP. See Di-butyl phthalate (DBP)
DCPD. See Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)
Debye equation, 110
Degree of crystallization, 287e288
Degree of polymerization (DP), 21, 30,
Degree of substitution, 618
DEHA. See Di-2-Ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)
DEHP. See Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate
DEHTP. See Di-(2Ethylhexyl) terephthalate
Dehydrogenation, 312, 313f
DEP. See Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
Designing process of plastics products,
DETDA. See 2,4-and 2,6-Diamine isomers
of 3,5-diethyl toluene (DETDA)
DGEBA. See Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol
Di-(2Ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP),
Di-2-Ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), 357
Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), 353
Di-2-Propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), 353
Di-butyl phthalate (DBP), 353, 449
Di-isocyanate route, 571
Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), 352
Di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate
(Hexamoll DINCH), 359
Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), 352
Di-octyl phthalate (DOP), 353
Di-octyl terephthalate (DOTP), 358e359
Di-b-naphthyl-p-phenylenediamine, 515
Diacyl chlorides, 462, 462f
Dialkyl sulfides, 137
Diallyl phthalate resin (DAP resin),
769e770, 770f
Diamine bis-(4-amino-3-methylcyclohexyl)-
methane, 488
2,4-and 2,6-Diamine isomers of 3,5-diethyl
toluene (DETDA), 808e809
Diamines, 570
4,4-Diamino diphenyl methane, 571f
Diaminophenyl sulfone, 781
Dianin’s compound isomers, 458e459,
1,4-Diazabicyclo [2,2,2]octan (DABCO), 809
Diazo pigments, 148
Dibasic-acid-modified PCTs (PCTA), 538
Dicarboxylic acids, 488, 488f
copolymerization with, 462, 462f
3,3-Dichloro 4,40-diamino diphenylmethane
(MOCA), 808e809
3,3 Dichlorobenzidine, 148
Dicyanodiamide (DICY), 784
Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), 671e672
DIDP. See Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP)
Die drawing processes, 51
Dielectric constant, 103e109, 261e262,
449, 449f
center of electron cloud, 104f
quantitative relationships, 109e111
DielseAlder reaction, 750
Diethanolamine, 807
Diethyl phthalate (DEP), 622
Diethylaminopropylamine, 778
Diethylene glycol, 750
Diethylenetriamine, 778, 789, 790f
Differential cooling, 227e228
Differential crystallinity, 227e228
Differential orientation, 227e228
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
252, 336, 529
thermograms, 605f, 665, 665f
Differential thermal strain, 227e228
Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 185
Index 841Diffusion, 94
effect of polymer and diffusant structure,
through film, 95e96
functional groups on oxygen permeability,
permeability, 94e95, 95t
Difunctional isocyanate, 805
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA),
773, 774fe775f
1,4-Dihydroxybenzene. See Hydroquinone
Diketo pyrrolo pyrrole (DPP), 148
Dilatant flow, 674
Dilauryl-b, b0-thiodipropionate (DLTP), 264
Diluents, 789e791, 789f
Dimethacrylates, 454
Dimethyl formamide (DMF)), 556, 595
5,5-Dimethyl hydantoin derivatives, 788,
Dimethyl phthalate, 621
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 550, 595
Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), 528, 538
Dimethylaminopropylamine, 778
Dimethylaniline (DMA), 751
Dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), 814
DINP. See Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP)
Dip coating, 374
Dip molding, 374
Diphenyl carbonate, 457, 459
Diphenyl ether, 583f
4,4,-Diphenylmethane’ diisocyanates
(4,4-MDI), 802e803
Dipole forces, 77, 77f
Dipole polarization, 105
Dipping technique, 269
Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate (DPGDB),
Direct impregnation, 763e764
Direct lithography process, 114e115
Discontinuous fibers, 757
Dishwasher durability, 540, 541f
forces, 77
spray techniques, 592
Dispersity, 24
Dissipation factor, 105
Distortion, 227e228
DLTP. See Dilauryl-b,b0-thiodipropionate
DMA. See Dimethylaniline (DMA);
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)
DMC. See Dough molding compounds
DMF. See Dimethyl formamide (DMF)
DMPA. See Dimethylol propionic acid
DMSO. See Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
DMT. See Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT)
Dodecanelactam, 491
Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride, 784
DOP. See Di-octyl phthalate (DOP)
Doping, 112e115, 113f, 114t
Dormagen process, 620
DOTP. See Di-octyl terephthalate (DOTP)
Doubly refracting crystals, 116
Dough molding compounds (DMC), 758,
765, 796e797
Dow process, 459, 707
Dow-Taga process, 299f
DP. See Degree of polymerization (DP)
DPGDB. See Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate
DPHP. See Di-2-Propylheptyl phthalate
DPP. See Diketo pyrrolo pyrrole (DPP)
Draw-down ratio, 266e267
DRIFTS. See Diffuse Reflectance Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
“Drooling”, 506
blending, 369e370
process, 4
winding, 763
Dryers, 770
DSC. See Differential scanning calorimetry
Dual-component processing, 816e817
equipment, 816
LP and HP dispensing equipment, 819t
Ductileebrittle transition, 238
DV. See Dynamic vulcanizates (DV)
Dyes, 124, 468
Dyestuffs, 145
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 252,
464e466, 466f, 584
Dynamic vulcanizates (DV), 653
Dynamic vulcanization process, 664
E-glass, 180, 758e759
fiber, 767
E-MA-GMA. See Ethylene-methyl acrylateglycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA)
E-ray, 117
E/E industries. See Electrical/electronic
industries (E/E industries)
EA-TPV. See Elastomeric alloys-TPV
Eastman Tritan, 538, 540f
properties, 539e540, 539t
transparent thermoplastics, 539f
Easy-open packaging, 305
EBM. See Extrusion blow molding (EBM)
EBS. See Ethylene-bis-stearamide (EBS)
EC. See Ethyl cellulose (EC)
ECHA. See European Chemicals Agency
ECR. See Chemical-resistant E-glass (ECR)
ECTFE, 400, 417
copolymers, 412
industrial process for production, 400
ECVM. See European Council of Vinyl
Manufacturers (ECVM)
ED. See External donor (ED)
EEW values. See Epoxy equivalent weight
values (EEW values)
EG. See Ethylene glycol (EG); Expandable
graphite (EG)
Ekonol, 606
EL lamps. See Electroluminescent lamps
(EL lamps)
Elastic effects in polymer melts, 213e214
Elastomeric alloys, 663e665
Elastomeric alloys-TPV (EA-TPV), 653
Elastomeric modifiers, 151
Elastomers, 294, 833
Electrical applications
epoxy resins in, 794e795
polyetherimides, 582
Electrical conductivity, 196e197, 579
Electrical insulators, 103
Electrical/electronic industries (E/E
industries), 592
applications in LCPs, 611
Electrically conductive polymers, 111e115
Electroluminescent lamps (EL lamps), 417
Electromagnetic/radiofrequency shielding
(EMI/RFI shielding), 504
diffraction, 47
microscopy, 290
polarization, 104
Electronic applications, epoxy resins in,
Electrophilic aromatic substitution, 550
Electrostatic coating, 592
Electrostatic dissipation (ESD), 505
Electrostatic dissipative grades, 564
EMA. See Ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA)
EMI/RFI shielding. See Electromagnetic/
radiofrequency shielding (EMI/RFI
Emulsifiers, 810
and microsuspension PVC, 341, 342f
polymerization, 28, 28f, 32, 333, 341, 401,
polymers, 332
ENB. See Ethylidene norbornene (ENB)
Endothermal blowing agents, 160
Endothermic decomposition, 155
Energy, 89
energy-intensive process, 451
Engineering plastics, 321
Engineering thermoplastics, 458, 469e476,
Entropy, 89
Environmental stress chemical corrosion
(ESCC), 767
Environmental-stress cracking (ESC), 255,
261, 539
EO. See Ethylene oxides (EO)
EO-tipped PPG polyetherols, 806
EP-RACOs. See Ethyleneepropylene
random copolymers (EP-RACOs)
EPDM. See Ethyleneepropyleneediene
elastomers (EPDM)
Epichlorohydrin, 775
Epoxide. See Ring-like epoxy groups
Epoxidized drying oil, 788, 788f
842 IndexEpoxidized polybutadiene resins, 788, 788f
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO), 345
Epoxy, 773
coating systems, 794
composite laminates, 795
compounds, 358
epoxyehydroxyl reaction, 777
equivalent, 776
esters, 358
nanocomposites, 793e794
stabilizers, 346
vinyl ester resins, 791
Epoxy equivalent weight values (EEW
values), 531
Epoxy resins, 773e774, 773f
applications, 794e797
curing, 776e784
diluents, flexibilizers, and additives,
epoxy nanocomposites, 793e794
epoxy vinyl ester resins, 791
fire resistance, 792e793
miscellaneous epoxy resins, 785e788
preparation from bisphenol A, 774e776
toughened epoxy resins, 791e792
EPR. See Ethyleneepropylene rubber (EPR)
EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Equibiaxial stretching, 44
Equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), 173
ESBO. See Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO)
ESC. See Environmental-stress cracking
ESCC. See Environmental stress chemical
corrosion (ESCC)
ESD. See Electrostatic dissipation (ESD);
Equivalent spherical diameter (ESD)
Esterification, 745
ETFE, 399, 417f
applications, 416e417
copolymers, 411e412
industrial process for production, 399
Ethenoid plastics, 5
Ethenylbenzene. See Styrene
Ethyl cellulose (EC), 626e628, 627t
Ethylene, 8, 644
ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, 273
industrial process for production of
ECTFE, 400
structure and properties of ECTFE, 400
Ethylene glycol (EG), 528, 538e539, 750
dimethacrylate, 451
Ethylene oxides (EO), 806
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 22, 262
copolymers, 273, 432
Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers, 437e438
applications, 438
structure and properties, 437e438
Ethylene-bis-stearamide (EBS), 359
Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers, 273
Ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA), 535
Ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl
methacrylate (E-MA-GMA), 535
Ethyleneecarbon monoxide copolymer, 274
Ethyleneepropylene phase morphology, 292f
Ethyleneepropylene random copolymers
(EP-RACOs), 290
Ethyleneepropylene rubber (EPR), 280, 663
Ethyleneepropyleneediene elastomers
(EPDM), 290e291, 663, 664f,
2-Ethylhexyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, 501
Ethylidene norbornene (ENB), 663e664
EU responses, 330e331
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA),
European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers
(ECVM), 330
European PVC industry, 16
EVA. See Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
Exotherms, 754e755
Expandable graphite (EG), 155, 158
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 311, 322e324,
323t, 824e825
structural foams, 324
Extent of reaction, 36
External donor (ED), 281
External release agents, 811
Extrusion, 209, 266, 297, 372, 445, 477,
blow molding, 477, 478f
coating, 301e302
molding, 266
parameters, 694, 695te697t
resins, 431
Extrusion blow molding (EBM), 216,
Fatty acids, 185, 360
FBA. See Furnace bottom ash (FBA)
FBRs. See Fluidized-bed reactors (FBRs)
FDA. See US Food and Drug Administration
2,5-FDCA. See 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid
FeAcAc. See Iron acetylacetonate (FeAcAc)
FeDRC. See Iron dithiocarbamates (FeDRC)
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene
FeSt. See Iron stearates (FeSt)
Fiber surface finish, 759e762
adhesion promoter, 760e762
by aqueous emulsion, 761t
choice of silane, 762
hydrolysis and polycondensation, 761f
interphase, 762f
Fiber-filled polyamides
aramid-fiber-filled polyamides, 504
carbon-fiber-filled polyamides, 504, 505f
glass-filled polyamides, 502e504, 503t
grades, 505
Fiber-resin perform
moldings, 734
sheet properties, 734t
Fiber(s), 602e603, 830e831
fiber-forming material, 799
fillers, 183
reinforcements, 810
spinning, 302
Fibrides, 277
Fibrillar structures, 464
Fick’s law of diffusion, 94
Fikentscher K-value, 334
Filaments, 431
winding, 763, 795
Filled resins, 393
Fillers, 96, 127, 169, 201e203, 263,
292e294, 293f, 360e361, 789, 810
annual global consumption, 170t
calcium carbonate, 360e361
fire retardants and smoke suppressants, 361
particulate fillers
to improving sustainability, 202e203
for plastics, 171e176
in plastics, 170t
recycling, 201e202
reducing cost, 169e170
surface modifiers, 183e188
sustainability and recycling issues,
types in thermoplastics and thermosets,
use in plastics, 188e201
filler effects on composite properties,
Films, 431, 431f
extrusion, 591
and sheet, 297e299, 380e381
Fine powder
processing, 408, 409f
resins, 392
fire resistance, epoxy resins in, 792e793
and plastics, 97
testing, 98e101
Fire retardant(s), 155, 263, 361, 468, 557,
additives, 154e158
fillers, 156
fire and flammability testing, 155
terminology, 154e155
Firefighter gear, 602
Flame retardancy, 201
Flame retardants. See Fire retardant(s)
Flammability tests, 98e100
Flexibilizers, 789e791
for cable formulation, 365t
pipes, 763
PVC, 347, 367e369, 368f, 369t
sheet flooring formulation, 365te366t
tubing and profiles, 382
Flexible foams
one-shot polyester foams, 820
one-shot foams, 818e820
prepolymers, 820
process methods, 821e822
properties and applications, 823e824
quasiprepolymer polyetherol foams,
Index 843Flexural
stiffness, 235
strength, 191
Floating head method, 828
Flooring, 380
FloryeFox equation, 62
Flow path ratio, 218
Flow properties of polymer, 212e213
Flow temperature, 40
Fluidization, 269
Fluidized-bed reactors (FBRs), 284e285
Fluorescence, 148e149
Fluorinated acrylates, 405, 420
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 398,
applications, 415
resins, 411
Fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFCs), 809
Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomers
(FTPEs), 403e404, 419
Fluorine atoms, 67
Fluorine-containing polymers, 389. See also
Aldehyde polymers
applications for fluoroplastics, 422
applications, 413e420
monomers in, 389t
preparation and properties, 391e405
processing, 405e413
recycling, 421
world fluoropolymer demand, 390te391t
recent trends, 422
safety and hygiene, 420e421
Fluoroadditives, 393
Fluoroelastomers, 390
applications, 422
thermal behavior, 420e421, 421t
Fluoropolymers, 389e405, 420
applications, 413e420
categories, 390t
copolymer of CTFE and ethylene, 400
FTPEs, 403e404
miscellaneous, 404e405
monomers, 389t
PCTFE, 399e400
perfluoroalkoxy resins, 398e399
polyvinylidene fluoride, 400e401
processing, 405e413
PTFE, 391e398
PVF, 402
recycling, 421
terpolymers of TFE, HFP, and VDF,
world fluoropolymer demand, 390te391t
Fluorosilicones, 389e390
Foam formulation for plastisol formulation,
Foamed isocyanate-based polymers,
flexible foams, 818e821
integral-skinned foams, 826e830
rigid, semirigid PU foams and production,
Foaming agents, 468
Foams, 432, 733e734
coating, 301e302
Foils, 730
Food grade sheet formulation, 365t
Food industry, 593
Food packaging applications, 318
Formaldehyde, 513e514, 710
health and safety issues, 710
polymerization, 514e516
resins, 4e5
Formaldehyde-based polymers, 705,
711e715, 717e719, 718t, 723e728,
727t, 733e735
cure reactions, 712e713, 713f
novolaks, 711e712
resin manufacture, 713e715, 714f
resols, 712
Formalin, 514, 710
Fracture toughness, 767
Free energy, 90
equation, 90
Free radical, 33f, 249, 342, 751
kinetics of free-radical addition
polymerization, 29e32
polymerization, 26e29, 32e33
Freeze-line distance, 266e267
Fresnel’s equations, 121
Friction, 198
in injection molds, 240e242, 242fe243f
solid friction, 240, 241t
Friedel Crafts reaction, 550
agents, 33
catalyst, 312
and related polymers, 737e739
Fringed micelle model, 45, 46f
Fructose, 646
FTPEs. See Fluorinated thermoplastic
elastomers (FTPEs)
Fumarate, cisetrans isomerization of maleate
to, 748
Fumaric acid, 748
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), 646
Furnace bottom ash (FBA), 202
Fusible core injection molding, 220
Fusion of PVC, 375e379
Gas injection molding, 220, 690
Gas phase
flame inhibition, 155
processes, 284e285
reactor, 284e285
technologies, 284
GCC. See Ground calcium carbonates (GCC)
coat resins, 766
effect, 444
spinning, 51, 271
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
Gelation and fusion in paste PVC, 379
Gelation of PVC, 375
General-purpose high-impact polystyrene
(GPeHI PS), 311, 316e318
Geometric isomerism, 65e67
GF. See Glass fibers (GF)
Gharda’s process, 584
GLARE. See Glass Laminate Aluminum
Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE)
glass-filled polyamides, 502e504, 503t
short-and long-fiber glass-reinforced, 504t
glass-reinforced MF laminates, 732
mats, 180
transition, 516
Glass fiber polyester composites, 757e771
alkyds, 770e771
allyl resins, 769e770
fiber forms and molding compounds, 759f
fiber surface finish, 759e762
fiber type, 758e759, 760t
gel coat resins, 766
glass fiber composite manufacture, 763e765
low-profile additives, 766
related resins, 766e768
water-extended resins, 768
Glass fibers (GF), 179e180, 293e294, 469,
579, 743
glass-fiber-reinforced products, 555
Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced
Epoxy (GLARE), 774
Glass transition temperature, 41e42, 59,
188e189, 463, 473
CeC and CeO bonds, 59e60
effect of chemical structure on, 60t
copolymerization effect, 62e63
cross-linking effect, 63
effect of liquids, 64
molar mass effect, 62
transition temperatures and crystallization
rates, 61te62t
Glassy state, 40
Gloss, 121e123, 200
Gloss units (GU), 121
Glow wire test, 100
Glycerol esters, 360
Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO), 360
Glycerol monostearate (GMS), 360
adducts, 778
esters, 150e151
ether resins, 785e786
Glycol-modified PCT (PCTG), 528
Glycols, 750
polyethers from, 524e525
Glyptal, 770
GMO. See Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO)
GMS. See Glycerol monostearate (GMS)
GPC. See Gel permeation chromatography
GPeHI PS. See General-purpose highimpact polystyrene (GPeHI PS)
Graft copolymers, 23
Granular PTFE resins, 392
Granular resin, 392, 405e408, 407f
Grilamid TR55, 488, 488f, 548
844 IndexGround calcium carbonates (GCC), 176
GU. See Gloss units (GU)
H-bonding, 495e496
H12MDI. See Hydrogenated 4,4 MDI
Halogens, 155
flame retardants, 155e156
halogenefree alternative systems, 156
HALS. See Hindered amine light stabilizers
Hand lay-up approach, 763
Hard fillers, pigments, and foams, 55
Hard segments, 815e816
Hardener, 719
Hardness, 198
Hardesoft segment theory, 815e816, 816f
Harris technique, 738
HAS. See Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS)
Haze, 118e121
p-HBA. See 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid
HCFCs. See Hydrogenated CFCs (HCFCs)
1,4-HD. See 1,4-Hexadiene (1,4-HD)
HDI. See Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)
HDPE. See High density polyethylene
HDT. See Heat distortion temperature (HDT)
Head-to-head structures, 335
Head/tail and head/head structures in vinyl
polymers, 67f
Health sector, 380
aging, 194
energy, 89
heat-resistant polymers, 545
stabilizers, 343e346
evaluation of stabilizers, 343e344, 343f
organotin compounds, 345e346
secondary stabilizers, 346
stabilizers, 344e345, 344f
Heat deflection temperature. See Heat
distortion temperature (HDT)
Heat distortion temperature (HDT), 181,
193e194, 292e293, 457, 533, 539,
545, 677, 754, 776, 784
Heat release rate (HRR), 101
HECOs. See Heterophasic copolymers
HEMA. See Hydroxyethyl methacrylate
Hemicellulose, 178
Het acid, 750, 750f
Heterophasic copolymers (HECOs), 280, 291
HEXA. See Hexamethylenetetramine
1,4-Hexadiene (1,4-HD), 671e672
Hexafluoroisobutylene (HFIB), 400
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
copolymerization, 397e398
terpolymers, 402e403
Hexafluoropropylene industrial
synthesis, 397
Hexahydrophthalic anhydride, 784, 784f
Hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), 490
Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI),
Hexamethylenediamine, 489
Hexamethylenetetramine (HEXA), 711e712,
Hexamethylolmelamine, 716
Hexamine, 717
Hexamoll DINCH. See Di-isononyl
(Hexamoll DINCH)
HFCs. See Fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFCs)
HFIB. See Hexafluoroisobutylene (HFIB)
HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
HI product. See High-impact product (HI
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 68, 72,
115, 135e136, 205, 248, 275e276,
287e288, 419, 640e641
High molar mass antioxidants, 141e142
High molar mass HDPE (HMW-HDPE), 276
High molar mass linear PPS (HMW linear
PPS), 560e561
High molar mass polyethylene (HMWPE),
High polymers, 19
High-energy radiation effects, 91e93, 93f,
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 135e136,
High-impact product (HI product), 311
High-pressure polymerization, 249e250
High-pressure pump systems (HP pump
systems), 816e817
High-temperature thermoplastics, 545, 547,
chemical structure, 545e547
heat-resistant polymers, 545
imide polymers, 565e582
LCPs, 603e612
PAEKs, 583e593
polybenzimidazole, 593e603
PPAs, 547e549
PPS, 558e564
sulfones, 550e558
thermal characteristics of polyamides, 549t
Higher crystallinity PVC, 337e338
Higher melt strength (HMS), 301
HMS-PP, 301e302
Higher-density rigid cellular foams, 826
Hildebrand solubility parameter, 78e79
Hindered amine derivatives, 132
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
141e142, 347, 556
Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), 138e139,
Hindered phenols, 136e137
Hindered piperidines. See Hindered amine
stabilizers (HAS)
HIPS. See High-impact polystyrene (HIPS)
HMDA. See Hexamethylene diamine
HMF. See 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)
HMS. See Higher melt strength (HMS)
HMW branched PPS, 560e561
HMW linear PPS. See High molar mass
linear PPS (HMW linear PPS)
HMW-HDPE. See High molar mass HDPE
HMWPE. See High molar mass polyethylene
HNA. See 6-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid
Homopolymers, 22, 513, 516e517, 517f,
517t, 523t
effect of absorbed water, 521f
effect of humidity, time, and temperature,
Hoop winding, 763
Hot molding process, 820
Hot-dip process, 374
Household applications, 318
HP pump systems. See High-pressure pump
systems (HP pump systems)
HPM. See Bis(hydroxyphenyl)-methane
HQ. See Hydroquinone (HQ)
HRR. See Heat release rate (HRR)
Hue, 124
Hybrid molding, 220e222
Hybrid processes, 285
Hydrazine (NH2NH2), 807, 830e831
Hydrocarbon polymers, 135
oxidation, 129e132
effect of antioxidants, 129f
cyclical oxidation pathways, 131
effect on polymer properties, 130f
oxidative degradation processes, 129f
reaction steps in autoxidation, 131
Hydrocarbons, 359
bonding, 53, 60, 77
cyanide, 442
Hydrogenated 4.4 MDI (H12MDI), 802, 803f
Hydrogenated bisphenol A, 785e786
Hydrogenated CFCs (HCFCs), 159, 809
Hydrogenation, 659e660, 660f
Hydrolysis, 620, 639f
Hydroperoxide decomposition (PD),
Hydrophilic polymers, 442, 454e455
Hydrophobic resins, 717
Hydroquinone (HQ), 444, 457, 606
copolymerization with, 462
reaction of propagating radical with, 27f
Hydrotalcite, 346
6-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA),
2,2-bis-(p-Hydroxy-phenyl)propane (BPA),
346e347, 458
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 52
Hydroxyethyl cellulose, 628
Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 814
equivalent, 776
side-group formation, 776, 776f
Index 845Hydroxyl groups (OH groups), 91, 531
5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), 642, 646
Hydroxypropyl cellulose, 628
Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, 628
Hypalon, 67
IA. See Isophthalic acid (IA)
ICI. See Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI)
ICPs. See Intrinsically conductive polymers
ID. See Internal electron donor (ID)
ILSS. See Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS)
ImerPlast, 202
Imidazole hydrogen substitution, 596e597
Imide polymers, 565e582. See also Liquid
crystal polymers (LCPs)
polyamide-imides, 569e572
polyetherimides, 572e574
thermoplastic imide polymers, 566e569
Immobilized polymer at particle surface, 189
Impact adhesives. See Contact adhesives
Impact modification of plastics, 54e56
copolymers, 54e55
coreeshell elastomer impact modifier
particles, 55e56
hard fillers, pigments, and foams, 55
plasticizers, 55
polymer blends, 55
Impact modifiers, 151e154, 189
Impact resistance, 54, 195e196, 239e240
alteration of polymer microstructure, 196
assessment, 239
crack pinning method, 195
flaws, 195
multiple voiding, 195
Impact toughness, 238e240
assessment of impact resistance, 239
morphology and impact resistance, 239e240
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), 5, 247,
IMS. See Industrial methylated spirits (IMS)
coating, 810
surface coating, 828, 828f
Indiana process, 251
Indirect impregnation, 764e765
Induction force, 77
Industrial methylated spirits (IMS), 729
Infrared heating systems, 410e411
Inhibitors, 28
Injection molding, 216e222, 266, 300e301,
381, 476e477, 477t, 557, 589e590
blow molding, 478
flow process, 218
hybrid molds, 220e222
machines, 217e218, 692, 695te697t
pipe fittings formulation, 365t
PVC-U, 371
SF, 220e222
temperatures, 582t, 590t
variables of process, 218
Injection stretch blow molding (ISBM), 300
Inorganic pigments, 146, 147t, 362
Integral-skinned foams, 826e830
Interbody fusion devices, 592
Interfacial polycondensation, 459
Interfacial polymerization, 460, 460f
Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), 768
Intermolecular forces, 75, 77, 78t
Internal electron donor (ID), 281
Internal mixers, 370, 370f
Internal release agents, 811
International Commission on Illumination.
See Commission Internationale de
l’Eclairage system (CIE system)
Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), 23,
Interphase, 760e762, 762f
Interphase surface. See Reinforcement
Interply toughening, 792
Intrinsic viscosity (IV), 528
Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs),
111e112, 112f, 114t
Ionic bond, 75
in sodium chloride, 76f
Ionic cross-linking, 53
Ionic polymerization, 33e35
Ionic process, 342
Ionizable sulfur compound, 459
Ionomers, 273e274, 662
IPA. See Isophthalic acid (IA)
IPD. See Isophorone diamine (IPD)
IPDI. See Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI)
IPI Corporation. See Island Pyrochemical
Industries Corporation (IPI
IPN. See Interpenetrating polymer network
iPP. See isotactic PP (iPP)
Irganox 1010 antioxidants, 141e142
Irganox 1330 antioxidants, 141e142
Iron acetylacetonate (FeAcAc), 140
Iron dithiocarbamates (FeDRC), 140
Iron stearates (FeSt), 140
ISBM. See Injection stretch blow molding
Island Pyrochemical Industries Corporation
(IPI Corporation), 625
Isobutylene, 443
Isocyanate index, 815
Isocyanate-lysine triisocyanate (LTI),
Isocyanate-tipped diurethane prepolymer,
Isocyanates, 799, 801e806, 811e813
coatings and adhesives, 831e832
conversion into polymeric products,
dual-component processing, 817
elastomers, 833
fibers and crystalline materials, 830e831
foamed isocyanate-based polymers,
market statistics, 799e800
miscellaneous isocyanate-based materials,
one shot vs. two shot synthesis/processing,
polycarbodiimide resins, 834
polyisocyanurates and copolymers, 832e833
polymer processes, 816e817
polyols, 806e808
polyurethaneeacrylic blends, 834
reactants and additives, 808e811
reaction kinetics, structure/properties
relationships, 811e813
reactions with active hydrogen reactants,
safe use, 804
typical syntheses, 803e804
Isocyanurate polymers (PI), 833, 833t
Isocyanurateeurethane copolymer foams
(PIUs), 800, 809, 811, 824, 833, 833t
Isophorone diamine (IPD), 781
Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 800e802,
Isophthalic acid (IA), 488, 538, 595,
Isoprene polymerization, 67f
Isostatic molding, 407
Isotactic PP (iPP), 279, 288t
Isotropic fillers, 198
IUPAC systematic nomenclature, 442, 442t
IV. See Intrinsic viscosity (IV)
Izod test, 239
Jeffamines, 814
KA oil, 490
Kevlar, 448, 604, 604f
Kitchenware applications, LCPs, 612
Kynol fibers, 739
L/D ratios. See Length/diameter ratios (L/D
Labile chlorine, 335
Lacquer resins, 432
Lactam ring, 488, 488f
Lactic acid, 8
Lamellar structure, 46, 464
Laminates, 111, 597, 728e732, 729fe731f
Laser marking, 143, 149
Latex, 432
Laurolactam, 491
Lauryl lactam, 491, 491f
LCA. See Life-cycle analysis (LCA)
LCD. See Liquid crystal display (LCD)
LCPs. See Liquid crystalline polymers
LCs. See Liquid crystals (LCs)
LCST. See Lower critical solution
temperature (LCST)
LDI. See Lysine diisocyanate (LDI)
LDPE. See Low-density polyethylene
846 IndexLead stabilizer, 344
Length/diameter ratios (L/D ratios), 557, 722
Licomont NaV101, 529, 530f
Life-cycle analysis (LCA), 303, 640e641
Life-cycle assessment. See Life-cycle
analysis (LCA)
fastness, 144
scattering, 118
Lignin, 178
Limestone, 176
Limiting oxygen index, 98, 99t
Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 7,
22, 248, 251, 254e255, 290, 639
applications in PE, 275
properties, 262
Linear molecules, 19e22, 20t
Linear polyesters. See Thermoplastic
polyesters (TP polyesters)
Liquid crystal display (LCD), 417
Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 52, 536,
545, 603e608
additives, 611
applications, 611e612
DSC thermograms, 605f
lyotropic LCPs, 604
processing, 611
properties, 609e611, 609t
structureeproperty relationships in, 53f
synthesis, 608e609
thermotropic LCPs, 605e608
Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs). See
Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs)
Liquid crystals (LCs), 52, 603
effect, 64
liquid-reactive elastomers, 154
phase processes, 284
RTV silicone, 826
stabilizers, 345
Lithopone, 146
polymerization, 34
polymers, 34
radical copolymerization, 403
Living radical polymerization (LRP), 32e33
LLDPE. See Linear low-density polyethylene
Load-bearing, 518e520
Loaf, 821e822
Locking unit, 217
Loss factor, 105
Low coefficient of friction, 518, 522e523
Low smoke and fume systems (LSF
systems). See Halogenefree
alternative systems
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 5, 22,
64e65, 72, 115, 205, 248
applications in PE, 275
Low-pressure pump systems (LP pump
systems), 816e817
additives, 766
resins, 766
Lower critical solution temperature (LCST),
666, 666f
LP pump systems. See Low-pressure pump
systems (LP pump systems)
LRP. See Living radical polymerization
LTI. See Isocyanate-lysine triisocyanate
Lubricants, 94, 359e360
and flow promoters, 150e151
Lubricity, 581
crystals, 603
LCPs, 604
Lysine diisocyanate (LDI), 637
m-PE. See Metallocene PEs (m-PE)
m-VLDPE. See Metallocene-catalyzed very
low-density polyethylene (m-VLDPE)
Machine direction (MD), 43e44
“Macromolecularegrafted” antioxidants, 142
Macromolecules, 19
Magnesite (MgCO3), 176
Magnesium hydroxide (MDH), 361
Maleate, cisetrans isomerization to fumarate,
Maleic acids acidity, 749t
Maleic anhydride, 749e750
hydrolysis, 748f
Maltose, 618f
MAO. See Methylaluminoxane (MAO)
Marble, 176e177
Marine plywoods, 733
Mass loss rate (MLR), 101
Mass polymerization, 314
Maxfoam process, 821e822
Maximum packing fraction (MPF), 174
MB. See Meltblown fibers (MB)
MBS terpolymer. See
terpolymer (MBS terpolymer)
MCCPs. See Medium-chain chlorinated
paraffins (MCCPs)
MD. See Machine direction (MD)
MDH. See Magnesium hydroxide (MDH)
MDI. See Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate
4,4 MDI. See 4,4. Diphenylmethane’
diisocyanates (4,4 MDI)
MDs. See Metal deactivators (MDs)
Medium-chain chlorinated paraffins
(MCCPs), 358
MEKP. See Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Melamine, 709e710
melamineephenoleformaldehyde molding
materials, 723
melamineephenolics, 720, 723
Melamineeformaldehyde resins (MF resins),
705, 720, 728, 736
adhesives, 733
molding, 723
molecular structure property relationships,
resin manufacture and cross-linking,
Melt flow index (MFI), 26, 254, 411, 463,
477f, 663
Melt flow rate (MFR), 26, 302
Melt polymerization, 574
methods, 460
route, 571
Melt processable polymers, 545
Melt processable rubber (MPR), 653,
688e689, 689t, 696
blow-molding conditions, 698t
extrusion conditions, 698t
injection-molding conditions, 697t
Melt processing, 205, 259, 449e450
with organic carbonates, 460, 460f
Melt spinning, 51
Melt viscosity, 72, 316, 316t
Melt volume rate (MVR), 555
Melt-blowing process, 302f
Melt-processable fluoropolymers, 411e413
Meltblown fibers (MB), 302
fluoropolymer processing, 411e413
perfluoropolymers processing, 411
point, 458e459
processing of thermoplastics, 207e208,
elastic effects in polymer melts, 213e214
flow properties, 212e213
thermal properties affecting cooling,
thermal properties influencing polymer
melting, 210e211
temperature, thermodynamic treatment,
Mesogens, 603
Mesophases, 52
Meta-phenylenediamine, 781
Metal deactivators (MDs), 140e141
Metal dithiolates, 139
catalysts, 281e282
metallocene-catalyzed PEs, 262e263
metallocene-catalyzed TPE, 662
polymerization, 35e36
Metallocene PEs (m-PE), 251, 263
Metallocene-catalyzed very low-density
polyethylene (m-VLDPE), 263
Metamerism, 143
Methacrylate polymerization, 768
Methacrylate styrene copolymer (MS
copolymer), 540e541
Methacrylateebutadieneestyrene terpolymer
(MBS terpolymer), 363
acid, 441, 443
esters, 441
Methane, covalent bond in, 76f
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP),
Index 847Methyl methacrylate (MMA), 442, 443f,
444, 453, 453t
Methyl nadic anhydride, 784, 784f
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol, 264
Methylaluminoxane (MAO), 248, 280
Methylene dianiline (MDA). See Metaphenylenediamine
2,20-Methylenebis-(4-methyl-6-tbutylphenol), 516
Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), 638
Methylmethoxy polyamides, 510
N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP), 556
MF resins. See Melamineeformaldehyde
resins (MF resins)
MFI. See Melt flow index (MFI)
MFR. See Melt flow rate (MFR)
Mica, 179, 180t
Microcellular foams, 159
Micropowders, PTFE, 396, 397t
polymerization, 333, 341
polymers, 332
Microwave cookware, 555
MID. See Molded interconnect devices
Miscellaneous epoxy resins, 785e788
miscellaneous glycidyl ether resins,
nitrogen-containing epoxy resins, 788
Miscellaneous fluoropolymers, 404e405
amorphous perfluoropolymers, 404, 420
fluorinated acrylate application, 420
fluorinated acrylates, 405
perfluorinated ionomer applications, 420
perfluorinated ionomers, 404e405
Miscellaneous glycidyl ether resins,
acyclic aliphatic resins, 787e788
cyclic aliphatic resins, 787, 787t
nonglycidyl ether epoxies, 787
Miscellaneous hardener systems, 784
Miscellaneous isocyanate-based materials,
Miscellaneous products, 306
Miscellaneous vinyl thermoplastics
ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers,
poly(vinyl acetals), 435e437
poly(vinyl acetate), 432e433
poly(vinyl alcohol), 433e435
VDC polymers and copolymers, 427e432
vinyl polymers, 438e439
Miscibility of PVC and plasticizers,
349e352, 350f, 351t
continuous melt mixing, 370
dry blending, 369e370
internal mixers, 370
MLR. See Mass loss rate (MLR)
MMA. See Methyl methacrylate (MMA)
MMD. See Molar mass distribution (MMD)
MOCA. See 3,3-Dichloro 4.40-diamino
diphenylmethane (MOCA)
Modifier, 27
Molar mass (M), 23, 254, 333e335, 334t,
463, 463t, 495
averages, 24te25t
effect, 62
mass of molecules, 24t
PDI, 24
PEs of low and high molar mass, 269
values and PDI, 25t
Molar mass distribution (MMD), 23, 250,
measurement, 25e26
in polymer, 24f
Molar refraction, 110
Mold filling, 406
Molded aldehyde polymer
formaldehyde-based polymers, 723e728,
melamineeformaldehyde resins, 728
properties and applications, 723e728, 726t
ureaeformaldehyde resins, 728
Molded interconnect devices (MID), 111,
Molded products
blow molding, 381
injection molding, 381
paste molding, 381
applications for PE, 277
formaldehyde-based polymers, 717e719,
melamineeformaldehyde resins, 720
molding, 723
properties and applications of molded
aldehyde polymers, 723e728
shaping and cure of molding
compositions, 721e723
ureaeformaldehyde resins, 719e720
MF, 723
PF, 721e722, 721f
and processing characteristics, 720e721
resins, 431
techniques, 215e216, 822
UF, 722e723
Molecular weight (MW), 744
Mono-orientation, 298
Monoaxial orientation, 43e44
Monodisperse polymer, 24, 35
Monofilaments, 591
Monomer, 21
for aldehyde polymers, 706e710
carbocation generation, 34f
CTFE, 399
ethylene, 644
molecules, 28e29
monomerepolymer doughs, 451
preparation, 248e249, 311e313, 442e444
dehydrogenation, 312, 313f
polymerization diluents, 281
preparation of ethylbenzene, 312, 312f
propene, 280e281
styrene purification, 313
MONOSIL process, 162
Montan esters, 360
Morphology, 172e174, 239e240
distortion, 227e228
orientation and anisotropy, 225e227
packing, 172t, 174, 175f
shape, 174
size, 173e174
and processing, 223e230
residual stress, 230
shrinkage, 227
TPE, 668e674, 669fe670f
block copolymer polyurethane, polyester,
and polyamide, 671, 672f
mechanically blended, 671e674, 672f
styrenic-based block copolymer, 669e670
voids, 230
weld lines, 228e230
MPF. See Maximum packing fraction (MPF)
MPR. See Melt processable rubber (MPR)
MS copolymer. See Methacrylate styrene
copolymer (MS copolymer)
MuCell process, 301
“Mudcracking”, 410
coupling agents, 35
hydroxyl compounds, 805
reactants, 799
Multilayer film, 432
Multisite catalysts, 282
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), 601
Multizone-circulating reactor (MZCR), 285
Munsell system, 124
Muscovite, 179
MVR. See Melt volume rate (MVR)
MW. See Molecular weight (MW)
MWCNT. See Multiwall carbon nanotubes
MZCR. See Multizone-circulating reactor
Nano-additives, 793
Nanoclays, 157
Nanocomposite, 468e469
carbon nanotubes, 469, 469f
nanosilica, 468, 468f
Nanofibers, 183
Nanofillers, 180e183, 810
nanofibers, 183
nanoplates, 180e183
Nanoobject, 180
Nanoparticles, 601
Nanoplates, 180e183
fire retardancy, 182e183
gas barrier properties, 181e182
on stiffness and HDT, 181, 182t
Nanosilica, 468, 468f
Naphthalene, 607
2,6 Naphthalene dicarboxylic acid (NDA),
Naphthalene-1,5-diisocyanate (NDI),
661e662, 804
Narrow angle scattering, 119
848 IndexNational Bureau of Standards smoke
chamber test (NBS smoke chamber
test), 100
National Centre for Business and Ecology
(NCBE), 330
Natural rubber, 25
Natural weathering, 94
NBR. See Nitrile rubber (NBR)
NBS smoke chamber test. See National
Bureau of Standards smoke chamber
test (NBS smoke chamber test)
NCBE. See National Centre for Business and
Ecology (NCBE)
NDA. See 2,6 Naphthalene dicarboxylic acid
NDI, 5-diisocyanate (NDI). See Naphthalene-1
Newman projections of polyethylene, 65f
Newtonian flow, 675
Newtonian fluid, 213
NH2NH2. See Hydrazine (NH2NH2)
[NH4PO3]n. See Ammonium polyphosphate
Nitrile rubber (NBR), 151, 663
Nitrocellulose lacquer, 620
autoclave process, 159
nitrogen-containing epoxy resins,
788, 789f
Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization
(NMP), 32e33
NMP. See N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP);
Nitroxide-mediated radical
polymerization (NMP)
NMR spectroscopy. See Nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy (NMR
Nomex, 604f
Nonaromatic isocyanates, 801e802
Nonbiodegradable plastics, 631
Nongloss surface, 121
Nonglycidyl ether epoxies, 787
Nonhalogens, 155
Nonpolar polymers, 96
Nontoxic inorganic pigments, 146e147
Noryl-type materials, 327
Novolac resins, 786, 786f
Novolaks, 711
Nozzle pressure transducer, 506
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
(NMR spectroscopy), 335
Nucleating agents, 51, 164e165, 529.
See also Blowing agents
Nucleation, 47
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, 550
Number average degree of polymerization,
Nylacast, 509
Nylube, 509
O-ray, 117
O-rings from fluorinated thermoplastic
elastomer, 419f
OA. See Oil absorption (OA)
10,10’ OBPA. See 10,10’ Oxybisphenoxarsine (10,10’ OBPA)
OBSTM. See Organic-based stabilizers
Octyl oxide, 789, 789f
ODS. See Ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
ODT. See Orderedisorder transition (ODT)
OH groups. See Hydroxyl groups (OH
Oil absorption (OA), 174
Olefins, 248, 282
Oligomer, 710, 744
Oligomeric radicals, 28e29
Oligomerization of aldehyde systems,
formaldehyde-based polymers, 711e715
MF resin manufacture and cross-linking,
UF resin manufacture and cross-linking,
One shot synthesis/processing, 813, 815
One-shot polyester foams, 820
OPD. See Optical path difference (OPD)
Optical brighteners, 124, 557
Optical path difference (OPD), 117
Optical/lighting applications, 478e480
appliances, 479
audio/video market, 479
automotive applications, 479
building and construction, 478
electrotechnical, 479
foams, 462
packaging, 478
safety applications, 479
Orderedisorder transition (ODT), 669
Organic phosphorus compounds, 158
Organic pigments, 146, 362
Organic-based stabilizers (OBSTM), 345
Organometallic coupling agents, 188
Organosilicon compounds, 186e188
Organosol, 372
Organotin compounds, 345e346
Organotitanates, 188
Orientation, 225e227
amorphous materials, 226
in amorphous polymers, 43e44
in crystalline polymers, 51e52
oriented PE, 271e272
oriented PS, 324e325
reinforced thermoplastics, 226e227
semicrystalline materials, 226
Oriented PVC, 383e385, 383fe384f
Orthophthalic anhydride, 756
Oxidation, 618
PE, 265f
carbonylation, 460e461, 461f
degradation, 137e138
polymerization methods, 460
process, 130
Oxirane. See Ring-like epoxy groups
Oxo-biodegradable plastics, 15
10,10’ Oxybisphenoxarsine (10,10’ OBPA),
Oxychlorination reaction, 331e332
Oxygen, 261
oxygeneoxygen bonds, 91
“Oxyl” radicals, 138
Ozone depletants, 809
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS), 159
P-OLED. See Polymer organic light emitting
diodes (P-OLED)
P(4HB). See Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)
P(HH-co-HO). See Poly(3-
hydroxyoctanoate) (P(HH-co-HO))
PA. See Polyamides (PA)
Packaging, 318
PEEK, 593
PAEKs. See Poly(arylether ketones)
Paints, epoxy resins in, 794
PAIs. See Polyamide-imides (PAIs)
Para-hydroxybenzoic acid (Para-HBA), 605
Paraffin wax, 749
Parison pipes, 216
Partial polarity, 81te82t, 82e83
Particulate fillers
improving sustainability, 202e203
for plastics applications, 171e176
chemical composition, 171
cost, 171
electrical properties, 176
mineralogical hardness, 171, 172t
morphology, 172e174
optical properties, 176
specific gravity, 171, 172t
thermal properties, 175
recovery and recycling, 202
Paste molding, 381
Paste processing, 373e374
dip and spray coating, 374
dip molding, 374
rotational molding, 374
slush molding, 374
spreading or coating, 374
Paste PVC, 372e374
gelation and fusion in, 379
paste rheology, 372, 373f
preparation of pastes, 372
processing of pastes, 373e374
PB. See Polybutadiene (PB)
PBAT. See Poly(butylene adipateco-terephthalate) (PBAT)
PBF. See Polybutylene furandicarboxylate)
PBI. See Polybenzimidazole (PBI);
5,50-bibenzimidazole (PBI)
PBS. See Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
PBZs. See Polybenzoxazines (PBZs)
PC/ABS. See Polycarbonate/
Index 849PC/PBT. See Polycarbonate/polybutylene
terephthalate (PC/PBT)
PC/PET. See Polycarbonate/polyethylene
terephthalate (PC/PET)
PC/PMMA. See Polycarbonate/polymethyl
methacrylate (PC/PMMA)
PCBs. See Printed circuit boards (PCBs)
PCC. See Precipitated calcium carbonates
PCL. See Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)
PCN. See Phthalocyanine (PCN)
PC. See Polycarbonate (PC)
PCT. See Polycyclohexylenedimethylene
terephthalate (PCT)
PCTA. See Dibasic-acid-modified PCTs
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PCTG. See Glycol-modified PCT (PCTG)
PD. See Hydroperoxide decomposition (PD)
PD function. See Peroxidolytic function (PD
PD-C. See Catalytic peroxide decomposers
PDD. See 2,2-Bistrifluoromethyl-4,5-
difluoro-1,3-dioxole (PDD)
PDI. See Polydispersity index (PDI)
1,5 PDI. See 1,5 Pentamethylene
diisocyanate (1,5 PDI)
PDLA. See Poly(D-lactide) (PDLA)
PDLLA. See Poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)
PDO. See 1,3-Propanediol (PDO)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
PEA. See Copolyesteramides (PEA)
Peak of heat release rate (pHRR), 101
Peak of mass loss rate (pMLR), 101
Pearl pigments, 149
Pearlescent pigments, 149
PEEA. See Copolyetheresteramides (PEEA)
PEEK. See Polyether ether ketone (PEEK)
PEF. See Poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate)
PEG. See Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
PEIs. See Polyetherimides (PEIs)
PEK, 583f
PEKEKK. See Polyether ketone
etherketoneketone (PEKEKK)
PEKK, 583f
PEN. See Poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN)
1,5 Pentamethylene diisocyanate (1,5 PDI),
PEO. See Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)
Percolation, 196e197
threshold, 469
Perfluorinated ionomers, 404e405, 420
Perfluoroalkoxy resins (PFA resins,),
applications, 415e416
copolymerization of TFE, 398
industrial process for production, 399
structure and properties, 399
perfluoroalkoxy vinyl ethers, 398
structure and properties, 398
Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
copolymerization, 398
industrial synthesis of monomers, 398
Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE), 398
Perfluoropolymers, 404
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE), 396
Perlon U, 830
Permanent doping. methods, 113
Permeability, 94e95
for polymers, 95t
Permeability, 198e199
Permeation, 95e96
Peroxide(s), 162e163
cross-linking, 160e162, 270
Peroxidolytic function (PD function), 138
Peroxycarbonate, 333
PES. See Polyether sulfone (PESU)
PESU. See Polyether sulfone (PESU)
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
PETG. See Polyethylene-terephthalate glycol
Petrochemical industry, 8
Petroleum-based and nonbiodegradable
polymer blends, 639
PF polymers. See Phenoleformaldehyde
polymers (PF polymers)
PFA. See Pulverized fuel ash (PFA)
PFA resins. See Perfluoroalkoxy resins (PFA
PFAFA. See Poly(fluoroalkyl
aefluoroacrylates) (PFAFA)
PFF. See Polymer fume fever (PFF)
PGA. See Poly(glycolide) (PGA)
PHAs. See Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)
Phase angle, 105
Phase separation, 766
PHB. See Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
PHBV. See Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co- (R)-3-hydroxyvalerate
PHD. See Polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD)
Phenol, 706e708
formaldehyde resins, 21e22
health and safety issues, 708
phenolealdehyde plastics, 4
Phenoleformaldehyde polymers
(PF polymers), 705
cure reactions, 712e713, 713f
foams, 733e734
molding, 721e722, 721f
molecular structure property relationships,
novolaks, 711e712
PF-based laminates properties, 732t
resins, 706, 713e715, 714f, 735
resols, 712
Phenolic(s), 705, 713e714, 728e729
antioxidant, 142
phenolic-based curing system, 674
resins, 706
fibers, 739
Phenoplasts, 706
Phenyl glycidyl ether, 789, 789f
m-Phenylene isophthalamide, 596
2,20-(m-Phenylene)-5,50-bibenzimidazole, 596
Phenylethene. See Styrene
PHH. See Polyhydroxyhexanoate (PHH)
Phillips process, 250e251
Phlogopite, 179
PHO. See Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO);
Polyhydroxy octanoate (PHO)
Phosgene, 459e460
Phosphate esters, 357e358
Phosphites, 346
Photoactivators, 137e140
HAS, 138e139
metal complexes as, 139e140
UV-screening, 138
UVA, 138
Photochemical radiation effects, 91e93
Photoconductive polymer, 439
Photoluminescence technique, 296
Photonitrozation process, 490
Photooxidation, 137e138
Photostabilizers, 137e140. See also Thermal
HAS, 138e139
metal complexes of dithioc acids, 139
UV-screening, 138
UVA, 138
PHPV. See Polyhydroxy-5-phenylvalerate
pHRR. See Peak of heat release rate (pHRR)
alternatives, 358e359
esters, 353e356, 354te355t
links between structure and performance of
plasticizers, 356
Phthalic acids acidity, 749t
Phthalic anhydride, 783, 784f
Phthalocyanine (PCN), 148
PHV. See Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV)
Physical aging, 42e43, 42f
Physical blowing agents, 468
Physical cross-links, 403
Physical states in amorphous polymers, 39e41
PI. See Isocyanurate polymers (PI)
“Piano black”, 153
Pigments, 124, 145e150, 263, 361e362,
468, 564, 810
inorganic pigments, 362
organic pigments, 362
titanium dioxide, 361e362
Piperidine, 781
Piping applications, 305
PIUs. See Isocyanurateeurethane copolymer
foams (PIUs)
PK. See Polyketones (PK)
PLA. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
Planiblock process, 821e822
Plasma treatment, 124e125
Plasticization, 209
PVC, 347e348, 347fe348f
unit, 217
Plasticized PVC (PVC-P), 329, 371e372
Plasticizer(s), 55, 84e86, 85t, 150, 189,
347e359, 429, 717, 719
choice and selection, 352
efficiency, 352
850 Indexloss, 349
physical properties, 349
plasticizer-based blends, 639
compatibility/miscibility, 349e352, 350f
plasticization, 347e348, 347fe348f
secondary, 358
Plastics, 1e2, 9e16, 19, 631
chemical nature of polymerization, 19
design and processing, 208
examples of filler use in, 188e201
applications, 190
effects on composite properties, 191e201
principal differentiating features,
processing, 190e191
friction, 240e242
health and safety and environment, 14e15
impact toughness, 238e240
materials, 1, 7e8, 91
morphology and processing, 223e230
1900e1930 period, 4e5
1930e1940 period, 5e6
1940e1950 period, 6
1950e1960 period, 6e7
1960e2000 period, 7
per capita consumption, 14t
polymer processing techniques, 208e223
pre-1900 developments, 3
products, 206
stiffness, 233e238
sustainability, 15e16
melting process, 207e208
processing, 207, 207f
time-dependent properties, 230e233
waste, 17f
Plastigel, 372
Plastisol, 372
Plate-out phenomenon, 359
Platy fillers, 192e193
PLCA. See Poly(D, L-lactide-co-
ε-caprolactone) (PLCA)
Plexidur plus, 453
PLGA. See Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
PLLA. See Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)
PLLA-b-PBS. See Poly(L-lactide)-blockpoly(butylene succinate)
pMLR. See Peak of mass loss rate (pMLR)
PMMA. See Poly(methyl methacrylate)
PMMI. See Poly(methyl methacrylimides)
PMVE. See Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
PO. See Propylene oxides (PO)
acceptors, 84
polymers, 103
substituents, 320
Polarization charge, 104e105
Poly (oxytetramethylene) glycols, 662
Poly-(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide),
Poly-(n-octyl acrylate), 455
Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3- hydroxyvalerate, 641e642,
(PBI), 594, 594f
Poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate) (P(HH-co-HO)), 641
Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO), 642
Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV), 637, 640,
Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(4HB)), 641e642
Poly(4-methyl pentene-1), 118, 306e307
applications, 307
processing, 307
repeat unit structure, 306
structure and properties, 306e307, 307t
Poly(acrylic acid), 455
Poly(alkylene terephthalates), 528, 528f
Poly(arylether ketones) (PAEKs), 583
additives, 586e589
applications, 592e593
aryl etherketones properties, 587t
chemical modifications, 585e586
mold shrinkage of commercial PEEK
grades, 587f
processing, 589e592
properties, 586
structureeproperty relationships, 584
synthesis, 583e584
Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate). See
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
Poly(beta-hydroxyvalerate). See Poly(3-
hydroxyvalerate) (PHV)
Poly(but-1-ene), 303e304, 305t
applications, 305e306
processing, 305
ZN system, 304
Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)
(PBAT), 631
Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), 631,
642e643, 643f, 643t
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCA),
Poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), 636
Poly(D-lactide) (PDLA), 636
Poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) (PEF),
Poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), 528, 537,
Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), 523t, 524, 524f,
Poly(fluoroalkyl aefluoroacrylates)
(PFAFA), 405
Poly(glycolide) (PGA), 637
Poly(hydroxybutyrate), 8
Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), 636
succinate) (PLLA-b-PBS), 637
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), 637
Poly(methacrylamide), 455, 455f
Poly(methyl acrylate), 441, 455
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 4, 39,
87, 106, 145, 205, 441, 446, 447t,
454t, 458, 534e535, 639
additives, 449
applications, 451e452
polymerization, 444e446
preparation of monomer, 442e444
processing, 449e451
properties, 446e449, 448f
recycling, 451
Poly(methyl methacrylimides) (PMMI), 453
Poly(oxypropylene), 662
Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), 488
Poly(phenyl a-fluoroacrylate) (PPhFA), 405
Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), 638
processing of styrenic PPOs, 327
Poly(propylene furandicarboxylate) (PPF),
Poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), 639
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 205
applications, 413e415, 414f
of aqueous PTFE dispersions, 414, 415f
of modified PTFE, 415
of PTFE micropowders, 415
aqueous dispersions, 392e393
micropowders, 393, 415, 416t
processing of aqueous PTFE dispersions,
Poly(tribromostyrene), 320
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT), 528,
631, 645
Poly(vinyl acetals), 435e437
formation, 436f
poly(vinyl butyral), 436e437
poly(vinyl formal), 435e436, 436t
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), 22, 332,
432e433, 503, 639
polymerization, 433
preparation of vinyl acetate monomer,
properties and applications, 433
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 66, 332,
433e435, 445, 525
applications, 435
structure and properties, 434e435, 434f
Poly(vinyl butyral), 436e437
Poly(vinyl carbazole), 439, 439f
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 5, 21, 42,
65e66, 83, 106, 127, 171, 205, 248,
329, 429, 619, 663
applications, 380e382
chemical defect structures, 335
compounding ingredients, 342e363
copolymers, 382
CPVC, 382e383, 383t
crystallinity and transition temperatures,
degradation, 342
emulsion and microsuspension, 341
formulations, 364e367
fusion, 375e379
latices, 374e375
modification of PVC structure, 383e386
molar mass, 333e335, 334t
Index 851Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) (Continued)
morphology, 339e341
plastisol, 366e367
polarity, 339
polymerization, 332e333
preparation of VC, 331e332
processing, 369e375
properties, 367e369
PVC-U, 362
film, 371
PVC/acrylic ester, 382
solutions, 374e375
suspension/mass, 339e341
sustainability, 330e331
tacticity, 335e336, 336f, 336t
Poly(vinyl cinnamate), 438, 438f
Poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF), 389, 413, 418
industrial synthesis, 402
polymerization of vinyl fluoride, 402
structure and properties of vinyl fluoride,
Poly(vinyl formal), 435e436, 436t
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 389
resins, 412
Poly(a-ester), 634
repeat unit, 634f
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 631
Polyacetals, 513, 516, 516f
acetal resins, 514e524
electrical properties, 520t
formaldehyde preparation, 513e514
polyethers from glycols and alkylene oxides,
recommended maximum continuous
temperatures, 521t
Polyaddition, 799
Polyalcohols. See Polyols
Polyamic acid, 566
Polyamide 6 (PA6), 487e488, 492, 494f,
Polyamide 11 (PA11), 492, 647
Polyamide 12 (PA12), 492
Polyamide 46 (PA46), 492
Polyamide 66 (PA66), 50e51, 83, 487e488,
494f, 498f
bonding of phenol with, 84f
effect of moisture content on volume
resistivity, 500f
tensile curves for, 499f
Polyamide 610 (PA610), 492
Polyamide 612 (PA612), 492
Polyamide-imides (PAIs), 565
Polyamide-imides, 569e572, 571f. See also
Polyetherimides; Thermoplastic imide
structureeproperty relationships,
synthesis, 569e571
Polyamides (PA), 6, 148e149, 205, 487,
487t, 498f, 502f, 647
applications, 506e509
processing, 505e506
reaction injection molding, 509
thermal characteristics, 549t
TPE morphology, 671, 672f
Polybenzimidazole (PBI), 593e603
additives, 600e601
applications, 602e603
chemical modifications, 596e597
processing, 601e602
production, 595
properties, 598e600, 599t
synthesis, 594e595
Polybenzoxazines (PBZs), 706, 740
Polybutadiene (PB), 656
PB-1, 304
Polybutylene furandicarboxylate) (PBF), 646
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 67, 207,
208f, 458, 532e536, 532fe534f, 645
Polycarbodiimide, 531
resins, 834
butadieneestyrene (PC/ABS), 480
applications, 480
properties of ABS, PC, and ABSePC blend,
Polycarbonate/polybutylene terephthalate
(PC/PBT), 480
Polycarbonate/polyethylene terephthalate
(PC/PET), 483
applications, 483
properties of PC, PBT, and PCePBT blend,
Polycarbonate/polymethyl methacrylate (PC/
PMMA), 483, 483t
Polycarbonates (PCs), 50, 106, 145, 205,
297, 457, 459e461, 528, 540e541,
blends, 480e483
chemical modifications, 461e462
compounding, 466e469
formation of reactants, 458e459
health issues, 458
optical/lighting, 478e480
polyhydroxy compounds, 457
polyols, 808
processing, 476e478
with engineering thermoplastics, 469e476
of polymer, 463e466
structure, 464
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 389,
applications, 417
industrial process for production, 399
Polycondensation, 760e762
cisetrans isomerization of maleate to
fumarate during, 748
Polycrystallinity, 44
Polycyclic pigments, 148
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate
(PCT), 528, 536, 536f
Polydisperse, 24, 35
Polydispersity index (PDI), 24, 254e255
Polyelectrolytes, 274
Polyester polyols. See Polyesterols
Polyester(s), 148e149, 358, 531
carbonates, 462
polymers and resins, 743e745
TPE morphology, 671, 672f
Polyesterols, 807e808
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), 583e584,
583f, 797. See also Poly(arylether
ketones) (PAEKs)
VBR system, 593
Polyether ketone etherketoneketone
(PEKEKK), 583f, 584
Polyether polyols. See Polyetherols
Polyether sulfone (PESU), 556, 558, 792
Polyetherimides (PEIs), 565, 572e574, 797.
See also Polyamide-imides;
Thermoplastic imide polymers
additives, 579e581
applications, 582
chemicals on polyimides, 580t
injection-molding temperatures for
polyimides, 582t
processing, 581, 582t
properties, 574e579, 577te578t
chemical properties, 579
electrical properties, 579
mechanical properties, 578
physical properties, 574
thermal properties, 578e579
effect of structure on
copolymers, 575te576t
terpolymers, 577t
structureeproperty relationships, 574
synthesis, 572e574
Polyetherol(s), 806e808
one-shot foams, 818e820
prepolymers, 820
from alkylene oxides, 524e525
block amides, 687e688, 695
foams, 817e818
from glycols, 524e525
Polyethylene (PE), 5, 44, 247, 252e255,
279, 449, 516, 516f, 519f, 631, 653
absorption of liquids, 260t
additives, 263e265
applications, 274e277
chain, 65f
copolymers of ethylene, 273e274
cross-linked PE, 270e271
crystallinity data for, 252t
density/crystallinity, melt flow index, and
molar mass distribution, 256t
low and high molar mass, 269
monomer preparation, 248e249
Newman projections, 65f
oriented PE, 271e272
oxidation, 265f
polymerization, 249e251
processing, 265e269
properties, 252e255
single crystals, 46f
effect of straining rate, 257t
unit cell in, 45f
852 IndexPolyethylene glycol (PEG), 806
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 7, 50, 67,
106, 145, 205, 457e458, 464,
528e530, 529f, 606, 631, 637, 639,
applications, 531e532
processing, 530e531
Polyethylene-terephthalate glycol (PETG),
Polyformaldehyde, 21
Polyglycol diepoxide, 790e791, 790f
Polyhydroxy octanoate (PHO), 640
Polyhydroxy-5-phenylvalerate (PHPV), 640
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 631,
aliphatic biodegradable polyesters, 640
blends, 642
incorporation of HV units, 640
properties, degradation and applications,
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 633, 637,
640e641, 641f
Polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD), 640
Polyhydroxyhexanoate (PHH), 640
Polyimides, 421, 579
Polyisocyanurates, 832e833
Polyketones (PK), 274, 583
Polylactic acid (PLA), 631, 634e640,
condensation of lactic acid, 634
degradation, 639e640
modification, 637e639, 638f
production, 634e636, 634fe635f
properties and usefulness, 636e637
Polylactic acid-based blends, 642e643
Polylactide. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
Polymer fume fever (PFF), 420e421
Polymer organic light emitting diodes
(P-OLED), 114e115
Polymer solubility, 89e90
additives, 86
compatible and incompatible systems, 78f
molar attraction constants, 88t
parameters, 78e84
calculation, 89t
determination, 86e89
plasticizers, 84e86, 85t
thermodynamics, 89e90
Polymer(s), 19, 103, 150, 205, 297,
457, 515
blends, 55
electronic applications, 111
miscibility, 665e668
polyols, 807
processing techniques, 208e223
properties, 463
MDIs, 802
plasticizers, 358
Polymerization, 24, 249e251, 282, 283f,
313e314, 332e333, 444e446
of aliphatic polyamides, 491e493
copolymers, 493
PA11, 492
PA12, 492
PA46, 66, 610 and 612, 492
PA6, 492
in bulk, 444e445
bulk processes, 284, 333
diluents, 281
emulsion, 333
filling process, 181
of formaldehyde, 514e516, 514fe515f
gas-phase processes, 284e285
high-pressure, 249e250
hybrid processes, 285
LLDPE, 251
mass, 314
catalysts, 281e282, 283f
PE, 251
microsuspension, 333
Phillips process, 250e251
poly(vinyl acetate), 433
product finishing, 285e286
production of polystyrene, 313f
slurry-processes, 284
solution, 314
standard oil company process, 251
suspension, 314, 332e333, 445e446
technologies, 282e286, 284t
of vinyl fluoride, 402
Ziegler processes, 250
ZN catalysts, 281, 282t
Polymethylene, 91, 247, 254
Polyolefin elastomers, 699
Polyolefins, 90e91, 187, 644
Polyols, 806e808, 813
polycarbonate polyols, 808
polyesterols, 807e808
polyetherols, 806e808
properties, 808
Polyoxyalkylene glycol, 661
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 21, 205, 513,
522, 523t
Polyphenyl sulfone (PPSU), 553, 558
Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 325
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 23, 325, 325f,
polystyrene blends with, 325e327
Polyphenylene sulfides (PPSs), 325, 421,
558e564, 561f, 797
additives, 564
applications, 564
manufacturing, 559e561
processing, 564
properties, 562e563, 563t
synthesis, 559
Polyphthalamides (PPAs), 487, 547e549
Polypropylene (PP), 59e60, 91, 110, 132,
205, 279e304, 319, 417, 631,
653, 663
additives for, 294e297
elastomers, 294
fillers, 292e294, 293f
future developments, 303e304, 303f
general structure and properties, 286e290,
288f, 289t
hierarchy of morphological scales in, 289f
homopolymer, 54e55
impact copolymers, 291
modifications, 292e294
monomer sources and preparation, 280e281
polymerizationdcatalysts and processes,
PP-talc compounds, 292e293
processing and applications, 297e302,
product types and compositions, 290e292,
291f, 293f
production volume development, 279f
reactive processing, 294, 295t
regional distribution, 280f
in vehicles, 301
Polypropylene glycol polyetherols (PPGs),
Polysaccharides, 632e633
Polystyrene (PS), 5, 39, 115, 135e136, 205,
311, 315t, 318, 449, 452e453, 464.
See also Styrene (S)
blends with PPO, 325e327
equivalent molecule, 325
polyphenylene oxide, 325f
properties of PPO/PS blends, 326
GPeHI PS, 316e318
oriented, 324e325
polymerization, 313e314
properties, 314e316, 316te317t
stereoregular, 321e322
Polysulfides, 790, 790f
Polysulfones (PSUs), 550, 558. See also
molar masses of commercial, 552t
properties, 553t
effect of structure and tensile modulus, 551t
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 6, 67, 80,
110, 389, 513, 557
chain model, 68f
copolymerization of TFE and HFP, 397e398
industrial synthesis
of hexafluoropropylene, 397
of TFE, 391
micropowders, 396, 397t
modified, 396, 397t
polymerization of TFE, 392e393
processing, 405e411
structure and properties, 393e396,
Polytetramethylene terephthalate (PTMT).
See Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
Polyureas, 800, 827
Polyurethanes (PUs), 639, 799e800, 811
properties interpretation, 815e816
PU/polyurea suspension, 807
PUeacrylic blends, 834
TPE, 661e662, 662f, 671, 672f
world applications, 801t
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 427e429,
copolymers, additives for, 429
emulsion polymerization, 428e429
suspension polymerization, 428
Polyvinylidene fluoride
applications, 418
industrial process for production, 401
Index 853Polyvinylidene fluoride (Continued)
industrial synthesis of vinylidene fluoride
monomer, 400
structure and properties, 401
POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
Post curing, 754
Post-extruder processing, 591
coating, 592
factor, 103e109
processes, 269
unit, 217
PP. See Polypropylene (PP)
PPAs. See Polyphthalamides (PPAs)
PPE. See Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
PPF. See Poly(propylene furandicarboxylate)
PPG. See Poly(propylene glycol) (PPG)
PPGs. See Polypropylene glycol polyetherols
PPhFA. See Poly(phenyl a-fluoroacrylate)
PPO. See Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO);
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
PPSs. See Polyphenylene sulfides (PPSs)
PPSU. See Polyphenyl sulfone (PPSU)
PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
Pre-accelerated resins, 752
Precipitated calcium carbonates (PCC), 360
Precoating methods, 184
Prepreg technology, 764
Pressure pipe formulation, 364t
Preventive antioxidants, 133e135
Primary antioxidants. See Chain-breaking
antioxidants (CB antioxidants)
Primary flame retardants, 154
Printability, 124e125
Printed circuit boards (PCBs), 536, 794
1,3-Propanediol (PDO), 646
Propene. See Propylene
Propionamide, 136e137
Propionate esters, 136e137
Propylene, 280e281
glycol, 750
Propylene oxides (PO), 806
Protective apparel, 602e603
Protective gloves, 603
Proton donors, 84
PS. See Polystyrene (PS)
Pseudo cross-linking, 660
Pseudo-elastic design approach, 234e235
Pseudoplastic flow, 675, 675f
PSehigh-impact (PSeHI), 151
PSUs. See Polysulfones (PSUs)
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
PTT. See Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
PU-based coatings, 831
Pulp-resin preform moldings, 734
Pultrusion, 763
Pulverized fuel ash (PFA), 202
resins, 411
PureeMDIs, 802
PUs. See Polyurethanes (PUs)
PVA. See Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)
PVAc. See Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)
PVC. See Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)
PVC-P. See Plasticized PVC (PVC-P)
PVC-U. See Unplasticized PVC (uPVC)
PVDC. See Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)
PVDF. See Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)
PVF. See Poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF)
Pyrolysis, 185
Pyromellitic dianhydride, 784, 784f
Quality control testing (QC testing), 714,
Quasiprepolymers, 813
polyetherol foams, 820e821
Rabinowitsch equation, 212e213
Radiation cross-linking, 270
Radical scavengers, 296
RAFT polymerization. See Reversible
addition fragmentation chain transfer
polymerization (RAFT
Ram extrusion, 268, 407
Raman spectroscopy, 344
Random, crystalline, temperature resistant
(RCT resistant), 297
Random copolymers, 22, 28, 68
Rapid prototyping and tooling (RPT), 220
Rate constant, 41
Rayleigh scattering, 119
RCT resistant. See Random, crystalline,
temperature resistant (RCT resistant)
RDRP. See Reversible-deactivation radical
polymerization (RDRP)
REACH. See Registration, Evaluation,
Authorisation and Restriction of
Chemicals (REACH)
Reactants, 808e811
Reaction casting. See Reaction injection
molding (RIM)
Reaction injection molding (RIM), 800, 810,
Reaction kinetics of isocyanates, 808
Reactive antioxidants, 141e142, 142f
Reactive diluents, 750
Reactive flame retardants, 155
Reconstituted foam, 817
Recycling, 201e203
in form of filled polymer, 202
and recovery of particulate fillers, 202
waste from industries, 201e202
Redox systems, 428
“Reduceereuseerecycle” approach, 15
Reflectance, 121e123
Refractive index, 115, 176, 199e200
Regenerated cellulose, 628e629
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and
Restriction of Chemicals (REACH),
1, 14e15
Regular PPS, 560e561
Reinforced plastics, 743
Reinforced reaction injection-molding
process (RRIM process), 830
Reinforced thermoplastics, 226e227
Reinforcement, 557, 579, 589, 600e601
surface, 793
Reinforcing fillers, 469, 470t
Relative molar mass (RMM), 23
Relative permittivity. See Dielectric constant
Relative Thermal Index (RTI), 545
Release agents, 811
Renewability, 201
Repeat unit structure, 306
Reptation model, 271
Residual stress, 230
Resin transfer molding (RTM), 763e764,
selection for durable structures, 767e768
viscosity, 776
Resinification of aldehyde systems, 710e717
formaldehyde-based polymers, 711e715
MF resin manufacture and cross-linking,
UF resin manufacture and cross-linking,
Resistance to radiation, 600
Resols, 711, 729
Resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), 457
Resorcinoleformaldehyde polymers (RF
polymers), 737
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS),
Retardation, 118
Reversible addition fragmentation chain
transfer polymerization (RAFT
polymerization), 32e33
Reversible doping methods, 113
Reversible process, 19e20
Reversible-deactivation radical
polymerization (RDRP), 32e33
RF polymers. See Resorcinoleformaldehyde
polymers (RF polymers)
RHA. See Rice hull ash (RHA)
Rheology, TPE, 674e676, 676f
Rhodia processes, 490
Rice hull ash (RHA), 202
barrier containers, 432
foams, 824e826
PVC, 367, 367t
RIM. See Reaction injection molding (RIM)
Ring-like epoxy groups, 773
Ring-opening polymerization (ROP),
of lactide, 636f
Ripening process, 629
RMM. See Relative molar mass (RMM)
RoHS. See Restriction of Hazardous
Substances (RoHS)
ROP. See Ring-opening polymerization
Rotational molding, 216, 222e223, 269, 374
854 IndexRPT. See Rapid prototyping and tooling
RRIM process. See Reinforced reaction
injection-molding process (RRIM
RTI. See Relative Thermal Index (RTI)
RTM. See Resin transfer molding (RTM)
rubber-modified SAN and related
copolymers, 319e320
toughening, 73, 792
Rubbery materials, 264
Rutile grade, 146
S-PEK. See Sulfonated polyetherketone
Sag factor, 823
SAN. See Styreneeacrylonitrile (SAN)
Sandwich injection molding, 690
Santoprene TPV, 682, 691e692, 692f
Saturated polyesters. See Thermoplastic
polyesters (TP polyesters)
SAVA. See South African Vinyl Association
SAXS. See Small angle X-ray scattering
SBR. See Styreneebutadiene rubber (SBR)
SBRs. See Stirred-bed reactors (SBRs)
SBS. See Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS)
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 46,
339, 673, 673f
Scanning force microscopy (SFM),
288, 290
Schatzki crankshaft effect, 516
SCMC. See Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Scratch resistance, 198
Screen coating, 374
Screw extrusion, 214e215
SCRIMP. See Seemann Composites Resin
Infusion Molding Process (SCRIMP)
SEA. See Specific extinction area (SEA)
Seal-peel packaging, 305
Sealants, 799e800, 832
Sebacates, 357
Sebacic acid, 489
SEBS. See Styrene ethylene butylene styrene
SEC. See Size exclusion chromatography
Secondary antioxidants. See Preventive
Secondary bonds, 75
Secondary flame retardants, 154
Secondary recycling, 808
Secondary valence forces, 75
Seemann Composites Resin Infusion
Molding Process (SCRIMP),
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 504
Self-cleans, 817
SEM. See Scanning electron microscopy
materials, 226
polymer, 44, 118
thermoplastic, 304
Semiflexible products, 824
Semirigid products. See Semiflexible
Semirigid PU foams and production,
SF. See Staple fiber (SF); Structural foams
SFM. See Scanning force microscopy (SFM)
Sharkskin effects, 259, 267
Shear rate, 212
Shear stress, 212
Shear-induced skin layers, 300
Sheet casting process, 445
Sheet molding compounds (SMC), 758,
764e765, 796e797
“Shish kebab” structure, 51, 288
Short fibers, 757
Shrink sleeves, 385
Shrinkage, 227, 690
anisotropy, 148
Silane(s), 162, 762
coupling agents, 187
cross-linking, 162
Silanol group (eSiOH), 186, 760e762
Silicon, 91, 186
Siloxanes, copolymerization with, 461, 461f
“Silver dollar” geometry, 149
Silver-based antimicrobials, 164
Single crystals, 45e46
Single walled nanotube (SWNT), 183
Single-screw injection molding methods, 722
Single-site catalysts, 36, 250
Single-stage process, 594e595
Sintering process, 396, 405e406, 408, 410
SIOPLAS process, 162
SIS. See Styrene isoprene styrene (SIS)
Size exclusion chromatography (SEC),
Skiving, 407, 408f
Slabstock process, 821, 822f
Slip agents, 163, 263, 296
Slower-reacting IPDI, 831e832
SLS. See Selective laser sintering (SLS)
Slurry technologies, 284
Slurry-processes, 284
Slush molding, 374
SMA copolymers. See Styreneemaleic
anhydride copolymers (SMA
Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), 46
SMC. See Sheet molding compounds (SMC)
Smoke suppressants, 361
Sodium acetate, 515
Sodium bicarbonate, 363
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC),
Sodium chloride, ionic bond in, 76f
Sodium hydrogen phosphates, 446
Sodium lauryl sulfate, 446
Sodium polymethacrylate, 446
Soft segments, 815e816
Softeners, 150
Softening temperature, 40
Ca/Zn stabilizers, 344e345
friction, 240, 241t
phase charring, 155
solid-state polymerization process, 529
solidegel transition temperature, 349e351
surface materials, 451
Solubility, 89e90
Solubility parameters, 78e84, 86e89, 89t
amorphous nonpolar
polymers, 79, 82
solvents, 79
amorphous polar polymers and solvents,
amorphous solvents, 79e82
nonpolar polymers, 79e82
polar polymers and solvents, 83e84
crystallizing solvents, 82
partial polarities of solvents, 81te82t
partitioned values, 83t
polymer, 80t
PVC plasticizers, 85t
vulcanized rubber and thermosetting
plastics, 84
Solution polymerization, 314, 332, 573e574
Solution spinning, 602
Solvent dyestuffs, 145
South African Vinyl Association (SAVA),
Spandex fibers, 831
Specific extinction area (SEA), 101
Specific heat capacity, 197
Specific Surface Area (SSA), 173e174
Spectacle frames, 619
Spheripol technology, 285
Spherulites, 44, 47, 288
growth, 47
internal structures within, 49f
in polypropylene, 48f
Spinning, 591
sPP. See syndiotactic PP (sPP)
Spray coating, 374
Spray-up approach, 763
Spraying technique, 269
Spreading, 374
SSA. See Specific Surface Area (SSA)
ST. See Super Tough (ST)
Stabilizer(s), 344e345, 344f. See also UV
against dehydrochlorination, 143
evaluation, 343e344, 343f
secondary, 346
Staple fiber (SF), 302
Star polymers, 35
Starch, 8, 638
Stearate coatings, 185
Index 855Stearic acid, 177, 185, 446, 718
Step reaction polymerization, 21, 36e37.
See also Chain reaction
trifunctional monomer, 37f
Stereoisomers of polypropylene chain, 286f
Stereoregular PS, 321e322
Stiffness, 233e238
assessing, 235e236, 237t
large area plastics parts, 236e238
practical assessment of long-term behavior,
Stirred-bed reactors (SBRs), 284e285
Stoichiometric balance, 36
Stressestrainetime behavior, 230e231
Stretch blow molding of bottles, 385
Structural foams (SF), 220e222, 324, 826
Structure relationship to chemical properties,
aging, 93e94
bond lengths and dissociation, 77t
chemical bonds, 75e77
chemical reactivity, 90e91
diffusion, 94e97
electronegativity values of elements, 76t
fire and plastics, 97e101
high-energy radiation effects, 91e93
permeability, 94e97
photochemical radiation effects, 91e93
polymer solubility, 78e90
thermal radiation effects, 91e93
weathering, 93e94
Structure relationship to electrical properties
dielectric constant, power factor, and
structure, 103e109
electrical insulators, 103
electrically conductive polymers, 111e115
electronic applications of polymers, 111
quantitative relationships for dielectrics,
Structure relationship to optical properties,
birefringence, 116e118
color, 123e125
refractive index, 115
surface appearance, 121e123
transparency, haze, and clarity, 118e121
Structure relationship to thermal and
mechanical properties, 59
density, 72
factors affecting ability to crystallization,
factors affecting crystalline melting point,
factors affecting glass transition temperature,
glass transition temperature, 71
melt viscosity, 72
thermodynamic treatment of melting
temperature, 70e71
toughness, 72e73
transition temperatures in copolymers,
yield strength and modulus, 72
Structureeproperty relationships, 282, 466,
PAEKs, 584
polyamide-imides, 571e572
polyetherimides, 574
sulfones, 551e552
thermoplastic imide polymers, 567e569
TPE, 677e689
blow-molding conditions, 691t
copolyester-based TPE, 692, 693te694t
extrusion parameters, 691t
molding conditions, 690t
MPR, 688e689, 689t
polyether block amides, 687e688
processing of materials, 689e696
processing Santoprene TPV, 691e692
properties of materials, 678
styrenic-based TPE, 686e687, 687t
thermoplastic polyester, 682e683
TPO and TPV properties, 679e682
TPU, 683e686, 686t, 692e694, 694t
Styrene (S), 311e312, 754. See also
Polystyrene (PS)
preparation/source, 311e313
properties, 313t
purification, 313
Styreneeacrylonitrile (SAN), 54, 135e136,
copolymers, 318, 540e541, 807
rubber-modified, 319e320
Styreneebutadiene rubber (SBR), 151
Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), 653, 669,
670f, 676f
Styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS),
653, 669, 671f
Styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), 653, 669
Styreneemaleic anhydride copolymers (SMA
copolymers), 320
Styrenic(s), 327
polymers, 320, 321t
processing of styrenic PPOs, 327
Styrenic-based TPEs, 655e660, 656fe657f,
686e687, 687t, 694e695
chain growth of polystyrene segment,
initiation, 658, 658f
propagation, 658e659
styrene butadiene block copolymer, 659f
termination, 659e660, 659f
g transitions, 42
Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs),
Substituted aromatic rings, 608
Subtractive colors, 117
Sulfonated polyetherketone (S-PEK),
Sulfonated styrene/divinyl benzene catalysts,
459, 459f
Sulfonation, 320, 585
Sulfones, 550e558
additives, 556e557
applications, 558
processing, 557e558
properties, 552e556
structureeproperty relationships, 551e552
synthetic methods, 550
Super Tough (ST), 534, 567
Super-glue, 454
Support factor, 823
Surface appearance, 121e123
Surface coatings, 774, 799, 810
epoxy resins in, 794
Surface intumescence, 155
Surface modifiers, 163, 183e188, 184f
anchoring groups, 184
coating level, 184e185, 185t
identification and characterization of, 185
methods, 184
Surface resistivity, 103
Surfactants, 810
Suspension, 28
mass PVC, 339e341, 339fe340f
polymerization, 314, 332e333, 428,
Sustainability, 15e16, 201e203
and fillers, 201e203
PVC, 330e331
worldwide, 331
SVHCs. See Substances of Very High
Concern (SVHCs)
agents, 473
clays, 181
cross-linked polymers, 87
SWNT. See Single walled nanotube (SWNT)
Symmetrical molecules, 105
PS, 321e322
structure, 65
Syndiotactic polymers, 446
Syndiotactic PP (sPP), 281, 287, 288t
Synergism, 142
Synergists flame retardants. See Secondary
flame retardants
Synthesis routes, TPE chemistry and,
chemical and physical changes, 655f
ionomers, 662
metallocene-catalyzed, 662
performance matrix comparing thermoset,
polyurethane, 661e662, 662f
styrenic-based TPE, 655e660, 656f
polyamide elastomers, 661
polyesters, 660e661
vulcanizates, 663e665
Synthetic phenol, 706e707
Synthetic wood pulp, 277
-butyl alcohol, 443
TA. See Terephthalic acid (TPA)
Tacticity, 65e66, 335e336, 336f, 336t
Talc fillers, 177, 202
TBC. See Tributyl citrate (TBC)
TD. See Transverse direction (TD)
TDI. See Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI)
856 IndexTeflon. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Teflon FEP resins, 397
Telcon. See Telegraph Construction and
Maintenance Company (Telcon)
Telecom applications, LCPs, 611
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance
Company (Telcon), 5
TEM. See Transmission electron microscopy
Temperature dependence of crystallization
rate, 49e51, 50f
Tencel fiber, 628e629
Tensile tests, 601
Teracol, 807
Terephthalate esters, 358e359
Terephthalic acid (TPA), 528, 548, 605, 756
bio-based route and intermediates for, 645f
dimethylester, 528
Terephthaloyyl chloride, 583f
industrial process for production of THV,
for surface coating, 382
TFE, HFP, and VDF, 402e403
Terpolymers, 22
Tertiary amines, 781
p-Tertiarybutylphenol, 461
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 389
copolymerization, 397e398
industrial synthesis, 391
polymerization, 392e393
terpolymers, 402e403
copolymer (TFEeHFP copolymer),
Tetrafunctional glycidyl ether resin, 786,
Tetrahydrofuran (THF), 646, 685
Tetramethyl xylene diisocyanate (TMXDI),
802, 803f
(TMCD), 538
Tetramethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 454
TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
TFEeHFP copolymer. See Tetrafluoroethyleneehexafluoropropylene copolymer
(TFEeHFP copolymer)
TGA. See Thermogravimetric analysis
Thermal conductivity, 197
Thermal imidization, 566e567
Thermal radiation effects, 91e93
Thermal shock, 602
Thermal stability, 194
Thermal stabilizers, 135e137. See also
aromatic amines, 136e137
hindered phenols, 136e137
phosphite esters, 137
sulfurecontaining antioxidants, 137
Thermodynamics, 89e90
treatment of melting temperature, 70e71
Thermoforming, 216, 478, 592
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 344
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), 22e23,
653e654, 654f, 660f, 679t. See also
Thermoplastic polyesters (TP
applications of materials, 699e701, 699t
chemistry and synthesis routes, 654e665
cost/performance of thermoplastic rubber,
manufacturers/suppliers of materials, 700t,
markets of materials, 698e699
morphology, 668e674
polymer miscibility, 665e668
rheology, 674e676
structureeproperty relationships, 677e689
Thermoplastic imide polymers, 566e569.
See also Polyamide-imides;
effect of structural components, 568t
structureeproperty relationships, 567e569
synthesis, 566e567
Thermoplastic injection-molding equipment
(TIM equipment), 817
Thermoplastic olefin elastomers (TPO
elastomers), 653, 681f
properties, 679e682, 680t
Thermoplastic polyamide elastomers
synthesis, 661
Thermoplastic polyesters (TP), 527,
536e537, 682e683. See also
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)
copolyesters, 537e538, 538t
new-generation copolyesters,
PBT, 532e536, 532fe534f
PCT, 536
PEN, 537
PET, 528e532
production, 528
synthesis, 660e661
Thermoplastic polyimides (TPIs), 565
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
683e686, 686t, 692e694, 694t, 814
elastomers, 830
extrusion, 694, 695te697t
injection molding, 694, 695te697t
MPR, 696
polyether block amides, 695
styrenic-based TPEs, 694e695
Thermoplastic starch (TPS), 633, 642e643
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs), 403,
653, 663e665, 663f, 677fe678f,
fluid resistance, 684t
heat aging, 683t
polyester/copolyether ester-based, 685t
properties, 679e682, 680t
retention of tensile strength, 679f
weathering and electrical properties, 684t
Thermoplastics, 9, 19e20, 190, 450, 450f.
See also High-temperature
application areas for, 10
classification, 9f
filler in, 176e183
processing, 207, 207f
Thermosets, 190
filler in, 176e183
crystals, 603
LCPs, 605e608
LCs, 603
THF. See Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
Thiazolidine (2,2-dimethylthiazolidine), 459
Thiourea-based polymers, 741
THR. See Total heat released (THR)
Three-roll stack extrusion, 298f
THV terpolymers, 412
fluoroplastics applications, 419
industrial process for production, 403
Tie molecules, 46
TIM equipment. See Thermoplastic injectionmolding equipment (TIM equipment)
Time to ignition (TTI), 101
Time-dependent properties, polymer
creep curves, 231
recovery from deformation, 233
stressestrainetime behavior, 230e231
Tin carboxylates, 346
Tin mercaptides, 345
TINTM. See Tri-isononyl trimellitate
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 146, 347
pigments, 361e362
Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), 33
TMA. See Trimellitic anhydride (TMA)
TMCD. See 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-
cyclobutanediol (TMCD)
TMG. See Trimethylene glycol (TMG)
TMPTMA. See Trimethylol propane
trimethacrylate (TMPTMA)
TMXDI. See Tetramethyl xylene
diisocyanate (TMXDI)
a-Tocopherol, 141, 141f
Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI), 800, 802e803
Total heat released (THR), 101
Toughened epoxy resins, 791e792, 792f
Toughened polystyrene (TPS), 23, 151
Toughness, 72e73, 457, 461, 463, 466, 479
Toughness, 195e196
TP. See Thermoplastic polyesters (TP)
TPA. See Terephthalic acid (TPA)
TPE. See Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)
TPIs. See Thermoplastic polyimides (TPIs)
TPO elastomers. See Thermoplastic olefin
elastomers (TPO elastomers)
TPS. See Thermoplastic starch (TPS);
Toughened polystyrene (TPS)
TPU. See Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
TPVs. See Thermoplastic vulcanizates
Transcrystallinity, 188
Transesterification process, 460
temperatures, 464e466, 495e496
in copolymers, 68e70
a-transition, 464e466
b-transition, 446
Index 857Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),
45e46, 252, 339e340
Transparency, 118e121, 468e470, 478e479
Transverse direction (TD), 43e44
Tri-isononyl trimellitate (TINTM), 357
Triacetate, 620
Triblock copolymer, 53
Tributyl citrate (TBC), 639
Trichloroethylene, 446
Triethylenetetramine, 778
monomer, step reaction polymerization,
PPGs, 807
Triglycidyl isocyanurate, 788, 789f
Trihydroxymethylmelamine, 736
Trimellitate esters, 357
Trimellitic acid anhydride, 570
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA), 357,
570fe571f, 784, 784f
4-Trimellitoyl chloride anhydride, 570f
Trimethylene glycol (TMG), 756
Trimethylol propane trimethacrylate
(TMPTMA), 385
Trimethylolmelamine, 716
Triphenylphosphine, 514e515
Trivex Plastic, 769
Trogamid T, 548
Tromsdorff effect, 444
TTI. See Time to ignition (TTI)
film blowing, 298e299
process, 266e267
Twin-screw extruders, 371
Two shot synthesis/processing, 813e815
Two-stage process, 595, 712
UCC. See Union Carbide Corporation (UCC)
UCST. See Upper critical solution
temperature (UCST)
UF resins. See Ureaeformaldehyde resins
(UF resins)
UHMWPE. See Ultrahigh molar mass
polyethylene (UHMWPE)
UL. See Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
Ultem, 565
Ultrahigh molar mass polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 268, 276e277
applications in PE, 276e277
UltraPEK, 584
Underwriters Laboratories UL94 ratings, 98
Underwriters Laboratory (UL), 545
Uniaxial orientation, 43
Unimodal polymers, 24
Union Carbide, 251
Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), 3
UNIPOL PE process, 251
Unplasticized PVC (uPVC), 189, 370e371
Unsaturated carboxylic acids, 186
Unsaturated fatty acids, 743
Unsaturated polyester resins (UPE resins),
22, 743, 746f, 748
accelerators for, 752t
chemical structures of acids, anhydrides, and
glycols, 747f
cured unsaturated polyester resin, 745f
curing of polyester resins, 750e755
glass fiber polyester composites, 757e771
hydrolysis of maleic anhydride, 748f
for lamination, 745e757
choice of components for synthesis of
UPE, 745
mechanical properties of cast resins,
resin microstructure, 755e756
synthesis of UPE, 745e748
peroxides as catalysts, 751t
polyester polymers and resins, 743e745
reactive diluents, 750
resin formulation, 749e750
Unsaturation, 335
“Unzipping” process, 342
UPE resins. See Unsaturated polyester resins
(UPE resins)
Upper critical solution temperature (UCST),
665e666, 666f
uPVC. See Unplasticized PVC (uPVC)
Urea, 708e709
health and safety issues, 709
Ureaeformaldehyde resins (UF resins),
705e706, 719e720, 728, 732e733,
manufacturing and cross-linking, 715e716
molding, 719, 722e723
polymers, 736
Urethane methacrylates, 768
Urethane-based coatings, 831
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
458, 635
UV absorber (UVA), 138, 347
UV stabilizers, 346e347, 467, 467f, 556,
564, 589, 600
UV-screening, 138
UVA. See UV absorber (UVA)
VA. See Vinyl acetate (VA)
Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding
(VARTM), 763e764
Van der Waals forces, 75, 271
Vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGNF),
VARTM. See Vacuum-assisted resin transfer
molding (VARTM)
VC. See Vinyl chloride (VC)
VCM. See Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
VCeVAc copolymers. See Vinyl
chlorideevinyl acetate copolymers
(VCeVAc copolymers)
VDC. See Vinylidene chloride polymers
VDF. See Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)
VDFeHFP. See Vinylidene
Vectra A-950, 607, 607f
Vectra B, 607, 607f
Vectra B-950, 607
Vectran, 604f
Vertebral body replacement, 593
Vertifoam process, 821e822
Very high molar mass polyethylenes
(VHMWPE), 276e277
Very low-density polyethylenes (VLDPEs),
248, 262
Vespel, 566
polyimide, 567
VGNF. See Vapor-grown carbon nanofibers
VHMWPE. See Very high molar mass
polyethylenes (VHMWPE)
Vinyl, 329e330
properties, 757t
resins, 766e767, 766f, 791
polymerization, 402
structure and properties, 402
intermediates from bio-ethanol, 645f
plastics, 5
silane cross-linking, 270
urethanes, 767, 767f
Vinyl 2010, 330e331
Vinyl Plus program, 331
Vinyl acetate (VA), 273, 433
monomer preparation, 433
Vinyl chloride (VC), 329, 331e333
Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), 332, 341f,
Vinyl chlorideevinyl acetate copolymers
(VCeVAc copolymers), 329, 382
Vinyl polymers, 427, 644
head/tail and head/head structures in, 67f
poly(vinyl carbazole), 439, 439f
poly(vinyl cinnamate), 438, 438f
tactic structures, 66f
N-Vinyl pyrrolidone, 454e455
Vinyl-terminated epoxy, 766
Vinylbenzene. See Styrene
Vinylidene chloride copolymer
applications, 431e432
barrier properties, 430, 430t
Vinylidene chloride polymers (VDC), 427,
applications, 431e432
polymers and copolymers, 427e432
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 400
monomer industrial synthesis, 400
terpolymers, 402e403
Vinylidene fluorideehexafluoropropylene
(VDFeHFP), 390
Visbreaking process, 294
Viscose process, 628e629
“Viscosity average” molar mass, 334
Viscosity modifiers, 164, 363
Visible light, 123e124
Vitamin E, 141
VLDPEs. See Very low-density
polyethylenes (VLDPEs)
VOC. See Volatile organic compounds
858 IndexVoids, 230
Volatile organic compounds (VOC), 769
Volatilization, 349
Volume resistivity, 103
Vulcanized rubber and thermosetting
plastics, 84
Warpage, 227e228, 229t
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
(WEEE), 16, 163
absorption, 473, 475t
resistance, 518
vapor, 473, 475t
water-extended resins, 768
water-ring technology, 299f
Weak scatterers, 120
Wear, 198
resistance, 198
Weather fastness, 144
Weathering, 93e94, 500
WEEE. See Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE)
Weight average method, 173
Weld lines, 228e230
Wet winding, 763
White light, 117
White pigments, 146
Whitening agents. See Optical brighteners
Wide angle scattering, 119
Wind energy, epoxy resins in, 796
Window profile formulation, 364t
Wire coating, 592
Wollastonite, 178e179
Wood flour, 177e178
Xanthated cellulose, 629
XCS. See Xylene cold soluble (XCS)
Xenon-arc lighting, 144
Xydar, 608
Xylene cold soluble (XCS), 290
Xylenols, 708
YAG lasers, 149
Yarns, 758
Yellowness index, 124
Yield strength and modulus, 72
Zeolite, 346
“Zero yellowness” materials, 124
Ziegler process, 6, 250
ZieglereNatta catalyst (ZN catalyst), 7, 248,
250e251, 269, 279, 281, 282t
polymerization, 35e36
polymers, 250
borates, 157
stearate, 345
Zirconates, 188
ZN catalyst. See ZieglereNatta catalyst (ZN
Zytel 70K20HSL BK284, 504
Index 859

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