Automotive Suspension & Steering Systems Fifth Edition

Automotive Suspension & Steering Systems Fifth Edition
اسم المؤلف
Don Knowles
التاريخ
10 مارس 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Automotive Suspension & Steering Systems Fifth Edition
Don Knowles
Classroom Manual for Automotive Suspension & Steering Systems
Preface viii
Chapter 1 Suspension and Steering Systems 1
• Introduction 1 • Frames and Unitized Bodies 2 • Front Suspension Systems 4
• Rear Suspension Systems 5 • Tires, Wheels, and Hubs 7 • Shock Absorbers and Struts 9
• Computer-Controlled Suspension Systems and Shock Absorbers 11 • Steering Systems 13
• Wheel Alignment 20 • Summary 25 • Terms to Know 25 • Review Questions 25
• Multiple Choice 26
Chapter 2 Basic Theories 28
• Introduction 28 • Newton’s Laws of Motion 28 • Work and Force 29 • Energy 29
• Energy Conversion 30 • Inertia 30 • Momentum 30 • Friction 31 • Mass, Weight, and Volume 31
• Torque 31 • Power 32 • Principles Involving Tires and Wheels in Motion 32
• Principles Involving the Balance of Wheels in Motion 34 • Principles Involving Liquids
and Gases 36 • Atmospheric Pressure 39 • Vacuum 40 • Venturi Principle 42
• Summary 42 • Terms to Know 42 • Review Questions 43 • Multiple Choice 43
Chapter 3 Wheel Bearings .45
• Introduction 45 • Bearing Loads 46 • Ball Bearings 46 • Roller Bearings 48 • Seals 50
• Wheel Bearings 51 • Rear-Axle Bearings 55 • Bearing Lubrication 56 • Summary 57
• Terms to Know 57 • Review Questions 57 • Multiple Choice 58
Chapter 4 Tires and Wheels 60
• Introduction 60 • Tire Design 61 • Tire Ply and Belt Design 63 • Tire Tread Design 64
• Tire Manufacturing Defects 64 • Tire Ratings and Sidewall Information 65 • Specialty Tires 68
• Replacement Tires 69 • Tire Valves 70 • Tire Chains 72 • Compact Spare Tires 72
• Run-Flat Tires 73 • Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems 75 • Tire Contact Area 79
• Tire Placard and Inflation Pressure 80 • Tire Motion Forces 81 • Wheel Rims 82
• Static Wheel Balance Teory 84 • Dynamic Wheel Balance Teory 86 • Noise, Vibration,
Harshness 87 • Terms to Know 91 • Summary 91 • Review Questions 92 • Multiple Choice 93
Chapter 5 Shock Absorbers and Struts 95
• Introduction 95 • Shock Absorber Design 95 • Shock Absorber Operation 96 • Gas-Filled Shock
Absorbers and Struts 98 • Heavy-Duty Shock Absorber Design 99 • Shock Absorber Ratios 100
• Strut Design, Front Suspension 100 • Shock Absorber and Strut Design, Rear Suspension 101
• Travel-Sensitive Strut 103 • Adjustable Struts 103 • Load-Leveling Shock Absorbers 104
• Electronically Controlled Shock Absorbers and Struts 105 • Summary 107 • Terms to Know 107
• Review Questions 107 • Multiple Choice 108
Chapter 6 Front Suspension Systems 110
• Introduction 110 • Suspension System Components 111 • Short-and-Long Arm Front Suspension
Systems 120 • MacPherson Strut Front Suspension System Design 125 • Modified MacPherson Strut
Suspension 130 • High-Performance Front Suspension Systems 130 • Torsion Bar Suspension 134
• Curb Riding Height 138 • Front Spring Sag, Curb Riding Height, and Caster Angle 138
• Spring Sag, Curb Riding Height, and Camber Angle 140 • Summary 141 • Terms to Know 141
• Review Questions 141 • Multiple Choice 142
Contents
Chapter 7 Rear Suspension Systems .144
• Introduction 144 • Live-Axle Rear Suspension Systems 144 • Semi-Independent Rear Suspension
Systems 150 • Independent Rear Suspension Systems 151 • Curb Riding Height 162
• Spring Sag, Curb Riding Height, and Caster Angle 163 • Summary 163 • Terms to Know 163
• Review Questions 164 • Multiple Choice 164
Chapter 8 Computer-Controlled Suspension Systems .166
• Introduction 167 • Programmed Ride Control System 167 • Electronic Air Suspension System
Components 171 • Electronic Air Suspension System Operation 181 • Air Suspension System
Design Variations 183 • Vehicle Dynamic Suspension System 184 • Electronic Suspension
Control (ESC) System 185 • Integrated Electronic Systems and Networks 193 • Vehicle Stability
Control 197 • Active Roll Control Systems 203 • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Systems 205
• Lane Departure Warning (LDW) Systems 205 • Collision Mitigation Systems 206 • Telematics 206
• Summary 208 • Terms to Know 208 • Review Questions 209 • Multiple Choice 210
Chapter 9 Steering Columns and Steering Linkage
Mechanisms . 212
• Introduction 212 • Conventional Nontilt Steering Column 214 • Tilt Steering Column 217
• Electronic Tilt/Telescoping Steering Column 219 • Active Steering Column 220 • Driver Protection
Module 221 • Steering Linkage Mechanisms 222 • Steering Damper 229 • Summary 230
• Terms to Know 230 • Review Questions 230 • Multiple Choice 231
Chapter 10 Power Steering Pumps 233
• Introduction 233 • Power Steering Pump Drive Belts 234 • Types of Power-Assisted Steering
Systems 235 • Power Steering Pump Design 238 • Power Steering Pump Operation 240
• Hybrid Vehicles and Power Steering Systems 241 • Hybrid Powertrain Components 242
• Various Types of HEVs 248 • Fuel Cell Vehicles 249 • Summary 250 • Terms to Know 250
• Review Questions 251 • Multiple Choice 252
Chapter 11 Recirculating Ball Steering Gears 253
• Introduction 253 • Manual Recirculating Ball Steering Gears 254 • Power Recirculating Ball
Steering Gears 256 • Summary 260 • Terms to Know 260 • Review Questions 260
• Multiple Choice 261
Chapter 12 Rack and Pinion Steering Gears .263
• Introduction 263 • Manual Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Main Components 264 • Steering Gear
Ratio 265 • Manual Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Mounting 265 • Advantages and Disadvantages
of Rack and Pinion Steering 265 • Power Rack and Pinion Steering Gears 266 • Types of Power
Rack and Pinion Steering Gears 270 • Electronic Variable Orifice Steering 273 • Saginaw Electronic
Variable Orifice Steering 275 • Rack-Drive Electronic Power Steering 277 • Electronic Power
Steering System Operation 279 • Column-Drive Electronic Power Steering 287 • Column-Drive
Electronic Power Steering Operation 289 • Pinion-Drive Electronic Power Steering 289
• Active Steering Systems 290 • Active Steering System Components 292 • Active Steering
Operation 294 • Power Steering System 294 • Steer-by-Wire Systems 296 • Summary 297
• Terms to Know 297 • Review Questions 298 • Multiple Choice 299
Chapter 13 Four-Wheel Steering Systems .301
• Introduction 301 • Electronically Controlled Four-Wheel Steering 302
• Input Sensors 304 • Four-Wheel Steering System Operation 304 • Quadrasteer Four-Wheel
Steering Systems 305 • Quadrasteer Four-Wheel Steering System Operation 312
• Rear Active Steering System 313 • Four-Wheel Active Steering (4WAS) 315
• Summary 318 • Terms to Know 318 • Review Questions 319 • Multiple Choice 320
Chapter 14 Frames and Frame Damage 321
• Introduction 321 • Types of Frames and Frame Construction 322 • Unitized Body Design 324
• Vehicle Directional Stability 325 • Vehicle Tracking 326 • Types of Frame Damage 327
• Summary 330 • Terms to Know 330 • Review Questions 331 • Multiple Choice 331
Chapter 15 Four Wheel Alignment, Part 1 .333
• Introduction 333 • Wheel Alignment Teory 334 • Importance of Four Wheel
Alignment 334 • Rear Wheel Alignment and Vehicle Tracking Problems 335 • Types of Wheel
Alignment 337 • Computer Alignment Systems 339 • Camber Fundamentals 345
• Driving Conditions Affecting Camber 346 • Caster Fundamentals 348 • Safety Factors
and Caster 352 • Steering Terminology 352 • Summary 353 • Terms to Know 353
• Review Questions 354 • Multiple Choice 355
Chapter 16 Four Wheel Alignment, Part 2 .357
• Introduction 357 • Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) Definition 358 • SAI Purpose 359
• SAI and Safety Factors 359 • Scrub Radius 360 • Wheel Setback 361 • Toe Definition 362
• Toe Setting for Front-Wheel-Drive and Rear-Wheel-Drive Vehicles 362 • Toe Adjustment
and Tire Wear 362 • Turning Radius 363 • Rear Wheel Alignment 365 • Summary 367
• Terms to Know 368 • Review Questions 368 • Multiple Choice 369
Glossary 371
Index 389
Photo Sequence Contents . ix
Job Sheets Contents xi
Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Safety 1
• Introduction 2 • Occupational Safety and Health Act 2 • Shop Hazards 2 • Shop Safety Rules 3
• Air Quality 5 • Shop Safety Equipment 6 • Shop Layout 9 • Safety in the Automotive Shop 10
• General Shop Safety 10 • Personal Safety 11 • Electrical Safety 13 • Gasoline Safety 13
• Fire Safety 14 • Vehicle Operation 15 • Housekeeping Safety 16 • Air Bag Safety 17
• Lifting and Carrying 19 • Hand Tool Safety 20 • Lift Safety 21 • Hydraulic Jack and Safety Stand
Safety 21 • Power Tool Safety 22 • Compressed-Air Equipment Safety 23 • Cleaning Equipment
Safety and Environmental Considerations 23 • Hazardous Waste Disposal 26 • Case Study 29
• Terms to Know 29 • Summary 30 • ASE-Style Review Questions 31
Chapter 2 Tools and Shop Procedures .39
• Using Suspension and Steering Equipment 39 • Measuring Systems 39 • Basic Diagnostic Procedure 41
• Suspension and Steering Tools 42 • Hydraulic Pressing and Lifting Equipment 55 • Suspension and
Steering Service, Diagnostic, and Measurement Tools 59 • Employer and Employee Obligations 70
• National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) Certification 72 • Service Manuals 74
• Case Study 80 • Terms to Know 81 • Summary 81 • ASE-Style Review Questions 82
Chapter 3 Wheel Bearing and Seal Service .89
• Diagnosis of Bearing Defects 89 • Service and Adjustment of Tapered Roller Bearing-Type Wheel
Bearings 90 • Wheel Hub Unit Diagnosis 97 • Front Drive Axle Diagnosis 99 • Drive Axle Removal 99
• Special Procedures for Drive Axle Removal 100 • Front Wheel Bearing Hub Unit Removal and
Replacement 102 • Rear-Axle Bearing and Seal Service, Rear-Wheel-Drive Cars 104 • Case Study 108
• Terms to Know 108 • ASE-Style Review Questions 108 • ASE Challenge Questions 110
Chapter 4 Tire and Wheel Servicing and Balancing .120
• Tire Noises and Steering Problems 120 • Tire Rotation 122 • Tire and Wheel Service 123
• Tire and Wheel Service Precautions 124 • Wheel Rim Service 130 • Tire Remounting Procedure 131
• Diagnosing and Servicing Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems 132 • Tire and Wheel Runout
Measurement 138 • Tread Wear Measurement 140 • Preliminary Wheel Balancing Checks 141
• Tire Inflation Pressure 142 • Static and Dynamic Wheel Balance Procedure 143 • Electronic Wheel
Balancers with Lateral Force Measurement (LFM) and Radial Force Variation Capabilities 145 •
On Car Wheel Balancing 149 • Vibration Diagnosis 150 • Case Study 156 • Terms to Know 156 •
ASE-Style Review Questions 157 • ASE Challenge Questions 158
Chapter 5 Shock Absorber and Strut Diagnosis and Service 171
• Shock Absorber Visual Inspection 171 • Shock Absorber or Strut Bounce Test 172
• Shock Absorber Manual Test 172 • Air Shock Absorber Diagnosis and Replacement 174 • Shock
Absorber Replacement 174 • Diagnosis of Front Spring and Strut Noise 174 • Strut Removal and
Replacement 176 • Removal of Strut from Coil Spring 177 • Strut Disposal Procedure 179
• Installation of Coil Spring on Strut 179 • Installation of Strut-and-Spring Assembly in Vehicle 181
• Rear Strut Replacement 183 • Installing Strut Cartridge, Off-Car 183 • Installing Strut Cartridge,
On-Car 184 • Diagnosis of Electronically Controlled Shock Absorbers 187 • Case Study 188
• Terms to Know 189 • ASE-Style Review Questions 189 • ASE Challenge Questions 190
Chapter 6 Front Suspension System Service 201
• Curb Riding Height Measurement 201 • Front Suspension Diagnosis and Service 202
• Control Arm Diagnosis and Service 213 • Removing and Replacing Longitudinally Mounted Torsion
Bars 222 • Case Study 224 • Terms to Know 224 • ASE-Style Review Questions 225 • ASE Challenge
Questions 226
Chapter 7 Rear Suspension Service 235
• Lower Control Arm and Ball Joint Diagnosis and Replacement • Rear Leaf-Spring Diagnosis and
Replacement 247 • Track Bar Diagnosis and Replacement 248 • Stabilizer Bar Diagnosis and
Service 248 • Rear Suspension Tie Rod Inspection and Replacement 250 • Case Study 250 • Terms
to Know 250 • ASE-Style Review Questions 251 • ASE Challenge Questions 252
Chapter 8 Computer-Controlled Suspension System Service .259
• Preliminary Inspection of Computer-Controlled Suspension Systems 259 • Programmed Ride
Control System Diagnosis 260 • Electronic Air Suspension Diagnosis and Service 261 • Servicing and
Diagnosing Vehicle Dynamic Suspension Systems 269 • Diagnosis of Electronic Suspension Control
Systems 274 • Scan Tool Diagnosis of Electronic Suspension Control 276 • Case Study 284 • Terms to
Know 285 • ASE-Style Review Questions 286 • ASE Challenge Questions 287
Chapter 9 Steering Column and Linkage Diagnosis and Service 295
• Air Bag Deployment Module, Steering Wheel, and Clock Spring Electrical Connector Removal and
Replacement 295 • Typical Procedure for Removing a Steering Wheel 298 • Steering Column Service 300
• Steering Column Removal and Replacement 300 • Collapsible Steering Column Inspection 301
• Tilt Steering Column Disassembly 302 • Tilt Steering Column Inspection and Parts Replacement 304
• Tilt Steering Column Assembly 305 • Steering Column Flexible Coupling and Universal Joint
Diagnosis and Service 307 • Steering Column Diagnosis 309 • Steering Linkage Diagnosis
and Service 313 • Case Study 321 • Terms to Know 321• ASE-Style Review Questions 321 • ASE
Challenge Questions 322
Chapter 10 Power Steering Pump Diagnosis and Service 335
• Power Steering Pump Belt Service 335 • Power Steering Pump Fluid Service 338 • Power Steering
Pump Diagnosis 340 • Power Steering Pump Service 345 • Inspecting and Servicing Power Steering
Lines and Hoses 348 • Power Steering Hose Replacement 349 • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and
Electrohydraulic Power Steering (EHPS) Diagnosing and Servicing Procedures 350 • Case Study 358
• Terms to Know 358 • ASE-Style Review Questions 358 • ASE Challenge Questions 359
Chapter 11 Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Diagnosis
and Service 369
• Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Diagnosis 369 • Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear
Replacement 370 • Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Adjustments 371 • Power Recirculating
Ball Steering Gear Oil Leak Diagnosis 375 • Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Seal
Replacement 375 • Case Study 378 • Terms to Know 378 • ASE-Style Review Questions 378
• ASE Challenge Questions 379
Chapter 12 Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Diagnosis
and Service 387
• Manual or Power Rack and Pinion Steering Gear On-Car Inspection 387 • Manual or Power Rack
and Pinion Steering Gear Removal and Replacement 389 • Manual Rack and Pinion Steering Gear
Diagnosis and Service 395 • Diagnosis of Power Steering, Steering Column, and Suspension
Systems 407 • Diagnosis of Magnasteer Systems 408 • Diagnosis of Rack-Drive Electronic Power
Steering 409 • Diagnosis of Column-Drive Electronic Power Steering 411 • Active Steering System
Preliminary Diagnosis 414 • Case Study 417 • Terms to Know 417 • ASE-Style Review Questions 418
• ASE Challenge Questions 419
Chapter 13 Electronic Four-Wheel Steering Diagnosis
and Service 432
• Preliminary Inspection 432 • Quadrasteer Diagnosis 434 • Electronically Controlled Four-Wheel
Steering Diagnosis 437 • Rear Steering Actuator Service 439 • Diagnosis of Four-Wheel Active
Steering (4WAS) System 446 • Case Study 451 • Terms to Know 451 • ASE-Style Review
Questions 452 • ASE Challenge Questions 453
Chapter 14 Frame Diagnosis and Service .461
• Indications of Frame Damage 461 • Frame Diagnosis 461 • Checking Frame Alignment 462
• Measuring Unitized Body Alignment 468 • Case Study 474 • Terms to Know 474 • ASE-Style
Review Questions 475 • ASE Challenge Questions 476
Chapter 15 Four Wheel Alignment Procedure 485
• Wheel Alignment Preliminary Diagnosis and Inspection 485 • Four Wheel Alignment with
Computer Alignment Systems 491 • Wheel Alignment Screens 497 • Adjustment Screens 502
• Diagnostic Drawing and Text Screens 506 • Checking Toe Change and Steering Linkage
Height 508 • Bent Front Strut Diagnosis 510 • Case Study 511 • Terms to Know 511• ASE-Style
Review Questions 512 • ASE Challenge Questions 513
Chapter 16 Four Wheel Alignment Adjustments 523
• Wheel Alignment Procedure 523 • Camber Adjustment 524 • Caster Adjustment Procedure 531
• Setback Measurement and Correction Procedure 534 • Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) Correction
Procedure 537 • Toe Adjustment 537 • Manual Steering Wheel Centering Procedure 539 • Causes
of Improper Rear Wheel Alignment 541 • Rear Suspension Adjustments 541 • Rear Wheel Tracking
Measurement with a Track Gauge 547 • Case Study 552 • Terms to Know 554 • ASE-Style Review
Questions 555 • ASE Challenge Questions 556
Appendix A ASE Practice Examination .566
Appendix B Metric Conversions .572
Appendix C Automotive Suspension and Steering Systems
Special Tool Suppliers . 573
Appendix D Manufacturer Websites 574
Appendix E Suspension and Steering Professional Associations .575
Glossary 576
Index 5871.
Typical Procedure for Removing Air Bag Module .18
2. Typical Procedure for Performing Four Wheel Alignment with
a Computer Wheel Aligner 69
3. Typical Procedure for Adjusting Rear Wheel Bearings on
a Front-Wheel-Drive Car 96
4. Typical Procedure for Measuring Front Wheel Hub Endplay—Integral,
Sealed Wheel Bearing Hub Assemblies 98
5. Typical Procedure for Dismounting and Mounting a Tire on a Wheel Assembly 133
6. Typical Off-Car Wheel Balancing Procedure . 146
7. Rear Shock Absorber Visual Inspection and Bounce Test 173
8. Typical Procedure for Removing and Replacing a MacPherson Strut. 182
9. Vertical Ball Joint Measurement 206
10. Typical Procedure for Measuring the Lower Ball Joint Horizontal Movement
on a MacPherson Strut Front Suspension 208
11. Typical Procedure for Measuring Front and Rear Curb Riding Height . 238
12. Typical Procedure for Removing a Rear Strut-and-Spring Assembly on
a Front-Wheel-Drive Car 243
13. Inflate L/H Front Air Spring Using a Scan Tool . 266
14. Reading Scan Tool Data on an Electronic Suspension Control System . 279
15. Typical Procedure for Removing a Steering Wheel 298
16. Diagnosing, Removing, and Replacing an Outer Tie-Rod End on a Vehicle
with a Parallelogram Steering Linkage . 316
17. Typical Procedure for Pressure Testing a Power Steering Pump . 344
18. Observing Safety Precautions When Servicing Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) 357
19. Typical Procedure for Performing a Worm Shaft Bearing
Preload Adjustment . 373
20. Pitman Sector Shaft Lash Adjustment . 375
21. Typical Procedure for Removing and Replacing a Power Rack and Pinion
Steering Gear 393
22. Typical Procedure for Removing and Replacing Inner Tie-Rod End,
Power Rack, and Pinion Steering Gear 406
23. Preliminary Inspection, Four-Wheel Steering Diagnosis . 433
24. Typical Procedure for Diagnosing an Electronically Controlled
Four-Wheel Steering System . 447
25. Typical Procedure for Performing Frame Measurement, Plumb Bob Method . 465
26. Performing Underhood Measurements 472
27. Typical Procedure for Performing Four-Wheel Alignment with a Computer
Wheel Aligner 498
28. Typical Procedure for Front Wheel Turning Radius Measurement 503
29. Typical Procedure for Adjusting Rear Wheel Camber and Toe . 544
30. Typical Procedure for Performing Front and Rear Suspension
Alignment Adjustments . 548
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