Basic Machines and How They Work

Basic Machines and How They Work
اسم المؤلف
Bureau of Naval Personnel
التاريخ
25 أغسطس 2021
المشاهدات
76
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Basic Machines and How They Work
Prepared by Bureau of Naval Personnel
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Page

  1. Levers 1
  2. Block and Tackle 10
  3. The Wheel and Axle 16
  4. The Inclined Plane and Wedge 23
  5. The Screw 26
  6. Gears 30
  7. Work 39
  8. Power 46
  9. Force and Pressure 50
  10. Hydrostatic and Hydraulic Machines 58
  11. Machine Elements and Basic Mechanisms 69
  12. Complex Machines 87
  13. Internal Combustion Engine 106
  14. Power Trains 130
  15. Basic Computer Mechanisms 150
    INDEX
    Accumulator, 67
    Anchor winch, 36, 38
    Automobile valve gear, 36
    Axles used in power trains, 148, 149
    Balancing moments of force, 18
    Ballast tank, 67, 68
    Ball bearings, 71, 73
    Barometer, 54-57
    Bearings, 69-73
    Bendix- Weiss universal joint, 79
    Bevel gear, 31
    Bevel gear differential, 75
    Block and tackle, 10-15, 41
    applications afloat and ashore, 13
    chain hoist, 15
    flaghoist, 10
    gun tackle, 11
    luff tackle, 11
    luff upon luff, 13, 14
    mechanical advantage, 10, 15
    runner, 10
    yard and stay tackle, 13
    Bourdon gage, 53
    Brakes, 28, 63
    friction, 28
    hydraulic, 63
    Breech, 16-inch gun, 7
    Cams, 85
    Cam and cam followers, 80-82
    Cam-driven valve, 36
    Cam shaft, 36
    of a 4-stroke cycle engine, 127
    Capstan bar, 17, 18
    Chain hoist, 15
    Chain stopper, 8
    Clockwise moments of force, 19
    Clutches, 82, 86, 130-133
    power train, 130-133
    Combustion engines, 106-129
    basic strokes, 108
    classification of, 113
    construction of, 115-129
    Auxiliary assemblies, 129
    connecting rods, 123
    mkcase, 117
    crankshaft, 124
    cylinder head, 117
    engine cylinder block, 115
    engine head, 126
    exhaust manifold, 118
    gaskets, 119
    intake manifold, 118
    moving parts, 119-129
    piston assembly, 120
    stationary parts, 115-119
    timing gears, 128
    valves and valve mechanisms, 126-128
    vibration damper, 125
    cycles, 109-112
    development of power, 106
    diesel engines, 114
    gasoline engines, 114
    multiple-cylinder engines, 112
    one-cylinder engine, 106-112
    Complex machines, 87-105
    computer mechanisms, 150-157
    fuel- oil- hatch cover, 87
    porthole closer -blanket puller-upper,
    87, 88
    typewriter, 89-105
    watertight door, 88
    Computer mechanisms, 150-157
    differentials, 150-151
    linkages for adding and subtracting,
    150-156
    adding lever, 152
    angle resolver, 156
    component solver, 155
    integrators, 156
    multipliers, 151-156
    multiplying linkage, 155
    screw type multipliers, 152
    Constant mesh transmission, 136
    Counterclockwise moments of force, 19
    Couple, 20
    Couplings, 78-84
    Crane, electric, 7
    Curved lever arms, 5
    Cylinders used in power trains, 131
    Deep-sea diver, 60
    Depth charge, 59
    158INDEX
    Diesel engine, 106, 114
    Differentials, gear, 144-148
    Dogs, 7
    Drill press, 9
    Electric crane, 7
    External combustion engine, 106, 107
    External mesh gears, 35
    Final drives, 142
    Flaghoist, 10
    Fluids, pressure exerted by, 52
    Force and pressure, 50-57
    force, measurement of, 50
    pressure, measurement of, 50-56
    barometers, 54-56
    exerted by fluids, 52
    gages, 53
    manometer, 56
    scales, 50, 51
    Four-speed truck transmission, 133
    Friction, 40, 42-45
    Friction brake, 28
    Fuel-oil’-hatch cover, 87
    Fulcrum, 17, 19-21
    Gages used to measure pressure, 53
    Gangplank, 24
    Gasoline engine, 106, 114
    Gear differential, 74-78, 144-148
    used in automobiles and trucks, 144-148
    Gears, 30-38
    anchor winch, 36, 38
    automobile valve gear, 36
    cam-driven valve, 36
    cam shaft, 36
    changing speed, 34
    external mesh gears, 35
    idler gear, 35
    internal gear, 31
    magnifying force with, 35
    pinion gear, 30
    rack and pinion as a steering
    mechanism, 37
    spur gear, 30
    types of, 30-34
    worm gears, 32
    Gear trains, 128
    Gun tackle, 11
    Helical gears, 30
    Herringbone gears, 31
    Hooke joint, 79
    Horsepower, 46-48
    Hydraulic machines, 62-68
    advantages of, 63
    brakes, 63
    liquids in motion, 62
    Pascal’s law, 62
    press, 64
    steering with, 65
    used on submarines, 66
    Hydraulic valve lifter, 127
    Hydrostatic machines, 58-61
    Idler gear, 35
    Inclined plane, 23-26
    applications afloat and ashore, 24
    barrel role, 23
    gangplank, 24
    in spiral form, 26
    ramp, 23
    wedge, 23
    Internal combustion engines, 106-129
    basic strokes, 108
    classification of, 113
    construction of, 115-129
    auxiliary assemblies, 129
    connecting rods, 123
    crankcase, 117
    crankshaft, 124
    cylinder head, 117
    engine cylinder block, 115
    engine head, 126
    exhaust manifold, 118
    gaskets, 119
    intake manifold, 118
    moving parts, 119-129
    piston assembly, 120
    stationary parts, 115-119
    timing gears, 128
    valves and valve mechanisms, 126-128
    vibration damper, 125
    Internal gear, 31
    Jack, 41
    Jack screw, 26, 27
    Levers, 1-9
    chain stopper, 8
    classes of, 2
    curved lever arm,
    dogs, 7
    drill press, 9
    electric crane, 7
    oars, 2
    pelican hook, 8
    wrecking bar, 7
    159BASIC MACHINES
    Linkages, 78
    Luff tackle, 11
    Machine elements and basic mechanismSj
    69-86
    basic mechanisms, 74
    bearings, 69-73
    ball bearings, 73
    cams, 80-82, 85
    and cam followers, 80-82
    clutches, 82, 86
    couplings, 78-84
    gear differential, 74-78
    linkages, 78
    radial-thrust roller bearing, 73
    springs, 71-74
    types of, 74
    universal joints, 79-81
    Manometer, 56
    Micrometer, 27
    Moment of force, 17, 20
    Multiple -cylinder engines, 112
    Oars, 2
    Oldham coupling, 78, 80
    One-cylinder engine, 106
    Pelican hook, 8
    Pinion gear, 30
    Pointer’s handwheel, 21
    Power, 46-57
    calculation of, 46-48
    horsepower, 46
    motor, 48
    Prony brake, 48
    Power takeoffs, 141
    Power trains, 130-149
    axles, 148, 149
    clutch, 130-133
    differentials, 144-148
    final drives, 142-144
    joints, 142,145
    propeller shaft assemblies, 142
    transfer cases, 140-142
    transmission, 133-139
    Pressure and the deep sea
    diver, 60
    Pressure, measurement of, 50-56
    balances, 50, 52
    barometers, 54-56
    exerted by fluids, 52
    gages, 53
    manometer, 56
    scales, 50, 51
    Prony brake, 48
    Quadrant davit, 29
    Rack and pinion, 37
    Radial-thrust roller bearing, 71, 73
    Ramp, 23
    Rigger’s vise, 28
    Roller bearing, 71, 73
    Roller bitt, 43
    Runner, 10
    Scales, 50, 51
    Schrader gage, 53
    Screw applications, 26-29
    friction brake, 28
    inclined plane in spiral form, 26
    jack screw, 26, 27
    mechanical advantage of, 29
    micrometer, 26
    quadrant davit, 29
    rigger’s vise, 28
    turnbuckle, 28
    Sleeve coupling, 78
    Spider gears, 76
    Spiral bevel gears, 144
    Springs, 71-74
    Spur gears, 30
    Steam engine, 106
    Synchromesh clutch, 138
    Synchromesh transmission, 136
    Timing gears in engines, 128
    Torpedo, 60
    Torque, 17, 21, 22
    wrench, 21
    Transfer cases, 140-142
    Truck transmission, 133
    Turnbuckle, 28
    Typewriter, 89-105
    backspace, 96
    bell ringer, 102
    construction and operation, 90
    escapement, 92
    external parts, 89
    line lock, 102
    line space, 103
    pinion stop slide, 103-105
    ribbon drive, 93-96
    shift, 98, 101, 102
    tabulator, 96-99
    type bar, 93
    Universal joints, 79-81
    Valve lifters, 127
    Valves and valve mechanisms, engine, 126-128
    160INDEX
    Watertight door, 88
    Wedge, 23
    Wheel and axle, 16-25
    balancing moments of force, 18
    capstan bar, 17, 18
    clockwise moments of force, 19
    counterclockwise moments of
    force, 19
    couple, 20
    fulcrum, 17, 19, 20, 21
    mechanical advantage, 16
    pointer’s handwheel, 21
    rotation, 17
    torque, 17, 21, 22
    wrench, 21
    Work, friction, and efficiency, 39-
    block and tackle, 41
    friction, 42-45
    jack, 41
    measurement of, 39-41
    roller bitt, 43
    Worm and worm wheel, 32
    Worm gear, 32
    Wrecking bar, 7
    Yard and stay tackle, 13

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