AutoCAD 2024 3D Modeling

AutoCAD 2024 3D Modeling
اسم المؤلف
Munir M. Hamad
التاريخ
1 فبراير 2024
المشاهدات
241
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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AutoCAD 2024 3D Modeling
Munir M. Hamad
Autodesk Approved Instructor
Preface
About the Book
Chapter 1 AutoCAD 3D Basics
1.1 Recognizing the 3D Environment
1.2 Looking to Your Model in the 3D Environment
1.2.1 Using Preset Views
1.2.2 Using ViewCube
Practice 1-1: AutoCAD 3D Basics
1.3 Orbiting in AutoCAD
1.3.1 Orbit Command
1.3.2 Free Orbit
1.3.3 Continuous Orbit
1.4 Steering Wheel
1.4.1 Zoom Command
1.4.2 Orbit Command
1.4.3 Pan Command
1.4.4 Rewind Command
1.4.5 Center Command
1.4.6 Look Command
1.4.7 Up/Down Command
1.4.8 Walk Command
1.5 Visual Styles
Practice 1-2: Orbit, Steering Wheel, and Visual Styles
1.6 What Is the User Coordinate System (UCS)?
1.7 Creating a New UCS by Manipulating the UCS Icon
1.8 Creating a New UCS Using UCS Command
1.8.1 3-Point Option
1.8.2 Origin Option
1.8.3 X / Y / Z Options
1.8.4 Named Option
1.8.5 The Rest of the Options1.8.6 UCS Icon
1.9 DUCS Command
1.10 Two Facts About UCS and DUCS
Practice 1-3: User Coordinate System
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 2 Creating Solids
2.1 Introduction to Solids
2.2 Creating Solids Using Basic Shapes
2.2.1 Box Command
2.2.2 Cylinder Command
2.2.3 Cone Command
2.2.4 Sphere Command
2.2.5 Pyramid Command
2.2.6 Wedge Command
2.2.7 Torus Command
2.3 Editing Basic Solid Shapes Using Grips
2.4 Editing Basic Solid Shapes Using Quick Properties and Properties
2.5 3D Object SNAP
Practice 2-1: Basic Solid Shapes and 3D Object Snap
2.6 Using Boolean Functions
2.6.1 Union Command
2.6.2 Subtract Command
2.6.3 Intersect Command
2.6.4 Solid History
2.7 Using the Presspull Command
Practice 2-2: Boolean Functions and Presspull
2.8 Subobjects and Gizmo
2.8.1 Culling
2.8.2 Selection Cycling
2.8.3 Selecting Using Preset Views
2.8.4 Using Gizmo
Practice 2-3: Subobjects and Gizmo
Project 2-1-M Mechanical Project Using Metric Units
Project 2-1-I Mechanical Project Using Imperial Units
Project 2-2-M Architectural Project Using Metric Units
Project 2-2-I Architectural Project Using Imperial Units
Project 2-3-M Mechanical Project Using Metric Units
Project 2-3-I Mechanical Project Using Imperial Units
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 3 Creating Meshes
3.1 What Are Meshes?3.2 Mesh Basic Shapes
3.3 Manipulating Meshes Using Subobjects and Gizmo
3.4 Increase/Decrease Mesh Smoothness
Practice 3-1: Mesh Basic Objects, Subobjects, and Gizmo
3.5 Converting 2D Objects to Meshes
3.5.1 Revolved Surface Command
3.5.2 Edge Surface Command
3.5.3 Ruled Surface Command
3.5.4 Tabulated Surface Command
Practice 3-2: Converting 2D Objects to Meshes
3.6 Converting, Refining, and Creasing
3.6.1 Converting Legacy Surfaces or Solids to Meshes
3.6.2 Refining Meshes
3.6.3 Add or Remove Crease
Practice 3-3: Converting, Refining, and Creasing
3.7 Mesh Editing Commands
3.7.1 Split Mesh Face
3.7.2 Extrude Face
3.7.3 Merge Faces
3.7.4 Closing a Hole in a Mesh
3.7.5 Collapse a Face or Edge
3.7.6 Spin Triangular Face
Practice 3-4: Mesh Editing Commands
Project 3-1-M Project Using Metric Units
Project 3-1-I Project Using Imperial Units
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 4 Creating Surfaces
4.1 Introduction to Surfaces
4.2 Creating Planar Surface and Network Surface
4.2.1 Planar Surface
4.2.2 Network Surface
Practice 4-1: Creating Planar and Network Surfaces
4.3 Using Blend, Patch, and Offset Commands
4.3.1 Blend Command
4.3.2 Patch Command
4.3.3 Offset Command
Practice 4-2: Blend, Patch, and Offset Commands
4.4 How to Edit Surfaces
4.4.1 Fillet Command
4.4.2 Trim Command
4.4.3 Untrim Command
4.4.4 Extend Command
4.4.5 Sculpt Command
4.4.6 Editing Surfaces Using the GripsPractice 4-3: How to Edit Surfaces
Practice 4-4: Fillet and Grips Editing
4.5 Project Geometry
4.5.1 Using Project to UCS
4.5.2 Using Project to View
4.5.3 Using Project to 2 Points
Practice 4-5: Project Geometry
4.6 Creating NURBS Surfaces
Practice 4-6: NURBS Creation and Editing
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 5 Creating Complex Solids and Surfaces
5.1 Introduction
5.2 3D Polyline as a Path
5.3 Helix as a Path
5.3.1 Axis Endpoint Option
5.3.2 Turns Option
5.3.3 Turn Height Option
5.3.4 Editing Helix Using Grips
Practice 5-1: Drawing 3D Polyline and Helix
5.4 Using Extrude Command
5.4.1 Create an Extrusion Using Height
5.4.2 Create an Extrusion Using Direction
5.4.3 Create an Extrusion Using Path
5.4.4 Create an Extrusion Using Taper Angle
Practice 5-2-A: Using Extrude Command
Practice 5-2-B: Using Extrude Command-Differentiate Between Direction and Taper Angle
5.5 Using Loft Command
5.5.1 Lofting Using Guides
5.5.2 Lofting Using Path
5.5.3 Lofting Using Cross Sections Only
Practice 5-3: Using Loft Command
5.6 Using Revolve Command
Practice 5-4: Using Revolve Command
5.7 Using Sweep Command
5.7.1 Alignment Option
5.7.2 Base Point Option
5.7.3 Scale Option
5.7.4 Twist Option
Practice 5-5-A: Using Sweep Command
Practice 5-5-B: Using Sweep Command
5.8 Editing Solid and Surfaces Using the Four Commands
5.8.1 Using Grips
5.8.2 Using Quick Properties
5.8.3 Using Properties5.9 DELOBJ System Variable
Project 5-1-M: Project Using Metric Units
Project 5-1-I: Project Using Imperial Units
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 6 Solid Editing Commands
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Extruding Solid Faces
6.3 Tapering Solid Faces
Practice 6-1: Extruding and Tapering Solid Faces
6.4 Moving Solid Faces
6.5 Copying Solid Faces
Practice 6-2: Moving and Copying Solid Faces
6.6 Offsetting Solid Faces
6.7 Deleting Solid Faces
Practice 6-3: Offsetting and Deleting Solid Faces
6.8 Rotating Solid Faces
6.9 Coloring Solid Faces
Practice 6-4: Rotating and Coloring Solid Faces
6.10 Extracting Solid Edges
6.11 Extract Isolines
6.12 Imprinting Solids
6.13 Coloring Solid Edges
6.14 Copying Solid Edges
6.15 Offsetting Solid Edges
Practice 6-5: All Solid Edges Functions
6.16 Separating Solids
6.17 Shelling Solids
Practice 6-6: Separating and Shelling Solid
6.18 Finding Interference Between Solids
Practice 6-7: Finding Interference Between Solids
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 7 3D Modifying Commands
7.1 3D Move, 3D Rotate, and 3D Scale and Subobjects and Gizmo
7.1.1 3D Move Command
7.1.2 3D Rotate Command
7.1.3 3D Scale Command
7.2 Mirroring in 3D
7.2.1 XY, YZ, and ZX Options
7.2.2 3 Points Option
7.2.3 Last Option
7.2.4 Object, Z-axis, View OptionsPractice 7-1: Mirroring in 3D
7.3 Arraying in 3D
Practice 7-2: Arraying in 3D
7.4 Aligning Objects in 3D
7.5 Filleting Solid Edges
7.5.1 Chain Option
7.5.2 Loop Option
7.6 Chamfering Solid Edges
Practice 7-3: Aligning, Filleting, and Chamfering
Project 7-1-M: Project Using Metric Units
Project 7-1-I: Project Using Imperial Units
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 8 Converting and Sectioning
8.1 Introduction to Converting 3D Objects
8.2 Converting 2D and 3D Objects to Solids
8.2.1 Thicken Command
8.2.2 Convert to Solid Command
8.3 Converting 2D and 3D Objects to Surfaces
8.3.1 Convert to Surface Command
8.3.2 Explode Command
8.4 Conversion Between Objects—Conclusion
Practice 8-1: Converting Objects
8.5 Introduction to Sectioning in 3D
8.6 Sectioning Using the Slice Command
Practice 8-2: Slicing Objects
8.7 Sectioning Using the Section Plane Command
8.7.1 Select a Face Method
8.7.2 Draw Section Option
8.7.3 Orthographic Option
8.7.4 Type Option
8.7.5 Section Plane Type Options
8.7.6 Section Plane Grips
8.7.7 Adding Jog to an Existing Section Plane
8.7.8 Live Section Command
8.7.9 Generate Section Command
Practice 8-3: Using Section Plane Command
8.8 Sectioning Using the Flatshot Command
Practice 8-4: Using the Flatshot Command
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 9 Printing
9.1 Named Views and 3D9.2 3D and Viewport Creation
Practice 9-1: View and Viewport with 3D
9.3 Model Documentation—Introduction
9.4 Model Documentation—Create Base View
9.5 Model Documentation—Create Projected View
9.6 Model Documentation—Create Section View
9.7 Model Documentation—Section View Style
9.7.1 Identifier and Arrows Tab
9.7.2 Cutting Plane Tab
9.7.3 View Label Tab
9.7.4 Hatch Tab
9.8 Model Documentation—Create Detail View
9.9 Model Documentation—Detail View Style
9.9.1 Identifier Tab
9.9.2 Detail Boundary Tab
9.9.3 View Label Tab
9.10 Model Documentation—Editing View
9.11 Model Documentation—Editing Components
9.12 Model Documentation—Updating Views
9.13 Model Documentation—Drafting Standards
9.14 Model Documentation—Annotation Monitor
Practice 9-2: Model Documentation
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 10 Cameras and Lights
10.1 Introduction
10.2 How to Create a Camera
10.3 How to Control a Camera
10.3.1 Camera Preview Dialog Box
10.3.2 Grips
10.3.3 Front and Back Clipping Planes
10.3.4 Camera Display and Camera Tool Palette
Practice 10-1: Creating and Controlling Cameras
10.4 Introducing Lights
10.5 Inserting Point Light
10.5.1 Name
10.5.2 Intensity Factor
10.5.3 Status
10.5.4 Photometry
10.5.5 Shadow
10.5.6 Attenuation
10.5.7 Filter Color
10.5.8 Exit
10.5.9 Target Point Light
10.6 Inserting Spot Light10.6.1 Hotspot Option
10.6.2 Falloff Option
10.7 Inserting Distant Light
10.8 Dealing with Sunlight
10.9 Inserting Web Light
10.9.1 Web Option
10.10 Editing Lights
10.11 Dealing with Premade Lights
10.12 What Is “Lights in Model”?
Practice 10-2: Creating and Controlling Lights
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Chapter 11 Material, Rendering, Visual Style, and Animation
11.1 Introducing Materials in AutoCAD
11.2 Material Browser
11.3 Methods to Assign Material to Objects and Faces
11.3.1 Using Drag-and-Drop
11.3.2 After Selecting an Object, Right-Click Material
11.3.3 Using Attach by Layer Command
11.3.4 Removing Assigned Materials
11.4 Material Mapping
11.4.1 Planar Mapping
11.4.2 Box Mapping
11.4.3 Cylindrical and Spherical Mapping
11.4.4 Copying and Resetting Mapping
Practice 11-1: Dealing with Materials
11.5 Create New Material Library and Category
11.6 Create Your Own Material
11.6.1 Reflectivity
11.6.2 Transparency
11.6.3 Cutouts
11.6.4 Self-Illumination
11.6.5 Bump
11.6.6 Tint
Practice 11-2: Creating Your Own Material
11.7 Render in AutoCAD
11.7.1 Render Preset
11.7.2 Render Duration
11.7.3 Lights and Materials
11.8 Render Environment and Exposure
11.8.1 Environment
11.8.2 Exposure
11.8.3 Render Window
11.8.4 Render in Cloud
11.8.5 Render GalleryPractice 11-3: Dealing with Rendering
11.9 What Visual Style Is and How to Create It?
11.9.1 Face Settings
11.9.2 Lighting
11.9.3 Environment Settings
11.9.4 Edge Settings
11.10 3D Graphics Technical Preview
Practice 11-4 Creating Visual Styles
11.11 Animation
Practice 11-5: Creating Animation
Chapter Review
Chapter Review Answers
Index
Contents
Cover page
Half Title page
License
Title page
Copyright
Contents
Preface
About the Book
Chapter 1 AutoCAD 3D Basics
Chapter 2 Creating Solids
Chapter 3 Creating Meshes
Chapter 4 Creating Surfaces
Chapter 5 Creating Complex Solids and Surfaces
Chapter 6 Solid Editing Commands
Chapter 7 3D Modifying Commands
Chapter 8 Converting and Sectioning
Chapter 9 Printing
Chapter 10 Cameras and Lights
Chapter 11 Material, Rendering, Visual Style, and Animation
Index
I਎਄ਅਘ
A
Add crease, 83
Adding jog to an existing section plane, 238–239
Alignment option, 155–156
American lighting units, 290
Animation, 339–342
Annotation monitor, 277–278
Apex point, 285
Appearance panel, 258
Array in 3D, 205–207
Arrows tab, 265
Attach by layer, 310–311
Attenuation, 293
Autodesk library, 309, 316
Axis endpoint option, 137
B
Back clipping planes, 286–287
Base point option, 156
Blend, 105–107
Body, 172
Boolean functions
Intersect, 41
Solid history, 41–43
Subtract, 40–41
Union, 40
Box, 28–29
Box grip, 33
Box mapping, 313–314
Bump, 322
C
Camera
Control of, 285–289
Creation of, 287Camera display, 287
Camera preview dialog box, 285
Camera tool palette, 287–288
Center, 9
Chain option, 209–210
Chamfer solid edges, 211–212
Close hole mesh, 88
Collapse edge, 89
Collapse face, 89
Color
Solid edges, 188
Solid faces, 185
Color selection, 333
Cone, 30
Cone grip, 33
Constraint option, 53
Continuous orbit, 8
Control show, 335
Conversion between objects, 231
Convert to solid, 226–229
Convert to surface, 229–230
Copy
Solid edges, 188–189
Solid faces, 177–178
Copy mapping, 315
Create base view, 257–259
Create detail view, 267–268
Create projected view, 259–260
Create section view, 260–263
Cross sections, lofting using, 148–150
Culling, subobjects, 49
Curvature analysis, 130
Cutouts controls, 321
Cutting plane tab, 266
Cylinder, 29–30
Cylinder grip, 33
Cylindrical mapping, 314
D
Default offset direction, 109
Default view, 258
Delete, 180–181
Delobj system variable, 162
Detail boundary tab, 270
Detail view style, 269–271
Distance option, 211
Distance values, 211
Distant light, insert, 295–296
Down, 10
Draft analysis, 130Drafting standards, 276
Drag-and-drop methods, 310
Draw section option, 234–235
Ducs, 21–22
UCS and, 22
E
Edge, 172
Edge modifiers control, 336
Edge settings, visual style, 335–337
Edge surface, 77
Editing, meshes, 85–90
Editing components, 273–274
Editing helix, using grips, 138–139
Editing lights, 300–301
Editing view, model documentation, 271–273
Edit surfaces, 111–119
Commands
Extend, 114–115
Fillet, 111–112
Sculpt, 115–116
Trim, 112–113
Untrim, 114
Using grips, 116–118
Environment controls, 328–330
Environment settings, visual style, 334
Exit option, 293
Explode, 230
Exposure controls, 329
Extend, 114–115
Extend mode, 115
Extract solid edges, 185
Extract isolines, 186
Extrude
Creating extrusion using
Direction, 142
Height, 141
Path, 142–143
Taper angle, 143
Solid faces, 173–174
Using, 140–143
Extrude mesh face, 87
F
Face method, 234
Face option, 19
Faces
Materials methods of, 309–311
Solid, 177–178Face settings, visual style, 333–334
Face style selection, 333
Falloff option, 295
Field-of-view (FOV), 284
Fillet, 111–112
Fillet solid edges, 208–210
Filter color, 293
Flatshot, 245–247
Fov. See field-of-view
Free orbit, 7
Front clipping planes, 286–287
G
Generate section, 241–244
Generic lighting units, 290
Gizmo, 47–54
Manipulation of meshes using, 73
Grips, 285–286
Editing helix using, 116–117
Edit surfaces using, 101–103
Solid shapes using, editing, 33–36
Solid using, 159–162
H
Hatch tab, 267
Helix
Button, 136
As path, 136–139
Axis endpoint option, 137
Editing helix using grips, 138–139
Turn height option, 138
Turns option, 137
Highlight intensity, 334
Hotspot option, 295
I
Identifier tab, 270
Imprinting solids, 187
Incremental elevation, 206
Intensity factor, 291
Interfere in solid, 194–196
International lighting units, 290
Intersect, 41
Intersection edges control, 336
L
Last option, 204Legacy solids/surfaces, conversion of meshes, 80–82
Lighting quality selection, 333
Lighting settings, visual style, 334
Lights
In model, definition of, 302–303
Overview, 290
Render in AutoCAD, 327
Live section, 239–240
Loft, solid tab, 145–151
Lofting using guides, 147
Lofting using path, 148
Look, 9
Loop option, 210
M
Material browser, 308–309
Material library, and category, creation of, 316–317
Material mapping, 311–316
Materials
Creation of, 318–324
Render in AutoCAD, 324–327
Using in AutoCAD, 307
Merge faces, 87–88
Meshes, 71–100
Basic shapes of, 72–73
Conversion of 2D objects, 76–80
Edge surface, 77
Revolved surface, 76–77
Ruled surface, 78
Tabulated surface, 78–79
Converting, refining, and creasing, 80–85
Editing, 85–91
Close hole, 88
Collapse face or edges, 89
Extrude face, 87
Merge faces, 87–88
Spin triangular face, 89–90
Split mesh face, 86
Levels of, 74
Refine, 82
Using subobjects and gizmo, manipulation, 73
Model documentation
Annotation monitor, 277–278
Create base view, 257–259
Create detail view, 267–268
Create projected view, 259–260
Create section view, 260–261
Detail view style, 269–271
Drafting standards, 276
Editing components, 273–274Editing view, 271–273
Section view style, 263–267
Updating views, 274–275
Monochrome color, 334
Move
Solid faces, 176–177
Move gizmo, 52
N
Named option, 17–18
Name, point light, 291
Network surfaces, 103–104
Nurbs surface, 101
Creation of, 122–130
O
Object options, 19
Objects
Conversion between, 231
Materials methods of, 309–311
3D
Align, 207
Convert to, 225
To solids, convert, 226–227
To surfaces, convert, 229–230
2D
Conversion of, 76–79
To solids, convert, 227–229
To surfaces, convert, 229–230
Occluded edges control, 335
Offset, 109–110
Solid edges, 185–190
Solid faces, 179
Opacity, 334
Orbiting, 7, 9
In AutoCAD, 6–8
Origin option, 16
Orthographic option, 235
OSNAP, 22
P
Pan, 9
Patch, 107–108
Path
3D polyline as a, 136
Helix as a, 136–139
Photometric lights, 290, 301
Photometric web, 300Photometry, 292
Planar mapping, 312–313
Planar surface, 102–103
Point light, insert, 290–291
Points option, 204
Polyline edit, 136
Premade lights, 301
Preset views
Autocad, 2–5
Subobjects, 51
Presspull, 43–47
Previous option, 20
Procedural surfaces, 101
Project geometry, 120–121
2 Points, 121
Ucs, 120
View, 121
Properties, editing solid shapes using, 36–37
Properties palette, 161
For light, 298–299
Pyramid, 31
Pyramid grip, 34
Q
Quick properties, 36–37
R
Rebuild, 123
Refine mesh, 82–83
Reflectivity properties, 320
Remove crease, 83–84
Remove materials, 311
Render, 324–327
Render duration, 327
Render environment, and exposure, 328–330
Render preset, 326
Render window, 330
Reset mapping, 315
Revolve, 151–152
Revolved surface, 76–77
Rewind, 9
Right-click material, 310
Rotate
Solid faces, 182–183
Rotate gizmo, 52
Ruled surface, 78
SScale gizmo, 52
Scale option, 157
Sculpt, 115–116
Section plane, 234–244
Add jog to existing section plane, 239
Face method, 234
Generate section, 241–244
Live section, 239–240
Orthographic option, 235
Section option, 234–235
Section plane grips, 237–238
Section plane grips, 237–238
Section plane type options, 236–237
Type option, 236
Section view style, 263–267
Selection cycling, subobjects, 50
Self-illumination, 321–322
Separate, 191–192
Shadow, 292
Shadow display, 334
Shapes, meshes, 72–73
Shell, 192–193
Silhouette edges control, 336
Sky effect, 297
Slice, 232–233
Solid edges
Color, 188
Copy, 188–189
Offset, 189–190
Solid editing, overview of, 171–200
Solid faces
Color, 183–184
Copy, 177–178
Delete, 180–181
Extrude, 173–174
Move, 176–177
Offset, 179
Rotate, 182–183
Taper, 174–175
Solids
Convert 2D and 3D objects to, 226–229
Delobj system variable, 162
Editing shapes using
Grips, 33–36
Quick properties and properties, 36–37
3D object SNAP, 37–40
3D polyline as path, 136
Extract isolines, 186
Extrude, 140–143
Finding interfere in, 194–196Grips, 160–161
Helix as a path, 136–139
History of, 41–421
Imprint, 187
Loft, 145–151
Overview of, 27, 135–136
Properties, 161
Revolve, 151–152
Separate, 191–192
Shell, 191–192
Subobjects and Gizmo, 47–54
Sweep, 153–157
Using basic shapes, 28–32
Using boolean functions, 40–43
Using presspull, 43–46
Sphere, 31
Sphere grip, 34
Spherical mapping, 314
Spin triangular face, 89–90
Split mesh face, 86
Spot light, insert, 294–295
Steering wheel, 8–10
Stretch mode, 115
Subobjects, 47–54
Culling, 49
Manipulation of meshes using, 73
Preset views, 51
Selection cycling, 50
Subtract, 40–41
Sunlight effect in 3d model, 296–298
Surface. See solids
Surfaces
Align, 207
Blend, patch, and offset, 105–110
Convert 2d and 3d objects to, 229–230
Convert to, 225
Edit surfaces, 111–119
In AutoCAD, 80
NURBS surface, 122–130
Planar and network, 102–103
Project geometry, 120–121
To solids, convert, 226–229
To surfaces, convert, 229–230
Sweep, using, 153–158
Alignment, 155–156
Base point, 156
Scale, 157
Twist, 157
TTabulated surface, 78–79
Taper, solid faces, 174–176
Target point light, 293
Thicken, 226
3D
And viewport creation, 253–255
Array, 205–206
Creation, 225–282
Graphics technical preview, 337–338
Named views and, 251–253
Section in, 232–233
3D environment
Autocad orbiting, 6–8
Ducs, 21–22
Model in, 2–6
Recognition of, 1–2
Steering wheel, 8–10
User coordinate system (UCS), 12–13, 15–21
And DUCS, 22
Icon, 13–15
Visual styles, 10–11
3D mirror, 203–204
3D modify, 201–204
Align 3D objects, 207–208
Array in 3D, 205–206
Chamfer solid edges, 211
Fillet solid edges, 208–210
Mirror in 3D, 203–204
3D move, 202
3D rotate, 202
3D scale, 203
3D objects. See surfaces
3D object SNAP, 37–39
3D polyline as a path, 136
3-Point option, 15–16
Tint material, 322
Torus, 32
Torus grips, 35
Transparency properties, 321
Trim, 112–113
Turn height option, 138
Turns option, 137
Twist option, 157
2D objects
Conversion of, 76–79
To solids, convert, 226–229
To surfaces, convert, 229–230
2D orthographic views, 3
2 Points, using project geometry to, 121
Type option, 236U
Ucs. See user coordinate system
Union, 40
Untrim, 114
Up, 10
Update views, 274–275
User coordinate system (UCS), 5, 12–13, 17–24
And DUCS, 22
Icon, manipulation, 13–15
Using project geometry to, 120–121
V V
iewcube, AutoCAD, 4–6
View label tab, 266–267, 271
View option, 21, 204
Viewport creation, 253–255
Views, using project geometry to, 121
Visual styles, 10–12
W W
alk, 10
Wcs. See world coordinate system
Web light, insert, 298–229
Web option, 299–300
Wedge, 32
Wedge grip, 34
World coordinate system (WCS), 5
World option, 18
X
X option, ucs, 16
Xy options, 204
Y
Y option, ucs, 16
Yz options, 204
Z
Z-axis option, 16
Z-axis vector option, 18
Zebra analysis, 129
Zoom, 9
Z option, UCS, 16
Zx options, 204

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