Automotive Engineering

Automotive Engineering
اسم المؤلف
David A. Crolla
التاريخ
29 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Automotive Engineering
Powertrain, Chassis System and Vehicle Body
Edited by David A. Crolla
Contents
Section 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINE DESIGN 1
1.1 Piston-engines cycles of operation . 3
Section 2 ENGINE TESTING 19
2.1 Measurement of torque, power, speed and fuel consumption; acceptance
and type tests, accuracy of the measurements . 21
Section 3 ENGINE EMISSIONS 51
3.1 Emissions control 53
Section 4 DIGITAL ENGINE CONTROL 75
4.1 Digital engine control systems 77
Section 5 TRANSMISSIONS . 105
5.1 Transmissions and driveline . 107
Section 6 ELECTRIC VEHICLES 141
6.1 Battery/fuel-cell EV design packages . 143
Section 7 HYBRID VEHICLES 173
7.1 Hybrid vehicle design 175
Section 8 SUSPENSIONS . 203
8.1 Types of suspension and drive 205
Section 9 STEERING 255
9.1 Steering 257
Section 10 TYRES . 283
10.1 Tyres and wheels . 285
Section 11 HANDLING 323
11.1 Tyre characteristics and vehicle handling and stability 325
Section 12 BRAKES 359
12.1 Braking systems . 361
vSection 13 VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS . 391
13.1 Vehicle motion control . 393
Section 14 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS . 417
14.1 Global positioning technology . 419
14.2 Decisional architecture . 437
Section 15 VEHICLE MODELLING . 473
15.1 Modelling and assembly of the full vehicle . 475
Section 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN . 525
16.1 Terminology and overview of vehicle structure types . 527
16.2 Standard sedan (saloon) – baseline load paths 542
Section 17 VEHICLE SAFETY . 567
17.1 Vehicle safety 569
Section 18 MATERIALS . 591
18.1 Design and material utilization . 593
18.2 Materials for consideration and use in automotive body structures 632
Section 19 AERODYNAMICS . 661
19.1 Body design: aerodynamics . 663
Section 20 REFINEMENT 673
20.1 Vehicle refinement: purpose and targets . 675
Section 21 INTERIOR NOISE . 685
21.1 Interior noise: assessment and control 687
Section 22 EXTERIOR NOISE . 737
22.1 Exterior noise: assessment and control 739
Section 23 INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMATICS 783
23.1 Automotive instrumentation and telematics . 785
Index . 8
Index
4-bar linkage, 276, 277
4Ws configuration, 414–15
99MY cars, 678–9
A/D converter, 787–8
AC Delco:
crankcase ventilation control valve, 61, 62
gulp valve, 62
AC drives, 159–61
Accelerometers, 427
Accord, 235
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 655
Active safety, 577–8, 584
Active suspension system, 409–10
ADAMS/Driver, 506
Adaptive controllers, 508–9
Adhesion utilization, 365, 371, 375–7
Advanced cruise control, 402–4
Advanced hybrid bus, 198–200
Advanced hybrid truck, 200
Advanced PM motor system, 181, 182
Aerodynamic drag, 369–70
Aerodynamic forces, 663–4
Aerodynamic noise, 665, 707–8
Air brake dynamometers, 30
Air conditioning system, 167, 587
Air injection, 62
Air intake control valve, 63
Air management valves, 62–3
functions, 63–4
Air suspension system, 413
Airborne tyre noise, 687, 688, 690–1
controlling, 780
measurement, 779–80
road surface influence on, 779
sources, 777–9
Air-pumping noise, 777
Akroyd-Stuart, Herbert, 12
Alfa Romeo, 224
Alloy wheels, 302, 303
Almanac data, 422
Alternative body architecture, 612
ASF aluminium spaceframe, 616–20
hybrid material designs, examples, 620
pressed aluminium spaceframes, examples of, 615–16
pressed spaceframe concept, 614–15
unitary aluminium body, 612–14
Aluminium, 651–2
alloys for use, in body structures, 653–4
production process, 652
Aluminium intensive vehicle (AIV), 540
Aluminium metal matrix composites (MMCs), 385, 386
American Budd Company, 595
American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 16, 804
Annular type rubber coupling, 46
Antenna, 428
Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), 574
Anti-lock braking system, 388, 404–9
Anti-roll bars, 486–8, 489, 490
APINEX software, 769
Aquaplaning, 309–10, 577–8
Ariadne’s Clew algorithm, 467
Articulation index (AI), 683
Aston Martin Vanquish, 620
Asynchronous/a.c. dynamometers, 29
ATLANTIS architectures, 444
Audi, 250
Audi, 6
McPherson front axle on, 237
torsion crank axle on, 239
twist-beam suspension of, 238
Audi, 80, 232, 303
Audi, 100, 232, 617
Audi A2, 537, 619
Audi A3, 221
Audi A4, 234
Audi A4 Quattro, 248
Audi A6, 207, 238, 239
Audi A8, 617, 618
Audi Quattro hybrid, 181, 183
Augmented finite state machine (AFSM), 440
AuRA architecture, 442–3
Austin A30, 597, 599
Austin-Rover design, 60
Auto Union racing car, 534
Autocorrelation function, 729
Automated manual transmission, 120–1
Automatic braking, 586
Automatic system adjustment, 95
Automatic transmission control, 98–9
Automatic Transmission Control Unit (ATCU), 128–30
Automatic transmissions (AT), 107, 121
ATCU, 128–30
epicyclic gear set, 125–6
hydrokinetic torque converter, 122
fluid converter, 123–4
fluid couplings, 123
torque converter, 124–5
jatco JF506E, 121–2
JF 506E AT operation, 126–8
shift strategy, 128
Autonomous GPS positioning, 423
Autonomous navigation systems, 433–4
Auxiliary vehicle systems, 167
Axle cornering characteristics, 328–33Axle cornering characteristics (continued)
construction at load transfer, 332–3
effective axle cornering stiffness, 329–31
effective non-linear axle characteristics, 331–2
Axle differential lock, 245
Axle lock effect, on vehicle stability, 377–9
‘Backbone’chassis structure, 534, 535
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), 639
Battery car conversion technology, 151
conversion case study, 151–3
motor control alternatives, 153–4
Beam, definition of, 799
Bedford vehicles, 155
Behavioural based architectures, 439
Bending stiffness, 528
Big-end, 4
‘Birdcage’ frame, see Perimeter space frame
BIW (body-in-white) structure, 594, 602
Black smoke, 70, 73
BMW 328 Roadster, 596
BMW passenger car, 271
BMW Roadster Z3, 227
Body design:
aerodynamic forces, 663–4
cabin ventilation, 669–70
computational fluid dynamics, 671
drag force, 664–5
drag reduction, 665–7
noise, 668–9
stability and cross-winds, 668
underhood ventilation, 669
wind tunnel testing, 670–1
Body slip angle control, 512, 513, 514
Body structures, materials used in, 632
aluminium, 651
alloys for use, 653–4
production process, 652
magnesium, 654–5
material candidates and selection criteria, 633–7
consistency, 637
steel, 637–51
polymers and composites:
advanced composites, 657
processing, 656–7
thermoplastics, 655
thermosets, 656
ratings and main criteria, 636
‘Bolt-on’ variable fill machines, 27
Bottom dead centre (BDC), 4
Bradshaw envirovan, 167–8
Brake by wire, 388
Brake booster, 363
Brake creep-groan, 708
Brake judder, 708
Brake mean effective pressure (bmep), 749
Brake moan, 708
Brake noise, 708–9
Brake pressure modulating mechanism, 407–8
Brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc), 748
Brake squeal, 708–9
Brake system layouts, 364
Brakes, 585–6
Braking (longitudinal) loads, 562
dash panel, 563
floor panel, 564–5
front parcel shelf, 563–4
inner wing panels, 563
panel behind rear seat, 564
rear parcel shelf, 564
rear quarter panels, 564
transverse floor beam, 564
Braking force, 406, 409
Braking of full vehicle, 493
Braking systems, 361
anti-lock braking systems, 388
brake by wire, 388
brake proportioning and adhesion utilization, 371
adhesion utilization, 375–7
axle lock effect, on vehicle stability, 377–9
braking efficiency, 374–5
constant brake ratio, braking with, 372–4
pitch motion, of vehicle body, 379–80
static analysis, 371–2
variable braking ratio, braking with, 380–3
wheel locking, 377
components and configurations, 363
brake booster, 363
brake system layouts, 364
foundation brakes, 363–4
master cylinder, 363
pedal assembly, 363
regulating valves, 363
driver behaviour, 387–8
functions and conditions of, 361–2
fundamentals:
kinematics, 366–8
kinetics, 368–70
tyre–road friction, 370–1
legislation, 364–6
materials design:
alternative rotor materials, 385–6
cast iron rotor metallurgy, 384–5
disc materials/design evaluation, 386–7
material requirements, 384
system design methodology, 362–3
traction control systems, 388
Braking time, 367
Braking vehicle:
free body diagram, 369
kinematics, 366–8
kinetics, 368–70
Breather systems, 139
Broadband white noise, 717
‘Bucket-and-hole’ analogy, 386
C10 proposal, 157
Cabin ventilation, 669–70
Index
810Calibration arm, 22
Canister purge systems, 65–7
Canonical trajectories, 458, 461–2
Car-like vehicles, motion planning for, 456
Car-trailer combination, 354–7
Carbon–carbon composites, 385
Carbon dioxide (CO2), 53
Carbon monoxide (CO), 53, 70
Carrier-phase GPS, 427
Cast iron rotor metallurgy, 384–5
Caster offset, 318–19
Catalyst support, for emissions control, 57
Catalytic conversion, 56
metallic monoliths for, 57–9
Cathode ray tube (CRT), 798
CAN network, 804–5
scan circuits, 800–4
Cell cranking system, 33
Centre differential lock, 240
Ceramic and metal monoliths, properties of, 59
Chevrolet Corvette, 223
Chopper operation, 153
Circumferential force coefficient, 308
Citroen Berlingo Dynavolt, 162
Civic Shuttle 4WD, 252
Clearance volume, 4, 17
Clerk, Dugald, 12
Clerk engine, see Two-stroke-cycle diesel engine
Clock correction subframe, 421
Closed-bottom canisters, 65–6
Closed-loop control system, 82–4, 88
Closed-loop ignition timing, 90–3
Closed loop steering input, 504, 505
Clutch, 119–20
CNG-electric hybrid, 196–8
Coefficients of friction and slip, 312–13
‘Cognizant failure’, 444
Commercial vehicle, requirements for, 286
Complex stiffness method, 692–3
Complex valve arrangements, 63–5
Compression stroke:
C.I. engines, 10
S.I. engines, 5
Compression-ignition (C.I.) engines, 10–12
and spark-ignition (S.I.) engines comparison of, 14–15
Compression-ratio, 17
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 492, 671
Computer-aided designing (CAD) systems, 599, 632
Computer-based instrumentation, 786, 790–1
‘Concept suspension’, 482–4
Conicity force, 306
Connecting-rod, 4
Consistency, 637
Constant brake ratio, braking with, 372–4
Constant fill machines, 27
Continental tyre designs, 300
Continuous annealing, 641–3
Continuous casting, 640–1, 642
Continuous-curvature car, 467–9
collision-free path planning, 468
optimal paths, 468
reachable configuration space, 468
vs. Reeds and Shepp car, 469
Continuously variable transmission (CVT), 108, 130
hydraulic transmissions, 131–2
rationale for, 130–1
toroidal transmission, 135–6
traction drive designs, 134–5
variable pulley transmissions, 133–4
variable pulley variator designs, 132–4
Contre Pente (CP) rim, 301
Control Area Network (CAN) network, 804–5
Coolant temperature measurement, 792, 793
Coordinate systems, 423
Copper, in emission control, 71–2
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) legislation, 56
Correlator/data processor, 429
Co-simulation, 509
Cost analysis, 628–30
Coupling shafts, design of, 40–1
Crank axle, 213
Crank-throw, 4
Crankcase, 3, 7
disc-valve and reed-valve inlet charge control, 8–9
emission control, 61, 62
Crankshaft, 3, 4, 17
Crankshaft journals, 4
Crash testing, 569–73
Critical damping, 396
Cross-flow scavenging, 7
Cross-section ratio H/W, 314
Cross-winds, 668
CRT controller, 801
Cruciform bracing, 532
Cruise control system, 393
configuration, 394
digital cruise control, 397–8
electronics, 399
advanced cruise control, 402–4
stepper motor-based actuator, 400–1
vacuum-operated actuator, 401–2
speed performance, 395
speed response curves, 396–7
throttle actuator, 398–9
Curtain bags, 579
Cycab, 448, 454
Cylinder block, 3
Cylinder bore, 5
Cylinder head, 3
D.c. dynamometers, 29
D/A converter, 787, 788
DAF Variomatic, 132
Daimler, Gottlieb, 5
Daimler-Benz OE 305 city bus conversions, 196–8
Damping energy ratio, 43–4
Damping ratio, 341, 396
Dash, 549
Index
Data demultiplexer, 790
Data multiplexer, 789
Dead reckoning (DR), 426
Dead weights, 24
Decelerating vehicle, 372
Deceleration rise time, 367
Deceleration time history, characteristics of, 367
Deceleration-sensitive pressure limiting valve, 380–2
Deceleration-sensitive pressure modulating valve, 382–3
Deceleration-sensitive pressure regulating valve, 363
Decisional architecture, 437
car-like vehicles, motion planning for, 456
case study, 458
nonholonomic path planning, 464–5
solution algorithm, 461–4
and state-time space, 457–8
trajectory planning, 457
experimental results:
experimental vehicles, 454
parallel parking manoeuvre, experimental run of, 455–6
platooning manoeuvre, experimental run of, 456
trajectory following manoeuvre experimental run,
454–5
robot control architecture and motion autonomy, 438
definitions and taxonomy, 438
deliberative architectures, 439–8
hybrid architectures, 441–6
reactive architectures, 439–41
sharp control and decisional architecture, 447
overview, 447–9
parallel parking, 451–3
platooning, 453–4
reactive trajectory, 449–51
Decisional layer, 445
Deliberative architectures, 438–9
Deliberative-based hybrid architectures, 441–2
Demultiplexing (DEMUX), 788–9
Department of Transportation (DOT), 285
Design and material utilization, 593
alternative body architecture, 612
ASF aluminium spaceframe, 616–20
hybrid material designs, examples, 620
pressed aluminium spaceframes, examples of, 625–16
pressed spaceframe concept, 614
unitary aluminium body, 612–14
BMW approach, to current design, 603
crashworthiness, 604
product requirements, 603
static stiffness design, 603–4
structural dynamics, 603
weight efficiency, 604–7
cost analysis, 628–30
fatigue, 610–12
finite element analysis, 599–603
historical perspective and evolving materials technology,
593–4
body-on-chassis and unitary architecture, distinction
between, 594–5
body zones and terminology, 594
early materials and subsequent changes, 595–9
materials integration into designs, 620–1
sandwich materials, 625–7
tailor welded blanks, 624–5
tube hydroforming, 621–4
panel dent resistance and stiffness testing, 607–10
plastic and composite components, engineering requirements
for, 627–8
‘Design point’, 124
Diagnostics, automotive, 807
Diagonal ply tyres, 287
Dieffenbach, 628, 630
Diesel, Rudolf, 12
Diesel engine emissions, 67
Diesel-engine road vehicle (DERV), 10
Diesel engines vs. petrol engines, 14–15
Diesel exhaust emissions, fuel quality influence on, 72
Differential GPS positioning (DGPS), 424–5
Differential pressure sensor (DPS), 87
Differentials, 139
Digital cruise control, 397–8
Digital engine control, 77–8
EGR control, 86–7
electronic ignition control, 88–90
closed-loop ignition timing, 90–3
SA correction scheme, 93–4
features, 78–9
fuel control, control modes for, 79–81, 95–7
acceleration enrichment, 84–5
closed-loop control, 82–4
deceleration leaning, 85
engine crank, 81
idle speed control, 85–6
open-loop control, 82
warm-up mode, 81–2
improvements in, 97
automatic transmission control, 98–9
fuel injection timing, 98
HV powertrain control, 99–103
integrated engine control system, 97
oxygen sensor, 97–8
torque converter lock-up control, 99
traction control, 99
integrated engine control system, 94
automatic system adjustment, 95
evaporative emissions canister purge, 94–5
secondary air management, 94
system diagnosis, 95
variable valve timing control, 87–8
Digital speed measurement system, 398
Digital speed sensor, 398
Dimensions, of tyre, 293, 295–6
DIN (Deutsches Institut fu¨r Normung) Standards, 285
DIN 70023, 270
DIN 75020, 297
Dipole antennas, 428
Directional profiles (TS770), 299
Disc brakes, 363, 364
Disc dynamometers, 27–8
Index
812Disc materials/design evaluation, 386–7
Displacement method, 601
Display devices, 794–5
Distributorless ignition system (DIS), 89, 90
Double-hump sheet metal disc-type wheel, 303
‘Double offset’, 109
Double wishbone suspensions, 208–10, 237, 278–80
Downconverter, 428–9
Drag force, 664–5
Drag reduction, 665–7
‘Drive-by-wire’ system, 166
Driveability, 131
Driven front axles, 237–8
Driven rear axles, 226–7
Driver behaviour, 387–8, 505
body slip angle control, 512, 513, 514
path following controller model, 509–12
steering controllers, 506–9
two-loop driver model, 513, 514
Driver reaction time, 367
Drivetrain drag, 370
Drum brakes, 363–4
Dry gap machines, 30
Dry roads, 309, 313–14, 319
Du Pont laminar barrier technology, 61
‘Dual control’, 509
Dual hybrid system, 185, 186
Dual joint, 209
Dummies, 575–6
Dyna Panhard, 596
Dynamic braking, 100
Dynamic constraints, 457, 459
‘Dynamic Index’, 477
Dynamic magnifier, 44
Dynamic traffic routing, 435
Dynamometer:
choice, 27, 34–5
classification, 27–30
hybrid and tandem dynamometers, 30–1
operating quadrants, 31
coupling engine to, 35
background reading, 36
conventional ‘cardan shaft’, 42
coupling shafts, design of, 40–1
damping, 42–4
drive shaft design, 44–8
elastomeric element couplings, 42
engine to dynamometer coupling, 48
flywheels, 48–9
multiple membrane couplings, 42
notation, 49–50
problem, 36
Quill shaft with integral flanges and rigid couplings, 42
Quill shaft with toothed/gear type couplings, 42
shaft whirl, 41–2
stress concentrations, keyways and keyless hub
connection, 41
torsional oscillations and critical speeds, 36–40
engine and dynamometer characteristics, matching,
31–3
engine starting and cranking, 33–4
rotational speed, 26
Earth-centered, Earth-fixed (ECEF) Cartesian coordinate
system, 423
EC Council directive 75/443, 298
EC directive 92/23/EC, 285
EC noise homologation, 740–1
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Regulation, 365
Ecostar, 165–7
Eddy-current dynamometers, 29–30
EEC Braking Directive, 376
EEC Council Directive 71/320/EEC, 372
EEC Directives, 365
Electric batteries:
advanced lead–acid, 143–4
flywheel energy storage, 151
lithium–ion batteries, 149
nickel–metal hydride alkaline battery, 146
sodium chloride/nickel, 146–8
sodium–sulphur battery, 145–6
solar cells, 148–9
super capacitors, 149–51
Electric power assisted steering, 585
Electric vehicle (EV) design packages, 143
battery car conversion technology, 151
conversion case study, 151–3
motor control alternatives, 153–4
contemporary electric car technology, 157
AC drives, 159–61
General Motors ‘EVl’, 158–9
Honda EV, 157–8
Lithium-ion battery power, 161
development history, 155–7
electric batteries:
advanced lead–acid, 143–4
flywheel energy storage, 151
lithium–ion batteries, 149
nickel–metal hydride alkaline battery, 146
sodium chloride/nickel, 146–8
sodium–sulphur battery, 145–6
solar cells, 148–9
super capacitors, 149–51
electric van and truck design:
Bradshaw envirovan, 167–8
Ford ecostar, 165–7
Ford EXT, 11, 162–4
Goods van to fleet car conversion, 162
thyristor control, 165
UK EVA practice for CVS, 164
fuel-cell powered vehicles:
Ford P2000, 170
General Motors Zafira projects, 168–70
liquid hydrogen/fuel reformation, 170, 171
prototype fuel-cell car, 170–1
Electrical motor-based dynamometers, 28–30
Electrical power steering systems, 268–70
Index
813Electrically actuated air-control valve, 65
Electro-discharge texturing (EDT), 646
Electro-hydraulic power steering systems, 267–8
Electron gun, 799
Electronic control system, 60
Electronic control systems, 585
Electronic differential lock, 246
Electronic engine control system, 78
Electronic flight information system (EFIS), 805
Electronic ignition control, 88–90
closed-loop ignition timing, 90–3
SA correction scheme, 93–4
Electronic steering control, 414–15
Electronic suspension system, 409–12
classes, 409–10
control system, 413–14
variable damping via variable strut fluid viscosity, 412–13
variable spring rate, 413
Electronic traction system (ETS), 246
Emicat, 58
Emissions control, 54
air injection and gulp valve, 62
air management valves, 62–3
black smoke, 73
carbon monoxide, 70
catalyst support, 57
catalytic conversion, 56
catalytic converters, metallic monoliths for, 57–9
complex valve arrangements, 63–5
conflicting requirements, 67–8
crankcase emission control, 61, 62
diesel engine emissions, 67
diesel exhaust emissions, influence of fuel quality on, 72
early measures for, 54
electronic control system, 60
evaporative emissions, 60–1
Ford exhaust gas ignition system, for preheating
catalysts, 59
oxides of nitrogen, 68–9
particle traps, 71–2
particulates, 70–1
three-way conversion, 59–60
two-way catalytic conversion, 56–7
unburnt hydrocarbons, 69–70
US Federal test procedures, evolution of, 54–6
vapour collection and canister purge systems, 65–7
warm-air intake systems, 60
white smoke, 73
Emitec, 58
Energy source, braking systems as, 362
Engine crank, 81
Engine cylinder capacity, 16–17
Engine force constraint, 459
Engine noise, 703
combustion noise, 703–4
engine speed and load on noise, 705
measurement, 705
mechanical noise, 704–5
noise source ranking techniques, 705–6
Engine power, 15–16,
Engine-radiated noise targets, 681
Engine torque, 15
Enhanced client-assisted GPS positioning, 426
Envirovan, 167–8
Epicyclic gear set, 125–6
Equivalent roll stiffness model, 479–81
European Tyre and Rim Technical Organization (ETRTO),
285, 290, 294
Evaporative emissions, 60–1
Evaporative emissions canister purge, 94–5
Evl, 158–9
Excrescence drag, 664
Execution control layer, 445
Exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, see Ford, exhaust gas
ignition system
Exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor, 79, 84, 97–8
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), 55–6, 69, 78
control systems, 86–7
Exhaust stroke:
C.I. engines, 10–11
S.I. engines, 5
Exhaust systems, 746
exhaust noise control, 773–7, 778
exhaust noise sources, 759–62, 763
flow duct acoustics, 762–9
improved engine performance, design for, 748–59
Exhaust tailpipe-radiated noise targets, 681
Experimental modal analysis (EMA), 602
Experimental vehicles, 454
Extended Enterprise, 677, 679
Exterior noise:
airborne tyre noise, 777
controlling, 780
measurement, 779–80
road surface influence on, 779
sources, 777–9
exhaust systems, 746
exhaust noise control, 773–7, 778
exhaust noise sources, 759–62, 763
flow duct acoustics, 762–9
improved engine performance, design for, 748–59
intake systems, 746
design, issues in, 746
designer, 746–7
flow duct acoustics, 762–9
improved engine performance, design for, 748–59
intake noise, 746
intake noise control, 769–73
intake noise sources, 759–62, 763
principal components, 747
snorkel and filter box dimensions, 747–8
snorkel orifice location, 747
noise source ranking, 743
using shielding techniques, 744–5
pass-by noise homologation, 739
EC noise homologation, 740–1
future developments, 742
homologation noise limits, 742–3, 744
Index
814track and atmospheric effects, 741–2
in US and outside EC, 742
valve and port geometry, 780
F1 McLaren production, 657
Fahy’s equation, 722
Far field, 695
Fatigue, 610–12
Faux sedan, 555–7
Ferrari, 120, 534
Ferrari 360 Modena, 616
Fiat Campagnolo, 244
Fiat hybrid bus, 194–6
Fiat Panda, 239, 243, 247
Finite element analysis (FEA), 386, 387, 599–603
Finite-element analysis system (FAST), 602
Flake graphite iron, 384
Flanking transmission, 719
Flat hump (FH) rim, 301
Flat-panel display, 799
Flexing, 287
Flow resistivity, 712–13
Flow separation, 665
Flywheel energy storage, 151
Flywheel motor/generator, 185–7
Force coefficient, 316–17
Force-vector method, see Complex stiffness method
Forced linear vibrations, 341–3
Ford, 60
e-Ka, 161
Ecostar, 165–7
exhaust gas ignition system, 59
EXT 11 project, 162–4
finite element analysis, 602
P2000 fuel cell platform, 170
Ford Escort Express delivery vehicle, 220
Ford Focus, 213
Ford Werke AG, 217
Form drag, 664
Foundation brakes, 362, 363–4
Four-bar twist beam axle, 207
Four-stage stop simulation, 368
Four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition (diesel) engine,
10–12
Four-stroke-cycle petrol engines, 5, 6
and two-stroke-cycle petrol engine, comparison of, 9–10
Four-wheel drive, 240
advantages, 242–3
basic passenger car with front-wheel drive, 250–2
basic standard design passenger car, 252–3
disadvantages, 243, 245–6
Golf4motion, 245
manual selection, on commercial and all-terrain vehicles,
249–50
varieties, 253, 254
vehicles with overdrive, 246–9
Four-wheel steer system, 586
Free linear motions, 340–1
Frequency response function, 343, 730
Friction dynamometers, 30
Front and rear inner fenders, 548–9
Front axle lock, 371, 377, 378
Front-mounted engine, rear-mounted drive design, 224
advantages, 225
disadvantages, 225
driven rear axles, 226–7
non-driven front axles, 225–6
Front-wheel drive, 231
advantages, 235
design types, 231–4
disadvantages, 235–7
driven front axles, 237–8
non-driven rear axles, 238
independent wheel suspension, 240
rigid axle, 240
twist-beam suspension, 238, 240
Front-wheel drive vehicles, 322
Front-wheel-drive manual gearbox, 115, 116
Front-wheel-drive passenger car gearbox, 114–15
Front wheel lock, 371
Fuel-cell powered vehicles:
Ford P2000, 170
General motors Zafira projects, 168–70
liquid hydrogen/fuel reformation, 170, 171
prototype fuel-cell car, 170–1
Fuel consumption and NOx emissions, relationship between, 69
Fuel control modes, 79–81, 95–7
acceleration enrichment, 84–5
closed-loop control, 82–4
deceleration leaning, 85
engine crank, 81
idle speed control, 85–6
open-loop control, 82
warm-up mode, 81–2
Full electro-mechanical system, 388
Fuel injection timing, 98
Full matrix method, see Matrix inversion method
Fuel quantity measurement, 791–2
Fuel quantity sensor, 791
Fuel reformation, 170, 171
Fuel tank pressure control valve, 67
Full vehicle, modelling and assembly of, 475
aerodynamic effects, 491–2
anti-roll bars, 486–8
comparison of full vehicle handling models, case study,
513–23
driveline components, 498–500
driver behaviour, 505
body slip angle control, 512, 513, 514
path following controller model, 509–12
steering controllers, 506–9
two-loop driver model, 513, 514
equivalent roll stiffness model, roll stiffness determination
for, 488–91
measured outputs, 477–8
modelling traction, 497–8
springs and dampers:
leaf springs, 485–6
Index
815Full vehicle, modelling and assembly of (continued)
simple models, treatment in, 484–5
steering system, 500–5
suspension system representation, 478–9
concept suspension approach, 482–4
equivalent roll stiffness model, 479–81
linkage model, 481–2
lumped mass mode, 479
swing arm model, 481
vehicle body, 475–7
vehicle braking, 492–7
Functional layer, 445
Fuzzy logic, 507
Gain scheduling, 508
Gas-inflated bags, 578, 582
Gas turbine hybrid taxi, 182–5
Gasoline engines, 705, 748, 759
Gaussian distribution, 728
Gear ratios, 98–9, 111, 119
Gearchange mechanism, 139–40
Gearchanging and synchromesh, 115–19
General Motors (GM), 59, 60, 574
emissions from, 54, 56
EVl, 158–9
Zafira projects, 168–70
Geometric near field, 695
German Deutsch Industrie Normale (DIN), 16
Germany:
DIN Standards, 285
WdK Guidelines, 285–6
GKN Automotive:
front-wheel output shaft of, 233
velocity sliding joints by, 216
GKN–Birfield AG, 208
Glass cockpit, 805
Glass mat thermoplastic (GMT), 656
Global Alternative Propulsion Centre (GAPC), 168, 169
Global Outstanding Assessment (GOA), 190
Global positioning technology, 419
applications, 432
basic positioning, 432–4
location-based services, 434–5
GPS receiver technology, 427
components, 428–9
performance considerations, 431–2
solutions, 429–31
history, 419–20
NAVSTAR GPS system, 420
characteristics, 420–1
navigation message, 421–2
satellite-based positioning:
basic science, 422
positioning techniques, 423–7
Gold code, 429
Golf 4motion, four-wheel-drive, 245
Grey cast iron (GI), 384, 385
Grillage, 528–9, 557
Gudgeon-pin, 4
Gulp valve, 62
Gyroscope, 427
Haldex, 246
Handheld GPS system, 432–3
Handling of car, 409, 410, 411
Harmonic components, 37, 38
Head Impact Test System (HITS), 577
Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor, 98
Heated gas inflator (HGI), 582
Height-to-width ratio, 290
Helix-style antennas, 428
Helmholtz resonator, 771–2
High carbon GI, 385
High-speed digital data (HSDD), 803
High strength low alloy (HSLA), 649, 650–1
High strength steel (HSS), 638
High-voltage bus (HVB), 100
Higher strength steels, 649
HILARE architecture (LAAS), 444–5, 446
Holonomic path approximation, 467
Homologation noise limits, 742–3, 744
Honda Civic, 240
Honda Civic Shuttle 4 WD, 249
Honda Insight hybrid car, 191–4
Honda models, 235
Honda NSX, 612
Honda EV, 157–8
Horizontal sync, 800
Hot and cold rolling processes, 641
‘Hot-bulb’ engine, 12
Hump (H) rim, 301
HV powertrain control, 99–103
Hybrid and tandem dynamometers, 30–1
Hybrid architectures, 438, 441
deliberative-based hybrid architectures, 441–2
reactive-based hybrid architectures, 442–4
three-layered hybrid architectures, 444–6
Hybrid vehicle design, 175
advanced hybrid truck, 200
case studies:
dual hybrid system, 185, 186
flywheel addition to hybrid drive, 185–7
hybrid passenger cars, 181, 182, 183
hybrid power pack, 179
rotary engine with PM motor, 179–80
small cars, hybrid electric solution for, 179
taxi hybrid drive, 182–5
Wankel rotary engine, 180–1
hybrid passenger and goods vehicles:
advanced hybrid bus, 198–200
CNG-electric hybrid, 196–8
hybrid-drive buses, 194–6
hybrid-drive prospects, 175–7
justification, 177, 179
map-controlled drive management, 177
mixed hybrid-drive configurations, 177–8
series-production hybrid-drive cars, 187
production hybrid vehicles, recent addition to, 191–4
Toyota prius systems, 188–91
Index
816Hydraulic dynamometers, 27, 31, 33
Hydraulic power steering systems, 266–7
Hydraulic transmissions, 131–2
Hydrocarbons (HCs), 53, 60, 69 see also Unburnt
hydrocarbons
Hydrogen, as fuel, 156
Hydrokinetic dynamometer, 27
Hydrokinetic torque converter, 122
fluid converter, 123–4
fluid couplings, 123
torque converter, 124–5
Hydrostatic drives, 132
Hydrostatic dynamometers, 28
HyGe test rig, 572–3
Hysteresis, 370
HYZEM research programme, 175, 176
IC chip set solutions, 430
Icy roads, 319, 406
Idle speed control, 85–6
Imbalance U, 305
Impulse–response function, 727
Independent wheel suspensions, 206–7, 240
double wishbone suspensions, 208–10
McPherson struts and strut dampers, 210–13
multi-link suspension, 216–17
rear axle trailing-arm suspension, 213–14
requirements, 207–8
semi-trailing-arm rear axles, 214–16
steering on, 257–9
Indicated mean effective pressure (imep), 748
Induced drag force, 664
Induction stroke:
C.I. engines, 10
S.I. engines, 5
Infinite silencer, 745
Infinitely variable transmission (IVT), 108
Initial system response time, 367
Injection moulding, 656
Inline gearboxes, 114
Inner dead centre (IDC), 4
Input and output signal conversion, 787–9
Instrument panel (IP), 786
Instrumentation, 785
automotive diagnostics, 807
coolant temperature measurement, 792
CRT, 798
CAN network, 804–5
scan circuits, 800–4
display devices, 794–5
fuel quantity measurement, 791–2
glass cockpit, 805
input and output signal conversion, 787
multiplexing, 788–9
LCD, 795
transmissive LCD, 796–7
LED, 795
modern instrumentation, 785–6
oil pressure measurement, 792–4
sampling, 789
computer-based instrumentation, 790–1
telematics, 807
trip information computer, 805–7
vehicle speed measurement, 794
VFD, 797–8
Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology, 29
Intake noise, 746
control, 769–73
sources, 759–62, 763
Intake orifice-radiated noise targets, 681
Intake systems, 746
design for improved engine performance, 748–59
design, issues in, 746
designer, 746–7
flow duct acoustics, 762–9
intake noise, 746
control, 769–73
sources, 759–62, 763
principal components, 747
snorkel and filter box dimensions, 747–8
snorkel orifice, location of, 747
Integral/unitary body structure, 538–41
Integrated engine control system, 94
automatic system adjustment, 95
evaporative emissions canister purge, 94–5
improvements in, 97
secondary air management, 94
system diagnosis, 95
Interference drag, 665
Interior noise:
aerodynamic noise, 707–8
airborne noise, 688
background information on systems, 725–6
brake noise, 708–9
coherence, 727–30
convolution integral, 726–7
correlation, 727–30
covariance function, 727–30
engine noise, 703
combustion noise, 703–4
engine speed and load on noise, 705
measurement, 705
mechanical noise, 704–5
noise source ranking techniques, 705–6
frequency response function, 730
linearised mass conservation equation, derivation of, 732–3
measurement, 689
noise path analysis, 690
coherence methods for, 691–2
non-invasive methods for, 694–5
standard methods for, 692–4
non-linear and linearised inviscid Euler equation, derivation
of, 733
origin, 687
plane waves with termination impedance, 730–2
rattle noise, 709
road noise, 706
controlling, 707
Index
817Interior noise: (continued)
interior road noise, 706–7
structure-borne road noise, analyzing, 707
sound control:
by minimizing transmission, 715–25
through absorption within porous materials, 709–15
sound power measurement, of vehicle noise sources, 696
under different circumstances, 702–3
in diffuse acoustic field, 697–8
in free field using sound pressure techniques, 696–7
near and far acoustic field, 695–6
in near field, 700
in semi-reverberant far field, 698–9
using intensity meter, 701–2
using surface vibration velocity, 700–1
squeak noise, 709
structure-borne noise, 688
subjective assessment, 689–90
tizz noise, 709
Interior noise targets, 681–3
Interlacing, 80
Internal drag, 665
Internal-combustion engine, 3
components and terms, 3–5
four-stroke-cycle spark-ignition (petrol) engine, 5, 6
valve timing diagrams, 6–7
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 286
Inverse differential GPS positioning (IDGPS), 425
Italian Commissione technica di Unificazione nell Automobile
(CUNA), 16
Jaguar, 220, 616
Jaguar XJ, 220, 61
Jatco JF506E, 121–2
JF 506E AT operation, 126–8
JPL exploratory robot architecture, 441
Key car manufacturers, materials and parameters used by,
634–5
Kingpin inclination, 257
Knocking, 90–3
Lagonda V12, 532
Lancia front axle, 236
Lancia Thema:
gearbox unit on, 233
Lancia Y 10:
omega rear wheel suspension on, 239
Land Rover Defender, 90, 596
Land Rover Defender, 110, 596
Land Rover Freelander, 597
Land Rover vehicles, 595
Lane Change Maneuver, 415
Lane changing, 450–1
Laser welded blanks, 540
Lateral cornering force, 313–14
Lateral force, 406
influencing variables:
camber change, 314–16
cross-section ratio H/W, 314
due to camber, 316
road condition, 314
track width change, 314
vertical force variations, 314
lateral cornering force properties, on dry road, 313–14
self-steering properties, 311–12
slip angle and friction coefficients, 310–11, 312–13
Lateral loading case, for standard sedan, 558
backlight frame, 562
dash panel, 561
engine beam, 559
floor panel, 562
front parcel shelf, 560
left-hand front inner wing pane, 560
left-hand sideframe, 562
lower rails of front inner panels, 560
luggage beam, 560
panel behind the rear seats, 562
rear parcel shelf, 560–1
rear quarter panels, lower rails of, 560
roll moment and distribution at front and rear suspensions,
558–9
roof, 562
transverse floor beam, 559–60
windscreen frame, 561–2
Lateral wheel slip, definition of, 326
Lead–acid battery, 143–4
Leaf springs modelling, 485–6
Lemfo¨rder Fahrwerktechnik, 227, 265, 274
Light commercial vehicle tyres, designation of, 292–3
Light-emitting diode (LED), 795
Ligier, 448
Line of stroke, 4
Linear and non-linear systems, 725
Linear steady-state cornering solutions, 337–9
Linearised mass conservation equation, derivation of, 732–3
Linkage model, 479, 481–2
Liquid crystal display (LCD), 795–7
Liquid crystal polarization, 796
Liquid hydrogen, 170, 171
Lister Jaguar, 534
Lithium-ion batteries, 149, 161
Load capacities and inflation pressures, of tyres, 294
designation, 294
pressure determination, 294
pressure limit values, 297
wheel camber, influence of, 294, 297
Load sensitive pressure regulating valve, 363
Location-based services, 434–5
Lock-up clutch, 130
Logic controller, 507
Longitudinal axis, 393
Longitudinal link and semi-trailing arm axles, 206
Longitudinal slip of tyre, 370
Longitudinal transverse axles, 282
Loop-scavenging system, see Reverse-flow (Schnuerle)
scavenging
Lotus Elise, 537, 616
Index
818Low drag design, 665
Low-voltage bus (LVB), 100
Lucas, 155, 156
Lucas-Smiths Man-Air-Ox, 62
LuK-PIV chain construction, 133
Lumped mass model, 479, 480
MAF rate, 82
Magnesium, 654–5
Magnetic compass, 427
Magnetic focusing system, 799
Magneto-rheological fluid (MR), 412, 558
Main-ends, 4
MAN/Voith concept city bus, 198–200
Manual gearbox, 114
automated manual transmission, 120–1
clutch, 119–20
front-wheel-drive passenger car gearbox, 114–15
gear ratios, achieving, 119
gearchanging and synchromesh, 115–19
rear wheel drive car and commercial gearbox, 115
Manual steering systems, 265
Manual transmission, 107
Map-controlled drive management, 177, 178
Mass air flow (MAF), 78
Master cylinder, 363
Master site, 424
Materials integration into designs, 620–1
sandwich materials, 625–7
tailor welded blanks, 624–5
tube hydroforming, 621–4
MATLAB, 509
MATLAB/Simulink, 509, 523
Matrix inversion method, 694
McPherson front axle, 211, 232, 237
McPherson strut rear axle, 214
McPherson struts and strut dampers, 210, 280–1
advantages, 211
disadvantages, 212
Mean best torque (MBT), 90
Mean effective pressure, 15
Medium carbon GI, 385
Mercedes-Benz, 170, 216, 224, 225, 226, 228, 241, 246, 251,
253, 265, 271
Mercedes-Benz Sprinter series, 228
Metallic monoliths, 57–9
Microcontroller, 399
Microprocessor unit (MPU), 97, 428, 785, 802, 803
Microstrip, 428
Milliken Moment Method (MMM), 353
Milliken Research Associates, 353
Mission planner, 442, 443
Mission Scheduler, 446, 448
Mitsubishi, 200, 743
ML1 cell, 148
Mobile unit, 424
Model Reference Adaptive Scheme (MRAS), 508
Modern instrumentation, 785–6
Modified 1-D linear plane wave equation, 714
Modified prototype vehicle:
adhesion utilization, 376
brake system efficiency, 376
Modulation system, 362
Moment-by-moment feedback models, 506–7
Moment method, 353–4
Monocoque, 536–7, 597
Monolithic catalyst carriers, 57
Monopole antennas, 428
Motion controller, 448
Motion planner, 448
Motion stability, at large lateral accelerations, 346–8
Motor control alternatives, 153–4
Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA), 569–70
Moving obstacles, 457, 460
MSC.ADAMS, 494, 505, 509, 510, 511
MTS Flat-Trac Roadway Simulator, 354
Multibody systems vehicle model, 475–7
Multi-link rear axle, 206
Multi-link suspension, 207, 216–17
advantages, 216–17
disadvantages, 217
and double wishbone, 278–80
of Ford Werke AG, 217
Multiple Electronic Permanent (MEP), 181
Multiplexer (MUX), 788–9
Multipole system, 725
Natural frequency, of undamped system, 341
NAVSTAR GPS system, 420
characteristics, 420–1
navigation message, 421–2
Near field techniques, 700
NecarIV, 170–1
Neural networks, 507–8
Nickel–metal hydride alkaline battery, 146
Nitric acid, 53
Nitric oxide (NO), 53
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 53
Noise, 668–9, 676
Noise path analysis, 690
coherence methods for, 691–2
non-invasive methods for, 694–5
standard methods for, 692–4
Noise reduction (NR), 715
Noise source ranking, 743
using shielding techniques, 744–5
Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), 603, 675
Non-driven front axles, 225–6
Non-driven rear axles, 238–40
independent wheel suspension, 240
rigid axle, 240
twist-beam suspension, 238, 240
Nonholonomic constraints, 457
Nonholonomic path planning, 464–5
Non-linear and linearised inviscid Euler equation,
derivation of, 733
Non-linear steady-state cornering solutions, 344–52
Nylon (PA), 655
Index
819Occupant safety, testing, 574–6
Odometer, 427
Oil engines, 10
Oil pressure measurement, 792–4
Oil pressure sensor, 794
Opel Astra, 268
Opel Corsa, 270
Opel Vectra, 266
Open loop steering input, 504
Open-bottom canisters, 65–6
Open-centre control system, from ZF, 268
Open-loop control system, 82
Operating quadrants, of dynamometer design, 31
Optimum control models, 506
Otto, Nicolaus August, 5
Outer dead centre (ODC), 4
Overdamped, 396
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), 68–9
Oxygen sensor improvements, 97–8
Panel dent resistance and stiffness testing, 607–10
Parallel hybrid, 100
Parallel parking, 451
experimental run of, 455
parking manoeuvre, performing, 451–3
parking place, 451
Parameterized motion plan (PMP), 448
Parcel shelf/upper dash, 549
Particle traps, 71–2
Particulates, 70–1
Pass-by noise homologation, 739
EC noise homologation, 740–1
future developments, 742
homologation noise limits, 742–3, 744
track and atmospheric effects, 741–2
in US and outside EC, 742
Passenger car:
designations for, 290
with front-wheel drive, 250–2
and light commercial vehicles and trailers:
rims for, 300–1
wheels for, 301–3
requirements, 286
Passenger compartment:
integrity, 579–80
of standard sedan, 549
backlight (rear window) frame, 550
engine bulkhead, 550
floor, 551
front windshield, 550
rear seat bulkhead, 550–1
roof, 550
sideframes, 551–2
Passive safety, 569
Patch, see Microstrip
Payton’s architecture, 442
Pedal assembly, 363
Pedal controls, 588–9
Pedestrian safety, 576–7
Perimeter space frame, 537–8
Permanent magnet dynamometer, 29
Petrol engines, see Gasoline engines
Petrol engines vs. diesel engines, 14–15
PID controller, 507
Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO), 506
Piston, 4
Piston displacement, 15
Piston engines cycles, of operation:
compression-ratio, 17
engine-performance terminology:
engine cylinder capacity, 16–17
engine power, 15–16
engine torque, 15
mean effective pressure, 15
piston displacement/swept volume, 15
four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition (diesel) engine,
10–12
internal-combustion engine, 3
components and terms, 3–5
four-stroke-cycle spark-ignition (petrol) engine, 5, 6
valve timing diagrams, 6–7
S.I. and C.I. engines, comparison of, 14–15
two-stroke-cycle diesel engine, 12–14
two-stroke-cycle petrol engine, 7
crankcase disc-valve and reed-valve inlet charge control,
8–9
and four-stroke-cycle petrol engines, comparison of, 9–10
reverse-flow (Schnuerle) scavenging, 7–8
Piston rings, 4
Piston stroke, 4–5
Pitch, 393
Pitch motion, of vehicle body, 379–80
Pivot/steering rotation axis, 257
Plan sequencer, 443
Plane vehicle motions, differential equations for, 334–6
Platooning, 453
experimental run of, 456
generating required controls, 453–4
state parameters, determining, 453
Pluto GmbH, 72
Ply steer force, 306
Pneumatic trail, influence of, 339–43
forced linear vibrations, 341–3
free linear motions, 340–1
on handling curve, 348–9
steady-state circular motion, stability of, 339–40
Polymers and composites:
advanced composites, 657
processing, 656–7
thermoplastics, 655
thermosets, 656
Porosity, 713–14
Porsche, 224, 229
Porsche Boxster, 230
Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), 54
Power electronics centre (PEC), 166
Power protection centre (PPC), 167
Power steering systems, 265
Index
820electrical power steering systems, 268–70
electro-hydraulic power steering systems, 267–8
hydraulic power steering systems, 266–7
Power stroke:
C.I. engines, 10
S.I. engines, 5
Power-split control, 190–1
Powertrain, 107
Precise Positioning Service (PPS), 420
Pressure-controlled systems, 268
Pressure drag, 664
Pressure limiter, 363
Pressure-sensitive pressure regulating valve, 363
Pressure supply unit, 267, 268
Primary piston, 363
Primary ride, definition of, 676
Product Design Specification (PDS), 677, 679
Prohahilistic path planning, 467
Prototype fuel-cell car, 170–1
Pseudorandom noise (PRN), 420
Punt/platform structure, 537, 538
Push belt transmission, 134
‘Push belt’, 133
Quattro, 250
Quattro models, torsen central differential fitted in, 244
Rack and pinion steering:
advantages, 260
configurations, 261
disadvantages, 260
of front-wheel-drive Opel Astra and Vectra, 263
steering gear:
manual with centre tie rod take-off, 262–3
manual with side tie rod take-off, 261–2
on Vauxhall Corsa, 261
by ZF, 262
Radial brakes, see Drum brakes
Radial design passenger car tyres, 288
Radial force variation, 305
Radial ply tyres, 287–9
Radial tyre:
standardized speed categories for, 292
substructure of, 288
Rapid thermal processing (RTP) techniques, 149
Rattle noise, 709
Reacquisition time, 432
Reaction injection moulding (RIM), 656
Reactive Action Packages (RAP), 444
Reactive architectures, 438, 439
Reactive-based hybrid architectures, 442–4
Rear and mid engine drive, 227–31
Rear axle lock, 371, 378–9
Rear axle trailing-arm suspension, 213–14
Rear view mirrors, 587
Rear wheel drive car and commercial gearbox, 115
Rear-wheel-drive gearbox, 117
Rear-wheel drive vehicles, 322
Rear wheel lock, 371
Receiver sensitivity, 432
Reciprocating motion, 3
Recirculating ball steering:
advantages and disadvantages of, 263–4
steering gear, 264–5
Reeds and Shepp car, 465–7
vs. continuous-curvature car, 469
steering method, 467
Release time, 367–8
Renault Twingo, 120
Resin transfer moulding (RTM), 656, 657
Reverse-flow (Schnuerle) scavenging, 7–8, 9
Revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement, 87
Reynolds number (Re), 670
Ride, 409
Rigid axles, 206, 217, 240
advantages, 219–21
disadvantages, 217–19
steering on, 259–60
Rims, for passenger carsand light commercial vehicles and
trailers, 300–1
Road-induced electricity, 157
Road noise, 706, 777
controlling, 707
interior road noise, 706–7
structure-borne road noise, analyzing, 707
Robotic architecture, 438
Robust controller, 440
Rochester:
high vacuum air-control valve, 65
normal diverter valve, 64
standardised diverter valve, 62–3
type1 canister control valve, 66
Roll, 393
Rolling circumference and driving speed, of tyre, 297–8
Rolling force coefficients and sliding friction:
friction coefficients and factors, 308–9
road influences:
aquaplaning, 309–10
dry and wet roads, 309
snow and ice, 310
slip, 308
Rolling resistance, in tyre, 369
during cornering, 307–8
influencing variables, 308
in straight-line driving, 306–7
Rotor materials, 385–6
Saab, 588
Saab 900 Sensonic, 120
SAE J986 AUG94, 742
SAE J1030 FEB87, 742
Saloon, see Standard sedan
Sample period, 789
Sampling, 789–91
Sandwich materials, 625–7
Satcon Technologies, 151
Satellite-based positioning:
basic science, 422
Index
821Satellite-based positioning: (continued)
positioning techniques, 423–7
Scavenging, 12–13
Schenck dynamometer design, 22, 23
Schnuerle scavenging, see Reverse-flow (Schnuerle) scavenging
Script, 447
Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), 61
Seat belts, 583–4
Seating, 587–8
Secondary air management, 94, 95
Secondary piston, 363
Secondary ride, definition of, 676
Self-steering properties, of vehicles, 311–12
Self-tuning-regulator, 509
Semiactive suspension system, 409
Semi-rigid crank axles, 221–4
advantages, 221–2
disadvantages, 222–4
from installation point of view, 222
from kinematic point of view, 222
from suspension point of view, 222
Semi-trailing-arm rear axles, 214–16
Sense-model-plan-act (SMPA), 438
Sensor-based manoeuvre (SBM), 446, 448, 449–50
Separatrices, 350
Sequencer, 444
Series 55 wide tyre designs, 301
Series hybrid vehicle (SHV), 100
Serious injury, pedestrians protection from, 576–7
Series-production hybrid-drive cars, 187
production hybrid vehicles, recent addition to, 191–4
Toyota prius systems, 188–91
Series-wound DC motors, 152–3
Server-assisted GPS positioning, 425–6
Server-based navigation systems, 435
Servo boost, 268
Shaft whirl, 41–2
Sharp architecture, 445–6
Shear force and bending moment diagrams, 546–8
Sheet metal disc-type wheel, used in series production
vehicles, 302
Sheet moulding compound (SMC), 656
Shell Oil Company, 156
Shift schedule, 99
Shift strategy, 128
Shifting property, 727
Side force and brake force characteristics, 327
Sidebranch resonators, 772, 773
SIDs, 576
Simple structural surfaces (SSSs), 542–3, 559
equilibrium equations for, 545–6
free body diagrams for, 544
Sinclair, Clive, 157
Single component exterior noise targets, 680
engine-radiated noise targets, 681
exhaust tailpipe-radiated noise targets, 681
intake orifice-radiated noise targets, 681
‘Single offset’, 109
Single-plate clutch, 119
Single-point positioning, see Autonomous GPS positioning
Single-track model, of car trailer combination, 355
Singularity functions, 726
Skin friction drag, 664
Skin passing, 643–5
SL09B cell, 148
Sliding constraint, 459
Sliding friction factor, 308
Slip, 308
and coefficients of friction, 312–13
Small cars:
hybrid electric solution for, 179
problem, 580–1
Small-end, 4
Smart air bags, 582–3
Snorkel and filter box dimensions, 747–8
Snorkel orifice, location of, 747
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 804
Sodium–sulphur battery, 145–6
Solar cell technology, 148–9
Solenoid-actuated air-switching valve, 63
Sony engineers, 149
Sound power measurement, of vehicle noise sources, 696
under different circumstances, 702–3
in diffuse acoustic field, 697–8
in free field using sound pressure techniques, 696–7
near and far acoustic field, 695–6
in near field, 700
in semi-reverberant far field, 698–9
using intensity meter, 701–2
using surface vibration velocity, 700–1
Sound transmission class (STC), 717–18
Source room, 717
SP Resin Infusion Technology (SPRINT), 657
Spark advance (SA) correction scheme, 93–4
Spark-ignition (S.I.) engines, 5
and C.I. engines, comparison of, 14–15
Spatial reasoner, 443
Spatial Transformation of Sound Field (STSF), 744
Speech interference level (SIL), 682
Speech transmission index (STI), 683
Speed–density method, 82, 83
Speedometer, 298, 427
Spheroidal graphite iron (SG), 385
Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), 534
Spring stiffness, 304
Springs and dampers, modelling of:
leaf springs, 485–6
simple models, treatment in, 484–5
Squeak noise, 709
Stability, 668
Staft steering rear axle, of Opel Omega, 215
Stainless steel, 649
Standard code-phase GPS techniques, 427
Standard design passenger car, 252–3
Standard masses, 24
Standard sedan, 542–3
bending load case for, 543
payload distribution, 543–4
822
Indexshear force and bending moment diagrams, 546–8
SSSs, equilibrium equations for, 545–6
SSSs, free body diagrams for, 544
braking (longitudinal) loads, 562–5
lateral loading case, 558–62
torsion load case for, 548–58
State-time space, 457–8
Static analysis, 371–2
Static axle loads, 371
Steady-state circular motion, stability of, 339–40
Steady-state motion, large deviations with respect to,
349–52
Steel, 614–15, 637
continuous annealing, 641–3
continuous casting, 640
higher strength steels, 649
hot and cold rolling processes, 641
production and finishing processes, 638
skin passing, 643–5
stainless steel, 649
surface topography, 645–9
vacuum degassing, 640
Steel radial tyres, 288
Steering, 257, 584–5
column, 270–2
damper, 272–3
on independent wheel suspensions, 257–9
kinematics:
steering gear, influence of type and position of, 273–5
steering linkage configuration, 275–7
tie rod length and position, 277–82
power steering systems, 265
electrical power steering systems, 268–70
electro-hydraulic power steering systems, 267–8
hydraulic power steering systems, 266–7
rack and pinion steering:
advantages, 260
configurations, 261
disadvantages, 260
steering gear, manual with centre tie rod take-off, 262–3
steering gear, manual with side tie rod take-off, 261–2
recirculating ball steering:
advantages and disadvantages, 263–4
steering gear, 264–5
on rigid axles, 259–60
requirements, 257
Steering column, 270–2
Steering damper, 272–3
Steering gear, 264–5
influence of type and position, 273–5
manual with:
centre tie rod take-off, 262–3
side tie rod take-off, 261–2
Steering kinematics:
steering gear, influence of type and position of, 273–5
steering linkage configuration, 275–7
tie rod length and position, 277–82
double wishbone and multi-link suspensions, 278–80
longitudinal transverse axles, 282
McPherson struts and strut dampers, 280–1
steering arm angle, reaction on, 282
Steering linkage configuration, 275–7
Steering system modelling, 500–5
Step function, 499
Stepper motor, 85
Stepper motor-based actuator, 400–1
Stiffness requirement, 527–8
Straight-line instability, 668
Strength requirement, 527
Structural design, see Vehicle structure types; Standard sedan
Structural safety and air bags, 578–9
Structure-borne noise, 688
Structure factor, 714
Structure-radiated noise, definition of, 676
Subsumption architecture, principles, 440
Sulphur, in emission control, 67, 71
Sump, 3
Super capacitors, 149–51
Surface adhesion, 370
Surface drag, 664
‘Surface-ignition’ engine, 12
Surface topography, 645–9
Suspension and drive, types of, 205
four-wheel drive, 240
advantages, 242–3
basic passenger car with front-wheel drive, 250–2
basic standard design passenger car, 252–3
disadvantages, 243, 245–6
manual selection, on commercial and all-terrain vehicles,
249–50
vehicles with overdrive, 246–9
front-mounted engine, rear-mounted drive design, 224
advantages, 225
disadvantages, 225
driven rear axles, 226–7
non-driven front axles, 225–6
front-wheel drive, 231
advantages, 235
design types, 231–5
disadvantages, 235–7
driven front axles, 237–8
non-driven rear axles, 238–40
independent wheel suspensions:
double wishbone suspensions, 208–10
McPherson struts and strut dampers, 210–13
multi-link suspension, 216–17
rear axle trailing-arm suspension, 213–14
requirements, 207–8
semi-trailing-arm rear axles, 214–16
rear and mid engine drive, 227–31
rigid axles, 217–21
semi-rigid crank axles, 221–4
wheel suspensions, general characteristics of, 205–7
Suspension control, 586–7
Suspension system representation, 478–9
concept suspension approach, 482–4
equivalent roll stiffness model, 479–81
linkage model, 481–2
823
IndexSuspension system representation (continued)
lumped mass mode, 479
swing arm model, 481
SV ephemeris subframes, 421
Swept/displaced volume, 15
Swing arm model, 479, 481, 484
Symbolic, Subsumption, Servo (SSS) architecture, 443
Synchromesh, 118–19
System diagnosis, 95
System identification, 508
System level solutions, 429–30
Systematic errors, 25
Tailor welded blanks, 624–5
Tandem machines, 31
Tandem master cylinder, 363
Task control architecture (TCA), 442
Taxi hybrid drive, 182–5
Telematics, 807
The Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 54
Thermistor, 792
Thermoplastics, 655
Thermosets, 656
Three degrees of freedom, vehicle model showing, 329
Three-layered hybrid architectures, 444–6
Three-way conversion, 59–60
Throttle actuator, 398–9
Throttle body fuel injectors (TBFIs), 79
Thyristor, 153
Thyristor control, 164, 165
Tie rod length and position, 277
double wishbone and multi-link suspensions, 278–80
longitudinal transverse axles, 282
McPherson struts and strut dampers, 280–1
steering arm angle, reaction on, 282
Time-to-first-fix (TTFF), 431–2
Timed sequential port fuel injection (TSPFI), 79
Tire and Rim Association (TRA), 285
Tire-slip controller, 409
Tizz noise, 709
Top dead centre (TDC), 4
Top of ramp (TOR), 750
TopExpress MPSD system, 694, 695
Toroidal drive concept, 135
Toroidal transmission, 135–6
Torotrak transmission, 136
Torque converter, 124–5, 129, 132
lock-up control, 99
Torque converter locking clutch (TCC), 99
Torque flange, 22, 24
Torque measurement, 21
calibration and assessment of errors, 22, 24–6
dynamometer, see Dynamometer
trunnion-mounted or cradled machines, 21–2, 23
under accelerating and decelerating conditions, 26
using in-line shafts/torque flanges, 22, 23, 24
Torque shaft dynamometer, 22
Torque steer effects, 321
kinematics and elastokinematics, effect of, 322
as result of changes in normal force, 322
resulting from tyre aligning torque, 322
Torsion load case, for standard sedan, 553–5
baseline closed sedan, 552–3
end structures, 548–9
overall equilibrium, 548
passenger compartment, 549–52
significance, 548
structural problems, 555–8
Torsion stiffness, 528, 529
Toyota, 579, 584
Toyota electronically modulated suspension (TEMS), 586
Toyota Hybrid System (THS), 188–91
Toyota prius, 187, 188–91
Track width change, 314
Traction control systems (TCSs), 99, 388, 586
Traction drive designs, 134–5
Trailer, stability of, 357
Trailing-arm axle, 213
Trajectory tracking, 450
Transient cross-wind, 668
Transmission design and driveline, 107
application issues for, 136
breather systems, 139
differentials, 139
efficiency, 137–9
gearchange mechanism., 139–40
operating environment, 136–7
automatic transmissions (AT), 121
ATCU, 128–30
epicyclic gear set, 125–6
hydrokinetic torque converter, 122–5
jatco JF506E, 121–2
JF 506E AT operation, 126–8
shift strategy, 128
continuously variable transmission, 130
hydraulic transmissions, 131–2
rationale for, 130–1
toroidal transmission, 135–6
traction drive designs, 134–5
variable pulley transmissions, 133–4
variable pulley variator designs, 132–4
definitions, 107
manual gearbox, 114
automated manual transmission, 120–1
clutch, 119–20
front-wheel-drive passenger car gearbox, 114–15
gear ratios, achieving, 119
gearchanging and synchromesh, 115–19
rear wheel drive car and commercial gearbox, 115
vehicle requirement, 108–14
Transmission loss (TL), 716, 717
Transmission suite, 716
Transmission system, 362
Transmissive LCD, 796–7
Transverse engine, mounted in front of axle, 232–5
Triangulated sports car structure, 535–6
Triangulated tube structure, 535, 536
Trilateration, 422
824
IndexTrilok converter, 122, 124
Trip information computer, 805–7
Trunnion-mounted/cradled machines, 21–2, 23
Tube hydroforming, 621–4
Tubeless/tubed tyres, 289–90
Twin-silencer exhaust system, 767
Twist-beam suspension, 238, 240
Twisted nematic liquid crystal, 795
Two-degree-of-freedom model, linear analysis of, 336
linear steady-state cornering solutions, 337–9
pneumatic trail, influence of, 339–43
Two-loop driver model, 513, 514
Two-pole system, 725
Two-stroke-cycle diesel engine, 12–14
and four-stroke-cycle diesel engine, comparison of, 14
Two-stroke-cycle petrol engine, 7, 8
crankcase disc-valve and reed-valve inlet charge control, 8–9
and four-stroke-cycle petrol engines, comparison of, 9–10
reverse-flow (Schnuerle) scavenging, 7–8
Two-way catalytic conversion, 56
Two-way catalytic converter, 56–7
Tyre–ground adhesion:
efficiency as function of, 375
Tyre load capacity designation, 294
Tyre pressure, 319
determination, 294
limit values, 297
profiles, 298–300
Tyre-pull phenomenon, 325
Tyre–road friction, 370–1
Tyre self-aligning torque:
and caster offset, 318–19
front wheels, influences on:
dry roads, 319
icy roads, 319
longitudinal forces, 319
tyre pressure, 319
wet roads, 319
in general, 318
Tyre sidewall markings, 297
Tyres, 584
camber change, 314–16
characteristics, 325, 326–8
coefficients of friction and slip, 312–13
cross-section ratio H/W, 314
designs:
diagonal ply tyres, 287
dimensions and markings, 290–3
height-to-width ratio, 290
load capacities and inflation pressures, 294–7
profiles, 298–300
radial ply tyres, 287–9
rolling circumference and driving speed, 297–8
speedometer, influence of tyre on, 298
tubeless or tubed, 289–90
tyre sidewall markings, 297
lateral cornering force properties, on dry road, 313–14
lateral force, friction coefficients and slip angle, 310–11
lateral force due to camber, 316
noise, see Airborne tyre noise
non-uniformity, 305–6
overturning moment, and displacement of point of
application of force, 320–1
requirements, 285
commercial vehicle requirements, 286
interchangeability, 285–6
passenger car requirements, 286
resulting force coefficient, 316–17
road condition, 314
rolling force coefficients and sliding friction:
friction coefficients and factors, 308–9
road influences, 309–10
slip, 308
rolling resistance:
during cornering, 307–8
in straight-line driving, 306–7
influencing variables, 308
self-steering properties, of vehicles, 311–12
springing behaviour, 304–5
torque steer effects, 321
kinematics and elastokinematics, effect of, 322
as result of changes in normal force, 322
resulting from tyre aligning torque, 322
track width change, 314
tyre self-aligning torque:
and caster offset, 318–19
front wheels, influences on, 319
in general, 318
vertical force, variations in, 314
and wheels:
concepts, 300
rims for passenger cars, light commercial vehicles and
trailers, 300–1
wheel mountings, 303–4
wheels for passenger cars, light commercial vehicles and
trailers, 301–3
UK EVA practice for CVS, 164
Ultralight steel auto body (ULSAB), 540, 541
Unburnt hydrocarbons, 53, 69–70
Underdamped, 396
Underfloor chassis frame, 528–34
Underhood ventilation, 669
Unique Mobility, 196
hybrid bus, 196, 197
United Solar Systems, 149
University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
(UMTRI), 327
UNO regulation ECE-R, 3, 285
US Federal test procedures, evolution of, 54–6
US tyres and discontinued sizes for passenger cars, designations
of, 291–2
V8 Quattro, 241
Vacuum degassing, 640
Vacuum-fluorescent display (VFD), 797–8
Vacuum-operated actuator, 401–2
Valve timing diagrams, 6–7
825
IndexVan Doorne metal belt construction, 133
Van Doorne’s Transmissie (VDT), 132
Vapour collection and canister purge systems, 65–7
Variable braking ratio, braking with, 380
deceleration-sensitive pressure:
limiting valve, 380–2
modulating valve, 382–3
Variable damping via variable strut fluid viscosity, 412–13
Variable fill machines, 27
Variable pulley transmissions, 133–4
Variable pulley variator designs, 132–4
Variable spring rate, 413
Vauxhall, 677, 678
Vauxhall Corsa, 232
Veba Oel, 72
Vehicle braking, modelling of, 492–7
Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), 740
Vehicle dynamics, at complex tyre slip conditions, 357
Vehicle handling and stability, 333
car-trailer combination, 354–7
four-wheel steer:
condition that vehicle slip angle vanishes, 343–4
moment method, 353–4
non-linear steady-state cornering solutions, 344–6
motion stability, at large lateral accelerations, 346–8
pneumatic trail on handling curve, influence of, 348–9
steady-state motion, large deviations with respect to,
349–52
pairs of axle characteristics, construction of complete handling diagram from, 348
plane vehicle motions, differential equations for, 334–6
trailer, stability of, 357
two-degree-of-freedom model, linear analysis of, 336
linear steady-state cornering solutions, 337–9
pneumatic trail, influence of, 339–43
vehicle at braking/driving, 352–3
vehicle dynamics, at complex tyre slip conditions, 357
Vehicle motion control, 393
antilock braking system, 404–9
tire-slip controller, 409
cruise control electronics, 399
advanced cruise control, 402–4
stepper motor-based actuator, 400–1
vacuum-operated actuator, 401–2
electronic steering control, 414–15
electronic suspension system, 409–12
electronic suspension control system, 413–14
variable damping via variable strut fluid viscosity, 412–13
variable spring rate, 413
typical cruise control system, 393–9
configuration, 394
digital cruise control, 397–8
speed performance, 395
speed response curves, 396–7
throttle actuator, 398–9
Vehicle parameters, 371
Vehicle refinement:
in automotive industry, 676–7
history, 677–9
purpose, 676
scope, 675–6
targets, 679
for ride quality, 683
single component exterior noise targets, 680–1
whole vehicle exterior noise targets, 680
whole vehicle targets, for interior noise, 681–3
Vehicle safety:
active safety, 577–8, 584
automatic braking and traction control, 586
brakes, 585–6
crash testing, 569–73
electric power assisted steering, 585
electronic control systems in general, 585
ergonomic considerations and safety, 587
occupant safety, testing for, 574–6
occupants protection, 573–4
passenger compartment integrity, 579–80
pedal controls, 588–9
recently introduced advanced systems, 586
seat belts, 583–4
seating, 587–8
serious injury, pedestrians protection from, 576–7
side impacts, 581–2
small car, problem of, 580–1
smart air bags, 582–3
structural safety and air bags, 578–9
suspension control, 586–7
tyres, suspension and steering, 584–5
Vehicle speed measurement, 794
Vehicle structure types:
modern structure types, 534
backbone structure, 534
incorporation of roll cage in to structure, 535–6
integral/unitary body structure, 538–41
perimeter space frame/‘birdcage’ frame, 537–8
punt/platform structure, 537
pure monocoque, 536–7
triangulated tube structure, 535
selection, 528
stiffness requirement, 527–8
strength requirement, 527
underfloor chassis frame, 528–34
vibrational behaviour, 528
Vehicle suspensions, 206
Vehicle system controller (VSC), 166
Vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests, 574
Vehicles, models of, 448
Velocity constraint, 459–60
Vento, 272
Vertical sync, 800
Vibration, definition of, 676
Video RAM, 801
Video signal, 799
Visco clutch, with slip-dependent drive moment
distribution, 247
Volkswagen AG, 246
Volvo, 72, 224, 588
Volvo steering column, 273
826
IndexVTEC mechanism, 193
VW Bora, 221
VW Golf III, 272
VW Golf IV, 221
VW light commercial vehicle, front axle on, 210
VW LT light commercial vehicle, 218
VW Polo, 258
VW Transporter, 230
Wankel rotary engine, 180–1
Warm-air intake systems, 60
WdK Guidelines, 285–6
‘Wet gap’ machines, 30
Wet roads, 309, 319
Weymann fabric saloon, 531
Wheel brakes, see Foundation brakes
Wheel camber, 294, 297
Wheel speed sensors, 427
Wheels:
concepts, 300
light commercial vehicles and trailers:
passenger cars, wheels for, 301–3
rims for passenger cars, 300–1
locking, 377
mountings, 303–4
suspension, 205–7
Whiplash injury, prevention of, 588
WHIPS seat, 588
White smoke, 73
Whole vehicle exterior noise targets, 680
Wide area augmentation system (WAAS), 420
Wide area ground reference stations (WRSs), 427
Wide area master stations, 427
Wind noise, 707–8
Wind tunnel testing, 670–1
Window bags, 579
Winter tyre profiles, 299
Yaw, 393
ZEBRA battery, 146–8
Zevco London taxi, 156–7
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