ASM Metals Handbook Vol 21 Composites

ASM Metals Handbook Vol 21 Composites
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ASM International Handbook Committee
28 سبتمبر 2015

ASM Metals Handbook Vol 21 Composites
ASM International Handbook Committee
It should be apparent with just a quick glance through this Volume that a great deal of technical progress has
been made since the first edition was published in 1987 (as Engineered Materials Handbook, Volume 1). Much
of the earlier promise of high performance organic-matrix composites (OMCs) has been fulfilled. These
materials are now the preferred design solution for an expansive scope of applications. Earlier concerns related
to high cost and marginal manufacturability have been satisfactorily addressed through high volume and
innovative design and manufacturing, including extensive use of unitized design and construction. A clear
example of the success in these areas is illustrated by the growing use of high-performance composites in the
commodity applications of civil infrastructure. Nonetheless, cost and manufacturability continue to be areas of
vigorous development and hold hope for significant future advancements, along with the development of
composite materials with higher specific properties, higher operating temperatures, and improved
supportability. One can expect to see broad advances in innovative structural concepts and certification
methods in the future.
The progress in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) has been equally remarkable. Although only marginal
coverage was warranted in the first edition, MMCs now represent a significant material option in the
international marketplace. The world market for MMCs was over 2.5 million kg (5.5 million pounds) in 1999,
and an annual growth rate of over 17% has been projected for the next several years. Significant applications
are in service in the aeronautical, aerospace, ground transportation, thermal management/electronic packaging,
and recreation industries. The ability to offer significant improvements in structural efficiency and to excel in
several other functional areas, including thermal management and wear, and to utilize existing metalworking
infrastructure have aided this progress. Continued future extension into both new and existing markets is
While ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) technology is still largely centered in the research and development
phase, significant advancements have been made. Some commercial applications now exist, and strategies for
growing market insertion are being pursued. The traditional motivation of structural performance and
environmental resistance at the highest application temperatures continue to provide incentive for development.
Recent important research accomplishments provide growing optimism that significant aeropropulsion
structural applications will be fielded in the coming decade.
The primary objective of ASM Handbook, Volume 21, Composites is to provide a comprehensive, practical,
and reliable source of technical knowledge, engineering data, and supporting information for composite
materials. Coverage of OMCs and MMCs is provided in a balanced fashion that reflects the maturity of each
material class. Given the current status of CMC materials, less coverage is provided, but it, too, is focused in
areas of current industrial importance. This Handbook is intended to be a resource volume for nonspecialists
who are interested in gaining a practical working knowledge of the capabilities and applications of composite
materials. Thus, coverage emphasizes well-qualified information for materials that can be produced in
quantities and product forms of engineering significance. This Volume is not intended to be a presentation of
fundamental research activities, although it certainly provides an important reference for scientists engaged in
the development of new composite materials. The full range of information of importance to the practical
technologist is provided in this Volume, including topics of constituent materials; engineering mechanics,
design, and analysis; manufacturing processes; post-processing and assembly; quality control; testing and
certification; properties and performance; product reliability, maintainability, and repair; failure analysis;
recycling and disposal; and applications.
This new edition builds on the success of the version published as Volume 1 of the Engineered Materials
Handbook. Information on OMCs has been updated to reflect advancements in this technology field, including
improvements in low cost manufacturing technologies and significantly expanded applications in areas such as
infrastructure. Progress in MMCs has been particularly dramatic since the previous edition, and new
information on these materials provides an up-to-date comprehensive guide to MMC processing, properties,
applications, and technology. CMCs also have entered service in limited applications since the previous edition,
and the coverage of these materials reflects this progress. These three classes of composites are covered in each
Section of the Volume as appropriate to provide a unified view of these engineered materials and to reduce
redundancies in the previous edition.
We would like to offer our personal, heartfelt appreciation to the Section Chairpersons, article authors,
reviewers, and ASM staff for sharing both their expertise and extensive efforts for this project
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