Auto Fundamentals

Auto Fundamentals
اسم المؤلف
Martin T. Stockel , Chris Johanson
التاريخ
3 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
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Auto Fundamentals
How and why of the design, construction, and operation of automobiles. Applicable to all makes and models.
Martin W. Stockel
Automotive Writer
Martin T. Stockel
Automotive Writer
Chris Johanson
ASE Certified Master Automobile Technician
Contents
Chapter 1 Building an Engine 11
What Is an Engine? 11
Internal Combustion Engine / Building an Engine on
Paper / What to use for Fuel / The Basic Force of an
Engine / Trapping the Explosion / A Simple Engine /
Name the Parts / Fastening the Parts / Lengthen the
Piston / Getting Fuel into the Engine / Removable
Cylinder Head / Fuel Intake and Exhaust Passages /
Valves
Four-Stroke Cycle 16
Vacuum Is the Clue / You Already Have a Vacuum
Pump / Where Is Your Vacuum Pump / Stroke No. 1—
The Intake Stroke / Stroke No. 2—The Compression
Stroke / Stroke No. 3—The Power Stroke / Stroke No.
4—The Exhaust Stroke / Completed Cycle / Cycle
Repeated
What Opens and Closes the Valves? 20
Camshaft / Valve Lifter / Camshaft Speed / Turning the
Camshaft / Timing the Valves
The Flywheel 23
Engine Will Run Smoothly
Basic Engine Completed 24
Chapter 2 Design, Construction,
Application of Engine Components 27
The Engine Block 27
Cylinders 28
Cylinder Sleeves
Pistons 29
Piston Materials / Piston Expansion Problems / Partial
Skirt Piston / Piston Temperature / Piston Construction /
Piston Head Shape / Piston Rings / Types of Rings /
Piston Pins
Connecting Rods 39
Connecting Rod Construction / Connecting Rod
Bearings
Crankshaft 41
Main Bearings / Crankshaft Throws / Crank Vibration
Vibration Damper 42
Balance Shafts / Drilled, Ground, and Polished
Timing Gear or Sprocket 43
Flywheel 44
4
Camshaft 44
Valves 45
Valve Seats / Valve Guides / Valve Springs
Mechanical Valve Lifters 47
Hydraulic Valve Lifters 47
Turning Reduces Valve Wear / Valve Timing / Variable
Valve Timing
Cylinder Head 50
Oil Pan 50
Timing Gear Cover 50
Gaskets 50
Sealants 50
Seals 51
Other Parts 51
Chapter 3 Engine Classification,
Parts Identification 55
Cycle Classification 55
Two-Stroke Cycle Engine
Valve Location Classifications 56
L-Head, T-Head, and F-Head Designs / l-Head /
Overhead Valve Adjustment / Valve-to-Piston Clearanc?
/ Detonation and Preignition
Combustion Chamber Design 60
Ricardo Combustion Chamber / Hemispherical
Combustion Chamber / Wedge Shape Combustion
Chamber
Cylinder Classification 62
Inline Engine / V-Type Engine / Horizontal-Opposed
Engines
Firing Order 62
Cooling Classification 62
Fuel Classification 63
Engine Mounting 63
Alternative Engines 63
Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines /
Rotary Engines / Miller-Cycle Engines / Variable
Compression Engines / Natural Gas Engines
Experimental Engines 65
New Technologies 68
Hybrid Vehicles / Fuel Cell Vehicles
Identification and Classification 685
Chapter 4 Safety, Lab Procedures 73
Preventing Accidents 73
Kinds of Accidents / How Accidents Happen / Results
of Accidents
Keep Safety in Mind 74
Reducing the Possibility of Accidents / Dressing Safely
for Work / Keep a Neat Shop / Identifying Unsafe
Conditions / Waste Chemical Disposal / Follow Proper
Work Procedures / Do the Job Right
Chapter 5 Tool Identification and Use 81
What to Look for in a Tool 81
Tool Material / Tool Construction
Tool Handling and Storage 81
Types of Tools 81
Hammers / Chisels / Punches / Files / Drills / Reamers /
Impact Wrench / Hacksaws / Vise / Taps / Dies /
Cleaning Tools / Pliers / Screwdrivers / Wrenches /
Other Useful Wrenches / Torque Wrenches /
Sockets and Ratchets / Pullers / Soldering Equipment
Measuring Tools 92
Micrometers / Inside and Outside Calipers / Dividers /
Dial Indicator / Dial Calipers / Feeler Gauges / Electrical
Testers / Pressure Gauges / Other Diagnostic
Equipment
Chapter 6 Engine Tests and
Measurements 101
What is Horsepower? 101
Horsepower Formula / Potential Horsepower / Thermal
Efficiency / Mechanical Efficiency / Practical Efficiency /
Indicated Horsepower / Brake Horsepower / Gross and
Net Horsepower Ratings / Frictional Horsepower /
Torque / Torque and Brake Horsepower Are Not the
Same
Volumetric Efficiency 105
Engine Size (Displacement) 105
Cylinder Bore and Piston Stroke
Compression Ratio 106
Chapter 7 Electrical System
Fundamentals 109
Basic Electricity 109
The Electron Theory / Conventional Theory / Matter /
Atoms / Electrical Current / Current Flow / Voltage /
Electrical Resistance / Test Meters / Materials Used for
Conductors / Insulators / Electrical Circuits /
Series-Parallel Circuit / Vehicle Chassis Can Act as a
Ground Wire / Ohm’s Law / Magnetism / Magnetic
Domains
Basic Automotive Electronics 116
Diodes / Transistors
Chapter 8 Ignition Systems 121
High Voltage Is Necessary 121
Primary Circuit 122
Battery / Ignition Switch / Resistors / Ignition Coil /
Methods of Current Interruption / Distributorless Ignition
System / Direct Ignition System / Primary Circuit Complete
Secondary Circuit 129
Spark Plug Construction / Spark Plug Heat Range /
Resistor Spark Plugs / Directional Spark Plugs / Spark
Plug Injectors / Distributor Cap / Rotor / Spark Plug Wires
Ignition Timing and Advance 134
Setting Basic Timing / Timing Advance Mechanisms
Chapter 9 Fuel Injection Systems 141
Providing the Correct Air-Fuel Mixture 141
Fuel Injection 141
Direct and Indirect Injection / Mechanical and Electronic
Injection / Computer-Controlled Electronic Fuel Injection
System
Pulse Fuel Injection 143
Timed and Non-Timed Pulse Fuel Injection
Types of Pulse Fuel Injection Systems 143
Throttle Body Injection System / Multiport Fuel Injection
Pulse Fuel Injection System Components 144
Air Induction System / Fuel Delivery System / Engine
Control Computer / Electronic Sensors
Continuous Fuel Injection System 150
Fuel Flow Control / Complete Air-Fuel Control Unit
Diesel Fuel Injection 154
Diesel Fuel / Overall Diesel Fuel System / Injector
Pump Types / Distributor Type Injection Pump / Other
Pump Features / Diesel Injector Types / Glow Plugs and
Intake Air Heaters / Diesel Engine Electronics
Superchargers and Turbochargers 160
Superchargers / Turbochargers
Chapter 10 Fuel Supply and
Carburetors 165
Fuel Supply System 165
Fuel Tank / Gasoline Pickup Tube / How Gasoline
Leaves the Tank / Electric Fuel Pump / Fuel Filter / Fuel
Lines / Vapor Lock Eliminators
Carburetors 171
Build a Carburetor / Basic Carburetor Is Complete /
Correcting the Remaining Faults / Carburetor Circuits /
Intake Manifold Design
Air Cleaners 185
Air Cleaner Element
Carburetor Classifications 185
Airflow Direction / Number of Throats6
Chapter 11 Cooling Systems 193
The Need for a Cooling System 193
Two Methods of Cooling 193
Liquid-Cooled Engines / First Job Complete
Air-Cooled Engines 206
Moving The Air / A Thermostat Is Sometimes Used
Chapter 12 Lubrication Systems 211
The Need for a Lubrication System 211
Friction / How Friction is Reduced / Bearing
Construction and Friction
Engine Oil 212
Engine Oil Has Several Jobs / Refining Engine Oil / Oil
Viscosity / Engine Oil Service Classification / Oil
Change Intervals
Engine Lubrication Systems 215
How Oil Works / Three Types of Lubrication Systems /
Components of the Pressure-Splash System / Pressure
Relief Valve / Oil Galleries and Lines / Oil Enters
Bearing / Hydraulic Valve Lifters
Oil Filtration 221
Oil Filters
Crankcase Ventilation 223
Oil Seals 224
Oil Pressure Indicators 224
Dipstick 225
Cooling the Oil 226
Chapter 13 Exhaust Systems 229
Purpose of the Exhaust System 229
Exhaust System Designs 229
Single Exhaust System / Dual Exhaust System
Exhaust System Components 230
Exhaust Manifolds / Exhaust Pipes / Catalytic
Converters / Mufflers / Resonators / Tailpipes /
Hangers / Heat Shields
Exhaust System Materials 233
Sealing the Exhaust System 234
Exhaust Pipe-to-Manifold Connections / Pipe-to-Pipe
Connections / Other Connections
Chapter 14 Emission Systems 239
The Need for Emission Controls 239
Emission Control Systems 239
Engine Modifications and Controls 239
Engine Modifications / Fuel System Controls / Spark
Timing Controls / Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
External Cleaning Systems 244
Air Injection System / Pulse Air Injection / Catalytic
Converter / Multiple Converters / Diesel Catalytic
Converters
Fuel Vapor Controls 251
Positive Crankcase Ventilation / Evaporation Control
System (ECS)
Computer-Controlled Emission Systems 255
Emission Systems Caution 256
Chapter 15 Computer Systems 259
Computers on Modern Vehicles 259
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) / Computer Control
Operation / Input Sensors / Output Devices / Ignition
Devices / On-Board Diagnostic Systems
Static Electricity 273
Electromagnetic Interference
Chapter 16 Charging and Starting
Systems 277
Battery 277
Battery Cells / Battery Construction / Battery Chemical
Action / Parasitic Battery Loads / Identifying Battery
Terminals / Dry-Charged Battery
Charging System 282
Alternator / Alternator Control
Starter System 290
Starter Motor Principles / Starter Motor Construction /
Starter Drive System / Starter Solenoid / Starter
Actuating Switches
42-Volt Electrical Systems 298
Integral Starter Alternators 298
Chapter 17 Chassis Electrical 303
Chassis Wiring 303
Wire Sizes / Wiring Harness / Many Circuits / Color
Coding / Terminal Blocks and Junction Blocks
Circuit Protection Devices 306
Vehicle Lights and Light Switches 307
Headlights / Stoplights and Switches / Turn Signals anc
Switches / Backup Lights and Switches / Dashboard
Lights / Convenience Lights
Chassis Mounted Solenoids and Relays 312
Motor Control Relays / Trunk Release Solenoids /
Power Door Lock Solenoids and Switches
Horns and Horn Relays 313
Rear Window and Mirror Defrosters 313
Chassis Mounted Motors 313
Windshield Wiper Motors and Controls / Power
Window, Tailgate, Sliding Door, and Sunroof Motors /
Convertible Top Motors and Switches / Power Antenna
Motors and Switches
Electric Gauges 316
Cruise Control 316
Vehicle Speed Sensor / Operator Controls and Contrc
Module / Throttle Actuator / Adaptive Cruise Control
Air Bag Systems 316
Diagnostic Control Module / Impact Sensors / Coil
Assembly and Inflator Module / Air Bag Operation /
Side Air BagsChapter 18 Engine Clutches 323
Clutch Purpose 323
Clutch Construction 323
Flywheel / Clutch Disc / Pressure Plate Assembly /
Clutch Release Lever Operating Mechanism / Clutch
Housing and Input Shaft (Clutch Shaft) / Complete
Assembly / Other Types of Clutches
Clutch Operation 329
Clutch Pedal Linkage 330
Mechanical Linkage / Hydraulic Linkage / Self-Adjusting
Clutch
Clutch Cooling 332
Riding the Clutch / Will a Clutch Explode?
Chapter 19 Manual Transmissions
and Transaxles 335
Manual Transmissions and Transaxles 335
The Engine Needs Help 335
How is Torque Multiplied / Torque Multiplication through
Gears / Transmission Cases / Transmission
Construction / Synchronizing Mechanism /
Transmission Operation / Four-Speed Transmission /
Five-Speed Transmission
Manual Transaxles 346
Transaxle Cases / Transaxle Gear and Synchronizer
Operation / Five-Speed Transmission and Transaxle /
Transmission and Transaxle Shift Mechanism / Manual
Transmission and Transaxle Lubrication
Speed Shifting 351
Chapter 20 Four-Wheel Drive 355
-urposes of the Four-Wheel Drive 355
Four-Wheel Drive Components 355
Four-Wheel Drive Designs 355
Transfer Case 355
Full-Time Transfer Case / Full-Time Transfer Case
Operation / Part-Time Transfer Case / Part-Time
Transfer Case Selection Control / Transfer Case
Lubrication
Locking Hubs 363
Chapter 21 Automatic Transmissions
and Transaxles 367
– ‘ansmissions and Transaxles 367
Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Components
“ orque Converter 369
Building a Torque Converter / Stator / Torque Converter
Operation / Torque Multiplication Curve / Lockup Torque
Converters
3lanetary Gearsets 373
Torque Increase / Planetary Gearsets in Automatic
Transmissions
Holding Members 376
Bands / Multiple Disc Clutch / Overrunning Clutches
Hydraulic Control System 380
Fluid Pump / Control Valves / Simple Hydraulic System /
Transmission and Transaxle Shifting / Complete Control
Circuit / Manual Shift Programs / Transmission Case
Transmission Lubrication 391
Fluid Filter
Fluid Cooling 391
Chapter 22 Axles and Drives 395
Rear Wheel Drive Shafts 395
Drive Shafts / Drive Shaft Must Be Flexible / Universal
Joint / Slip Yoke / How the Wheels Drive the Vehicle /
Hotchkiss Drive / Universal Joint Can Cause
Fluctuating Shaft Speed
Constant Velocity (CV) Axles 399
CV Axle Shafts / Types of CV Joints / CV Joint Boots
Rear-Wheel Drive Axle Assemblies 402
Rear-Wheel Drive Axle Components 403
Axle Housing / Solid Axles / Independent Axles / Types
of Axles / Differential Construction / Ring and Pinion /
Differential Operation / Differential Carrier and Bearings /
Limited-Slip Differential / Ring and Pinion Adjustments /
Gear Ratio / Axle Lubrication / Transaxle Differential
Assembly
Four-Wheel Drive Front Drive Axles 415
Front Axle Steering Provision
Chapter 23 Brakes 419
Hydraulic Basics 419
Air Is Compressible, Liquids Are Not / Liquids Can
Transmit Motion and Force / Liquids Can Increase
Force / Liquids Can Decrease Force / Hydraulic
Principles in Vehicle Brake Systems / Brake Fluid
Master Cylinder 421
Master Cylinder Construction / Dual Brake System /
Quick Take-Up Master Cylinder / Master Cylinder
Operation
Brake System Hydraulic Control Valves 426
Proportioning Valve / Height Sensing Proportioning
Valve / Disc Brake Metering Valve / Pressure
Differential Switch / Combination Valve / Brake Lines /
Brake Hoses
Disc Brake Calipers 430
Caliper Operation
Wheel Cylinders 431
Wheel Cylinder Construction / Wheel Cylinder
Operation / Hydraulic System Failure / Hydraulic
System Must Be Free of Air / Hydraulic System Vapor
Lock
Brake Friction Members 433
Coefficient of Friction / Friction Linings / Brake Fade
Disc Brake Assembly 434
Brake Pad Construction / Braking Ratio / Backing Plate8
Drum Brake Assembly 435
Brake Shoe Assembly / Brake Drum / Drum Brake
Operation / Drum Brake Arrangement / Self-Adjusting
Brakes / Parking Brakes
Power Brake Systems 439
Vacuum-Assisted Power Booster 439
Vacuum Power Booster Construction / Vacuum Power
Booster Operation / Other Vacuum Booster Types /
Vacuum Reservoir / Booster Failure
Hydraulic Pressure-Operated Power Booster 442
Hydraulic Power Booster Operation / Hydraulic
Accumulator
Anti-Lock Brake Systems (ABS) 444
Anti-Lock Brake System Components / Anti-Lock Brake
Operation
Traction Control Systems 445
Brake Lights 448
Chapter 24 Suspension Systems 453
The Need for a Suspension System 453
Sprung Weight / Unsprung Weight
Suspension System Components 453
Vehicle Frames
Springs 455
Leaf Springs / Coil Springs
Shock Absorbers 457
Shock Absorber Control Action / Shock Absorber
Construction / Shock Absorber Operation
Air Shock Absorbers 459
Control Arms and Struts / Ball Joints / Stabilizer Bars
Front Suspension Systems 463
Conventional Independent Front Suspension 463
Coii Spring Front Suspension / Torsion Bar Front
Suspension / MacPherson Strut Front Suspension /
Solid Axle Front Suspension
Rear Suspension Systems 468
Solid Rear Axle Suspensions / Independent Rear
Suspensions
Suspension Lubrication 469
Automatic Level Control 471
Automatic Level Control Operation / Air Compressor /
Height Control Valve
Computerized Ride Control Systems 474
Chapter 25 Steering Systems 479
Steering System 479
Spindle and Steering Arm Assembly
Steering Linkage 480
Parallelogram Linkage / Parallelogram Component
Arrangement / Rack-and-Pinion Linkage /Four-Wheel
Steering Systems
Steering Wheel, Steering Shaft, and Steering Gear 485
Steering Wheel / Steering Shaft / Steering Gear /
Manual Rack-and-Pinion Steering Gear
Power Steering 489
Road Feel / Power Steering Components /
Self-Contained Power Steering Gear Componei
Inline Unit with Torsion Bar and Rotating Spool
Rack-and-Pinion Power Steering / Power Steeri
Pumps / Power Steering Hoses and Tubing / Pc
Steering Systems Can Be Operated Manually /
Steering Fluids / Electronic Steering Control / E
Power Steering Systems
Chapter 26 Wheels and Tires 503
Wheels 503
Steel Wheels / Custom Wheels / Wheel Rim Siz
Wheel Lug Bolts and Nuts
Wheel Hubs and Bearings 505
Wheel Bearings / Bearing Retaining Devices
Tires 506
Tire Construction / Tire Rating Information / Tire
Grading / Special Service Tires / Determining th
Correct Tire for a Vehicle / Tire Valves / Tire Pres
Important / Tire Rotation / Tire Runout and Bala!
High Speeds and Overloading Produce Heat an
Excessive Wear
Chapter 27 Wheel Alignment 515
Purpose of Wheel Alignment 515
Wheel Alignment Angles 515
Types of Wheel Alignment / Alignment Measurer
Values / Caster / Camber / Steering Axis Inclinat
Toe / Toe-Out on Turns / Slip Angles
Steering Geometry 520
Alignment Adjustments / Thrust Angle / Front Wf
Adjustments / Rear Wheel Adjustment
Tire Wear Patterns and Alignment 526
Alignment Equipment 526
Check for Worn Parts before Alignment
Other Factors That Can Affect Alignment 528
Chapter 28 Air Conditioning and
Heating 531
Purposes of Automotive Air Conditioning 531
Principles of Refrigeration 531
What Is Cooling? / Effects of Heat / Transference
Heat / Conduction / Convection / Radiation / Hea
Transfer Is From Hot to Cold / States of Matter / 1
Heat / Pressure-Temperature Relationship / Type
Refrigerant
How the Refrigeration System Works 534
Types of Refrigeration Systems
Major Components of the Air Conditioning System
Compressor / Basic Compressor Designs / Press
Relief Valve / Compressor Magnetic Clutch /
Condenser / Refrigerant Flow Restrictor / Evapor
Blower Motor / Lines and Hoses / Receiver-Dehyc
Accumulator / Evaporator Pressure Controls9
Service Valves 546
Refrigerant Oil 546
Refrigerant Handling Precautions 548
Retrofitting 548
Heater Systems 548
Air Distribution and Control 548
Cabin Filters
Heater-Air Conditioning Control Systems 550
Wiring and Vacuum Systems
3everage Coolers 550
Chapter 29 ASE Certification 555
Reasons for ASE Tests 555
Applying for the ASE Tests 555
Taking the ASE Test 557
Test Question Examples
Test Results 557
Recertification Tests 558
Chapter 30 Career Opportunities 561
A Vast Field 561
Types of Automotive Service Careers 561
Light Repair Technician / Heavy Repair Technician /
Areas of Specialization / Supervisory Positions / Small
Shop Technician / Overall Job Picture
Working Conditions 563
Wages 563
Working Hours 564
Availability of Employment 564
How Does a Person Become an
Automotive Technician 564
Stay in High School / What to Take While in School /
Use Your Counselor and Instructors / Studies After
Graduation / Vocational Schools and Colleges /
Apprentice Programs
Additional Training Information 566
Plan Your Career Early 567
Keep Up-to-Date 567
Conversion Tables 569
Dictionary of Automotive Terms 577
Acknowledgments 597
Index 599
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