AutoCAD For Dummies

AutoCAD For Dummies
اسم المؤلف
Ralph Grabowski
التاريخ
28 مارس 2022
المشاهدات
83
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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AutoCAD For Dummies 2023
19th Edition
Ralph Grabowski
Learned to draft by hand at 16, has since
written about CAD for 35 years
Previously authored hy Bill Fane
Table of Contents
Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Introduction
About This Book
Foolish Assumptions
Conventions Used in This Book
Icons Used in This Book
Beyond the Book
Where to Go from Here
Part 1: Getting Started with AutoCAD
Chapter 1: Introducing AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT
Launching AutoCAD
Drawing in AutoCAD
Understanding Pixels and Vectors
The Cartesian Coordinate System
Chapter 2: The Grand Tour of AutoCAD
Looking at AutoCAD’s Drawing Screen
Getting with the Program
Fun with F1Chapter 3: A Lap around the CAD Track
A Simple Setup
Drawing a (Base) Plate
Taking a Closer Look with Zoom and Pan
Modifying to Make It Merrier
Following the Plot
Chapter 4: Setup for Success
A Setup Roadmap
A Template for Success
Making the Most of Model Space
Making Templates Your Own
Chapter 5: A Zoom with a View
Panning and Zooming with Glass and Hand
Zoom, Zoom, Zoom
A View by Any Other Name
Degenerating and Regenerating
Part 2: Let There Be Lines
Chapter 6: Along the Straight and Narrow
Drawing for Success
Introducing the Straight-Line Drawing Commands
Drawing Lines and Polylines
Squaring Off with Rectangles
Choosing Sides with POLygon
Chapter 7: Dangerous Curves Ahead
Throwing Curves
Going Full Circle
Arc-y-ology
Solar Ellipses
Splines: Sketchy, Sinuous Curves
Donuts: Circles with a Difference
Revision Clouds on the Horizon
Scoring PointsChapter 8: Preciseliness Is Next to CADliness
Controlling Precision
Understanding the AutoCAD Coordinate Systems
Grabbing an Object and Making It Snappy
Other Practical Precision Procedures
Chapter 9: Manage Your Properties
Using Properties with Objects
Working with Layers
Using Named Objects
Using AutoCAD DesignCenter
Chapter 10: Grabbing Onto Object Selection
Commanding and Selecting
Selecting Objects
Perfecting Selecting
AutoCAD Groupies
Object Selection: Now You See It …
Chapter 11: Edit for Credit
Assembling Your AutoCAD Toolkit
The Big Three: Move, COpy, and Stretch
More Manipulations
Slicing, Dicing, and Splicing
Getting a Grip
When Editing Goes Bad
Dare to Compare
Chapter 12: Planning for Paper
Setting Up a Layout in Paper Space
Any Old Viewport in a Layout
Practice Makes Perfect
Clever Paper Space Tricks
Part 3: If Drawings Could Talk
Chapter 13: Text with CharacterGetting Ready to Write
Creating Simply Stylish Text
Taking Your Text to New Heights
Entering Text
Using the Same Old Line
Saying More in Multiline Text
Turning On Annotative Objects
Gather Round the Tables
Take Me to Your Leader
Chapter 14: Entering New Dimensions
Adding Dimensions to a Drawing
Dimensioning the Legacy Way
A Field Guide to Dimensions
The Latest Styles in Dimensioning
Scaling Dimensions for Output
Editing Dimensions
And the Correct Layer Is …
Chapter 15: Down the Hatch!
Creating Hatches
Hatching Its Own Layer
Using the Hatches Tab
Scaling Hatches
Pushing the Boundaries of Hatch
Editing Hatch Objects
Chapter 16: The Plot Thickens
You Say “Printing,” I Say “Plotting”
The Plot Quickens
Plotting the Layout of the Land
Plotting Lineweights and Colors
It’s a (Page) Setup!
Continuing the Plot Dialog
The Plot SickensPart 4: Advancing with AutoCAD
Chapter 17: The ABCs of Blocks
Rocking with Blocks
Creating Block Definitions
Inserting Blocks
Attributes: Fill-in-the-Blank Blocks
Exploding Blocks
Purging Unused Block Definitions
Chapter 18: Everything from Arrays to Xrefs
Arraying Associatively
Going External
Blocks, Xrefs, and Drawing Organization
Mastering the Raster
You Say PDF; I Say DWF
Theme and Variations: Dynamic Blocks
Chapter 19: Call the Parametrics!
Maintaining Design Intent
Understanding Geometric Constraints
Understanding Dimensional Constraints
Lunchtime!
Chapter 20: Drawing on the Internet
The Internet and AutoCAD: An Overview
The Drawing Protection Racket
Outgoing!
AutoCAD Web and Mobile
Part 5: On a 3D Spree
Chapter 21: It’s a 3D World After All
The 3.5 Kinds of 3D Digital Models
Tools of the 3D Trade
Modeling from Above
Changing Work PlanesVisualizing 3D Objects
On a Render Bender
Chapter 22: From Drawings to Models
Is 3D for Me?
Getting Your 3D Bearings
From Drawing to Modeling in 3D
Adding the Third Dimension to 2D Objects
Modifying 3D Objects
Chapter 23: It’s Showtime!
Get the 2D Out of Here!
Visualizing the Digital World
Adding Lights
Creating and Applying Materials
Defining a Background
Rendering a 3D Model
Chapter 24: AutoCAD Plays Well with Others
Get Out of Here!
Open Up and Let Me In!
Translation, Please!
The Importance of Being DWG
Part 6: The Part of Tens
Chapter 25: Ten AutoCAD Resources
Autodesk Discussion Groups
Autodesk’s Own Blogs
Autodesk University
Autodesk Channel on YouTube
World Wide (CAD) Web
Your Local Authorized Training Center
Your Local User Group
Autodesk User Groups International
Books
Autodesk Feedback CommunityChapter 26: Ten System Variables to Make Your
AutoCAD Life Easier
APERTURE
DIMASSOC
MENUBAR
MIRRTEXT
OSNAPZ
PICKBOX
REMEMBERFOLDERS
ROLLOVERTIPS and TOOLTIPS
TASKBAR
VISRETAIN
And the Bonus Round
Chapter 27: Ten AutoCAD Secrets
Sheet Sets
Custom Tool Palettes
Ribbon Customization
Toolsets
Programming Languages
Vertical Versions
Language Packs
Multiple Projects or Clients
Data Extraction and Linking
Untying the Ribbon and Drawings
Index
About the Author
Connect with Dummies
End User License Agreement
List of TablesChapter 4
TABLE 4-1 Common Architectural Drawing Scales
Chapter 8
TABLE 8-1 Precision Tools and Techniques
TABLE 8-2 Object Snap Modes
Chapter 9
TABLE 9-1 Useful Object Properties
Chapter 10
TABLE 10-1 Useful Command-First Selection Options
Chapter 11
TABLE 11-1 AutoCAD’s Modify (Editing) Commands
Chapter 19
TABLE 19-1 Geometric Constraints
TABLE 19-2 Dimensional Constraints
Chapter 20
TABLE 20-1 Types of Files That DWG Files Commonly Reference
Chapter 24
TABLE 24-1 AutoCAD Versions and DWG File Formats
List of Illustrations
Chapter 1
FIGURE 1-1: Your AutoCAD, ready to draw!
FIGURE 1-2: My AutoCAD, ready to draw!
FIGURE 1-3: Your first AutoCAD drawing.
FIGURE 1-4: Pixels.
Chapter 2
FIGURE 2-1: AutoCAD’s Start screen.
FIGURE 2-2: AutoCAD’s initial drawing window.
FIGURE 2-3: The AutoCAD screen with several windowed drawings in
view.FIGURE 2-4: When you can’t find it on the Ribbon or in the tool buttons,
just s…
FIGURE 2-5: More tools than you can wave a Ribbon at.
FIGURE 2-6: Status (bars) check.
FIGURE 2-7: Choosing command options from the Dynamic Input menu.
FIGURE 2-8: Obey the command line; that is an order.
FIGURE 2-9: My, how you’ve grown: Pressing F2 (on the left side) or
Ctrl+F2 (ri…
FIGURE 2-10: Help is at your F1 fingertip.
Chapter 3
FIGURE 3-1: How base is my plate.
FIGURE 3-2: Starting a new drawing from a template.
FIGURE 3-3: Snap and Grid settings.
FIGURE 3-4: Creating a new layer.
FIGURE 3-5: Select Cyan from the standard color tiles.
FIGURE 3-6: Give the column some thickness with OFFSET.
FIGURE 3-7: Button-downed base plate.
FIGURE 3-8: Specifying a crossing selection box for the Stretch command.
FIGURE 3-9: Stretching the base plate.
FIGURE 3-10: The Plot dialog box, with the More Options area visible.
Chapter 4
FIGURE 4-1: The Drawing Units dialog box.
FIGURE 4-2: A toolbox of templates.
FIGURE 4-3: Set your units here.
FIGURE 4-4: Get your drafting settings here!
FIGURE 4-5: And this little center line looks juuuust right!
FIGURE 4-6: Surveying your drawing’s properties.
FIGURE 4-7: Saving a drawing as a template and applying options.
FIGURE 4-8: Seek and you shall find your template folder.
Chapter 5
FIGURE 5-1: Belly up to the Navigation bar.
FIGURE 5-2: A menu for magnifying.
FIGURE 5-3: Save a view in the drawing.Chapter 6
FIGURE 6-1: Results of drawing with the Line and PLine commands.
FIGURE 6-2: The optional extras.
FIGURE 6-3: A plethora of polylines.
FIGURE 6-4: A party of polygonal parts.
Chapter 7
FIGURE 7-1: Pi R squared: Circles R round; pizzas are flat and round.
FIGURE 7-2: A deluge of Arc options, and the results of using some of
them.
FIGURE 7-3: To make an omelet, sometimes you have to break a few
ellipses.
FIGURE 7-4: A slew of splines.
FIGURE 7-5: Donuts, plain and jelly-filled.
FIGURE 7-6: Today’s forecast: Revision cloudy.
FIGURE 7-7: You use the Point Style dialog box to control how point
objects app…
Chapter 8
FIGURE 8-1: Coordinating from the keyboard.
FIGURE 8-2: The Object Snap right-click menu.
FIGURE 8-3: A snappy line.
FIGURE 8-4: Grabbing multiple object features is an osnap.
FIGURE 8-5: Using Object Snap Tracking to find the exact middle of a
rectangle.
Chapter 9
FIGURE 9-1: Use layer properties to control object properties.
FIGURE 9-2: ByLayer (nearly) all the way.
FIGURE 9-3: Comprehensive or quick? Sometimes you need lots of
information, and…
FIGURE 9-4: Setting an existing layer as the current layer.
FIGURE 9-5: Change my line thickness, but color me black.
FIGURE 9-6: Adding a new layer in the Layer Properties Manager palette.
FIGURE 9-7: The Select Color dialog box.
FIGURE 9-8: The Select Linetype dialog box.
FIGURE 9-9: The Lineweight dialog box.FIGURE 9-10: Type, and the command line shall find.
FIGURE 9-11: Tooling through the layer tools.
FIGURE 9-12: The AutoCAD DesignCenter palette.
Chapter 10
FIGURE 10-1: Setting selection options in the Options dialog box.
FIGURE 10-2: A window selection box, drawn from left to right, selects the
only…
FIGURE 10-3: A crossing selection box, drawn from right to left, selects 11
obj…
FIGURE 10-4: Lassoing objects by using WPolygon selects the concentric
circles …
FIGURE 10-5: Making selected objects disappear, but only temporarily!
Chapter 11
FIGURE 11-1: Dragging objects in the middle of the Move command.
FIGURE 11-2: Use a crossing selection box to select objects for stretching.
FIGURE 11-3: The hazards of stretching with Ortho mode and Polar
Tracking mode …
FIGURE 11-4: Dragging objects in the middle of the Stretch command.
FIGURE 11-5: Offsetting a polyline.
FIGURE 11-6: Anatomy of the TRim and EXtend operations.
FIGURE 11-7: Cleaning up corners with Fillet and CHAmfer.
FIGURE 11-8: Blending smoothly (or tangentially).
FIGURE 11-9: Joining sundered pieces.
FIGURE 11-10: Using grips to connect two objects.
FIGURE 11-11: Stretching multiple objects with multiple hot grips.
FIGURE 11-12: What’s the difference?
Chapter 12
FIGURE 12-1: All spaced out.
FIGURE 12-2: View those layouts, and make it quick!
FIGURE 12-3: Show me the viewport!
Chapter 13
FIGURE 13-1: Text — with style.
FIGURE 13-2: Adding immortal multiline text.FIGURE 13-3: Right-click your way to textual excellence.
FIGURE 13-4: Tabs, indents, and automatic numbering are set to create
numbered …
FIGURE 13-5: Dynamically columnizing the text.
FIGURE 13-6: Annotative objects resize automatically as the annotation
scale ch…
FIGURE 13-7: Setting the table.
FIGURE 13-8: The Insert Table dialog box and one result of using it.
FIGURE 13-9: No loss for (multi)leaders.
Chapter 14
FIGURE 14-1: Examples of dimensioning commands.
FIGURE 14-2: The parts of a dimension.
FIGURE 14-3: Changing objects automatically updates dimensions.
FIGURE 14-4: Yet another manager, this one for dimension styles.
FIGURE 14-5: A drawing with a detail at another scale.
Chapter 15
FIGURE 15-1: A big batch o’ hatch.
FIGURE 15-2: The Hatch Creation contextual tab on the Ribbon.
FIGURE 15-3: Hatch options for every occasion.
FIGURE 15-4: Poorly laid red bricks (top); properly laid red bricks (bottom).
FIGURE 15-5: Hatches annotative (and not).
FIGURE 15-6: The Hatch tab in the expanded Hatch and Gradient dialog
box.
FIGURE 15-7: A veritable plethora of hatch patterns.
Chapter 16
FIGURE 16-1: The Plot dialog box.
FIGURE 16-2: The expanded Plot dialog box.
FIGURE 16-3: A preview of coming plot-tractions.
FIGURE 16-4: System and non-system printer configurations.
FIGURE 16-5: Lots of ways to scale.
FIGURE 16-6: Settings for plotting a paper space layout.
FIGURE 16-7: Editing a color-dependent plot style table.
FIGURE 16-8: Selecting a plot style table that maps screen colors to
plotted li…FIGURE 16-9: The Page Setup Manager dialog box.
Chapter 17
FIGURE 17-1: The Block Definition dialog box.
FIGURE 17-2: Building a block.
FIGURE 17-3: The Insert dialog box, with previous releases on the left and
Auto…
FIGURE 17-4: The Attribute Definition dialog box.
FIGURE 17-5: The Edit Attributes dialog box.
FIGURE 17-6: The Enhanced Attribute Editor dialog box.
FIGURE 17-7: Purging the drawing of unneeded named objects.
Chapter 18
FIGURE 18-1: You’re ready to dynamically define your associative array.
FIGURE 18-2: Down the garden path, using a path array.
FIGURE 18-3: Going down a different path: The results of editing an
associative…
FIGURE 18-4: Use the Attach External Reference dialog box to attach an
xref.
FIGURE 18-5: Follow the path less traveled when you attach an xref.
FIGURE 18-6: The Attach Image dialog box.
FIGURE 18-7: The Attach PDF Underlay dialog box.
FIGURE 18-8: Three blocks to make three seats.
FIGURE 18-9: Three seats in Block Editor.
FIGURE 18-10: A passel of parameters ready for action.
FIGURE 18-11: Variations on dynamic blocks (original on the right, and a
handy …
Chapter 19
FIGURE 19-1: Parametric tabs in AutoCAD (top) and AutoCAD LT
(bottom).
FIGURE 19-2: Random shapes in need of constraining.
FIGURE 19-3: Locking down an object in drawing space.
FIGURE 19-4: Constraining to orthogonal.
FIGURE 19-5: Adding construction geometry.
FIGURE 19-6: Full-on geometric constraints.FIGURE 19-7: Auto-constrainable geometric relations in the Constraint
Settings …
FIGURE 19-8: Simple geometry, badly in need of constraining.
FIGURE 19-9: Placing a dimensional constraint.
FIGURE 19-10: Format the appearance of dimensional constraints in the
Constrain…
FIGURE 19-11: The Parameters Manager palette.
FIGURE 19-12: Editing constraints in Parameters Manager.
FIGURE 19-13: All locked down — dimensionally, at least.
FIGURE 19-14: Filter parameters to keep them organized.
FIGURE 19-15: Turning dynamic constraints into annotational ones.
FIGURE 19-16: This part needs a few revisions.
FIGURE 19-17: Thirty seconds later …
Chapter 20
FIGURE 20-1: Using eTransmit to share drawings.
FIGURE 20-2: Reference Manager.
Chapter 21
FIGURE 21-1: Subobjects of a 3D object.
FIGURE 21-2: Ascending the Z-axis.
FIGURE 21-3: Dynamically create a UCS on a 3D solid.
FIGURE 21-4: Naming a custom UCS.
FIGURE 21-5: The 3D ViewCube.
FIGURE 21-6: ViewCube, the multifunctional viewing device.
FIGURE 21-7: Some new styles to try on.
FIGURE 21-8: A manager for your visual styles.
Chapter 22
FIGURE 22-1: 3D viewing from every which way.
FIGURE 22-2: Setting up a 3D work environment in the Viewports dialog
box.
FIGURE 22-3: It’s 2D and 3D all at the same time.
FIGURE 22-4: Changing settings in the right-click menu in the ViewCube.
FIGURE 22-5: The preset views drop-down menu.
FIGURE 22-6: Entering 3D coordinates to draw a 3D polyline.FIGURE 22-7: Everything you need for a solid foundation.
FIGURE 22-8: Converting 2D to 3D by extrusion is as easy as 1-2-3.
FIGURE 22-9: Using cross sections to create a lofted object.
FIGURE 22-10: Sweeping a closed object along a path.
FIGURE 22-11: Revolving a closed object around an axis.
FIGURE 22-12: Using gizmos to modify objects in 3D.
FIGURE 22-13: Grip-editing a pyramid.
FIGURE 22-14: Solid primitives on the left, and the result of using the
UNIon, …
FIGURE 22-15: Before and after filleting and chamfering a 3D solid.
FIGURE 22-16: Carving up a solid model with the SLice command.
Chapter 23
FIGURE 23-1: A drawing, in less than five minutes!
FIGURE 23-2: The Drawing View Creation context tab of the Ribbon.
FIGURE 23-3: The Drawing View Editor context tab on the Ribbon.
FIGURE 23-4: Average creation time: 9.4 seconds per view.
FIGURE 23-5: When anything changes, everything changes.
FIGURE 23-6: Rendering compared with the Conceptual visual style.
FIGURE 23-7: AutoCAD to lights; extra brightness is a go.
FIGURE 23-8: Lighting primitives with the four types of user-defined lights.
FIGURE 23-9: Ah, yes, you’re on the lights list.
FIGURE 23-10: The Sun Properties palette gives you the power to control
day and…
FIGURE 23-11: Adding color and texture to a 3D model with the Materials
Browser…
FIGURE 23-12: Painting the canvas of the drawing window.
FIGURE 23-13: Here comes the sun!
FIGURE 23-14: Rendering a rendering in the render window.
Chapter 24
FIGURE 24-1: How to mess up a raster image.
FIGURE 24-2: The Import PDF dialog box.
Index
A
absolute Cartesian coordinates, 129, 428, 429
acad.dwt template, 39, 69
acadiso.dwt template, 69
acceleration, hardware, 424, 425
accuracy versus precision, 126
actions of dynamic blocks, defining, 373–377
Adaptive Grid check box, 75
Add-a-Plot Style Table Wizard, 314–315
Add-a-Plotter Wizard, 307
add-ons, downloading, 21
Advanced Render Settings palette, 427
aliases, 4, 30
Align Below Previous Attribute Definition check box, Attribute
Definition dialog box, 342
ALign command, 460
aligned dimensional constraint, 396
aligning 3D objects, 460
ALL object selection, 170
Allow Exploding check box, Block Definition dialog box, 334
Allow Subdivision Below Grid Spacing check box, 75
Alternate Units tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 274
Angle button, Hatch Creation tab, 289angle units, 63–64, 73
angled brackets, 33
angular dimensional constraint, 396
angular precision setting, 73
ANIPATH command, 484
Annotation panel, Ribbon, 26
Annotation Scale setting, 76, 159
annotational dimensional constraints, 403–405
Annotative check box, Block Definition dialog box, 334
annotative dimensions, 255, 265, 273, 275
annotative hatching, 291–292
annotative objects, 224, 226, 233, 244–247
Annotative option, Hatch Creation tab, 290
anonymous blocks, 471
ANSI31 hatch pattern, 53–54
APERTURE system variable, 504
APParent Intersection mode, Object Snap, 135
Application menu, 18–19, 22–24
Arc command, 110, 111–112
Arc option, ELlipse command, 114, 115
arc segment, adding to polyline, 102–104
arcball, 437
architectural drawing scales, 67
Architectural units, 63, 72arcs
drawing, 112–113
elliptical, 114, 115, 205
grip editing, 203–205
area selections, 171
ARray command, 192, 349, 350–351
-ARray command, 177, 190–192, 350
Array Creation contextual tab, Ribbon, 352–354
Array option, COpy command, 181–182
ARRAYCLASSIC command, 350
ARRAYEDIT command, 176, 351, 357
ARRAYPATH command, 176, 355–356
ARRAYPOLAR command, 176, 354
ARRAYRECT command, 176, 349
arrays, 350–351. See also associative arrays
arrowheads, 266
artifacts, 486associative arrays
ARray command, 350–351
creating, 351–354
defined, 350
editing, 351, 356–358
overview, 192, 347
path arrays, 355–356, 357
polar arrays, 354–355
rectangular array, 349
versus simple arrays, 350–351
3D, 461
associative center lines, 263
associative dimensions, 267, 281, 383
associative hatching, 285, 291
Associative option, Hatch Creation tab, 290
ATCs (Authorized Training Centers), 501
Attach External Reference dialog box, 360–361
Attach Image dialog box, 369–370
Attach PDF Underlay dialog box, 372, 373
attaching
DWF files as underlay, 372–373
raster images, 369–370
xrefs, 360–362
ATTdef command, 341
ATTDIA system variable, 344
Attribute Definition dialog box, 341attributes, block
creating definitions, 341–342
defining blocks containing attribute definitions, 343
definitions, 335, 340
editing values, 344
exploding, 345
extracting data, 344–345
inserting blocks containing attribute definitions, 343–344
overview, 330, 340
values, 340
AU (Autodesk University), 500
AUGI (Autodesk User Group International), 502
Authorized Training Centers (ATCs), 501
Auto Constrain, 394–395
AutoCAD
drawing in, 11–14
language packs, 513–514
launching, 10–11
shortcut icon, customizing, 514
AutoComplete feature, 30, 31
Autodesk accounts, signing in to, 21
Autodesk collections, 513
Autodesk resources, 499–502
Autodesk University (AU), 500
Autodesk User Group International (AUGI), 502
AutoLISP programming language, 513
automatic update feature of xrefs, 360Automatically Add Scales option, 291
B
background, in 3D models, 482–483
BACKGROUND command, 484
Background dialog box, 483–484
Background Mask dialog box, 239
background masking, 238–239, 280
.bak file extension, 206
base plate and column drawing
copying objects, 49
creating layers, 43–45
crosshatching, adding, 53–54
drawing bolts, 46–47
drawing column, 50–51
drawing hexagon nut, 47–48
drawing plate, 46
freezing layers, 60
mirroring objects, 49
moving objects, 48–49
overview, 37–38
plotting, 57–60
saving drawing, 51
setting up new drawing, 38–43
stretching objects, 54–57
zooming and panning, 52
base points, 56, 178–179, 333base view, defining, 468
BATTMAN command, 343
BEdit command, 340
bicycle drawing, 11–14
binding xrefs, 365–366
bitmapped images, 367, 487
black-and-white plotting, 300–304
BLEND command, 176, 197, 199
Block Attribute Manager, 343
block authoring, 349
Block Definition dialog box, 332–335
block definitions
creating, 332–335
defined, 330
purging unused, 345–346
Block Editor window, 374–376blocks. See also dynamic blocks
anonymous, 471
applications, 367
attributes, 330, 340–345
benefits of using, 330–332
block definitions
creating, 332–335
defined, 330
inserting, 336–340
purging unused, 345–346
block insertions, 330
block redefinitions, 331, 333, 337
block tables, 330
defined, 330
exploding, 334, 345
inserting, 336–340
overview, 329–330, 348–349
versus xrefs, 359
blogs, Autodesk, 499
bolts, drawing, 46–47, 49
Boolean editing operations, 454, 461–462
borders, choosing, 69
boundaries, of hatches, 288
Boundaries panel, Hatch Creation tab, 288
Boundary options, for views, 90
BOX command, 431
brackets, 33BReak command, 176, 196–197
b-reps, 423
B-splines, 115
bulleted lists, 239–241
BURST command, 345
By Layer button, Hatch Creation tab, 289
ByLayer approach, 142–144
C
Cartesian coordinate system, 15–16, 428
center lines, 262, 263
Center Marks setting, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 272
CENter mode, Object Snap, 135, 137
Center option, ELlipse command, 114
Center the Plot check box, Plot dialog box, 302
CENTERLINES command, 263
CENTERMARK command, 263
CHAmfer command, 176, 197–199, 463
CHAMFEREDGE command, 463
chamfering 3D solids, 463
Check Spelling dialog box, 243–244
child drawing, 339
CHSPACE command, 202
Circle command, 13, 47, 110–112
circles
drawing, 110–112
grip editing, 203–205circular arcs, 103
Circumscribed option, POLygon command, 47–48
Classic Array dialog box, 350
CLIP command, 366
Clipboard, Windows, 182
clipping
raster images, 370
xrefs, 366
cloning hatches, 293
Close command, Application menu, 23
CLOSEALLOTHER command, 23
closed 2D objects
extruding, 455–456
lofting, 456–457
pressing and pulling boundaries, 456
revolving, 458
sweeping, 457
cloud computing, 414–415
cloud storage, 414–417
coincident geometric constraint, 387, 390, 392
Collaborate panel, Ribbon, 26
collinear geometric constraint, 387
color
of drawing area, 10, 20
for layers, 44–45, 150–151
as object property, 148–149, 150–151
plotting, 320–321color-dependent plot style tables (CTBs), 313–316, 318, 319
color-dependent plot styles, 71, 311, 312, 313, 316
Column Settings dialog box, 242
columns, text, 236–237, 242–243
command line
accessing, 12
AutoComplete feature, 30, 31
bail out of operation, 32
brackets in, 33
coordinate entry, 96
default actions, accepting, 33
drawing techniques, 96
general discussion, 29–30
keyboard, entering commands with, 30–34
locating, 20
option keyword message, 32
overview, 3–4, 12
pasting text into, 182
searching for layers on, 155
text window, enlarging, 32
command options, 33
command previews, 193
command-first editing, 164, 165, 170–173, 175. See also specific
commandscommands. See also specific commands
aliases, 4, 30
on Application menu, 22–23
Dynamic Input, 28–29
finding on Ribbon, 105, 110
typing with keyboard, 30–34
commas, as X,Y separator, 12, 16
COMPARE command, 207–208, 414
compatibility of file formats, 494–495
complex solids, 454
compound solids, 454
computing, cloud, 414–415
concentric geometric constraint, 387, 391–392
Conceptual visual style, 441
configuring printers, 304–307
Constrained mode, 3DOrbit, 438
constraint bar, 383, 390
Constraint Settings dialog box, 394–395, 399–400
constraints, 381, 384. See also dimensional constraints; geometric
constraints
construction lines, 97–98
Continuous mode, 3DOrbit, 438
convert dimensional constraint, 396
Convert to Block radio button, Block Definition dialog box, 335
CONVERTPSTYLES command, 313
coordinate input, 96, 125, 428–429
coordinate systems, 127–131COpy command, 49, 176, 178–179, 181–182
COPYCLIP command, 182
copying objects, 49, 181–182
CPolygon object selection, 170
Crosshatch command, 53–54
crosshatches. See hatches
crossing object selection, 168, 169, 170
crossing selection boxes, 54–55, 183–186
crossing-polygon selection, 171, 186
CTBs (color-dependent plot style tables), 313–316, 318, 319
CUI (Customizable User Interface) file, 144
culling, 459
CULLINGOBJ system variable, 459
CULLINGOBJSELECTION system variable, 459
current layers, 155
current properties, 145
curves, drawing
arcs, 112–113
circles, 110–112
commands for, 110
donuts, 117–118
ellipses, 114–115
overview, 109
point objects, 120–122
from polylines, 99
revision clouds, 118–120
splines, 115–117custom grips, 379–380
custom hatch patterns, 289
custom linetypes, 154
custom templates, 77–81
custom tool palettes, 512
Customizable User Interface (CUI) file, 144
cylindrical coordinates, 429
D
dash-dot linetypes, 64, 76
Data Extraction Wizard, 344–345
DATAEXTRACTION command, 251, 514
DATALINK commands, 251
DDE (Direct distance entry) mode, 125, 138
DDPTYPE command, 121
Decimal Degrees, 63
decimal delimiter, 12, 16
Decimal units, 63
default actions, accepting, 33
default display configuration, 20
default drawing templates, 69–71
default first break point, 196
default lighting, 475–476
default value or option, 33
DEFAULTLIGHTING system variable, 476
deferred object snaps, 134
defined working area, 41definition points, 266
definitions, attribute
creating, 341–342
defining blocks containing, 343
inserting blocks containing, 343–344
overview, 335, 340
definitions, block
creating, 332–335
defined, 330
inserting, 336–340
purging unused, 345–346
Deg/Min/Sec units, 64
Delete Duplicate Objects tool, 202
Delete radio button, Block Definition dialog box, 335
DELOBJ system variable, 456
Descartes, René, 15–16
design intent, maintaining, 382–386, 399–400
Design Web Format (DWF) files
attaching as underlay, 372–373
creating, 371
exporting, 489–490
overview, 329, 348, 371
securing, 413–414
DesignCenter palette, 161–162, 338
detaching xrefs, 365
DGN files, 348
diameter dimensional constraint, 396Diameter setting for circles, 110
diazo machines, 300
DIESEL programming language, 513
digital signatures, 414
DIM command, 256–257
DimALigned command, 261
DimANgle command, 261
DimARc command, 262
DIMASSOC system variable, 281, 505
DimBaseline command, 263
DIMBREAK command, 278, 281
DIMCENTER command, 262
DimCOntinue command, 263
DimDIameter command, 261–262
DimDisAssociate command, 281
Dimension Style Manager dialog box, 269, 270, 271
dimensional constraints
applying, 396, 399
design intent, maintaining, 399–400
dynamic and annotational, 403–405
example of, 397–398
filtering parameters, 402–403
formatting appearance of, 399–400
overview, 384, 395–396
Parameters Manager, 400–403
using with geometric constraints, 405dimensions
adding to drawings, 256–257
annotative, 255, 265, 273, 275
associative, 267, 281, 383
commands for, 260–264
DimLInear command, 257–260
editing, 278–281
exploded, 267–268, 280
on layers, 282
lines, 266
non-associative, 267
overview, 225–226, 255
parts of, 266
placing, 264–265
reasons to use, 259
scaling for output, 275–277
styles, 266–274
substyles, 271
subunits, 274
system variables, using with, 267
text, 266, 281
DimJOgged command, 262
DIMJOGLINE command, 279
DimLInear command, 257–260
DimORdinate command, 262
DimRAdius command, 261–262
DIMREASSOCiate command, 281DIMREGEN command, 281
DIMSCALE system variable, 273
DIMSPACE command, 279
Dimstyle command, 269
Direct distance entry (DDE) mode, 125, 138
direct-object editing, 164–165
discussion groups, Autodesk, 499–500
displacements, 56, 178–179
Display Dotted Grid in 2D Model Space check box, 75
Display Grid Beyond Limits check box, 76
distant lights, 477
dithering, 320
DLine command, 103
document tabs, 19
DOnut command, 110, 117–118
DOS screen menu, 509
double floating-point precision, 91
double period (..), 364
downloading add-ons, 21
Drafting & Annotation workspace, 21, 26–27
Drafting Settings dialog box, 41–42, 74–76
dragging and dropping blocks, 338
Draw panel, Ribbon, 97, 110drawing. See also setup, drawing; specific objects; specific tools
base plate and column example
creating layers, 43–45
crosshatching, adding, 53–54
drawing objects, 45–51
freezing layers, 60
overview, 37–38
plotting, 57–60
setting up new drawing, 38–43
stretching objects, 54–57
zooming and panning, 52
basic 3D objects, 452–453
basic bicycle, 11–14
generating from 3D models, 466–471
on paper versus electronically, 65
drawing area, 34–35
drawing limits, setting, 40–41
drawing properties, for model space setup, 77
drawing scale
common, 67
versus drawing scale factor, 66
for model space setup, 76
overview, 65–68
in paper versus model space layouts, 219
text, 230–231
viewport, 216–218
drawing scale factor, 66, 190, 230, 231, 292Drawing Units dialog box, 63, 72–73
Drawing Utilities command, Application menu, 23
Drawing View Creation tab, Ribbon, 467–468
Drawing View Editor tab, Ribbon, 469
drawing window, 18, 19
DRaworder command, 370
driven dimensions, 395
driving dimensions, 395, 396
Dropbox Professional, 411
DWF files. See Design Web Format files
DWFFORMAT command, 490
DWFx files, 371, 490
DWG Compare palette, 208
DWG files
files commonly referenced by, 409
inserting, 337–338
overview, 495–496
securing, 413–414
sending, 407–409
xref path settings, 363–364
dynamic blocks
manipulating, 379–380
overview, 331, 349, 373
parameters and actions, defining, 377–379
visibility states, 373–377
dynamic columns, 242, 243
dynamic dimensional constraints, 403–405Dynamic Input, 28–29, 39, 96
Dynamic UCS, 431–432
E
EATTEDIT command, 344
edges of 3D models, 423
Edit Attributes dialog box, 343–344
Edit Block Definition dialog box, 334, 374, 377–379
Edit Drawing Scales dialog box, 214, 246editing. See also grip editing; specific commands
associative arrays, 351, 356–358
attribute values, 344
choosing style, 165–166
command-first, 164, 165, 170–173, 175
dimensional constraints, 400–403
dimensions, 278–281
direct-object, 164–165
group selection, 173
hatches, 296–297
object properties, 201–202
in other file formats, 491–495
overview, 163
PDF files, 491–494
selecting objects, 166–170
selection-first, 164
solid 3D objects, 461–464
tables, 249–251
text, 235
toolkit for, 175–178
visibility of objects, controlling, 173–174
xrefs, 362–363
electronic paper, 65
ELEVATION system variable, 430
ELlipse command, 110, 114
ellipses, drawing, 114–115
elliptical arcs, 114, 115, 205ENDpoint mode, Object Snap, 135, 137
Engineering units, 63, 72
enhanced secondary window (ESW), 339
equal geometric constraint, 387, 391
Equal X and Y Spacing check box, 75
Erase command, 171, 173, 176
ETRANSMIT command, 409–411
ex-lines, 97–98
EXPLODE command, 176, 197
exploding
blocks, 334, 345
dimensions, 267–268, 280
EXPort command, 22, 487
EXPORTDWF command, 490
exporting files, 485–491
Express Tools, 25, 27
EXtend command, 176, 194–196
extension lines, 266
EXTension mode, Object Snap, 135
extents, 87–88
Extents option, Zoom command, 87–88
External Reference tab, Ribbon, 363external reference (xref) files
advantages of, 359–360
applications, 366–367
attaching, 360–362
automatic update feature, 360
versus blocks, 359
clipping, 366
editing, 362–363
layers, 362
managing, 365–366
Overlay mode, 361–362
overview, 331, 332, 347–348, 358–360
path settings, 361, 363–365
receiving drawings with, 411–412
External References palette, 348, 365–366, 370
extracting data, 344–345, 514
EXTrude command, 455–456
F
F1 key, 35–36
faces of 3D models, 423, 482
fading objects on locked layers, 157
Feedback Community portal, Autodesk, 502
feet, entering numeric values in, 130–131
Fence object selection, 170file formats. See also specific file formats
compatibility issues, 494–495
editing in other, 491–495
for exporting files, 485–491
overview, 485
saving files, 79
file management, 21–22
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 411
files
cloud storage, 414–417
plotting to, 323
receiving, 407–408, 411–412
securing, 413–414
sending, 407–409
FILlet command, 50, 176, 197–199, 463
FILLETEDGE command, 463
filleting 3D solids, 463
filtering parameters, 402–403
filters, layer, 157
Find and Replace dialog box, 243–244
Fit tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 273
Fit to Paper option, Plot dialog box, 68, 302
Fit to Paper scale, 308, 311
fix geometric constraint, 387, 389
fixed height, 229–230
FLATSHOT command, 473
floating viewports, 446folder for AutoCAD drawing templates, 78
Folders tab, DesignCenter palette, 161
Follow Dynamic UCS check box, 76
fonts, 226, 227–228, 411–412, 493–494
fractional units, 63
Free mode, 3DOrbit, 437
freezing layers, 60, 156, 220
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 411
Full Navigation wheel, 440
full path, xref, 363
full-screen mode, 10
G
generic user-defined lights, 476
geographic data, 339
Geometric CEnter mode, Object Snap, 135
geometric constraints
applying, 388–393
Auto Constrain, 394–395
inferred constraints, 393–394
overview, 384, 386–388
removing, 388
using with dimensional constraints, 405
visibility of, 388
geometric tolerances, 274
gizmos, working with, 459–460
glyphs, 477Google Drive, 411
gradient fills, 296
grads, 64
graphic screen, 10, 20
GRAPHICSCONFIG command, 425
Grid Behavior settings, 75–76
Grid display mode, 124
grid settings, 41–42, 73–76
grip editing
arrays, 352–353
of dimensions, 278
hatches, 297
overview, 164–165, 203–205
polylines, 102
splines, 116
text, 243
3D solids, 461, 462
grips, 164–165, 203
group filter, 157
group selection, 173
grouping, with blocks, 330, 331
H
half-size plots, 308, 311
handles, 165
hardware acceleration, 424, 425
Hatch and Gradient dialog box, 294–295Hatch command, 285, 297
Hatch Creation tab, Ribbon, 53, 284, 287–290
Hatch Editor contextual tab, Ribbon, 296–297
Hatch Gap option, 136
Hatch Transparency button, Hatch Creation tab, 289
hatches
adding style to, 293–294
associative hatching, 285
background masking, 238–239
in base plate and column drawing, 53–54
creating, 284–286, 293–294
editing, 296–297
Hatch Creation tab, using, 287–290
Hatch Gap option, 136
overview, 283–284
patterns, 288–289, 295–296
placing on layer, 285, 287
scaling, 290–292
solid fills, 296
unit types in, 64
HELIX command, 452
Help menu, 35–36
hexagon nut, drawing, 47–48, 49
Hidden visual style, 441
HIDEOBJECTS command, 157, 174
History tab, DesignCenter palette, 162
Home panel, Ribbon, 26Home tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 426
home view, 439–440
horizontal (X) coordinate, 16
horizontal dimensional constraint, 396, 399
horizontal geometric constraint, 387, 390
host drawing, 359
I
icons, used in book, 4–5
imperial units, 38–43, 62–63, 270
implied windowing, 167–168, 169
Import command, Application menu, 22
Import PDF dialog box, 492, 493
in-canvas viewport control, 446
inches, entering numeric values in, 130–131
inferred constraints, 124, 131, 393–394
InfoCenter, 21
In-Place Text Editor, 235, 237, 240
Inscribed option, POLygon command, 47–48
Insert dialog box, 336–337
Insert Field option, mText command, 239
Insert panel, Ribbon, 26
Insert Table dialog box, 249–250
inserting blocks, 330, 336–340
INSertion mode, Object Snap, 135
Insertion Scale setting, 73Internet features
cloud services, 414–417
ETRANSMIT command, 409–411
FTP, 411
mobile devices, 417–418
overview, 407–408
preparing files to send, 408–409
receiving files, 407–408, 411–412
Reference Manager utility, 412–413
securing files, 413–414
sending files, 407–408
types of files DWG files commonly referenced, 409
Internet resources for AutoCAD, 500–501
INtersect command, 461, 462
INTersection mode, Object Snap, 135
Inventor files, 338, 472–474
island detection, 288
ISOLATEobjects command, 157, 174
isolating layers, 157
isolating objects, 174
isometric projection, 470
isometric views, 436–437, 450, 470
J
Join command, 176, 200–202
JPG file format, 323, 486
justification, text, 232K
keyboards
coordinate entry with, 128–129
typing commands with, 30–34
L
language packs, 513–514
Last object selection, 170
launching AutoCAD, 10–11
Layer Properties Manager palette, 44, 46, 143, 149, 150–154, 156, 220
layer states, 156–157
Layer States Manager dialog box, 157layers
assigning materials by, 481
ByLayer properties, 142–144
color settings, 44–45
creating, 43–45, 149–155
dimensions on, 282
filters, creating, 157
freezing, 60, 156, 220
hatches, placing on, 285, 287
isolating, 157
locking, 156, 157
manipulating, 156
named objects, 160
names of, 150
organizing objects on, 97
overview, 43, 45, 146–148
revision clouds, 119–120
searching on command line, 155
standards, 146
switching between, 47
toggling on/off, 156
working effectively with, 155
xref, 362
LAYISO command, 157
LAYLOCKFADECTL system variable, 157
layout tabs, 20, 215
LEADER command, 252leader landing, 252
leaders
defined, 223
multiline, 251–254
Length Precision setting, 73
length units, 63, 72
LENgthen command, 177, 196
lighting, in 3D models, 475–479
Lighting setting, 73
LIGHTINGUNITS system variable, 476
Lights in Model palette, 427, 478
limits, 87
Line command
alternatives to, 103
base plate, drawing, 46
bicycle drawing, 13
drawing lines with, 99–100
versus PLine command, 98–99
on Ribbon, 97
using object snap tools with, 125–127, 132–133
linear dimensional constraint, 396, 397, 399lines, drawing
alternatives to Line and PLine commands, 103
grip editing, 203–205
with Line command, 98–100
overview, 95–96
polygons, 106–107
polylines, 98–99, 100–104
rectangles, 105
straight-line drawing commands, 97–98
stretching, 184–185
techniques for, 96–97
3D, 452
Lines tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 272
linetypes
custom, 154
definition, 154
loading, 151–152, 154
for model space setup, 76
overview, 148
scales, 158–159
selecting, 151–152
Lineweight dialog box, 152–153, 155lineweights
overview, 148
for plotting, 60, 316–320
properties and scale, adjusting, 155
selecting, 152–153
toggling on/off, 155
LIVESECTION command, 473
local user groups, 501
Lock Position check box, Attribute Definition dialog box, 341, 342
locking
layers, 156, 157
viewports, 214, 217
LOFT command, 456–457
M
M2P mode, Object Snap, 135, 137
Macro Recorder, 512–513
Manage panel, Ribbon, 26
manipulating layers, 156
masking, background, 238–239, 280
Match properties option, Hatch Creation tab, 201, 290, 293, 297
materials, in 3D models, 479–482
Materials Browser palette, 427, 479–481
Materials Editor palette, 427, 480–481
MBUTTONPAN system variable, 85
MEASUREINIT system variable, 64–65, 270
MEASUREMENT system variable, 64–65, 270medium, 480
MENUBAR system variable, 505
mesh surfaces, 422
Mesh tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427
MIDpoint mode, Object Snap, 135, 137
MIRRHATCH system variable, 297
MIrror command, 49, 177, 186–187, 297
MIRROR3D command, 461
mirroring objects, 49, 461
MIRRTEXT system variable, 187, 505–506
MLeaDer command, 251–253
MLeaderAlign command, 254
MLeaderCollect command, 254
MLeaderEdit command, 254
mleaders, 251–254
MLeaderStyle command, 254
MLine command, 103
mobile devices, 417–418
model geometry, 209model space
adding text and dimensions in, 225, 264–265
drawing properties, 77
drawing scale, 76
linetypes, setting, 76
overview, 34, 209–212
versus paper space, 68, 218
plotting in, 300–304
setup of, 72–77
snap and grid settings, 73–76
units types, choosing, 72–73
viewports, 445–450
Model tab, 215
modify commands, 175–178, 206–207. See also specific commands
Modify Dimension Style dialog box, 271–274
monochrome plotting, 300–304
monochrome.ctb plot style table, 58
Move command, 48, 177–181
moving objects, 48–49
MREDO command, 206
mText command
background masking, 238–239
bulleted and numbered lists, 239–241
columns, 236–237, 242–243
Insert Field option, 239
modifying, 243–244
overview, 224, 232, 235–238Mtext Edit option, 243
MTJIGSTRING system variable, 509
multiline leaders, 251–254
multilines, 103
Multiple Lines check box, Attribute Definition dialog box, 341
multiscale drawings, 276–277
MVSETUP command, 473
N
named objects, 159–162
named page setups, 321
named plot style tables (STBs), 313–316
named plot styles, 311, 313, 316
named UCS, 433–436
named views, 88–91, 483
names, of layers, 150
Navigate 2D panel, 86
Navigate panel, 86, 87
Navigation bar, 85
NCOPY command, 345
NEArest mode, Object Snap, 135
.NET programming language, 513
NEW command, 22, 69, 71
New Dimension Style dialog box, 270–274
New Page Setup dialog box, 212
New Table Style dialog box, 248
New View/Shot Properties dialog box, 89–90NODe mode, Object Snap, 135
non-annotative hatches, 292
non-associative array, 190
non-associative dimensions, 267
None button, Hatch Creation tab, 289
non-orthogonal line, 256
non-system drivers, 305, 307, 326
Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline curve, 115
noun-verb editing, 164
nudging, 178
numbered lists, 239–241
NURBS curve, 115
NURBS surfaces, 422
nuts, drawing, 47–48, 49
O
Object ARX programming language, 513
object lineweights, controlling plotted lineweights with, 317
Object option, Zoom command, 88object properties. See also layers
ByLayer approach, 142–144
changing, 144–145
controlling, 142–145
DesignCenter palette, 161–162
editing, 201–202
linetype scale, 158–159
named objects, 159–160
overview, 77, 141
useful, 148–149
object snap tracking, 125, 138–139, 429–430
object snaps (osnaps)
deferred, 134
defined, 125
with dimensions, 257–259
grip editing, 203–205
modes, 135
overrides, 125, 131, 132–134
running, 131, 132, 135–137
Snap mode versus, 140
3D modeling, 429–430
using, 125–127objects
annotative, 224, 226, 233, 244–247
assigning materials to, 482
copying, 49, 181–182
creating 3D, from 2D, 455–458
groups of, 173
hiding, 157
isolating, 157
mirroring, 49
moving, 48–49
named, 159–162
organizing on layers, 97
selecting, 166–170
stretching, 183–186
visibility of, 173–174
offset, plot, 324
OFFset command, 50–51, 103, 177, 192–194
offset distance, 192
one-by-one selection, 167
OOPS command, 173, 206
open 2D objects
extruding, 455–456
lofting, 456–457
pressing and pulling boundaries, 456
revolving, 458
sweeping, 457
Open command, Application menu, 22Open Documents feature, 23
Open Drawings tab, DesignCenter palette, 162
option keyword, 32
Options dialog box, 23, 86, 165–166, 305–306
orbiting 3D models, 437–438
Origin option, Hatch Creation tab, 290
Ortho mode, 125, 137–138, 184, 185
orthographic views, 436–437, 450
osnaps
deferred, 134
defined, 125
with dimensions, 257–259
grip editing, 203–205
modes, 135
overrides, 125, 131, 132–134
running, 131, 132, 135–137
Snap mode versus, 140
3D modeling, 429–430
using, 125–127
OSNAPZ system variable, 430, 506
Output panel, Ribbon, 26
Output tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427
OVERKILL command, 177, 202
Overlay option, xrefs, 361–362
P
Page Setup dialog box, 213, 313Page Setup Manager dialog box, 212, 321–322
page setups, 321–322
PAGESETUP command, 212–213
palettes, 34
Pan command, 85
panning, 52, 83–85
paper size, 301
paper space
adding text and dimensions in, 225, 265
differentiating from model space, 218
drawing scale and plotting in, 219
versus model space layout, 68
overview, 34–35, 57, 209–212
plotting, 309–311
setup of, 212–215
tabs, 215
tips for, 219–220
viewport scales, 216–218
viewport setup, 213–214
paper text height, 230–231
paper versus electronic drafting, scale in, 65
Paragraph dialog box, 241
paragraph text, 232
parallel geometric constraint, 387, 391
PARallel mode, Object Snap, 135
parallel projection, 438
parallel views, 437parameter, defined, 384
Parameters Manager, 400–403
parameters of dynamic blocks, defining, 373–377
parametric drawing. See also dimensional constraints; geometric
constraints
compatibility issues, 495
constraints, 384–385
design intent, maintaining, 382–386
overview, 381–382
precision, 385–386
speed of, 406
Parametric panel, Ribbon, 26, 383
parent drawing, 339
password protection, 413–414
PASTEBLOCK command, 182
PASTECLIP command, 182
path arrays, 355–356, 357
paths, xref, 361, 363–365, 366
Pattern panel, Hatch Creation tab, 288–289
patterns, hatch, 288–289, 295–296
PC3 files, 323PDF files
attaching as underlay, 372–373
creating, 371
editing, 491–494
exporting, 488–489
plotting to, 323
saving drawings as, 413
PDFIMPORT command, 492
PDMODE system variable, 122
PDSIZE system variable, 122
PEdit (Polyline Edit) command, 116, 177, 203
period (.), as decimal delimiter, 12, 16
perpendicular geometric constraint, 387, 391
PERpendicular mode, Object Snap, 135
perspective projection, 438
PERSPECTIVE system variable, 437
perspective views, 437
photometric user-defined lights, 476
PICKBOX system variable, 506
pixels, 14–15
plan view, 437PLine command
alternatives to, 103
arc segment, adding, 102–104
drawing polylines, 100–102
versus Line command, 98–99
on Ribbon, 97
types of polylines, 104
PLINEREVERSEWIDTHS system variable, 202
p-lines. See polylines
PLOT command, 65, 66, 487
Plot dialog box
Fit to Paper option, 68
model space plotting, 301–304
options in, 322–325
paper space plotting, 309–311
plotting drawings, 58–59
Plot Object Lineweights check box, 317
plot offset, 324
Plot Scale Confirm dialog box, 58
plot stamps, 324
Plot Style Table Editor dialog box, 314–315
plot style tables, 313
plot styles, 71, 148, 153, 311–316
plotted text height, 230–231
Plotter Configuration Editor dialog box, 323plotting
base plate and column drawing, 57–60
in color, 320–321
configuring printers, 304–307
lineweights, 316–320
in model space, 300–304
overview, 299
page setups, 321–322
paper space layout, 309–311
in paper versus model space layouts, 219
Plot dialog box options, 322–325
plot styles, 311–316
previewing, 307
printing versus, 300
scaling for, 307–309
sending to service bureaus, 318–319
troubleshooting, 325–326
plotting convention, 325
PNG files, 323, 486–488
point filters, 429
point lights, 477
point objects, 120–122
Point Style dialog box, 121–122
points, 120
polar arrays, 354–355
Polar tracking mode, 125, 139, 184
PolarSnap mode, 124, 139POLygon command, 47–48, 97, 106–107
Polyline Edit (PEdit) command, 116, 177, 203
polylines
alternatives to PLine command, 103
arc segment, adding, 102–104
curves made from, 99
drawing, 100–102
grip editing, 102
Line versus PLine command, 98–99
offsetting, 192–193
PEdit command, 116
3D, 452, 453
types of polylines, 104
width of, 99, 101–102
precision
accuracy versus, 126
additional techniques, 137–140
deferred object snaps, 134
importance of precision, 124
object snap modes, 135
object snap overrides, 131, 132–134
object snap tools, 125–127
overview, 96, 123, 124–125
parametric drawing, 385–386
running object snaps, 135–137
world coordinate system, 127–131
predefined hatch patterns, 295presets, render, 484
PRESSPULL command, 456
preview feature, 307
Previous object selection, 170
Previous option, Zoom command, 88
Primary Units tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 273–274
primitive solids, 454
Print command, Application menu, 23
printers
configuring, 304–307
drivers, 305, 307, 325–326
selecting, 213, 301
3D, 490–491
troubleshooting, 325–326
printing, 299. See also plotting
programming languages, 512–513
projection modes, 438
properties, object. See object properties
properties, of hatches, 289
Properties palette, 144–145, 201, 243, 278
Properties panel, Hatch Creation tab, 289
property filter, 157
Publish command, Application menu, 22
Publish dialog box, 371
PUrge command, 160, 345–346
Purge dialog box, 160, 346Q
QDIM command, 263–264
qLEader command, 252
QNEW command, 79
QUAdrant mode, Object Snap, 135
Quick Access toolbar, 19, 57
Quick Properties palette, 144–145, 201, 243
R
radial dimensional constraint, 396
radians, 64
Radius setting for circles, 110
raster images
attaching, 369–370
exporting, 486–488
incorporating, 368
managing, 370–371
overview, 14, 348, 367–368
RAY command, 97–98
Realistic visual style, 441
Realtime option, Zoom command, 88
real-time panning, 84
receiving files, 407–408, 411–412
Recent Documents feature, 23
RECtang command, 50, 97, 105
rectangular array, 349Redo button, Quick Access menu, 207
REDO command, 206
Reference Manager utility, 412–413
REgen command, 91–92
REgenAll command, 92
regenerating drawings, 91–92
REGENMODE system variable, 92
regular polygons, 97, 106–107
relative Cartesian coordinates, 129, 428
Relative Path option, 364
relative polar coordinates, 129, 428, 429
reloading xrefs, 365
remember icon, 5
REMEMBERFOLDERS system variable, 507
RENDER command, 484
RENDERCROP command, 484
rendering
background, 482–483
lighting, 475–479
materials, 479–482
overview, 442, 474–475
presets, 484
restoring named views, 90–91
Retain radio button, Block Definition dialog box, 335
REVCLOUD command, 110, 118–119
REVERSE command, 177, 202
revision clouds, 118–120, 208revision numbers, 120
revolving 2D objects, 458
Rewind tool, 440
Ribbon. See also specific tabs and options
customizing, 24–25, 512, 514
Drafting & Annotation workspace, 26–27
finding commands on, 105, 110
opening panels on, 24, 25
overview, 19
3D Modeling workspace, 426–427
rollover highlighting, 171
ROLLOVERTIPS system variable, 507
ROtate command, 177, 188–189
Rotation option, ELlipse command, 114
running object snaps, 131, 132, 135–137, 257
S
Save As command, Application menu, 22
Save Changes to Layout check box, Plot dialog box, 303
Save command, Application menu, 22
Save Drawing As dialog box, 77–79
saving drawing setup, 42–43
scale, drawing. See drawing scale
SCale command, 67, 177, 189–190
scale factor, 66, 190, 230, 231, 292
Scale Uniformly check box, Block Definition dialog box, 334scaling
dimensions, 275–277
hatches, 290–292
for plotting, 307–309
scientific units, 63
screening, 311, 312
scroll bars, turning on, 86
scroll wheel, zooming and panning with, 84–85
Search feature, 24
second point, 179
SECTIONPLANE command, 473
SECTIONPLANEJOG command, 473
SECTIONPLANETOBLOCK command, 473
security features, 413–414, 416–417
Select Color dialog box, 44–45, 150–151
Select Linetype dialog box, 151–152
Select Template dialog box, 69, 70, 71
selecting objects, 166–170
Selection Cycling button, 173
selection preview features, 171
selection set, 167, 169–170
selection window, 167–168, 169
selection-first editing, 164
self-scaling annotations, 495sending files
cloud services, 414–417
ETRANSMIT command, 409–411
FTP, 411
on mobile devices, 417–418
overview, 407–409
securing files, 413–414
service bureaus, 318–319
SETBYLAYER command, 144
setup, drawing, 38–43
borders, choosing, 69
custom templates, 77–81
default drawing templates, 69–71
drawing properties, 77
drawing scale, 65–68, 76
drawing scale factor, 66
linetypes, setting, 76
model space setup, 72–77
model space versus paper space layout, 68
overview, 61–62
snap and grid settings, 73–76
units types, choosing, 62–65, 72–73
Shaded visual style, 441
Shaded with Edges visual style, 441
Shades of Gray visual style, 441
shadows, 478
sheet sets, 325, 511–512shortcut icon, customizing, 514
SHX fonts, 227, 493–494
single period (.), 364
single-line text, 232
sketches, 455
Sketchy visual style, 442
SLice command, 463–464
smart breaks, 278
smooth geometric constraint, 387
Snap and Grid tab, Drafting Settings dialog box, 74
Snap mode, 124, 137, 140, 259
snap settings, 41–42, 73–76
social networks links, 21
SOLDRAW command, 473
solid fills, 296
solid modeling
editing, 461–464
overview, 423, 453–454
Solid tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427
SOLPROF command, 473
SOLVIEW command, 473
source object, 200
spacebar, pressing, 12
spaces, 34–35
special effects, 226
Spell Check, 243–244
spherical coordinates, 429SPLine command, 110, 116, 452
splines, 115–117, 452
spotlights, 477
square brackets, 33
stamps, plot, 324
standardization through customization, 294
Start screen, 18
static columns, 242, 243
status bar, 20, 28, 57, 127, 130, 359
STBs (named plot style tables), 313–316
SteeringWheels, 440
STereoLithography (STL) file format, 490–491
Still option, for views, 90
Stretch command, 54–57, 177, 178–179, 183–186
styles
dimension, 266–274
hatches, 293–294
multileaders, 254
plot, 311–316
tables, 247–249
text, 226–230, 233
sub-d modeling, 422
subobject selection, 423, 459
substyles, dimension, 271
SUbtract command, 461, 462
subunits, dimension, 274
Sun Properties palette, 427, 479surface modeling, 422
Surface tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427
Surveyor’s Units, 64
.sv$ file extension, 207
SWEEP command, 457
symbol library, 335
Symbols and Arrows tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes,
272
symmetric geometric constraint, 387
system printers, 213, 305, 325–326system variables
APERTURE, 504
ATTDIA, 344
CULLINGOBJ, 459
CULLINGOBJSELECTION, 459
DEFAULTLIGHTING, 476
DELOBJ, 456
DIMASSOC, 281, 505
DIMSCALE, 273
ELEVATION, 430
LAYLOCKFADECTL, 157
LIGHTINGUNITS, 476
MBUTTONPAN, 85
MEASUREINIT, 64–65, 270
MEASUREMENT, 64–65, 270
MENUBAR, 505
MIRRHATCH, 297
MIRRTEXT, 187, 505–506
MTJIGSTRING, 509
OSNAPZ, 430, 506
overview, 503–504
PDMODE, 122
PDSIZE, 122
PERSPECTIVE, 437
PICKBOX, 506
PLINEREVERSEWIDTHS, 202
REGENMODE, 92REMEMBERFOLDERS, 507
ROLLOVERTIPS, 507
TASKBAR, 508
TOOLTIPS, 507–508
using with dimensions, 267
VISRETAIN, 508
T T
ABLE command, 249–250
Table Style dialog box, 247–248
tables
block, 330
compatibility issues, 495
creating and editing, 249–251
overview, 247
styles, 247–249
TABLESTYLE command, 247
tags, attribute, 342
tangent geometric constraint, 387
TANgent mode, Object Snap, 135
Tangent-Tangent-Radius (Ttr) setting for circles, 111
Tangent-Tangent-Tangent setting for circles, 111
TASKBAR system variable, 508
technical stuff icon, 5
Template Options dialog box, 78templates
converting drawing files to, 79
create new drawing from, 71
creating, 77–81
default, 69–71
dimension styles, 268
folder for, finding, 80–81
overview, 61
for paper space, 220
QNEW command settings, 79
starting drawing from, 39–40
3D modeling, 426
temporary override, 140
Test Block tool, 377text. See also dimensions; mText command
adding to drawing, 224–225
annotative objects, 224, 226, 233, 244–247
block attributes, 340–345
commands for, 232
dimension, editing, 280–281
drawing scale, 230–231
geometric constraints, 388
justification, 232
multiline leaders, 251–254
overview, 223–224
scale and, 66
stretching, 186
styles, 226–230, 233
tables, 247–251
TEXT command, 232–235
TEXT command, 224, 232–235
text fields, 239
text height, 226, 229–231, 236, 272–273
Text Style dialog box, 226, 228–230, 272–273
Text tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 272–273
text window, enlarging, 32
TEXTTOFRONT command, 239
thickness property, 455
thousands delimiter, 12, 16
3D Basics workspace, 4243D modeling
from 2D objects, 455–458
aligning objects, 460
background, 482–483
compatibility issues, 494
coordinate input, 428–429
drawing basic 3D objects, 452–453
editing solids, 461–464
generating 2D drawings from, 466–471
gizmos, working with, 459–460
hardware acceleration, 424, 425
Inventor files, 472–474
lighting, 475–479
materials, 479–482
mirroring, 461
model space viewports, 445–450
modification techniques, 458
object snaps and object snap tracking, 429–430
older commands, 473
orbiting, 437–438
overview, 417–418, 443–445, 451–452, 465–466
point filters, 429
rendering, 442, 474–475, 484
solid modeling, 453–454
SteeringWheels, 440
subobject selection, 423, 459
templates, 4263D Modeling workspace, switching to, 425–426
tools for, 424, 426–427
types of 3D models, 422–423
UCS, managing, 430–436
ViewCube tool, 436, 438–440
viewing capabilities, 436–440, 471–472
viewpoints, 445, 450–451
visual styles, 440–442
3D Modeling workspace, 424, 425–427, 447
3D Object Snap, 125, 429
3D polyline, 452, 453
3D printing, 490–491
3DALign command, 460
3DARRAY command, 461
3DMOVE command, 459–460
3DOrbit, 437–438
3DPOLY command, 452, 453
3DROTATE command, 459–460
3DSCALE command, 459–460
3-Point setting for circles, 111
tiled viewports, 216, 446–450
tip icon, 5
title block, creating, 69
TOLerance command, 274
Tolerances tab, New/Modify Dimension Style dialog boxes, 274
Tool Palettes palette, 339, 379
toolsets, specialized, 512tooltips, 27, 38–39
TOOLTIPS system variable, 507–508
Tour Building wheel, 440
transmittal setups, 410
transparency
of hatches, 296
overview, 148
setting, 153
toggling on/off, 155
TRim command, 177, 194–196
TrueType fonts, 227, 412, 493
2D Wireframe visual style, 441, 451
2-Point setting for circles, 111
Type options, for revision clouds, 119
U
U command, 206
UCS command, 433
UCS dialog box, 433–434, 435
UCS icon, 218, 424, 430–431, 434–435
Undo button, 207
UNDO command, 206
Undo option
COpy command, 182
TRim and EXtend commands, 195
UNIon command, 461, 462
UNISOLATEobjects command, 174units types, 62–65, 72–73
unloading xrefs, 365
user coordinate system (UCS), 128–129, 262, 430–436
user folder, finding, 80–81
user groups, AutoCAD, 501
user interface, 17, 20, 21–22. See also specific user interface elements
user-defined lighting, 475, 476–478
V
values, attribute, 340, 344
variable height, 229–230
VBA programming language, 513
vector files, 14–15, 368, 486
verb-noun editing, 164, 175
vertex, 423
vertical (Y) coordinate, 16
vertical dimensional constraint, 396, 399
vertical geometric constraint, 387, 390–391
View Manager dialog box, 89–91, 483–484
View Object wheel, 440
View panel, Ribbon, 26
View tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427, 450
VIEWBASE command, 467, 471, 472
ViewCube, 86, 436, 438–440, 448–449, 450
VIEWDETAIL command, 474
Viewpoint Presets dialog box, 437, 451
viewpoints, 445, 450–451viewports
freezing layers in, 220
locking, 214, 217
model space, 216, 445–450
paper space, 213–214, 216–218
shape of, 219
Viewports dialog box, 447, 448
VIEWPROJ command, 468, 471
VIEWRES command, 92
views
named, 88–91
overview, 83–84
panning and zooming, 84–86
regenerating drawings, 91–92
3D modeling, 436–440, 471–472
Zoom options, 87–88
VIEWSECTION command, 474
visibility
dynamic blocks, 373–377
of geometric constraints, 388
of objects, 173–174
VISRETAIN system variable, 508
visual styles, 440–442, 448
Visual Styles Manager palette, 427, 442
Visualize tab, 3D Modeling workspace, 427
Wwarning icon, 5
Wblock command, 335
WCS (world coordinate system), 127–131, 431
web resources for AutoCAD, 500–501
weblights, 477
wheel mouse, zooming and panning with, 52, 84–85
width, of polylines, 99, 101–102
window object selection, 168, 169, 170
Window option, Zoom command, 88
Windows Clipboard, 182
Windows metafile (WMF), 487, 488
Windows user folder, finding, 80–81
wireframe models, 422
Wireframe visual style, 442
workspaces, 21, 40
world coordinate system (WCS), 127–131, 431
WPolygon object selection, 170, 172
X
X (horizontal) coordinate, 16
X,Y plane, 428
X,Y separator, 12, 16
XLine command, 97–98
X-ray visual style, 442xrefs
advantages of, 359–360
applications, 366–367
attaching, 360–362
automatic update feature, 360
versus blocks, 359
clipping, 366
editing, 362–363
layers, 362
managing, 365–366
Overlay mode, 361–362
overview, 331, 332, 347–348, 358–360
path settings, 361, 363–365
receiving drawings with, 411–412
Y
Y (vertical) coordinate, 16
YouTube Autodesk channel, 500
Z
Z coordinate, 16, 428
ZIP files, 411
Zoom All command, 179
Zoom command, 41, 85, 87–88
zooming, 52, 83–85, 87–88

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