ASM Metals Handbook Vol 01 Properties and Selection Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys

ASM Metals Handbook Vol 01 Properties and Selection Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys
اسم المؤلف
ASM International Handbook Committee
التاريخ
19 يناير 2016
المشاهدات
التقييم
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ASM Metals Handbook Vol 01 Properties and Selection Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys
Table of Contents
Section Features
Click to Expand or Collapse Front Matter
Front Matter
Front Matter
Preface
Preface
Table of Contents
Interactive Graphs
Interactive Phase Diagrams and Graphs
Cast Irons
Click to Expand or Collapse 1. Classification and Basic Metallurgy of Cast Iron
1. Classification and Basic Metallurgy of Cast Iron
1. Classification and Basic Metallurgy of Cast Iron
1.1 Classification
1.1 Classification
Click to Expand or Collapse 1.2 Principles of the Metallurgy of Cast Iron
1.2 Principles of the Metallurgy of Cast Iron
1.2 Principles of the Metallurgy of Cast Iron
Click to Expand or Collapse 1.3 Malleable Irons
1.3 Malleable Irons
1.3 Malleable Irons
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse 2. Gray Iron
2. Gray Iron
2. Gray Iron
2.1 Classes of Gray Iron
2.1 Classes of Gray Iron
2.2 Applications
2.2 Applications
2.3 Castability
2.3 Castability
2.4 Microstructure
2.4 Microstructure
2.5 Section Sensitivity
2.5 Section Sensitivity
2.6 Prevailing Sections
2.6 Prevailing Sections
2.7 Test Bar Properties
2.7 Test Bar Properties
2.8 Fatigue Limit in Reversed Bending
2.8 Fatigue Limit in Reversed Bending
2.9 Pressure Tightness
2.9 Pressure Tightness
2.10 Impact Resistance
2.10 Impact Resistance
2.11 Machinability
2.11 Machinability
2.12 Wear
2.12 Wear
2.13 Resistance to Scuffing
2.13 Resistance to Scuffing
2.14 Resistance to Normal Wear
2.14 Resistance to Normal Wear
2.15 Elevated-Temperature Properties
2.15 Elevated-Temperature Properties
2.16 Dimensional Stability
2.16 Dimensional Stability
2.17 Effect of Shakeout Practice
2.17 Effect of Shakeout Practice
2.18 Alloying to Modify As-Cast Properties
2.18 Alloying to Modify As-Cast Properties
2.19 Heat Treatment
2.19 Heat Treatment
2.20 Physical Properties
2.20 Physical Properties
References
References
Selected References
Selected References
Click to Expand or Collapse 3. Ductile Iron
3. Ductile Iron
3. Ductile Iron
3.1 Specifications
3.1 Specifications
3.2 Ductile Iron Applications
3.2 Ductile Iron Applications
Click to Expand or Collapse 3.3 Metallurgical Control in Ductile Iron Production
3.3 Metallurgical Control in Ductile Iron Production
3.3 Metallurgical Control in Ductile Iron Production
3.4 Mechanical Properties
3.4 Mechanical Properties
3.5 Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures
3.5 Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures
3.6 Hardenability
3.6 Hardenability
Table 11 Creep strength of several ductile irons at 425 °C (800 °F)
Table 11 Creep strength of several ductile irons at 425 °C (800 °F)
3.7 Physical Properties
3.7 Physical Properties
Table 13 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and pearlitic ductile irons
Table 13 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and pearlitic ductile irons
3.8 Machinability
3.8 Machinability
3.9 Welding
3.9 Welding
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse 4. Compacted Graphite Iron
4. Compacted Graphite Iron
4. Compacted Graphite Iron
4.1 Chemical Composition
4.1 Chemical Composition
4.2 Castability
4.2 Castability
4.3 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
4.3 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
Table 2 Tensile properties, hardness, and thermal conductivity of various CG irons at room temperature
Table 2 Tensile properties, hardness, and thermal conductivity of various CG irons at room temperature
4.4 Elevated-Temperature Properties
4.4 Elevated-Temperature Properties
4.5 Physical Properties
4.5 Physical Properties
4.6 Other Properties
4.6 Other Properties
4.7 Applications
4.7 Applications
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse 5. Malleable Iron
5. Malleable Iron
5. Malleable Iron
5.1 Metallurgical Factors
5.1 Metallurgical Factors
Table 2 Properties of malleable iron castings
Table 2 Properties of malleable iron castings
Click to Expand or Collapse 5.2 Types and Properties of Malleable Iron
5.2 Types and Properties of Malleable Iron
5.2 Types and Properties of Malleable Iron
5.3 Applications
5.3 Applications
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse 6. Alloy Cast Irons
6. Alloy Cast Irons
6. Alloy Cast Irons
6.1 Classification of Alloy Cast Irons
6.1 Classification of Alloy Cast Irons
6.2 Effects of Alloying Elements
6.2 Effects of Alloying Elements
6.3 Effects of Inoculants
6.3 Effects of Inoculants
6.4 Abrasion-Resistant Cast Irons
6.4 Abrasion-Resistant Cast Irons
Table 6 Physical properties of selected alloy cast irons
Table 6 Physical properties of selected alloy cast irons
Click to Expand or Collapse 6.5 Corrosion-Resistant Cast Irons
6.5 Corrosion-Resistant Cast Irons
6.5 Corrosion-Resistant Cast Irons
6.6 Heat-Resistant Cast Irons
6.6 Heat-Resistant Cast Irons
References
References
Selected References
Selected References
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 7. Steel Processing Technology
7. Steel Processing Technology
7. Steel Processing Technology

Click to Expand or Collapse 7.1 Liquid Processing of Steel
7.1 Liquid Processing of Steel
7.1 Liquid Processing of Steel
Click to Expand or Collapse 7.2 Processing of Solid Steel
7.2 Processing of Solid Steel
7.2 Processing of Solid Steel
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 8. Microstructures, Processing, and Properties of Steels
8. Microstructures, Processing, and Properties of Steels
8. Microstructures, Processing, and Properties of Steels

8.1 Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram
8.1 Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram
8.2 Carbon Content and Properties
8.2 Carbon Content and Properties
8.3 Pearlite and Bainite
8.3 Pearlite and Bainite
8.4 Proeutectoid Ferrite and Cementite
8.4 Proeutectoid Ferrite and Cementite
8.5 Processing: Ferrite-Pearlite Microstructures
8.5 Processing: Ferrite-Pearlite Microstructures
8.6 Processing: Ferritic Microstructures
8.6 Processing: Ferritic Microstructures
8.7 Martensite
8.7 Martensite
8.8 Tempering of Martensite
8.8 Tempering of Martensite
8.9 Processing: Quenched and Tempered Microstructures
8.9 Processing: Quenched and Tempered Microstructures
8.10 Processing: Direct-Cooled Forging Microstructures
8.10 Processing: Direct-Cooled Forging Microstructures
8.11 Summary
8.11 Summary
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 9. Classification and Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
9. Classification and Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
9. Classification and Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

Click to Expand or Collapse 9.1 Classification of Steels
9.1 Classification of Steels
9.1 Classification of Steels
9.2 Effects of Alloying Elements
9.2 Effects of Alloying Elements
9.3 Carbon Steels
9.3 Carbon Steels
Table 11 SAE-AISI system of designations
Table 11 SAE-AISI system of designations
9.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
9.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
Table 12 Carbon steel compositions applicable to semifinished products for forging, hot-rolled and cold-finished bars, wire rods, and seamless tubing
Table 12 Carbon steel compositions applicable to semifinished products for forging, hot-rolled and cold-finished bars, wire rods, and seamless tubing
9.5 Low-Alloy Steels
9.5 Low-Alloy Steels
Table 13 Carbon steel compositions applicable only to structural shapes, plates, strip, sheets, and welded tubing
Table 13 Carbon steel compositions applicable only to structural shapes, plates, strip, sheets, and welded tubing
Click to Expand or Collapse 9.6 Designations for Steels
9.6 Designations for Steels
9.6 Designations for Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 9.7 Specifications for Steels
9.7 Specifications for Steels
9.7 Specifications for Steels
9.8 International Designations and Specifications
9.8 International Designations and Specifications
Table 26 Product descriptions and carbon contents for wrought carbon steels (AMS designations)
Table 26 Product descriptions and carbon contents for wrought carbon steels (AMS designations)
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse Table 27 – Table 32
Table 27 – Table 32
Table 27 – Table 32
Table 33 – Table 43
Table 33 – Table 43

Click to Expand or Collapse 10. Physical Properties of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
10. Physical Properties of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
10. Physical Properties of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

Coefficients of linear thermal expansion for carbon and low-alloy steels
Coefficients of linear thermal expansion for carbon and low-alloy steels
Thermal conductivities of carbon and low-alloy steels
Thermal conductivities of carbon and low-alloy steels
Specific heats of carbon and low-alloy steels
Specific heats of carbon and low-alloy steels
Electrical resistivities of carbon and low-alloy steels
Electrical resistivities of carbon and low-alloy steels

Click to Expand or Collapse 11. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Sheet and Strip
11. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Sheet and Strip
11. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Sheet and Strip

Click to Expand or Collapse 11.1 Plain Carbon Steel
11.1 Plain Carbon Steel
11.1 Plain Carbon Steel
Click to Expand or Collapse 11.2 Low-Alloy Steel
11.2 Low-Alloy Steel
11.2 Low-Alloy Steel
11.3 Direct Casting Methods
11.3 Direct Casting Methods
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 12. Precoated Steel Sheet
12. Precoated Steel Sheet
12. Precoated Steel Sheet

12.1 Zinc Coatings
12.1 Zinc Coatings
12.2 Aluminum Coatings
12.2 Aluminum Coatings
12.3 Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Coatings
12.3 Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Coatings
12.4 Tin Coatings
12.4 Tin Coatings
12.5 Terne Coatings
12.5 Terne Coatings
12.6 Phosphate Coatings
12.6 Phosphate Coatings
12.7 Preprimed Sheet
12.7 Preprimed Sheet
12.8 Organic Composite Coatings
12.8 Organic Composite Coatings
12.9 Prepainted Sheet
12.9 Prepainted Sheet
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 13. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Plate
13. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Plate
13. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Plate

13.1 Steelmaking Practices
13.1 Steelmaking Practices
Table 2 Standard carbon steel plate compositions applicable for structural applications
Table 2 Standard carbon steel plate compositions applicable for structural applications
13.2 Platemaking Practices
13.2 Platemaking Practices
13.3 Plate Imperfections
13.3 Plate Imperfections
Table 5 ASTM specifications for structural quality steel plate
Table 5 ASTM specifications for structural quality steel plate
13.4 Heat Treatment
13.4 Heat Treatment
Click to Expand or Collapse 13.5 Types of Steel Plate
13.5 Types of Steel Plate
13.5 Types of Steel Plate
13.6 Mechanical Properties
13.6 Mechanical Properties
13.7 Fabrication Considerations
13.7 Fabrication Considerations
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 14. Hot-Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes
14. Hot-Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes
14. Hot-Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes

14.1 Dimensions and Tolerances
14.1 Dimensions and Tolerances
Click to Expand or Collapse 14.2 Surface Imperfections
14.2 Surface Imperfections
14.2 Surface Imperfections
14.3 Surface Treatment
14.3 Surface Treatment
14.4 Heat Treatment
14.4 Heat Treatment
14.5 Product Requirements
14.5 Product Requirements
Table 2 Lowest maximum hardness that can be expected for hot-rolled steel bars, billets, and slabs with ordinary mill annealing
Table 2 Lowest maximum hardness that can be expected for hot-rolled steel bars, billets, and slabs with ordinary mill annealing
14.6 Product Categories
14.6 Product Categories
14.7 Merchant Quality Bars
14.7 Merchant Quality Bars
14.8 Special Quality Bars
14.8 Special Quality Bars
14.9 Carbon Steel Bars for Specific Applications
14.9 Carbon Steel Bars for Specific Applications
14.10 Alloy Steel Bars
14.10 Alloy Steel Bars
14.11 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Bars
14.11 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Bars
14.12 Concrete-Reinforcing Bars
14.12 Concrete-Reinforcing Bars
14.13 Structural Shapes
14.13 Structural Shapes
14.14 Special Shapes
14.14 Special Shapes
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 15. Cold-Finished Steel Bars
15. Cold-Finished Steel Bars
15. Cold-Finished Steel Bars

15.1 Bar Sizes
15.1 Bar Sizes
15.2 Product Types
15.2 Product Types
Click to Expand or Collapse 15.3 Product Quality Descriptors
15.3 Product Quality Descriptors
15.3 Product Quality Descriptors
15.4 Mechanical Properties
15.4 Mechanical Properties
15.5 Residual Stresses
15.5 Residual Stresses
Click to Expand or Collapse 15.6 Heat Treatment
15.6 Heat Treatment
15.6 Heat Treatment
15.7 Machinability
15.7 Machinability
Table 11 Hardness and machinability ratings of cold-drawn alloy steels
Table 11 Hardness and machinability ratings of cold-drawn alloy steels
15.8 Strength Considerations
15.8 Strength Considerations
15.9 Special Die Drawing
15.9 Special Die Drawing
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 16. Steel Wire Rod
16. Steel Wire Rod
16. Steel Wire Rod

16.1 Cleaning and Coating
16.1 Cleaning and Coating
16.2 Heat Treatment
16.2 Heat Treatment
16.3 Carbon Steel Rod
16.3 Carbon Steel Rod
16.4 Qualities and Commodities of Carbon Steel Rod
16.4 Qualities and Commodities of Carbon Steel Rod
16.5 Special Requirements for Carbon Steel Rod
16.5 Special Requirements for Carbon Steel Rod
16.6 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Rod
16.6 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Rod
16.7 Alloy Steel Rod
16.7 Alloy Steel Rod
16.8 Qualities and Commodities for Alloy Steel Rod
16.8 Qualities and Commodities for Alloy Steel Rod
16.9 Special Requirements for Alloy Steel Rod
16.9 Special Requirements for Alloy Steel Rod
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment

Click to Expand or Collapse 17. Steel Wire
17. Steel Wire
17. Steel Wire

17.1 Wire Configurations and Sizes
17.1 Wire Configurations and Sizes
17.2 Wiremaking Practices
17.2 Wiremaking Practices
Table 1 Steel wire gage sizes
Table 1 Steel wire gage sizes
17.3 Specification Wire
17.3 Specification Wire
17.4 Metallic Coated Wire
17.4 Metallic Coated Wire
Click to Expand or Collapse 17.5 Quality Descriptions and Commodities
17.5 Quality Descriptions and Commodities
17.5 Quality Descriptions and Commodities
17.6 Mechanical Properties: Round Wire versus Flat Wire
17.6 Mechanical Properties: Round Wire versus Flat Wire
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment

Click to Expand or Collapse 18. Threaded Steel Fasteners
18. Threaded Steel Fasteners
18. Threaded Steel Fasteners

Click to Expand or Collapse 18.1 Specification and Selection
18.1 Specification and Selection
18.1 Specification and Selection
18.2 Fastener Tests
18.2 Fastener Tests
18.3 Mechanical Properties
18.3 Mechanical Properties
18.4 Fabrication
18.4 Fabrication
18.5 Clamping Forces
18.5 Clamping Forces
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 19. Steel Springs
19. Steel Springs
19. Steel Springs

19.1 Mechanical Properties
19.1 Mechanical Properties
19.2 Characteristics of Spring Steel Grade
19.2 Characteristics of Spring Steel Grade
19.3 Wire Quality
19.3 Wire Quality
19.4 Residual Stresses
19.4 Residual Stresses
19.5 Plating of Springs
19.5 Plating of Springs
19.6 Fatigue
19.6 Fatigue
19.7 Effect of Temperature
19.7 Effect of Temperature
19.8 Hot-Wound Springs
19.8 Hot-Wound Springs
19.9 Costs
19.9 Costs
19.10 Design
19.10 Design
19.11 Compression Springs
19.11 Compression Springs
19.12 Extension Springs
19.12 Extension Springs
19.13 Leaf Springs
19.13 Leaf Springs
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 20. Steel Tubular Products
20. Steel Tubular Products
20. Steel Tubular Products

20.1 Product Classification
20.1 Product Classification
20.2 Welding Processes
20.2 Welding Processes
20.3 Seamless Processes
20.3 Seamless Processes
20.4 Cold Finishing
20.4 Cold Finishing
20.5 Pipe Sizes and Specifications
20.5 Pipe Sizes and Specifications
20.6 Common Types of Pipe
20.6 Common Types of Pipe
Table 7 Minimum tensile properties of carbon and alloy steel pipe (ASTM, API, and CSA)
Table 7 Minimum tensile properties of carbon and alloy steel pipe (ASTM, API, and CSA)
20.7 Pressure Tubes
20.7 Pressure Tubes
20.8 Structural Tubing
20.8 Structural Tubing
Table 11 Minimum tensile properties of carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)
Table 11 Minimum tensile properties of carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)
Click to Expand or Collapse 20.9 Mechanical Tubing
20.9 Mechanical Tubing
20.9 Mechanical Tubing
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 21. Closed-Die Forgings
21. Closed-Die Forgings
21. Closed-Die Forgings

21.1 Types of Forgings
21.1 Types of Forgings
21.2 Selection of Steel
21.2 Selection of Steel
21.3 Material Control
21.3 Material Control
21.4 Mechanical Properties
21.4 Mechanical Properties
21.5 Design Stress Calculations
21.5 Design Stress Calculations
21.6 Fundamentals of Hammer and Press Forgings
21.6 Fundamentals of Hammer and Press Forgings
21.7 Tolerances
21.7 Tolerances
21.8 Allowance for Machining
21.8 Allowance for Machining
21.9 Design of Hot Upset Forgings
21.9 Design of Hot Upset Forgings
21.10 Design of Hot Extrusion Forgings
21.10 Design of Hot Extrusion Forgings

Click to Expand or Collapse 22. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Forgings
22. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Forgings
22. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Forgings

22.1 Microalloying Elements
22.1 Microalloying Elements
22.2 Metallurgical Effects
22.2 Metallurgical Effects
22.3 Future Outlook
22.3 Future Outlook
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 23. Steel Castings
23. Steel Castings
23. Steel Castings

23.1 Classifications and Specifications
23.1 Classifications and Specifications
23.2 Mechanical Properties
23.2 Mechanical Properties
Table 3 Plane-strain fracture toughness of cast low-alloy steels at room temperature
Table 3 Plane-strain fracture toughness of cast low-alloy steels at room temperature
23.3 Low-Carbon Cast Steels
23.3 Low-Carbon Cast Steels
23.4 Medium-Carbon Cast Steels
23.4 Medium-Carbon Cast Steels
23.5 High-Carbon Cast Steels
23.5 High-Carbon Cast Steels
23.6 Low-Alloy Cast Steels
23.6 Low-Alloy Cast Steels
23.7 Physical Properties
23.7 Physical Properties
23.8 Engineering Properties
23.8 Engineering Properties
23.9 Nondestructive Inspection
23.9 Nondestructive Inspection
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 24. Bearing Steels
24. Bearing Steels
24. Bearing Steels

24.1 High-Carbon or Low-Carbon Steels
24.1 High-Carbon or Low-Carbon Steels
24.2 Microstructure Characteristics
24.2 Microstructure Characteristics
24.3 Bearing Steel Quality
24.3 Bearing Steel Quality
24.4 Effect of Heat Treatment
24.4 Effect of Heat Treatment
24.5 Special-Purpose Bearing Steels
24.5 Special-Purpose Bearing Steels
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 25. High-Strength Structural and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
25. High-Strength Structural and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels
25. High-Strength Structural and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels

25.1 Structural Carbon Steels
25.1 Structural Carbon Steels
25.2 Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel
25.2 Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel
Click to Expand or Collapse 25.3 HSLA Steels
25.3 HSLA Steels
25.3 HSLA Steels
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 26. Dual-Phase Steels
26. Dual-Phase Steels
26. Dual-Phase Steels

26.1 Heat Treatment of Dual-Phase Steels
26.1 Heat Treatment of Dual-Phase Steels
26.2 Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steels
26.2 Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steels
26.3 New Advances in Dual-Phase Steels
26.3 New Advances in Dual-Phase Steels
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 27. Ultrahigh-Strength Steels
27. Ultrahigh-Strength Steels
27. Ultrahigh-Strength Steels

Click to Expand or Collapse 27.1 Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steels
27.1 Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steels
27.1 Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 27.2 Medium-Alloy Air-Hardening Steels
27.2 Medium-Alloy Air-Hardening Steels
27.2 Medium-Alloy Air-Hardening Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 27.3 High Fracture Toughness Steels
27.3 High Fracture Toughness Steels
27.3 High Fracture Toughness Steels
References
References

Hardenability of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Hardenability of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 28. Hardenable Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
28. Hardenable Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
28. Hardenable Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

28.1 Hardenability
28.1 Hardenability
28.2 Carbon Steels Containing up to 0.25% C
28.2 Carbon Steels Containing up to 0.25% C
28.3 Carbon Steels Containing 0.25 to 0.55% C
28.3 Carbon Steels Containing 0.25 to 0.55% C
28.4 Carbon Steels Containing 0.55 to 1.00% C
28.4 Carbon Steels Containing 0.55 to 1.00% C
28.5 Alloy Steels
28.5 Alloy Steels
28.6 Alloying Elements in Quenching
28.6 Alloying Elements in Quenching
28.7 Mechanical Properties
28.7 Mechanical Properties
28.8 Tempering
28.8 Tempering
28.9 Distortion in Heat Treatment
28.9 Distortion in Heat Treatment
28.10 Induction and Flame Hardening
28.10 Induction and Flame Hardening
28.11 Fabrication of Parts and Assemblies
28.11 Fabrication of Parts and Assemblies
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 29. Hardenability of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
29. Hardenability of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
29. Hardenability of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

29.1 Hardenability Testing
29.1 Hardenability Testing
29.2 Low-Hardenability Steels
29.2 Low-Hardenability Steels
29.3 Calculation of Hardenability
29.3 Calculation of Hardenability
29.4 Effect of Carbon Content
29.4 Effect of Carbon Content
29.5 Calculation of Hardenability
29.5 Calculation of Hardenability
29.6 Effect of Carbon Content
29.6 Effect of Carbon Content
29.7 Alloying Elements
29.7 Alloying Elements
29.8 Effect of Grain Size
29.8 Effect of Grain Size
29.9 Variations within Heats
29.9 Variations within Heats
29.10 Determining Hardenability Requirements
29.10 Determining Hardenability Requirements
29.11 General Hardenability Selection Charts
29.11 General Hardenability Selection Charts
29.12 Use of the Charts
29.12 Use of the Charts
29.13 H-Steels
29.13 H-Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 29.14 Use of Hardenability Limits
29.14 Use of Hardenability Limits
29.14 Use of Hardenability Limits
29.15 Steels for Case Hardening
29.15 Steels for Case Hardening
29.16 Steel Castings
29.16 Steel Castings
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 30. Hardenability Curves
30. Hardenability Curves
30. Hardenability Curves

References
References
SAE/AISI 1038H – SAE/AISI 4032H
SAE/AISI 1038H – SAE/AISI 4032H
SAE/AISI 4037H – SAE/AISI 4817H
SAE/AISI 4037H – SAE/AISI 4817H
SAE/AISI 4820H – SAE/AISI 6118H
SAE/AISI 4820H – SAE/AISI 6118H
SAE/AISI 6150H – SAE/AISI 9310H
SAE/AISI 6150H – SAE/AISI 9310H
SAE/AISI 94B15H – SAE/AISI 94B30H
SAE/AISI 94B15H – SAE/AISI 94B30H

Fabrication Characteristics of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Fabrication Characteristics of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 31. Sheet Formability of Steels
31. Sheet Formability of Steels
31. Sheet Formability of Steels

31.1 Mechanical Properties and Formability
31.1 Mechanical Properties and Formability
31.2 Circle Grid Analysis
31.2 Circle Grid Analysis
31.3 Simulative Forming Tests
31.3 Simulative Forming Tests
31.4 Effects of Steel Composition on Formability
31.4 Effects of Steel Composition on Formability
31.5 Effects of Steelmaking Practices on Formability
31.5 Effects of Steelmaking Practices on Formability
31.6 Correlation between Microstructure and Formability
31.6 Correlation between Microstructure and Formability
31.7 Effect of Metallic Coatings on Formability
31.7 Effect of Metallic Coatings on Formability
31.8 Selection of Steel Sheet
31.8 Selection of Steel Sheet
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 32. Bulk Formability of Steels
32. Bulk Formability of Steels
32. Bulk Formability of Steels

32.1 Formability Characteristics
32.1 Formability Characteristics
Click to Expand or Collapse 32.2 Formability Tests
32.2 Formability Tests
32.2 Formability Tests
Click to Expand or Collapse 32.3 Evaluating Forgeability
32.3 Evaluating Forgeability
32.3 Evaluating Forgeability
Click to Expand or Collapse 32.4 Microalloyed Steels
32.4 Microalloyed Steels
32.4 Microalloyed Steels
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 33. Machinability of Steels
33. Machinability of Steels
33. Machinability of Steels

33.1 Measures of Machinability
33.1 Measures of Machinability
33.2 Scatter in Machinability Ratings
33.2 Scatter in Machinability Ratings
33.3 Machinability Ratings of Steels
33.3 Machinability Ratings of Steels
33.4 Microstructure
33.4 Microstructure
33.5 Carbon Steels
33.5 Carbon Steels
Table 4 Machinability ratings of plain carbon steels
Table 4 Machinability ratings of plain carbon steels
33.6 Resulfurized Carbon Steels
33.6 Resulfurized Carbon Steels
Table 5 Machinability ratings of resulfurized and rephosphorized carbon steels, percent of cutting speed for B1112/1212
Table 5 Machinability ratings of resulfurized and rephosphorized carbon steels, percent of cutting speed for B1112/1212
33.7 Carbon Steels with other Additives
33.7 Carbon Steels with other Additives
33.8 Leaded Carbon and Resulfurized Steels
33.8 Leaded Carbon and Resulfurized Steels
Table 6 Machinability ratings for alloy steels compared to 1212 steel
Table 6 Machinability ratings for alloy steels compared to 1212 steel
33.9 Carburizing Steels
33.9 Carburizing Steels
33.10 Through-Hardening Alloy Steels
33.10 Through-Hardening Alloy Steels
33.11 Cold-Drawn Steel
33.11 Cold-Drawn Steel
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 34. Weldability of Steels
34. Weldability of Steels
34. Weldability of Steels

34.1 Characteristic Features of Welds
34.1 Characteristic Features of Welds
34.2 Metallurgical Factors That Affect Weldability
34.2 Metallurgical Factors That Affect Weldability
34.3 Weld Cracking
34.3 Weld Cracking
34.4 Weldability of Steels
34.4 Weldability of Steels
34.5 Weldability Tests
34.5 Weldability Tests
34.6 Fabrication Weldability Tests
34.6 Fabrication Weldability Tests
Reference
Reference
Selected References
Selected References

Service Characteristics of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Service Characteristics of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 35. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels
35. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels
35. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 36. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels
36. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels
36. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels

36.1 Irradiation Damage Processes
36.1 Irradiation Damage Processes
36.2 Void Swelling
36.2 Void Swelling
36.3 Mechanical Properties
36.3 Mechanical Properties
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 37. Low-Temperature Properties of Structural Steels
37. Low-Temperature Properties of Structural Steels
37. Low-Temperature Properties of Structural Steels

37.1 Design and Failure Criteria
37.1 Design and Failure Criteria
37.2 Assessment of Fracture Resistance
37.2 Assessment of Fracture Resistance
37.3 Fracture Toughness Requirements
37.3 Fracture Toughness Requirements
37.4 Fatigue Crack Growth in Structural Steel
37.4 Fatigue Crack Growth in Structural Steel
37.5 Steel Specifications
37.5 Steel Specifications
37.6 Advances in Steel Technology
37.6 Advances in Steel Technology
37.7 Fracture Toughness Characteristics of Structural Steels
37.7 Fracture Toughness Characteristics of Structural Steels
37.8 Fracture Toughness of Welded Structures
37.8 Fracture Toughness of Welded Structures
Table 6 Tensile properties of offshore low-temperature structural steels
Table 6 Tensile properties of offshore low-temperature structural steels
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 38. Fatigue Resistance of Steels
38. Fatigue Resistance of Steels
38. Fatigue Resistance of Steels

38.1 Fatigue Resistance
38.1 Fatigue Resistance
38.2 Prevention of Fatigue Failure
38.2 Prevention of Fatigue Failure
38.3 Symbols and Definitions
38.3 Symbols and Definitions
38.4 Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue
38.4 Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue
38.5 Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue
38.5 Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue
38.6 Metallurgical Variables of Fatigue Behavior
38.6 Metallurgical Variables of Fatigue Behavior
38.7 Application of Fatigue Data
38.7 Application of Fatigue Data
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 39. Embrittlement of Steels
39. Embrittlement of Steels
39. Embrittlement of Steels

39.1 Embrittlement of Iron
39.1 Embrittlement of Iron
Click to Expand or Collapse 39.2 Embrittlement in Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels
39.2 Embrittlement in Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels
39.2 Embrittlement in Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels
39.3 Overheating
39.3 Overheating
39.4 Thermal Embrittlement of Maraging Steels
39.4 Thermal Embrittlement of Maraging Steels
39.5 Quench Cracking
39.5 Quench Cracking
Click to Expand or Collapse 39.6 Temper Embrittlement in Alloy Steels
39.6 Temper Embrittlement in Alloy Steels
39.6 Temper Embrittlement in Alloy Steels
39.7 Tempered Martensite Embrittlement
39.7 Tempered Martensite Embrittlement
39.8 Sensitization
39.8 Sensitization
39.9 475 °C Embrittlement
39.9 475 °C Embrittlement
39.10 Sigma Phase Embrittlement
39.10 Sigma Phase Embrittlement
Click to Expand or Collapse 39.11 Hydrogen Damage
39.11 Hydrogen Damage
39.11 Hydrogen Damage
Click to Expand or Collapse 39.12 Metal-Induced Embrittlement
39.12 Metal-Induced Embrittlement
39.12 Metal-Induced Embrittlement
39.13 Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement
39.13 Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement
Click to Expand or Collapse 39.14 Stress-Corrosion Cracking
39.14 Stress-Corrosion Cracking
39.14 Stress-Corrosion Cracking
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 40. Notch Toughness of Steels
40. Notch Toughness of Steels
40. Notch Toughness of Steels

40.1 Ductile-to-Brittle Transition
40.1 Ductile-to-Brittle Transition
40.2 Effects of Composition
40.2 Effects of Composition
Click to Expand or Collapse 40.3 Effects of Manufacturing Practices
40.3 Effects of Manufacturing Practices
40.3 Effects of Manufacturing Practices
Click to Expand or Collapse 40.4 Effects of Microstructure
40.4 Effects of Microstructure
40.4 Effects of Microstructure
40.5 Variability of Charpy Test Results
40.5 Variability of Charpy Test Results
40.6 Correlations of Notch Toughness with other Mechanical Properties
40.6 Correlations of Notch Toughness with other Mechanical Properties
References
References

Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 41. Wrought Tool Steels
41. Wrought Tool Steels
41. Wrought Tool Steels

Click to Expand or Collapse 41.1 Classification and Characteristics
41.1 Classification and Characteristics
41.1 Classification and Characteristics
41.2 Cold-Work Steels
41.2 Cold-Work Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 41.3 Shock-Resisting Steels
41.3 Shock-Resisting Steels
41.3 Shock-Resisting Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 41.4 Mold Steels
41.4 Mold Steels
41.4 Mold Steels
41.5 Typical Heat Treatments and Properties
41.5 Typical Heat Treatments and Properties
Click to Expand or Collapse 41.6 Testing of Tool Steels
41.6 Testing of Tool Steels
41.6 Testing of Tool Steels
41.7 Machining Allowances
41.7 Machining Allowances
41.8 Precision Cast Hot-Work Tools
41.8 Precision Cast Hot-Work Tools
41.9 Surface Treatments
41.9 Surface Treatments
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 42. P/M Tool Steels
42. P/M Tool Steels
42. P/M Tool Steels

Click to Expand or Collapse 42.1 P/M High-Speed Tool Steels
42.1 P/M High-Speed Tool Steels
42.1 P/M High-Speed Tool Steels
42.2 P/M Cold-Work Tool Steels
42.2 P/M Cold-Work Tool Steels
42.3 P/M Hot-Work Tool Steels
42.3 P/M Hot-Work Tool Steels
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 43. Maraging Steels
43. Maraging Steels
43. Maraging Steels

43.1 Physical Metallurgy
43.1 Physical Metallurgy
43.2 Commercial Alloys
43.2 Commercial Alloys
43.3 Processing
43.3 Processing
43.4 Properties of Maraging Steels
43.4 Properties of Maraging Steels
43.5 Applications
43.5 Applications
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 44. Ferrous Powder Metallurgy Materials
44. Ferrous Powder Metallurgy Materials
44. Ferrous Powder Metallurgy Materials

44.1 Metal Powder Characteristics and Control
44.1 Metal Powder Characteristics and Control
44.2 Powder Preparation
44.2 Powder Preparation
44.3 Powder Compacting
44.3 Powder Compacting
44.4 Sintering
44.4 Sintering
44.5 Secondary Operations
44.5 Secondary Operations
44.6 Designation of P/M Materials
44.6 Designation of P/M Materials
44.7 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Sintered Ferrous P/M Materials
44.7 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Sintered Ferrous P/M Materials
Table 4 Minimum and typical mechanical properties of ferrous P/M materials
Table 4 Minimum and typical mechanical properties of ferrous P/M materials
44.8 Infiltration
44.8 Infiltration
44.9 Heat Treatment of Ferrous P/M Materials
44.9 Heat Treatment of Ferrous P/M Materials
44.10 Re-Pressing
44.10 Re-Pressing
Click to Expand or Collapse 44.11 Powder Forging
44.11 Powder Forging
44.11 Powder Forging
44.12 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Technology
44.12 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Technology
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 45. Austenitic Manganese Steels
45. Austenitic Manganese Steels
45. Austenitic Manganese Steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 46. Wrought Stainless Steels
46. Wrought Stainless Steels
46. Wrought Stainless Steels

46.1 Classification of Stainless Steels
46.1 Classification of Stainless Steels
46.2 Factors in Selection
46.2 Factors in Selection
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.3 Product Forms
46.3 Product Forms
46.3 Product Forms
46.4 Pipe, Tubes, and Tubing
46.4 Pipe, Tubes, and Tubing
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.5 Tensile Properties
46.5 Tensile Properties
46.5 Tensile Properties
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.6 Notch Toughness and Transition Temperature
46.6 Notch Toughness and Transition Temperature
46.6 Notch Toughness and Transition Temperature
46.7 Fatigue Strength
46.7 Fatigue Strength
46.8 Elevated-Temperature Properties
46.8 Elevated-Temperature Properties
Table 11 Minimum mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steels
Table 11 Minimum mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steels
46.9 Subzero-Temperature Properties
46.9 Subzero-Temperature Properties
Table 12 Minimum mechanical properties of precipitation-hardening stainless steels
Table 12 Minimum mechanical properties of precipitation-hardening stainless steels
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.10 Influence of Product Form on Properties
46.10 Influence of Product Form on Properties
46.10 Influence of Product Form on Properties
46.11 Physical Properties
46.11 Physical Properties
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.12 Corrosion Properties
46.12 Corrosion Properties
46.12 Corrosion Properties
46.13 Surface Finishing of Stainless Steel
46.13 Surface Finishing of Stainless Steel
46.14 Mill Finishes
46.14 Mill Finishes
46.15 Interim Surface Protection
46.15 Interim Surface Protection
46.16 In-Service Care
46.16 In-Service Care
Click to Expand or Collapse 46.17 Fabrication Characteristics
46.17 Fabrication Characteristics
46.17 Fabrication Characteristics
References
References
Selected References
Selected References

Click to Expand or Collapse 47. Cast Stainless Steels
47. Cast Stainless Steels
47. Cast Stainless Steels

47.1 Grade Designations and Compositions
47.1 Grade Designations and Compositions
47.2 Composition and Microstructure
47.2 Composition and Microstructure
47.3 Heat Treatment
47.3 Heat Treatment
Click to Expand or Collapse 47.4 Corrosion-Resistant Steel Castings
47.4 Corrosion-Resistant Steel Castings
47.4 Corrosion-Resistant Steel Castings
Click to Expand or Collapse 47.5 Heat-Resistant Cast Steels
47.5 Heat-Resistant Cast Steels
47.5 Heat-Resistant Cast Steels
47.6 Manufacturing Characteristics
47.6 Manufacturing Characteristics
47.7 Galling
47.7 Galling
47.8 Magnetic Properties
47.8 Magnetic Properties
References
References

Click to Expand or Collapse 48. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels
48. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels
48. Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels

48.1 Production of Steel
48.1 Production of Steel
48.2 Product Forms
48.2 Product Forms
48.3 Mechanical Property Considerations
48.3 Mechanical Property Considerations
48.4 Corrosion Considerations
48.4 Corrosion Considerations
Click to Expand or Collapse 48.5 Ferritic Stainless Steels
48.5 Ferritic Stainless Steels
48.5 Ferritic Stainless Steels
48.6 Quenched and Tempered Martensitic Stainless Steels
48.6 Quenched and Tempered Martensitic Stainless Steels
48.7 Precipitation-Hardening Martensitic Stainless Steels
48.7 Precipitation-Hardening Martensitic Stainless Steels
48.8 Precipitation-Hardening Semiaustenitic Stainless Steels
48.8 Precipitation-Hardening Semiaustenitic Stainless Steels
48.9 Austenitic Stainless Steels
48.9 Austenitic Stainless Steels
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment
References
References
Selected References
Selected References
Click to Expand or Collapse 49. Wrought and P/M Superalloys
49. Wrought and P/M Superalloys
49. Wrought and P/M Superalloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 49.1 Wrought Nickel Alloys
49.1 Wrought Nickel Alloys
49.1 Wrought Nickel Alloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 49.2 Iron-Base Superalloys
49.2 Iron-Base Superalloys
49.2 Iron-Base Superalloys
49.3 Cobalt-Base Superalloys
49.3 Cobalt-Base Superalloys
Table 8 Physical properties of selected wrought superalloys
Table 8 Physical properties of selected wrought superalloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 49.4 Melting and Consolidation of Wrought Alloys
49.4 Melting and Consolidation of Wrought Alloys
49.4 Melting and Consolidation of Wrought Alloys
49.5 P/M Alloys
49.5 P/M Alloys
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse Appendix: P/M Cobalt-Base Wear-Resistant Materials
Appendix: P/M Cobalt-Base Wear-Resistant Materials
Appendix: P/M Cobalt-Base Wear-Resistant Materials
Click to Expand or Collapse 50. Polycrystalline Cast Superalloys
50. Polycrystalline Cast Superalloys
50. Polycrystalline Cast Superalloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 50.1 Superalloy Design
50.1 Superalloy Design
50.1 Superalloy Design
50.2 Vacuum Induction Melting of Superalloys
50.2 Vacuum Induction Melting of Superalloys
50.3 Quality Considerations
50.3 Quality Considerations
Click to Expand or Collapse 50.4 Investment Casting of Superalloys
50.4 Investment Casting of Superalloys
50.4 Investment Casting of Superalloys
50.5 Control of Casting Microstructure
50.5 Control of Casting Microstructure
50.6 Postcasting Processing
50.6 Postcasting Processing
References
References
Click to Expand or Collapse 51. Directionally Solidified and Single-Crystal Superalloys
51. Directionally Solidified and Single-Crystal Superalloys
51. Directionally Solidified and Single-Crystal Superalloys
51.1 Directionally Solidified Superalloys
51.1 Directionally Solidified Superalloys
51.2 Single-Crystal Superalloys
51.2 Single-Crystal Superalloys
51.3 Chemistry and SX Castability
51.3 Chemistry and SX Castability
References
References
Special Engineering Topics
Special Engineering Topics
Click to Expand or Collapse 52. Strategic Materials Availability and Supply
52. Strategic Materials Availability and Supply
52. Strategic Materials Availability and Supply
52.1 Reserves and Resources
52.1 Reserves and Resources
52.2 Strategic Materials
52.2 Strategic Materials
52.3 The Superalloys
52.3 The Superalloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 52.4 COSAM Program Approach
52.4 COSAM Program Approach
52.4 COSAM Program Approach
52.5 COSAM Program Results
52.5 COSAM Program Results
Click to Expand or Collapse Appendix: Manganese Availability
Appendix: Manganese Availability
Appendix: Manganese Availability
Click to Expand or Collapse 53. Recycling of Iron, Steel, and Superalloys
53. Recycling of Iron, Steel, and Superalloys
53. Recycling of Iron, Steel, and Superalloys
Click to Expand or Collapse 53.1 Recycling Iron and Steel Scrap
53.1 Recycling Iron and Steel Scrap
53.1 Recycling Iron and Steel Scrap
Click to Expand or Collapse 53.2 Recycling Stainless Steel and Superalloy Scrap
53.2 Recycling Stainless Steel and Superalloy Scrap
53.2 Recycling Stainless Steel and Superalloy Scrap
References
References
Metric Conversion Guide
Metric Conversion Guide
Click to Expand or Collapse Abbreviations, Symbols, and Tradenames
Abbreviations, Symbols, and Tradenames
Abbreviations, Symbols, and Tradenames
Abbreviations and Symbols
Abbreviations and Symbols
Greek Alphabet
Greek Alphabet
Tradenames
Tradenames
Click to Expand or Collapse Index
Index
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