Basic Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

Basic Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
اسم المؤلف
Zoeb Husain , Mohd. Zulkifly Abdullah , Zainal Alimuddin
التاريخ
31 أكتوبر 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Basic Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
Zoeb Husain
Principal
Hi-Point College of Engineering and Technology
Hyderabad.
Mohd. Zulkifly Abdullah
Associate Professor,
School of Mechanical Engineering
Deputy Dean, Academic
and StudentAffairs
University Sains,Malaysia.
Zainal Alimuddin
Associate Professor,
School of Mechanical Engineering
University Sains, Malaysia
Contents
CHAPTER – 1
Dimensions and Systems of Units
1.1 Introduction . 3
1.2 Dimensions and Units . 3
1.3 Non-Dimensional Quantity . 4
1.4 Pressure Scales 6
1.5 Fluid Properties 7
1.5.1 Density and Specific Weight . 7
1.5.2 Viscosity 8
1.6 Surface Tension ., 9
1.7 Capi lIary Action 10
1.8 Compressibility and Mach Number \0
Solved Exanlples . 12
Problems . 16
CHAPTER – 2
Fluid Flow
2.1 Introduction . 23
2.2 Scope of Fluid Mechnanics 23(xii) Contents
2.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 24
2.4 Momentum Equation for One-Dimensional Flow . 25
2.5 Momentum Equation for Two-Dimensional Flow 26
2.6 Jet Striking a Plate (3 cases) 27
2.7 Force Exerted when jet is Deflected by a Moving Vane . 28
2.8 Euler’s and BernQullis Equations 29
2.9 Application ofBernoullis Equation . 32
2.9.1 Air Foil 33
2.9.2 Automobile 33
2.9.3 Free Jet , 34
2.9.4 Pump . 34
2.9.5 Turbine 35
2.9.6 Flow Measurement . 35
2.9.7 Measurement of Static and Stagnation Pressures 37
Solved Exan’ples 39
Problems . 54
CHAPTER – 3
Thermal and Hydropower Stations
3.1 Introduction . 61
3.2 Steam Turbine Power Plant . 63
3.3 Gas Turbine Power Plant . 64
3.3.1 Comparing Steam and Gas Turbine Power Stations . 66
3.4 Combined Cycle Power Plants . 67
3.5 Hydropower Plants 68
3.6 Underground Power Station . 72
3.6.1 Underground Power Plants (Tumut 1 and 2 – Australia) 72
3.7 Surface Power Plant 76
3.7.1 Comparing Hydropower Plants with Thermal Power Plants 79Contents (xiii)
CHAPTER- 4
Fluid Machinery
4.1 Introduction . 85
4.2 Classification of Fluid Machines . 85
4.3 Pumps (Axial and Radial) 88
4.4 Compressors (Axial and Radial) 89
4.5 Turbines 91
4.5.1 Pelton Wheel . 91
4.5.2 Francis Turbine ., . 92
4.5.3 Kaplan Turbine 92
4.5.4 Steam Turbines . 92
4.5.5 Gas Turbine . 93
4.6 Euler’s Theory Applied to Turbo Machines 93
4.6.1 Euler’s Head 95
4.6.2 Euler’s Equation in the Kinetic Form 96
CHAPTER- 5
Pelton Turbine
5.1 Introduction . 10 1
5.2 Description ofPelton Turbine Installation 101
5.3 Analysis 104
5.4 Pelton Turbine Losses and Efficiencies . 109
5.4.1 Working Proportions for Design ofPelton Wheel 110
5.5 Regulation ofPelton Wheel 112
5.6 Regulating System of Pelton Wheel Power Station . 114
Solved Examples .• .• .• •.•• t t 5
Case Study . 124(xiv) Contents
CHAPTER – 6
Francis Turbine
6.1 Introduction . 129
6.2 Description ofFrancis Turbine . 129
6.3 Analysis 131
6.4 Draft Tube 134
6.5 Working Proportions of Francis Turbine 136
6.6 Specific Speed ofhydraulic Turbines . 137
6.7 Regulation ofFrancis Turbine 139
6.7.1 Comparison between Pelton and Francis Turbines . 141.
Solved Examples • • . 143
Prohlenls 153
CHAPTER – 7
Propeller and Kaplan Turbines
7.1 Introduction . 157
7.2 Description of Propeller Turbine 157
7.3 Analysis and Construction ofVelocity Diagram 160
7.4 Twisted Blades . 165
7.5 Description of Kaplan Turbine 166
7.6 Comparision between Francis and Kaplan Turbine 168
7.7 Comparision between Pelton and Kaplan Turbine . 168
Solved Examples • .• •• .• .• .• 169
CHAPTER – 8
Turbo Pumps
8.1 Introduction . 183
8.2 Human Heart (Pump) 183
8.3 Description ofCentrifugal Pump 183COlllenls (xv)
8.4 Analysis : . 185
8.4.1 Specific Speed 189
8.5 Cavitation and N.~t Positive Suction Head (NPSH) . 190
8.6 Pumps in SerietWand Parallel 191
8.7 Matching Pumps to a System Demand 192
8.8 Axial Flow Pump 194
Solved Examples . 197
Problems 204
CHAPTER – 9
Positive Displacement Pumps
9.1 Introduction . 207
9.2 Description ofa Reciprocating Pump 207
9.3 Analysis 209
9.3.1 Power Output 209
9.3.2 Pump Effici~ncy . 210
9.4 Application ofPiston Pumps 211
9.4.1 Radial Piston Pump . 212
9.4.2 Swashplate Pump (Axial Piston Pump) 212
9.4.3 Wobble Plate Pump (Axial Piston Pump) . 213
9.4.4 Bent Axis Piston Pump (Axial Piston Pump) . 213
9.4.5 Gear Pump 214
Solved Examples • 215
Multiple Choice Questions 217
Answers . 225
References 227
Index
Index232 Basic Fluids Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
A
Absolute pressure 6
Airfoil 33,92
Angular momentum 94,95, 186
Automobile 33,85
Axial 88,89, 194,212
Axial flow 89,129, 138, 157, 168
Axial flow compressor 89,90, 190, 194
Axial flow pump 89
Axial piston pump 212, 213
B
Backward curved vanes 187
Bent axis piston pump 211, 213
Bernoulli equation 32, 34, 36
Blower 85, 90
Bucket 104, 168, 205
c
Catchment area 70, 76, 123
Centrifugal compressor 89
Centrifugal pump 23, 183, 184
Coefficient ofvelocity 110, 119
Combined cycle 67
Continuity equation 23, 25
D
Dam 44, 68, 71
Deflector 5f, 52
Deflector plate 101, 113
Demand curve 192, 193,201
Density 7, 17, 19,138
Diaphragm type 207
Drafttube 75,92,134
Dynamic viscosity 8
E
Eulers equation 23
F
Fans 85,87
Flow measurement 35
Flow rate 4,53, 11 0, 115, 118, 120, 129,
136,187, 193
Fluid mechanics 3,6
Forward curved vanes 187
Francis turbine 92, 129, 136, 139, 141, 157
Free jet 34, 35
Frequency ofsupply 72, 112
G
Gas turbine power plant 63, 64, 66
Gauge pressure 6
Gear 207
Gear 211
Gear pump 195,207, 214
Guide vanes 129, 130, 132, 140, 157, 158,
166, 168
H
Head water 68
Human heart (Pump) 183
Hydraulic efficiency 105, 108, 110, 121,
143, 189Hydro power plant 61
Hydraulic losses
– penstock 108
– runner blade 13 I
– guide vanes 131
– draft vanes 13 I
I
Impeller 23,88,90,95
Impulse turbine 91,101
Intakes 72, 123
Internal 23,210
J
Jet 27, 28,34,64, 105, III, 136
Jet ratio 111, 121
K
Kaplan turbine 92
kinematic viscosity 8
Laminar flow 24
Lobe 207
L
M
Mach number 4, 10,23, 47
Mean diameter III, 166, 170,202
Mechanical efficiency 110, 116, 134,
162,211
Mixed flow pump 190
Momentum 23, 25,26,30,
Multistage 88, 185
Multistage centrifugal pump 89
N
Nethead 104,110,133,134
Newtonian fluid 9, 13
Newton’s second law 3, 28
Nozzle 47,51,72,91,102
NPSH 190, 191, 197,203
o
One-dimensional flow 25
Operating point 193, 198
Index 233
Overall efficiency 66, 109, 115, 119,210,211
p
Pascal 4,6
Pelton turbine 72, 10 I, 109
Penstock 61, 101, 104, 109,130
Performance curve 193
Piezometer 46
Piston or plunger type 207
Piston pump 195, 211 , 212, 213
Pitot-static tube 38,45
Positive displacement 207
Pressure shafts 70
Propeller turbine 157
Properties of air 18
Properties ofcommon Iiquids 19
Properties of water 17
Pump 34,183,191,194
Pumps in parallel 20 I
R
Radial 183,187,212
Radial flow 141, 168, 183, 193, 198
Radial flow pump 190234 Basic Fluids Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
Radial piston pump 211
Radial vanes 130, 187
Reaction turbine 91,93, 129
Reciprocating type 207
Regulation system 114
Reynold’s 23
Reynolds number 24
Rotodynamic 85
Runner 91, 131,137,172
Runner blades 130
Runner blades 157, 170
Screw 21, 207
Scroll 88
Shroud 184
s
Shutoff 142, 187,207
Single stage 185
Singlestage centrifugal pump 88
Sleeve 114
Solar power plant 62
Spear valve 113
Specific gravity 7,23,43
Specificspeed 137,165,168,189
Specific weight 7,23,32, 110
Speed ratio 108, 111, 118, 121, 136
Spillway 78
Splitter angle 110
Spur gears 214
Stagnation pressure 37
Standard atmosphere 19
Static pressure 38
Stationary vanes 90, 129, 131
Steam turbine plant 79
Surface power plant 76
Surface tension 5, 9
Swashplate piston pump 211
T
Tail race 91,92,130, 134
Tail water 68
Turbine 23,34,35,63,64,66,91, r2, 101,
109,129,137,166
Turbulent flow 23,24
Twisted blades 162, 165
Two-dimensional flow 26
u
Underground power plant 70
Underground Power Plant 72
v
Vane pump 85, 195,207
Velocityofflow 94, 136, 149, 162
Velocity ofwhirl 143
Venturimeter 32, 35
Viscosity 4, 8, 24
Volumetric efficiency 211
Volute 88,90, 129, 183
w
Water tunnel 70, 74
Weber number 4
Weight 7,16
Wind tunnel 32, 33
Wobble plate pump 211, 213
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