ASHRAE Handbook 2016 – HVAC Systems and Equipment

ASHRAE Handbook 2016 – HVAC Systems and Equipment
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ASHRAE Handbook 2016 – HVAC Systems and Equipment
Chapter
Hvac System Analysis and Selection
Selecting a System .
HVAC Systems and Equipment .
Space Requirements . .
Air Distribution .
Pipe Distribution .
Security . .
Automatic Controls and Building
Management Systems .
Maintenance Management System . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
DECENTRALIZED COOLING AND HEATING
System Characteristics . .
Design Considerations . .
Window-Mounted and Through-theWall Room HVAC Units . .
Water-Source Heat Pump Systems . .
Multiple-Unit Systems .
Residential and Light Commercial Split Systems . .
Commercial Self-Contained (Floor-by-Floor) Systems . .
Commercial Outdoor Packaged Systems . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management Systems . .
Maintenance Management . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
CENTRAL COOLING AND HEATING PLANTS
System Characteristics . .
Design Considerations . .
Equipment .
Distribution Systems .
Sound, Vibration, Seismic, and Wind Considerations . .
Space Considerations . .
Automatic Controls and Building
Management Systems .
Maintenance Management Systems . .
Building System Commissioning.
CHAPTER
AIR HANDLING AND DISTRIBUTION
AIR-HANDLING UNITS .
Air-Handling Unit Psychrometric Processes . .
Air-Handling Unit Components . .
Air Distribution .
AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS . .
Single-Duct Systems . .
Dual-Duct Systems . .
Multizone Systems .
Special Systems .
Air Terminal Units . .
Air Distribution System Controls . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management Systems . .
Maintenance Management System . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
IN-ROOM TERMINAL SYSTEMS
System Characteristics . .
System Components and Configurations . .
Secondary-Water Distribution . .
Piping Arrangements . .
Fan-Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator Systems . .
Variable-Refrigerant-Flow (VRF) Units . .
Chilled-Beam Systems .
Radiant-Panel Heating Systems . .
Radiant-Floor Heating Systems . .
Induction Unit Systems .
Supplemental Heating Units .
Primary-Air Systems .
Performance Under Varying Load . .
Changeover Temperature . .
Two-Pipe Systems with Central Ventilation . .
Four-Pipe Systems . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management
Systems . .
Maintenance Management Systems and
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING
PRINCIPLES OF RADIANT
SYSTEMS .
Heat Transfer . .
Factors Affecting Heat Transfer .
Panel Design .
General Design Considerations . .
Hybrid Systems .
RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS . .
Hydronic Ceiling Panels .
Embedded Systems with Tubing in Ceilings,
Walls, or Floors .
Electrically Heated Radiant Systems . .
DESIGN PROCEDURE . .
Controls
CHAPTER
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS
Terminology . .
CHP System Concepts . .
Performance Parameters . .
Fuel-to-Power Components . .
Thermal-to-Power Components . .
Thermal-to-Thermal Components .
Electrical Generators and Components . .
System Design .
Codes and Installation . .
Economic Evaluation .
CHAPTER
COMBUSTION TURBINE INLET COOLING
Advantages .
Disadvantages . .
Definition and Theory . .
System Types . .
Calculation of Power Capacity Enhancement and Economics.
CHAPTER
APPLIED HEAT PUMP AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS
TERMINOLOGY .
APPLIED HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS . .
Heat Pump Cycles .
Heat Sources and Sinks .
Types of Heat Pumps . .
Heat Pump Components .
Industrial Process Heat Pumps .
APPLIED HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS .
Waste Heat Recovery . .
Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems .
Balanced Heat Recovery Systems .
Heat Pumps in District Heating and Cooling Systems
CHAPTER
SMALL FORCED-AIR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS
Components . .
Common System Problems .
System Design . .
Detailed Duct Design .
Small Commercial Systems . .
Testing for Duct Efficiency
CHAPTER
STEAM SYSTEMS
Advantages . .
Fundamentals . .
Effects of Water, Air, and
Gases .
Heat Transfer . .
Basic Steam System
Design .
Steam Source .
Boiler Connections .
Design Steam Pressure .
Piping . .
Condensate Removal from TemperatureRegulated Equipment .
Steam Traps .
Pressure-Reducing Valves . .
Terminal Equipment . .
Convection Steam Heating . .
Steam Distribution . .
Temperature Control .
Heat Recovery .
Combined Steam and Water Systems . .
Commissioning
CHAPTER
DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING
SYSTEM MASTER PLANNING . .
Economic Considerations .
CENTRAL PLANT . .
Heating and Cooling Production . .
Chilled-Water Distribution Design Considerations .
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM .
Hydraulic Considerations .
Thermal Considerations .
Methods of Heat Transfer Analysis . .
Expansion Provisions . .
Distribution System Construction .
CONSUMER INTERCONNECTIONS . .
Direct Connections . .
Indirect Connections .
Steam Connections . .
Components .
Temperature Differential Control .
Operation and Maintenance .
CHAPTER
HYDRONIC HEATING AND COOLING
TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATIONS .
CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS . .
Method of Design . .
Thermal Components . .
Hydraulic Components .
Piping Circuits . .
Capacity Control of Load System .
Low-Temperature Heating Systems . .
Chilled-Water Systems . .
Dual-Temperature Systems .
Other Design Considerations . .
Other Design Procedures . .
Antifreeze Solutions
CHAPTER
CONDENSER WATER SYSTEMS
Once-Through City Water Systems . .
Open Cooling Tower Systems . .
Low-Temperature (Water Economizer) Systems . .
Closed-Circuit Evaporative Coolers . .
Other Sources of Water . .
Overpressure Caused by Thermal Fluid Expansion
CHAPTER
MEDIUM- AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER HEATING
System Characteristics . .
Basic System .
Design Considerations . .
Distribution Piping Design .
Heat Exchangers .
Air-Heating Coils . .
Space-Heating Equipment .
Instrumentation and
Controls .
Water Treatment . .
Heat Storage . .
Safety Considerations
CHAPTER
INFRARED RADIANT HEATING
Energy Conservation . .
Infrared Energy Sources .
System Efficiency . .
Reflectors . .
Controls .
Precautions .
Maintenance . .
Design Considerations for Beam Radiant Heaters
CHAPTER
ULTRAVIOLET LAMP SYSTEMS
Terminology .
UVGI Fundamentals . .
Lamps and Ballasts . .
Maintenance .
Safety . .
Unit Conversions.
CHAPTER
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW
Standards . .
Equipment . .
VRF System Operation .
Modeling Considerations .
Design Considerations .
VRF System Design Example .
Commissioning .
CHAPTER
DUCT CONSTRUCTION
Building Code Requirements . .
Pressure Classifications .
Duct Cleaning .
HVAC System Leakage .
Air-Handling Unit Leakage . .
Residential and Commercial Duct
Construction . .
Industrial Duct Construction . .
Antimicrobial-Treated Ducts . .
Duct Construction for Grease- and
Moisture-Laden Vapors .
Rigid Plastic Ducts . .
Air Dispersion Systems .
Underground Ducts .
Ducts Outside Buildings . .
Seismic Qualification . .
Sheet Metal Welding .
Thermal Insulation . .
Specifications
CHAPTER
ROOM AIR DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT
SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS .
Fully Mixed Systems .
Fully Stratified Systems . .
Partially Mixed Systems . .
EQUIPMENT . .
Supply Air Outlets .
Return and Exhaust Air Inlets .
Terminal Units
CHAPTER
FANS
Types of Fans . .
Principles of Operation . .
Testing and Rating . .
Field Testing of Fans for
Air Performance . .
Fan Laws .
Fan and System Pressure Relationships .
Temperature Rise Across Fans .
Duct System Characteristics .
System Effects . .
Selection . .
Parallel Fan Operation .
Series Fan Operation . .
Noise . .
Vibration .
Arrangement and Installation .
Fan Control .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
HUMIDIFIERS
Environmental Conditions .
Enclosure Characteristics . .
Energy Considerations .
Equipment . .
Controls . .
Application Considerations
CHAPTER
AIR-COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
Uses for Coils . .
Coil Construction and Arrangement .
Coil Selection . .
Airflow Resistance . .
Heat Transfer . .
Performance of Sensible Cooling Coils . .
Performance of Dehumidifying Coils . .
Determining Refrigeration Load .
Maintenance . .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFICATION AND
PRESSURE-DRYING EQUIPMENT
Methods of Dehumidification . .
Desiccant Dehumidification .
Liquid Desiccant Equipment .
Solid-Sorption Equipment .
Rotary Solid-Desiccant Dehumidifiers .
Equipment Ratings . .
Equipment Operating Recommendations . .
Applications for AtmosphericPressure Dehumidification . .
Desiccant Drying at Elevated Pressure . .
Equipment Types .
Applications
CHAPTER
MECHANICAL DEHUMIDIFIERS AND
RELATED COMPONENTS
Mechanical Dehumidifiers .
Controls and Sensors .
Installation and Service Considerations . .
Wraparound Heat Exchangers
CHAPTER
AIR-TO-AIR ENERGY RECOVERY EQUIPMENT
Applications . .
Basic Thermodynamics .
Airflow Arrangements .
Additional Technical Considerations .
Performance Ratings . .
Types and Applications of Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers .
Comparison of Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Systems . .
Economic Considerations .
Energy and/or Mass Recovery Calculation Procedure . .
Symbols
CHAPTER
AIR-HEATING COILS
Coil Construction and Design . .
Coil Selection .
Installation Guidelines .
Coil Maintenance .
CHAPTER
UNIT VENTILATORS, UNIT HEATERS,
AND MAKEUP AIR UNITS
Unit Ventilators . .
Unit Heaters .
Makeup Air Units
CHAPTER
AIR CLEANERS FOR PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS
Atmospheric Dust . .
Aerosol Characteristics . .
Air-Cleaning Applications . .
Mechanisms of Particle
Collection . .
Evaluating Air Cleaners .
Air Cleaner Test Methods .
Types of Air Cleaners . .
Filter Types and Performance . .
Selection and Maintenance .
Air Cleaner Installation . .
Safety Considerations .
CHAPTER
INDUSTRIAL GAS CLEANING AND AIR
POLLUTION CONTROL
Regulations and Monitoring .
PARTICULATE CONTAMINANT CONTROL .
Mechanical Collectors . .
Electrostatic Precipitators . .
Fabric Filters . .
Granular-Bed Filters . .
Particulate Scrubbers (Wet Collectors) . .
GASEOUS CONTAMINANT CONTROL .
Spray Dry Scrubbing .
Wet-Packed Scrubbers . .
Adsorption of Gaseous Contaminants .
Incineration of Gases and Vapors .
AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT .
Ducts .
Dust- and Slurry-Handling Equipment .
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
CHAPTER
AUTOMATIC FUEL-BURNING SYSTEMS
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .
Terminology . .
System Application . .
Safety .
Efficiency and Emission Ratings .
GAS-BURNING APPLIANCES . .
Gas-Fired Combustion Systems . .
Residential Appliances . .
Commercial-Industrial Appliances .
Applications . .
OIL-BURNING APPLIANCES .
Residential Oil Burners .
Commercial/Industrial Oil Burners . .
Dual-Fuel Gas/Oil Burners .
Equipment Selection . .
SOLID-FUEL-BURNING
APPLIANCES . .
Capacity Classification of Stokers . .
Stoker Types by Fuel-Feed Methods .
CONTROLS .
Safety Controls and Interlocks . .
Operating Controls
CHAPTER
BOILERS
Classifications .
Selection Parameters . .
Efficiency: Input and Output Ratings .
Performance Codes and Standards . .
Sizing .
Burner Types .
Boiler Controls . .
Flame Safeguard Controls
CHAPTER
FURNACES
Components . .
Heat Source Types . .
Commercial Equipment . .
Controls and Operating
Characteristics . .
Equipment Selection . .
Calculations . .
Technical Data . .
Installation . .
Agency Listings .
CHAPTER
RESIDENTIAL IN-SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT
GAS IN-SPACE HEATERS .
Controls . .
Vent Connectors . .
Sizing Units .
OIL AND KEROSENE IN-SPACE
HEATERS . .
ELECTRIC IN-SPACE HEATERS . .
Radiant Heating Systems .
SOLID-FUEL IN-SPACE HEATERS . .
Fireplaces . .
Stoves .
GENERAL INSTALLATION PRACTICES
CHAPTER
CHIMNEY, VENT, AND FIREPLACE SYSTEMS
Terminology . .
Draft Operating Principles .
Chimney Functions .
Steady-State Chimney Design Equations . .
Steady-State Chimney Design
Graphical Solutions . .
Vent and Chimney Capacity Calculation Examples .
Gas Appliance Venting .
Oil-Fired Appliance Venting . .
Fireplace Chimneys . .
Air Supply to Fuel-Burning Appliances . .
Vent and Chimney Materials .
Vent and Chimney Accessories .
Draft Fans .
Terminations: Caps and Wind Effects .
Codes and Standards .
Conversion Factors .
Symbols
CHAPTER
HYDRONIC HEAT-DISTRIBUTING UNITS
AND RADIATORS
Description .
Ratings of Heat-Distributing Units . .
Design . .
Applications
CHAPTER
SOLAR ENERGY EQUIPMENT
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS .
Air-Heating Systems .
Liquid-Heating Systems . .
Solar Thermal Energy Collectors .
Row Design .
Array Design .
Thermal Energy Storage .
Heat Exchangers .
Controls .
PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
CHAPTER
COMPRESSORS
POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT
COMPRESSORS .
Performance . .
Abnormal Operating Conditions, Hazards, and
Protective Devices .
Motors .
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .
ROTARY COMPRESSORS .
Rolling-Piston Compressors .
Rotary-Vane Compressors . .
Screw Compressors .
Scroll Compressors .
Trochoidal Compressors .
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS . .
Application . .
Mechanical Design . .
Isentropic Analysis . .
Polytropic Analysis .
Operation and Maintenance .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
CONDENSERS
WATER-COOLED CONDENSERS . .
Heat Removal . .
Heat Transfer . .
Water Pressure Drop . .
Liquid Subcooling .
Water Circuiting .
Types .
Noncondensable Gases .
Testing and Rating . .
Operation and Maintenance .
AIR-COOLED CONDENSERS .
Types .
Fans and Air Requirements . .
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop . .
Condensers Remote from Compressor .
Condensers as Part of Condensing Unit .
Water-Cooled Versus Air-Cooled
Condensing . .
Testing and Rating . .
Control . .
Installation and Maintenance .
EVAPORATIVE CONDENSERS .
Heat Transfer . .
Condenser Configuration . .
Condenser Location . .
Multiple-Condenser Installations . .
Ratings .
Desuperheating Coils . .
Refrigerant Liquid Subcoolers . .
Multicircuit Condensers and Coolers .
Water Treatment . .
Water Consumption .
Capacity Modulation .
Purging . .
Maintenance . .
Testing and Rating .
CHAPTER
COOLING TOWERS
Principle of Operation . .
Design Conditions .
Types of Cooling Towers . .
Materials of Construction .
Selection Considerations . .
Application . .
Performance Curves . .
Cooling Tower Thermal
Performance . .
Cooling Tower Theory . .
Tower Coefficients . .
Additional Information .
CHAPTER
EVAPORATIVE AIR-COOLING EQUIPMENT
Direct Evaporative Air Coolers .
Indirect Evaporative Air Coolers .
Indirect/Direct Combinations . .
Air Washers . .
Humidification/Dehumidification . .
Sound Attenuation . .
Maintenance and Water Treatment .
CHAPTER
LIQUID COOLERS
Types of Liquid Coolers .
Heat Transfer .
Pressure Drop . .
Vessel Design .
Application Considerations
CHAPTER
LIQUID-CHILLING SYSTEMS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS . .
Principles of Operation . .
Common Liquid-Chilling Systems . .
Selection . .
Control . .
Standards and Testing . .
General Maintenance . .
RECIPROCATING LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance Characteristics and
Operating Problems . .
Method of Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Special Applications .
CENTRIFUGAL LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance and Operating Characteristics . .
Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Auxiliaries .
Special Applications . .
Operation and Maintenance .
SCREW LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance and Operating Characteristics . .
Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Auxiliaries .
Special Applications . .
Maintenance
CHAPTER
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal Pumping .
Construction Features . .
Pump Types .
Pump Performance Curves .
Hydronic System Curves .
Pump and Hydronic System Curves . .
Pump Power . .
Pump Efficiency . .
Affinity Laws .
Radial Thrust .
Net Positive Suction Characteristics .
Selection of Pumps . .
Arrangement of Pumps . .
Motive Power . .
Energy Conservation in Pumping .
Installation, Operation, and
Commissioning . .
Troubleshooting
CHAPTER
MOTORS, MOTOR CONTROLS, AND
VARIABLE-FREQUENCY DRIVES
MOTORS .
Alternating-Current Power Supply .
Codes and Standards . .
Motor Efficiency .
General-Purpose Motors . .
Permanent-Magnet AC Motors .
Hermetic Motors .
Integral Thermal Protection .
Motor Protection and Control . .
AIR VOLUME CONTROL . .
Variable-Frequency Drives .
Power Distribution System
Effects . .
AHRI Standard .
CHAPTER
PIPES, TUBES, AND FITTINGS
Pipe .
Fittings . .
Joining Methods . .
Special Systems .
Selection of Materials .
Pipe Wall Thickness . .
Stress Calculations . .
Plastic Piping . .
Pipe-Supporting Elements .
Pipe Expansion and Flexibility .
Pipe Bends and Loops .
Expansion Joints and Expansion Compensating Devices
CHAPTER
VALVES
Fundamentals . .
Manual Valves . .
Automatic Valves . .
Balancing Valves . .
Multiple-Purpose Valves .
Safety Devices .
Self-Contained Temperature Control Valves . .
Pressure-Reducing Valves . .
Check Valves .
Stop-Check Valves .
Backflow Prevention Devices . .
Steam Traps
CHAPTER
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Fundamentals .
Types of Heat Exchangers . .
Components . .
Application .
Selection Criteria .
Installation
CHAPTER
UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS
General Design Considerations .
Types of Unitary Equipment .
Equipment and System Standards . .
Air Conditioners .
Air-Source Heat Pumps . .
Water-Source Heat Pumps .
Variable-Refrigerant-Flow Heat Pumps
CHAPTER
ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND PACKAGED
TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS
ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS . .
Sizes and Classifications .
Design .
Performance Data .
Special Features .
Safety Codes and Standards .
Installation and Service . .
PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR
CONDITIONERS .
Sizes and Classifications .
General Design Considerations . .
Design of PTAC/PTHP Components . .
Heat Pump Operation .
Performance and Safety Testing
CHAPTER
THERMAL STORAGE
Sensible Thermal Storage Technology .
Chilled-Water Thermal Storage Sizing Examples . .
Chiller and Ice Storage Selection .
Heat Storage Technology . .
Sizing Cool Storage Systems .
Application of Thermal Storage Systems . .
Operation and Control . .
Other Design Considerations . .
Cost Considerations . .
Maintenance Considerations . .
Commissioning . .
Good Practices .
CHAPTER
CODES AND STANDARDS
COMPOSITE INDEX
ASHRAE HANDBOOK SERIES
This index covers the current Handbook series published by
ASHRAE. The four volumes in the series are identified as follows:
F = Fundamentals
R = Refrigeration
A = HVAC Applications
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment
Alphabetization of the index is letter by letter; for example, Heaters precedes Heat exchangers, and Floors precedes Floor slabs.
The page reference for an index entry includes the book letter
and the chapter number, which may be followed by a decimal point
and the beginning page in the chapter. For example, the page number S . means the information may be found in the HVAC
Systems and Equipment volume, Chapter , beginning on page .
Each Handbook volume is revised and updated on a four-year
cycle. Because technology and the interests of ASHRAE members
change, some topics are not included in the current Handbook
series but may be found in the earlier Handbook editions cited in
the index.
Abbreviations, F
Absorbents
liquid, F . ; F .
refrigerant pairs, F .
Absorption
ammonia/water, F .
hydrogen cycle, R .
technology, R .
chillers, S .
turbines, S .
coefficient of performance (COP), F .
dehumidification, S .
equipment, R .
evolving technologies, R .
ideal thermal, F .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
refrigeration cycles, F .
ammonia/water, F .
calculations, F .
cascaded, F .
coupling, F .
double-effect, F .
lithium bromide/water, F . ; F .
modeling analysis and performance,
F .
phase constraints, F .
representations, F .
solar cooling, A . , ; S . ,
water/lithium bromide technology
components, R .
control, R .
double-effect chillers, R .
maintenance, R .
operation, R .
single-effect chillers, R .
single-effect heat transformers, R .
terminology, R .
working fluids, F .
Acoustics. See Sound
Activated alumina, S . , ,
Activated carbon adsorption, A .
Adaptation, environmental, F .
ADPI. See Air diffusion performance index
(ADPI)
Adsorbents
impregnated, S .
solid, A . ; F .
Adsorption
dehumidification, S . ,
indoor air cleaning, A .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
moisture, F .
solid-vapor sorption, F .
Aeration, of farm crops, A
Aerosols, S .
AFDD. See Automated fault detection and
diagnostics (AFDD)
Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps, S .
AFUE. See Annual fuel utilization efficiency
(AFUE)
AHU. See Air handlers
Air
age of, and ventilation, F .
changes per hour (ACH), F .
drying, S .
flux, F .
liquefaction, R .
permeability, F .
permeance, F .
separation, R .
transfer, F .
Air barriers, F .
Airborne infectious diseases, F .
Air cleaners. (See also Filters, air; Industrial
exhaust gas cleaning)
gaseous (indoor air)
adsorbers, A .
chemisorbers, A .
economics, A .
energy consumption, A .
environmental effects on, A .
installation, A .
media selection, A .
operation and maintenance, A .
safety, A .
sizing, A .
terminology, A .
testing, A .
types, A .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
particulate
contaminants, S .
industrial ventilation, S .
particle collection mechanisms, S .
penetration, S .
residential, S .
safety requirements, S .
selection, S .
standards, S . ,
test methods, S .
types
air washers, S .
combination, S .
electronic, S . ; S . , ; S .
evaporative coolers, S .
maintenance, S .
media filters, S .
Air conditioners. (See also Central air
conditioning)
packaged terminal (PTAC), S .
design, S .
heavy-duty commercial grade, S .
sizes and classifications, S .
testing, S .
residential, A
split systems, S .
through-the-wall room units, A .
unitary, A .
retail stores, A .
rooftop units, S .
room
codes and standards, S .
design, S .
features, S .
filters, S .
installation and service, S .
noise, S .
performance, S .
sizes and classifications, S .
split systems, S .
coil placement, S .
residential and light-commercial, S .
unitary
air handlers, S .
application, S .
capacity control, S .
certification, S .
circuit components, S .
codes and standards, S . ,
desuperheaters, S .
efficiency, S .
electrical design, S .
installation, S .
mechanical design, S .
piping, S .
refrigerant circuit control, S .
service, S .
space conditioning/water heating, S .
types, S .
unit ventilators, S .

. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
window-mounted, S .
Air conditioning. (See also Central air
conditioning)
airports, A .
animal buildings, A .
arenas, A .
atriums, A .
auditoriums, A .
automobiles, A .
bakeries, R
buses, A .
bus terminals, A .
changeover temperature, S . ,
clean spaces, A
commercial buildings, A . ; S .
computer rooms, A
concert halls, A .
convention centers, A .
data centers, A
desiccant dehumidification and, S .
dormitories, A . ,
educational facilities, A .
engine test facilities, A .
equipment
outdoor, S .
refrigeration, S .
exhibition centers, A .
fairs, A .
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
gymnasiums, A .
health care facilities, A
hospitals, A .
nursing facilities, A .
outpatient, A .
hotels and motels, A
houses of worship, A .
ice rinks, A .
industrial environments, A ; A
kitchens, A
laboratories, A .
mass transit, A .
mines, A
natatoriums, A .
nuclear facilities, A
office buildings, A .
paper products facilities, A .
photographic processing and storage areas,
A .
places of assembly, A
plant growth chambers, A .
power plants, A .
printing plants, A
public buildings, A .
rail cars, A .
retrofitting, contaminant control, R .
solar energy systems, A . , ,
subway stations, A .
swimming areas, A .
systems
decentralized, S .
floor-by-floor, S .
forced-air, small, S .
packaged, S .
radiant panel S .
selection, S . ,
self-contained, S .
space requirements, S .
split, S .
telecommunication facilities, A
temporary exhibits, A .
textile processing plants, A .
theaters, A .
transportation centers, A .
warehouses, A .
wood products facilities, A .
Air contaminants, F . (See also
Contaminants)
Aircraft, A
air conditioning, A .
air distribution, A .
air filters, A . ,
air quality, A .
cabin pressurization
control, A . ,
performance, A . ,
carbon dioxide concentration, A .
environmental control system (ECS),
A . , ,
air-conditioning packs, A .
air-cycle machine, A .
cabin pressure control, A . , , ,
design conditions, A .
engine bleed air system, A .
load determination, A .
outdoor air, A .
pneumatic system, A .
regulations, A .
heating, A .
humidity, A .
oxygen levels, A . ,
ozone concentration, A . , ,
ventilation, A . ,
Air curtains
display cases, R .
units, S .
Air diffusers, S
sound control, A .
testing, A .
Air diffusion, F
air jets
Archimedes number, F .
axial, F . ,
behavior, F .
centerline velocity, F .
Coanda effect, F . ,
drop, F .
entrainment ratios, F .
expansion zones, F .
fundamentals, F .
isothermal, F . ,
multiple, F .
nonisothermal, F . ,
spread, F .
surface (wall and ceiling), F .
throw, F .
velocity, terminal, F .
vena contracta, F .
applications, A
aspect ratio, F . ,
core area, F .
diffuser, F .
discharge, coefficient of, F .
distribution, F .
draft, F .
effective area, F . ,
equipment, S
free area, F .
induction, F .
induction ratio, F .
neck area, F .
occupied zone, F .
outlet, F .
primary air, F .
space, F .
stratification height, F .
stratified zone, F .
terminology, F .
total air, F .
upper zone, F .
Air diffusion performance index (ADPI),
A .
Air dispersion systems, fabric, S .
Air distribution, A ; F ; S ; S
aircraft cabins, A .
air terminals, A .
animal environments, A . ,
applications, A
buildings, S .
central system, A .
control, S .
ductwork, S . ; S .
equipment, S
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
forced-air systems, small, S .
industrial environments, A .
in-room terminal systems, S .
isovels, A .
kitchen makeup air, A .
laboratories, A .
mapping, A .
occupied zone, A .
places of assembly, A .
rail cars, A .
retail stores, A .
ships, A . ,
sound control, A . ,
systems, A .
design considerations, A .
fully stratified, A .
mixed, A .
partially mixed, A .
rooms, A .
terminal boxes, A .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
textile processing plants, A .
zone control, A .
Air exchange rate
air changes per hour (ACH), F .
modeling, F .
multizone measurement, F .
time constants, F .
tracer gas measurement method, F .
Air filters. See Filters, air
Airflow
air-to-transmission ratio, S .
around buildings, F
air intake contamination estimation, F .
coefficients wind pressure, F .
computational modeling, F .
internal pressure, F .
LES model, F .
modeling and testing, F . ,
patterns, A . ; F .
RANS model, F .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
through building components, F .
clean spaces, A .
computational fluid dynamics, A .
computer-aided modeling, A .
condensers
air-cooled, S .
evaporative, S .
control, F ; F ; F
and convection, F .
displacement flow, F .
entrainment flow, F .
exhaust hoods, A .
furnaces, S .
with heat and moisture flow, F .
laminar, A .
measurement of, A .
modeling
in buildings, F
hygrothermal, F .
nonunidirectional, A .
perfect mixing, F .
pressure differentials, F .
solar energy systems, A .
terminology, F .
tracking, A .
transport velocity, A .
unidirectional, A . , ,
velocity measurement, F .
and water vapor flow, F .
wind
data, F . ,
effects on system operation, F .
velocity pressure (Bernoulli equation),
F .
wind tunnels, F .
Airflow retarders, F . ,
Air flux, F . . (See also Airflow)
Air handlers
all-air systems, S .
cooling, S .
dampers, S . ,
dehumidification, S . ,
distribution systems, A .
draw-through, S .
economizers, S .
fans, S . , ,
filter, S .
heating, S .
humidification, S . ,
location, S .
mixing plenum, S .
psychrometrics, S .
reheat, S .
sequencing, A .
set point reset, A .
sound levels, A .
strategies, A .
unitary, air conditioners, S .
vibration isolation, S .
Air inlets
applications, S .
types, S .
Air intakes
design, A .
hospitals, A .
location to avoid contamination, A .
outdoor, S .
vehicular facilities, enclosed, A .
Air jets. See Air diffusion
Air leakage. (See also Infiltration)
area, F .
building distribution, F .
commercial buildings, F .
controlling, air-vapor retarder, F .
leakage function, F .
measurement, F . ,
Air mixers, S .
Air outlets
accessories, S .
dampers, S . , ,
location, S .
selection, S . ,
smudging, S .
sound level, S .
supply, S .
surface effects, S .
temperature differential, S .
types, S .
Airports, air conditioning, A .
Air quality. [See also Indoor air quality (IAQ)]
aircraft cabins, A .
animal buildings, A .
bus terminals, A .
diesel locomotive facilities, A .
parking garages, A .
road tunnels, A .
tollbooths, A .
Air terminal units (ATUs)
air distribution, S .
constant volume, S .
fan-powered, S .
humidifiers, S .
induction, S .
reheat boxes, S .
throttling, S .
variable-air-volume (VAV), S .
Airtightness, F .
Air-to-air energy recovery, S
Air-to-transmission ratio, S .
Air transport, R
altitude effects, R . ,
animals, R .
commodity requirements, R .
design considerations, R .
galley refrigeration, R .
ground handling, R .
perishable cargo, R .
refrigeration, R .
shipping containers, R .
Air washers
air cleaning, S .
coolers, S .
dehumidification performance factor, S .
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous, F .
humidification, S .
maintenance, S .
spray, S .
textile processing plants, A .
water treatment, A . ; S .
Algae, control, A .
All-air systems
advantages, S .
air distribution, S .
air handlers, S .
air terminal units (ATUs), S .
buildings, S .
constant-volume, S . ,
control, S .
cooling, S . ,
costs, S .
dehumidification, S . ,
disadvantages, S .
dual-duct, S .
economizers, S .
heating, S . ,
humidification, S . ,
multizone, S .
primary equipment, S .
single-duct, S .
variable-air-volume (VAV), S . ,
zoning, S .
Altitude, effects of
air-cooling and dehumidifying coils, S . , ,
air transport, R . , ,
ambient temperature, F .
chimney, vent, and fireplace draft calculations,
S . ,
combustion and fuel calculations, F . ; S . ,
, ; S .
fans, S .
hydronic heat-distributing units and radiators,
S .
load calculations, F . ; F .
outdoor air thermal loads, F .
psychrometrics, F . ,
Ammonia
absorption
ammonia/water, F . ; R .
ammonia/water/hydrogen, R .
in animal environments, A . ,
properties, F . –
system practices, R
and water, F . –
Anchor bolts, seismic restraint, A .
Anemometers
air devices, A .
types, F .
Animal environments
air contaminants
ammonia, A . ,
carbon dioxide, A .
air distribution, A . ,
air inlets, A .
air quality control, A .
air transport, R .
cattle, beef and dairy, A .
cooling, A .
design, A .
disease control, A .
evaporative cooling, A . ; A .
fans, A .
heating, A .
hydrogen sulfide, A .
insulation, A .
laboratory conditions, A . ; A .
moisture control, A .
particulate matter (PM), A .
poultry, A .
shades, A .
swine, A .
temperature control, A .
ventilation, A .
Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE),
S .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Antifreeze
coolants, secondary, F .
ethylene glycol, F .
hydronic systems, S .
propylene glycol, F .
Antisweat heaters (ASH), R .
Apartment buildings
service water heating, A . ,
ventilation, A .
Aquifers, thermal storage, S .
Archimedes number, F .
Archives. See Museums, galleries, archives,
and libraries
Arenas
air conditioning, A .
smoke control, A .
Argon, recovery, R .
Asbestos, F .
ASH. See Antisweat heaters (ASH)
Atriums
air conditioning, A .
smoke control, A .
Attics, unconditioned, F .
Auditoriums, A .
Automated fault detection and diagnostics
(AFDD), A . ; A .
benefits, A . ,
controller-embedded, A .
detection, A . ,
diagnosis, A .
evaluation, A .
methods, A .
tools, A .
Automobiles
engine test facilities, A .
HVAC, A
design factors, A .
subsystems, A .
Autopsy rooms, A . ; A . ,
Avogadro’s law, and fuel combustion,
F .
Backflow-prevention devices, S .
BACnet®, A . ; F .
Bacteria
control, A .
food, growth in, R .
humidifiers, growth in, S .
pathogens, F .
Bakery products, R
air conditioning, R .
bread, R
cooling, R .
dough production, R .
freezing, R .
ingredient storage, R .
refrigeration, R . ; R .
slicing, R .
wrapping, R .
Balance point, heat pumps, S .
Balancing. (See also Testing, adjusting, and
balancing)
air distribution systems, A .
dual-duct systems, A .
HVAC systems, A .
hydronic systems, A .
induction systems, A .
kitchen ventilation systems, A .
refrigeration systems, R .
steam distribution systems, A .
temperature controls, A .
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A .
BAS. See Building automation systems (BAS)
Baseboard units
application, S .
design, S .
finned-tube, S .
nonstandard condition corrections, S .
radiant, S .
rating, S .
Basements
conditioned, A .
heat loss, F . ; F .
heat transfer, F .
moisture control, A .
unconditioned, A .
Beer’s law, F .
Bernoulli equation, F .
generalized, F . ,
kinetic energy factor, F .
steady flow, F .
wind velocity pressure, F .
Best efficiency point (BEP), S .
Beverages, R
beer, R .
storage requirements, R .
carbonated, R .
coolers, R .
fruit juice, R .
liquid carbon dioxide storage, R .
refrigeration systems, R .
refrigerators for, R .
thermal properties, R .
time calculations
cooling, R .
freezing, R .
wine
production, R .
storage temperature, R .
BIM. See Building information modeling
(BIM)
Bioaerosols
airborne
bacteria, F . ,
fungus spores, F .
microbiological particulate, F .
mold, F .
pollen, F .
sampling, F .
viruses, F .
origins, F .
particles, F .
Biocides, control, A .
Biodiesel, F .
Biological safety cabinets, A .
Biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A .
Bioterrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Boilers, S
air supply, S .
burners, S .
burner types, S .
carbonic acid, S .
central
multifamily, A .
classifications, S .
codes, S .
combination, S .
condensing, S .
construction materials, S .
controls, A . ; A . ; S .
flame safeguard, S .
draft types, S .
dry-base, S .
efficiency, S .
electric, S .
equipment, S .
gas-fired, S . ,
venting, S .
integrated, S .
modeling, F .
noncondensing, S .
oil-fired venting, S .
piping, S .
rating, S .
residential, A .
scotch marine, S .
selection, S .
service water heating, A .
sizing, S .
standards, S .
steam, S .
systems, S .
stokers, S .
venting, S . ,
wall-hung, S .
waste heat, S .
water, S .
water treatment, A .
blowdown, A .
wet-base, S .
wet-leg, S .
working pressure, S .
Boiling
critical heat flux, F .
evaporators
flow mechanics, F .
heat transfer, F .
film, F .
natural convection systems, F .
nucleate, F . ,
pool, F .
Brake horsepower, S .
Brayton cycle
cryogenics, R .
gas turbine, S .
Bread, R
Breweries
carbon dioxide production, R .
refrigeration
fermenting cellar, R .
Kraeusen cellar, R .
stock cellar, R .
systems, R .
wort cooler, R .
storage tanks, R .
vinegar production, R .
Brines. See Coolants, secondary
Building automation systems (BAS), A . ;
A . ; F .
Building energy monitoring, A . (See also
Energy, monitoring)
Building envelopes
air barrier, A .
requirements, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
air intrusion, A .
air leakage control, A .
attics, A .
bound water, A .
building assembly, A .
building enclosure, A .
component, A .
condensation, A . ; S .
convective loop, A .
driving rain load, F .
dropped ceiling, A .
durability, A .
energy conservation, A .
exfiltration, A .
existing buildings
changing HVAC equipment in, A .
envelope modifications in, A .
face-sealed systems, A .
fenestration, A .
foundations, A .
heat transfer through, A .
moisture effects, A .
historic buildings, A .
hygrothermal design analysis, A .
infiltration, A .
insulation, F .
interstitial spaces, A .
interzonal environmental loads, A .
material properties, F
moisture content, A .
moisture control, A .
museums, galleries, archives, and libraries,
A .
plenum, A .
return air, A .
rain screen designs, A .
roofs, A .
insulated sloped assemblies, A .
low-slope assemblies, A .
steep-roof assemblies, A .
vegetated roofing, A .
R-value, A .
clear-wall, A .
material, A .
system, A .
total, A .
sorption, A .
structural failure, from moisture, F .
surface condensation, A .
terminology, A .
thermal
break, A .
bridges, A . ; F .
insulation, A .
mass, A .
performance, A .
transmittance, A .
U-factor (thermal transmittance), A .
U-value, F .
vapor
barrier, continuous, A .
diffusion control, A .
retarder (vapor barrier), A .
wall/window interface, A .
walls, A .
curtain, A .
precast concrete panels, A .
steel-stud, A .
water-resistive barrier (WRB), A .
wind washing, A .
zone method, A .
Building information modeling (BIM), A .
Building materials, properties, F
Buildings
air barrier, A .
airtight duct connections, A .
damp, A .
human health, A .
dampness risk, A .
dew point, A .
drainage plane, A .
flashing, A .
moisture, A .
content, A .
risk, A .
mold, A .
mold-resistant gypsum board, A .
positive pressure, A .
problems
causes, A .
dampness A .
roof overhang, A .
sill pans, A .
vinyl wall covering, A .
water barrier, A .
Building thermal mass
charging and discharging, S .
effects of, S .
precooling, A .
Burners
air supply, S .
controls, S .
conversion, S . ,
dual-fuel gas/oil, S .
gas-fired, S .
altitude compensation, S .
combustion and adjustments, S .
commercial, S .
industrial, S .
residential, S .
venting, S .
oil-fired, S .
commercial, S .
fuel handling, S .
industrial, S .
residential, S .
venting, S .
venting, S . ,
Buses
air conditioning, A .
garage ventilation, A .
Bus terminals
air conditioning, A .
physical configuration, A .
ventilation
effects of alternative fuel use, A .
equipment, A .
operation areas, A .
platforms, A .
Butane, commercial, F .
CAD. See Computer-aided design
(CAD)
Cafeterias, service water heating, A . ,
Calcium chloride brines, F .
Candy
chocolate, R .
manufacture, R .
storage, R .
Capillary action, and moisture flow, F .
Capillary tubes
capacity balance, R .
characteristic curve, R .
pressure-reducing device, R .
restrictor orifice, S .
selection, R .
Carbon dioxide
in aircraft cabins, A .
in animal environments, A .
combustion, F . ,
greenhouse enrichment, A .
liquefaction, R .
measurement, F .
refrigerant, R .
storage, R .
Carbon emissions, F .
Carbon monoxide
analyzers, A . ,
health effects, F .
parking garages, A . ,
road tunnels, A .
tollbooths, A .
Cargo containers, R
airborne sound, R .
air circulation, R .
ambient design factors, R .
commodity precooling, R .
control, R . ,
controlled atmosphere, R .
costs, owning and operating, R .
design, R .
equipment
attachment provisions, R .
design and selection factors, R . ,
operating efficiency, R .
qualification testing, R .
selection, R .
system application factors, R .
types, R .
heating only, R .
insulation barrier, R .
load calculations, R .
maintenance, R .
mechanical cooling and heating, R .
operations, R .
qualification testing, R .
safety, R .
sanitation, R .
shock and vibration, R .
space considerations, R .
system application, R .
temperature-controlled transport, R .
temperature settings, R .
use, R .
vapor barrier, R .
ventilation, R . ,
Carnot refrigeration cycle, F .
Cattle, beef and dairy, A . . (See also Animal
environments)
CAV. See Constant air volume (CAV)
Cavitation, F .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
valves, S .
CBRE. See Chemical, biological, radiological,
and explosive (CBRE) incidents
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
CEER. See Combined energy efficiency ratio
(CEER)
Ceiling effect. See Coanda effect
Ceilings
natural ventilation, F .
sound correction, A .
sound transmission, A .
Central air conditioning, A . (See also Air
conditioning)
Central plants
chiller, S .
cooling and heating, S .
distribution design, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
emission control, S .
heating medium, S .
hotels and motels, A .
thermal storage, S .
Central systems
cooling and heating, S .
features, S .
furnaces, S .
humidifiers, S .
residential forced air, S .
space requirements, S .
in tall buildings, A .
acoustical considerations, A .
economic considerations, A .
location, A .
ventilation, with in-room terminal systems,
S .
Cetane number, engine fuels, F .
CFD. See Computational fluid dynamics
(CFD)
Charge minimization, R .
Charging, refrigeration systems, R .
Chemical, biological, radiological, and
explosive (CBRE) incidents, A
biological events, A .
building envelope as protection, F . ,
chemical agent types, A .
gases and vapors, A .
incapacitating, A .
irritants, A .
toxic, A .
chemical events, A .
commissioning, A .
explosive events, A .
design considerations, A .
loading description, A .
radiological events, A .
Chemical plants
automation, R .
energy recovery, R .
flow sheets, R .
instrumentation and controls, R .
outdoor construction, R .
piping, R .
pumps, R .
refrigeration
compressors, R .
condensers, R .
cooling towers, R .
equipment, R . ,
evaporators, R .
load, R .
safety requirements, R .
spray ponds, R .
systems, R . ,
safety requirements, R .
specifications, R .
tanks, R .
Chemisorption, A .
Chilled beams, S .
Chilled water (CW)
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution,
S .
district heating and cooling, S . ,
optimal temperature, A .
pumping system, A . ,
pump sequencing, A . ,
reset, A . ,
systems, S . ,
central plant, A .
heat transfer vs. flow, A .
one-pipe, S .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
two-pipe, S .
thermal storage, S .
water treatment, A .
Chillers
absorption, S .
ammonia/water, R .
heat-activated, S .
water/lithium bromide, R .
blast, R .
central plants, A . ; S .
centrifugal
air-cooled, S .
controls, S .
equipment, S .
fouling, S .
free cooling, S .
hot-gas bypass, S .
maintenance, S .
purge units, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant
selection, S .
transfer units, S .
selection methods, S .
temperature lift, S .
control, A .
capacity, S . ,
considerations, S .
regulating, S .
safety, S .
costs, S .
direct expansion, R . ; S .
economizing, S .
expansion turbines, S .
flash, S .
heat recovery, S .
injection, S .
liquid-chilling systems, S
liquid heads, S .
load distribution, A .
maintenance, S . , ,
marine water boxes, S .
noise generation, A . ; S .
optimization, A .
prerotation vanes, S . ,
reciprocating
components, S .
control, S .
equipment, S .
performance, S .
refrigerant selection, S .
selection methods, S .
refrigeration cycle, S .
screw
applications, S .
capacity control, S .
components, S .
equipment, S .
maintenance, S .
performance, S .
selection methods, S . , ,
sequencing, A . ,
standards, S .
subcooling, S .
and turbines, S .
vapor compression model, F .
variable-flow, S .
variable-speed, S . ,
vibration control, S .
walk-in, R .
Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy, F .
Chimneys, S
accessories, S .
capacity calculation examples, S .
caps, S .
codes, S .
design equations, S .
draft, S .
altitude effects, S . ,
available, S . ,
theoretical, S . ,
fireplace, S . ,
flue gas, S .
functions, S .
gas, appliance venting, S .
masonry, S . ,
materials, S .
standards, S . ,
terminations, S .
wind effects, S . ,
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), A .
Chocolate, R . . (See also Candy)
Choking, F .
CHP systems. See Combined heat and power
(CHP)
Cinemas, A .
CKV. See Commercial kitchen ventilation
(CVK)
Claude cycle, R .
Cleanrooms. See Clean spaces
Clean spaces, A
aerospace, A .
air filters, A . , ,
airflow, A . , , ,
applications, A .
biomanufacturing, A .
construction, A .
contaminant control, A . ,
cooling, A .
energy conservation, A .
fire safety, A .
high-bay, A .
humidity control, A .
makeup air, A . ,
noise control, A .
operation, A .
particle sources, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
pharmaceutical
aseptic, A .
biomanufacturing, A .
contaminant control, A .
control and monitoring, A .
design, A .
isolators, A .
nonaseptic, A .
unidirectional hoods, A .
pharmaceutical, A .
pressurization, A .
process exhaust, A . ,
semiconductor, A .
start-up, A .
system sizing and redundancy, A .
temperature control, A .
terminology, A .
testing, A .
vibration control, A .
Clear-sky solar radiation, calculation, F .
Climate change, effect on climatic design
conditions, F .
Climatic design information, F
annual design conditions, F .
calculation of, F .
changes in, F .
climate change’s effect on, F .
cooling, F .
data sources, F .
heating, F .
monthly design conditions, F .
precipitation, F .
return period of extremes, F .
uncertainties in design data, F .
Clinics, A .
Clothing
insulation, clo units, F .
moisture permeability, F .
CLTD/CLF. See Cooling load temperature
differential method with solar cooling load
factors (CLTD/CLF)
Coal
classification, F .
handling facilities, A . ,
heating value, F .
stokers, S .
types, F .
Coanda effect, A . ; F . , ; S .
Codes, S . (See also Standards)
air conditioners, room, S .
air distribution, A .
boilers, S .
building codes, S .
chilled-beam system, A .
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S .
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
coolers, liquid, S .
dehumidifiers, room, S .
duct construction, S .
electrical, A .
furnaces, S .
makeup air units, S .
motors, S .
nuclear facilities, A .
piping, S .
tall buildings, A .
Coefficient of performance (COP)
absorption, F .
compressors, S .
refrigeration, F . ,
room air conditioners, S .
Cogeneration. See Combined heat and power
(CHP)
Coils
air-cooling, S .
airflow resistance, S .
applications, S . ,
aqueous glycol coils, S .
construction and arrangement, S .
control, A . ; S .
direct-expansion coils, S .
fluid flow arrangement, S .
heat transfer, S .
load determination, S .
maintenance, S .
performance, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant coils, S .
selection, S .
on ships, A .
water coils, S .
air-heating, S .
aqueous glycol, S .
construction, S .
design, S .
electric, A . ; S .
installation, S .
maintenance, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant, S .
selection, S .
shipboard, A .
steam, S .
water, S . ; S .
altitude effects, S . ,
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
dehumidifying, S .
desuperheating, S .
energy recovery loops, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous, F .
heat reclaim, S .
preheat, S .
reheat, S . ; S .
Colburn’s analogy, F .
Colebrook equation
friction factor, F .
pressure drop, F .
Collectors, solar, A . , , , ; S .
(See also Solar energy)
Colleges and universities, A .
Combined energy efficiency ratio (CEER),
S .
Combined heat and power (CHP), S
economic feasibility,
load duration curve, S .
simulation, S .
electrical systems, S .
utility interface, S .
expansion engines/turbines, S .
heat-activated chillers, S .
heat recovery
engines, S . ,
turbines, S .
load profiling, S .
maintenance, S .
modular systems, S .
packaged systems, S .
peak shaving, S .
prime movers
fuel cells, S .
selection, S .
thermal output, S .
turbines
combustion, S . ,
steam, S . ,
thermal energy storage, S .
utility interface, electric, S .
utilization systems
air, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
hydronic, S .
service hot water, S .
vibration control, foundations, S .
Combustion, F
air pollution, F .
air required for, F .
altitude compensation, F . ; S . , , ;
S .
calculations
air required for, F .
carbon dioxide, theoretical, F .
efficiency, F .
flue gas, F .
coals
classification, F .
heating value, F .
types, F .
condensation in, F .
continuous, F .
corrosion in, F .
diesel fuel, F .
efficiency, F .
engine fuels, cetane number, F .
excess air, F .
flammability limits F .
flue gas, F . , , , ,
fuel oils, F .
gaseous fuels
illuminants, F .
liquefied petroleum gas, F .
natural gas, F .
types and properties, F .
gas turbine fuel, F .
heating value, F .
ignition temperature, F .
illuminants, F .
liquid fuels, F .
engines, F .
noise, F .
oscillation, F .
pollution, F .
principles, F .
pulse, F .
reactions, F .
resonance, F .
solid fuels, F .
soot, F .
sound, F .
stoichiometric, F .
types, F .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Combustion air systems
air required, S .
analysis, F .
burners
gas, S .
oil, S .
control, S .
efficiency boilers, S .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
venting, S .
Combustion turbine inlet cooling (CTIC),
S . ; S .
thermal storage, S .
Comfort. (See also Physiological principles,
humans)
environmental indices, F .
environmental parameters
air velocity, F .
asymmetric thermal radiation, F .
draft, F .
floor temperature, F .
radiant temperature, F .
vertical air temperature difference, F .
humidity, F . ; F .
local discomfort, F .
models
adaptive, F .
multisegment, F .
two-node, F .
nonuniform conditions, F .
predicted mean vote (PMV), F . ; F .
predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F .
productivity, F .
radiant heating, A .
special environments
extreme cold, F .
hot and humid environments, F .
infrared heating, F .
personal environmental control (PEC)
systems, F .
radiant heating, comfort equations, F .
steady-state energy balance, F .
multisegment models, F .
two-node model, F .
task performance, F .
thermal sensation scale, F .
zones, F . ; F .
Commercial and public buildings, A
air leakage, F .
airports, A .
burners
gas, S . ,
oil, S .
bus terminals, A .
central cooling systems, A .
cruise terminals, A .
design concepts, A .
ducts, S
furnaces, S .
general design considerations, A .
humidifiers, S .
ice rinks, R
kitchen ventilation, A .
load characteristics, A .
malls, A .
materials, S .
office buildings, A .
retail facilities, A .
service water heating, A .
transportation centers, A .
warehouses, A .
Commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV),
A
Commissioning, A
acceptance, A .
basis of design (BOD), A . ,
certification, A .
checklist, A . ,
construction, A .
control systems, F .
costs, A .
desiccant dehumidifiers, S .
design, A . ; A .
design review, A .
existing buildings, A . ,
humidifiers, S .
in integrated building design, A .
issues log, A .
laboratories, A .
makeup air units, S .
new construction, A .
objectives, A .
occupancy and operations, A .
owner’s project requirements (OPR), A .
predesign, A .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
recommissioning, A . ,
retrocommissioning, A .
steam systems, S .
systems manual, A . , ,
team, A .
test procedures, A .
Compressors, S
air conditioners, room, S .
ammonia refrigeration systems, R .
bearings
centrifugal, S .
reciprocating, S . ,
rotary, S .
single-screw, S .
twin-screw, S .
centrifugal, S . ; S .
chemical industry refrigeration, R .
drives, R .
dynamic, S .
engine-driven, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
heat pump systems, S .
motors, S . ; S .
noise generation, A . ; S . ,
operation and maintenance, S .
positive-displacement, S .
reciprocating, S . ; S .
crankcase, R .
rotary, S .
screw, S .
single, S .
twin, S .
scroll, S .
trochoidal (Wankel), S .
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), F .
assessing predictions, F .
boundary conditions for
inlet, F .
outlet, F .
reporting, F .
sources/sinks, F .
surfaces, F . ,
walls, F .
considerations, F .
grids, F .
mathematical approaches, F .
meshing, F .
reporting, F . ,
steps, F .
turbulence modeling, F .
validation, F . ,
verification, F .
viscosity modeling, F .
Computer-aided design (CAD), A . ; A .
Computers, A
abbreviations for programming, F .
BACnet®, A . ; F .
building automation systems (BAS), A .
computational fluid dynamics, A . ; A . ;
A .
computer-aided design (CAD), A . ; A .
for control, F . , ,
design tools
acoustic calculations, A .
building information modeling (BIM),
A .
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
computational fluid dynamics, A .
computer-aided design (CAD), A .
duct design, A .
equipment selection and simulation, A .
load calculations, A .
piping design, A .
refrigerant properties, A .
smoke control analysis, A . ,
ventilation, A .
road tunnel, A .
equipment, A .
graphics, A .
hardware, A .
HVAC simulation, A .
Internet, A .
modeling, F .
monitoring and control, A .
networking components, A .
peripherals, A .
smoke control analysis, A . ,
software, A .
antispyware, A .
custom programming, A .
development tools, A .
energy analysis, F .
firewall, A .
graphics, A .
HVAC, A .
readymade, A .
road tunnel, A .
terminology, A .
utilities, A . ,
supervisory control, A .
World Wide Web, A .
Concert halls, A .
Concrete
cooling, R .
pozzolanic admixtures, R .
selection, R .
thermal design, R .
water heating for, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Condensate
steam systems, F . ; S . ; S . ,
water treatment, A .
Condensation
in building components, F .
in combustion systems, F .
concealed, S .
control, with insulation, F .
dew-point analysis, F .
dropwise, F .
energy recovery equipment, S .
film, F .
heat transfer coefficients, F .
interstitial, and drying, F .
noncondensable gases, F .
with oil, F .
oil-fired appliances, S .
prevention, dehumidification for, S .
surface, F . ,
in tubes, F .
visible, S .
Condensers, S
air conditioners, room, S .
air-cooled, R . ; S . ,
airflow, S .
control, S .
fans, S .
heat transfer, S .
installation, S .
machine room, R .
maintenance, S .
noise, R .
pressure drop, S .
rating, S .
types, S .
ammonia refrigeration systems, R .
cascade, R .
chemical industry refrigeration, R .
in chillers, S . , ,
evaporative, R . ; S .
airflow, S .
capacity control, S .
codes, S .
coils, S .
freeze prevention, S .
heat transfer, S .
liquid subcoolers, S .
location, S .
maintenance, S .
multicircuiting with liquid coolers, S .
multiple-condenser installations, S .
purging, S .
rating, S .
standards, S .
water, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems
air-cooled, R .
evaporative, R .
piping, R .
pressure control, R .
water, R .
retail food store refrigeration, R .
water-cooled, S .
codes, S .
Darcy-Weisbach equation, S .
fouling factor, S .
heat removal, S . ; S .
heat transfer, S .
liquid subcooling, S .
maintenance, S .
noncondensable gases, S .
pressure drop, S .
standards, S .
types, S .
water circuiting, S .
Conductance, thermal, F . ; F .
Conduction
display cases, R .
steady-state, F .
thermal, F . ,
Conductivity, thermal, F . ; F .
apparent, F . ; F .
of thermal insulation, F .
foods, R .
soils, F .
Constant air volume (CAV)
control, A .
supply air temperature reset, A .
versus variable-air-volume (VAV), A .
Constant-volume, all-air systems
air terminal units, S .
dual-duct, S .
single-duct, S .
Construction. (See also Building envelopes)
curtain wall, F .
glass block wall, F .
in integrated building design, A . ,
Containers. (See also Cargo containers)
air transport, R .
marine transport, R .
Contaminants
clean spaces, A . ,
food, R .
gaseous
combustion, F . ; S .
concentration, indoor, measurement, A .
control, S . ; S . , ,
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS),
F .
flammable, F .
indoor air, F .
industrial, F .
inorganic, F .
measurement, F . ; F .
microbial volatile organic compounds
(MVOCs), F .
nuclear facilities, A . , ,
outdoor air, F .
ozone, A .
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs),
F .
radioactive, F .
radon, A . ; F .
removal, A .
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs),
F . , ; F .
soil gases, F .
vapors, flammable, F .
volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
F . , ; F .
total (TVOCs), F .
indoor, concentration prediction, F .
organism destruction, R .
particulate
aerosols, S .
asbestos, F .
classification, F .
coarse, F .
collection mechanisms, S . ; S . ,
combustion, F .
dusts, F . ; S .
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F .
fine, F .
fogs, F . ,
fumes, F .
measurement, F .
mists, F . ,
pollen, F .
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs),
F .
radioactive, F .
size distribution, F .
smogs, F . ,
smokes, F .
suspended particles, counters, F .
synthetic vitreous fibers, F .
ultrafine, F .
refrigerant systems, R .
dirt, R .
field assembly, R .
filter-driers, R .
generation by high temperature, R .
lubricants, R .
metallic, R .
moisture, R .
motor burnout, R . ,
noncondensable gases, R .
residual cleaning agents, R .
sampling, R .
sludge, tars, and wax, R .
solvents, R .
special system characteristics, R .
textile processing, A .
Continuity, fluid dynamics, F .
Control. (See also Controls, automatic;
Supervisory control)
absorption units, R . ,
aircraft cabin pressure, A . ,
air-handling systems, A . , ; A .
all-air systems, S .
authority, F .
automobile air conditioning, A .
boilers, A . ; A . ; S .
building automation systems (BASs), A .
building pressurization, A .
burners, S .
bus terminal ventilation, A .
central air conditioning, A .
chemical plants, R .
chilled beams, A .
chilled-water pumps, A . , ,
chillers, A . ; A .
combustion turbines, S .
components, F .
condensers
air-cooled, S .
evaporative, S .
cooling, S .
coils, A . ; S .
tower fans, A . ,
towers, A .
corrosion, A . ,
dehumidifying coils, S .
demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), A .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
design principles
controlled area size, A .
energy conservation, A .
load matching, A .
sensor location, A .
system selection, A .
direct expansion (DX), A .
economizers, A . ,
electric heating slabs, S .
energy recovery equipment, S . ,
engines, S .
fans, A . ; S .
air volume, S .
fire, A .
fixed-guideway vehicle air conditioning,
A .
freezestat, A .
functional performance testing (FPT), A .
fundamentals, F
furnaces, S . ,
heaters, S . ,
infrared, S .
heat exchangers, A .
heating coils, A .
heat pumps, A . ; S .
heat recovery systems, S .
heat timers, S .
humidifiers, S .
humidity, A . ; S . ; S .
hydronic heating systems; S . ; S .
induction VAV terminals, A .
justice facilities, A .
laboratory systems, A .
liquid chillers, S . , , ,
low-temperature, R .
makeup air units, A . ; S .
measurement and verification (M&V), A .
morning warm-up, A .
motors, S . ,
protection, S .
nuclear facilities, A .
optimization, A .
outdoor air quantity, A .
paper moisture content, A .
parking garage ventilation, A .
performance monitoring, A .
photographic materials processing, A .
pipe-tracing systems, A .
plant growth chambers, A .
pneumatic, A . , ,
pressurization, A .
radiant panels, A . ; S .
radioactivity, A .
rail car air conditioning, A .
refrigerant flow, R .
residential heating and cooling, A .
return fan, A . ,
road tunnel ventilation, A .
scale, A .
sequence of operation, A .
ship air conditioning
merchant, A .
naval surface, A .
smoke, A .
snow-melting systems, A .
solar energy, A . , , ; S .
differential temperature controller, S .
hot-water dump, S .
overtemperature protection, S .
solid-state, A .
sound, A . , ; F .
static pressure, and variable flow rates, A .
steam coils, A .
steam systems, S .
system selection, A .
terminal units, A .
thermal storage systems, A . ; S .
unit heaters, S .
unit ventilators, A . ; S .
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A . ;
A .
ventilation reset control (VRC), A .
vibration, A .
zone systems, A .
zone valves, S .
Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage
apples, R .
apricots, R .
berries, R .
cherries, sweet, R .
figs, R .
grapes, R .
nectarines, R .
peaches, R .
pears, R . ,
plums, R .
refrigerated facilities, R .
strawberries, R .
vegetables, R .
Controlled-environment rooms (CERs), and
plant growth, A .
Controls, automatic, F . (See also Control)
actuator, F .
authority, F .
classification, F .
closed loop (feedback), F .
commissioning, F .
components
controlled devices, F .
controllers, A . ; F . ,
sensors, F .
transducers, electronic-to-pneumatic (E/P),
F .
computers, A . ; F .
control action types, F . , ,
dampers, F .
actuator mounting, F .
actuators, F .
types, F .
direct digital (DDC), F . , ,
explosive atmospheres, A .
extraordinary incidents, A .
feedback (closed loop), F .
fuzzy logic, F .
mobile applications, A .
modeling, F .
modulating, F .
open loop, F .
positive positioners, F .
proportional/integral (PI), F .
proportional-integral-derivative (PID), F .
proportional-only (P), F .
refrigerant flow, R .
safety, A .
sensors, F . , ; R .
location, A .
static pressure, A .
switches, R .
systems, F .
terminology, F .
testing, A .
thermostats, F .
transducers, pressure, R .
transmitters, F .
tuning, F . , ,
two-position, F .
valves, F .
actuators, F .
flow characteristics, F .
selection and sizing, F . ,
Convection
flow, fully developed turbulent, F .
forced, F .
condensation in tubes, F .
evaporation in tubes, F . , ,
laminar, F .
transition region, F .
turbulent, F .
free, F .
mass, F .
natural, F . ; F .
steam heating systems, S .
thermal, F .
Convectors
application, S .
design, S .
heat-distributing unit, S .
nonstandard condition corrections, S .
rating, S .
Convention centers, A .
Conversion factors, F
Coolants, secondary
brines
corrosion inhibition, A . ; F .
properties, F .
calcium chloride solutions, F .
d-limonene, F .
ethyl alcohol solutions, F .
halocarbons, F .
inhibited glycols
corrosion inhibition, F .
ethylene glycol, F .
propylene glycol, F .
service considerations, F .
low-temperature refrigeration, R .
nonhalocarbon nonaqueous fluids, F .
polydimethylsiloxane, F .
potassium formate solutions, F .
refrigeration systems, R .
sodium chloride solutions, F .
sodium nitrate and nitrite solutions, F .
Coolers. (See also Refrigerators)
beverage, R .
cryocoolers, R .
forced-circulation air, R .
installation and operation, R .
liquid (See also Evaporators)
Baudelot, S .
brazed (semiwelded) plate, S .
in chillers, S . , , ,
evaporative, with evaporative condensers,
S .
flooded, S .
freeze prevention, S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
heat transfer, S
coefficients, S .
fouling factor, S .
maintenance, S .
oil return, S .
piping, R . ,
pressure drop, S .
refrigerant flow control, S .
residential, A .
shell-and-tube, S .
tube-in-tube, S .
vessel design requirements, S .
retail food store, R .
walk-in, R . ; R .
water, R .
Cooling. (See also Air conditioning)
absorption equipment, R .
animal environments, A .
bakery products, R .
concrete
active systems, R .
air blast, R .
chilled water, R .
embedded coils, R .
inundation, R .
passive, R .
controls, A . , S .
foods and beverages, time calculations, R .
fruits and vegetables
evaporative, R .
forced-air, R .
hydrocooling, R .
load calculation, R .
package icing, R .
vacuum cooling, R .
geothermal energy systems, A .
greenhouses, A .
radiant panel systems, S .
radiative, A .
solar energy systems, A . , ,
water systems, S . , ,
dynamometers, A .
Cooling load
calculations, F ; F
central plant, S .
coil, F .
cooling load temperature differential method
with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF),
F .
nonresidential, F
conduction transfer functions, F .
heat balance (HB) method, F . ,
heat gain
fenestration, F .
infiltration, F .
internal, F .
latent, F .
heat sources, F .
radiant time series (RTS) method, F . ,
sol-air temperature, F .
system effects, F .
total equivalent temperature differential
method with time averaging (TETD/TA),
F .
transfer function method (TFM), F .
residential, F
heat balance (RHB) method, F .
load factor (RLF) method, F .
space, F .
Cooling load temperature differential method
with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF),
F .
Cooling towers, S
approach to wet bulb, S .
capacity control, S .
airflow, A .
fan sequencing, A .
flow modulation, A .
variable- vs. fixed-speed fans, A .
construction materials, S .
design conditions, S .
drift, S .
eliminators, S . ,
economics, S .
fill, S .
fogging, S .
free cooling, S .
freeze protection, S . ; S .
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous, F .
hybrid, S . ,
indirect evaporative coolers, S . ; S .
inspections, S .
Legionella pneumophila, S . ,
maintenance, S .
model, F .
number of transfer units (NTU), S .
performance, S .
piping, S . ; S .
plumes, S .
principle of operation, S .
recommissioning, A .
selection, S .
shutdown, A .
siting, S .
sound, attenuators, S .
start-up, A .
testing, A . ; S .
theory, S .
types, S . , S .
open systems, S .
water treatment, A . , , ; S . ; S .
start-up and shutdown, A .
winter operation, S .
inspections, S .
Cool storage, S .
COP. See Coefficient of performance (COP)
Corn, drying, A .
Correctional facilities. See Justice facilities
Corrosion
brines, F .
in combustion systems, F .
concentration cell corrosion, A .
contributing factors, A .
control, A . , ,
in boilers, A .
cathodic protection, A .
buried pipe, S .
in cooling towers, A .
coupons, A . ,
cycles of concentration, A .
in geothermal energy systems, A .
inhibitors, A .
materials selection, A .
passivation, A .
protective coatings, A .
in steam and condensate systems, A .
energy recovery equipment, S .
galvanized metals, F .
glycol degradation, F .
inhibited glycols, F .
under insulation, F . ; R .
of insulation jacketing, R .
microorganism influence, A . ,
oil-fired appliances, S .
oxygen corrosion, A . ,
secondary coolant systems, R .
service water systems, A .
tuberculation, A .
types, A .
white rust, A .
Costs. (See also Economics)
all-air systems, S .
analysis period, A .
economic analysis techniques
computer analysis, A .
inflation, A .
internal rate of return, A .
life-cycle cost analyses, A .
payback, A .
present value (worth), A .
savings-to-investment ratio (SIR), A .
energy, A . ,
financing alternatives, A .
inflation, A .
interest and discount rate, A .
laboratory systems, A .
life-cycle, A .
energy recovery equipment, S .
operation and maintenance, A .
piping insulation, S .
maintenance, A .
operating
actual, A .
electrical energy, A .
natural gas, A .
other fuels, A .
snow-melting systems, A . ,
owning
initial cost, A .
insurance, A .
taxes, A .
periodic, A .
refrigerant phaseout, A .
Cotton, drying, A .
Courthouses, A .
Courtrooms, A .
CPVC. See Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC)
Crawlspaces
heat loss, F .
insulation, A .
vented vs. unvented, A .
wall insulation, A .
Critical spaces
data centers, A .
forensic labs, A .
health care, A . , , , A .
justice facilities, A .
Crops. See Farm crops
Cruise terminals, A .
Cryogenics, R
biomedical applications
cryomicroscopy, R .
cryopreservation, R .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
cryoprotective agents, R .
cryosurgery, R .
induced hypothermia, R .
refrigeration, R .
specimen preparation, R .
Brayton cycle, R .
cascade cycle, R .
Claude cycle, R .
cryobiological, R .
cryocoolers
recuperative, R .
regenerative, R .
cryopumping, R .
equipment
coiled-tube exchanger, R .
compressors, R .
expansion devices, R .
heat exchangers, R .
regenerators, R .
systems, R .
turboalternators, R .
turboexpanders, R .
fluids
cold burns, R .
flammability, R .
storage vessels, R .
transfer, R .
freezers, industrial, R .
hazards, R .
Heylandt cycle, R .
instrumentation, R .
insulation
low-temperature, R .
selection (table), R .
thermal conductivity (table), R .
isenthalpic expansion, R .
isentropic expansion, R .
Joule-Thomson cycle, R .
Kleemenko cycle, R .
Linde cycle, R .
liquefaction
balanced flow condition, R .
of gases, R .
liquid-level sensors, R .
mixed refrigerant cycle, R .
natural gas processing, R .
properties
electrical, R .
magnetic, R .
mechanical, R .
thermal, R .
purification of gases, R .
recovery of gases, R . ,
separation of gases, Gibbs phase rule, R .
staging, R .
Stirling cycle, R .
storage systems, R .
transfer systems, R .
Curtain walls, F .
Cycloparaffins, R .
Dairy products, R
aseptic packaging, R .
butter
manufacture, R .
refrigeration load, R .
buttermilk, R .
cheese
cheese room refrigeration, R .
manufacture, R .
cream, R .
display refrigerators, R .
ice cream
freezing, R .
hardening, R .
milkfat content, R .
mix preparation, R .
refrigeration
equipment, R .
requirements, R .
milk
dry, R .
evaporated, R .
fresh, R .
sweetened condensed, R .
thermal properties, R .
UHT sterilization, R .
yogurt, R .
Dampers
air outlet, S . , , ,
controls, automatic, F . ,
fire and smoke, A .
opposed-blade, S . ; S . ,
outdoor air, A .
parallel-blade, S . ; S . ,
return air, S .
sound control, A .
vehicular facilities, enclosed, A .
vent, S .
Dampness problems in buildings, A .
Dams, concrete cooling, R .
Darcy equation, F .
Darcy-Weisbach equation
ductwork sectional losses, F .
pressure drop, F . ; F .
water-cooled condensers, S .
water systems, S .
Data centers, A
Data-driven modeling
black-box, F .
calibrated simulation, F .
empirical, F .
examples, F .
gray-box, F .
neural network, F .
steady-state, F .
Daylighting
interior building illumination, F .
light transmittance, F .
solar radiation, F .
DDC. See Direct digital control (DDC)
Dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS), S . ;
S . , ; S .
Definitions, of refrigeration terms, R
Defrosting
air coolers, forced-circulation, R .
air-source heat pump coils, S . , ; S .
ammonia liquid recirculation systems, R .
household refrigerators and freezers, R .
meat coolers, R .
retail food store refrigerators, R .
Degree-days, F . ; F .
Dehumidification, A . ; S
absorption, S .
adsorption, S .
air washers, S .
all-air systems, S .
desiccant, S .
applications, S . ,
capacity, S .
equipment, S .
high-pressure, S .
liquid, F .
solid, F .
evaporative cooling, A . ; S .
performance factor, S .
residential, A .
Dehumidifiers
dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS),
S . , ; S .
desiccant, S
capacity, S .
commissioning, S .
high-pressure, S .
liquid, S .
operation, S .
rotary solid, S .
solid, S .
ice rinks, S .
indoor swimming pool, S .
industrial, S .
installation, S .
mechanical, S .
components, S .
psychrometrics, S .
types, S .
service, S .
tunnel dryer, S .
wraparound heat exchangers, S .
Dehydration
of eggs, R .
farm crops, A .
industrial systems for, A .
refrigeration systems, R .
Density
fluids, F .
modeling, R .
Dental facilities, A .
Desiccants, F . ; S .
absorption, S .
adsorption, S .
cosorption of water vapor and air contaminants,
F .
dehumidification, S .
isotherms, F .
life, F .
liquid, S . , ,
materials, F .
refrigerant systems, R .
equilibrium curves, R .
moisture, R .
solid, S . ,
types
liquid absorbents, F .
solid adsorbents, F .
Design-day climatic data, F .
Desorption isotherm, F .
Desuperheaters
air conditioners, unitary, S .
in ammonia refrigeration, R .
condensers, evaporative, S .
heat pumps, unitary, S .
Dew point, A .
analysis, F .
method, F .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Diamagnetism, and superconductivity, R .
Diesel fuel, F .
Diffusers, air, sound control, A .
Diffusion
coefficient, F .
eddy, F .
moisture flow, F .
molecular, F .
space air, F .
Diffusivity
thermal, of foods, R .
water vapor, F .
Dilution
exhaust, F .
smoke, A .
ventilation, A . ; A .
Dining halls, in justice facilities, A .
DIR. See Dispersive infrared (DIR)
Direct digital control (DDC), F . ,
Direct numerical simulation (DNS), turbulence
modeling, F . ; F .
Dirty bombs. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Discharge coefficients, in fluid flow, F .
Dispersive infrared (DIR), F .
Display cases, R . ,
District energy (DE), S .
costs, S .
economics, S .
final design, S .
financial feasibility, S .
flow control, S .
metering, S .
utility rates, S .
District heating and cooling (DHC), S
applicability, S .
central plants
boiler, S .
chiller, A . ; S .
distribution design, S .
emission control, S .
equipment, S .
heating medium, S .
thermal storage, S .
combined heat and power (CHP), S . ; S .
components, S .
consumer interconnections
chilled water, S . ,
components, S .
direct connection, S .
energy transfer station, S .
flow control, S .
indirect, with heat exchangers, S .
steam, S . ,
temperature differential control, S .
costs, A .
distribution system
aboveground systems, S . ,
condensate drainage and return, S . ,
conduits, S . ,
constant-flow, S .
construction, S .
entry pits, S .
hydraulic design, S .
insulation, pipe, S . , ,
pipe, S .
thermal design conditions, S .
underground systems, S .
valve vaults, S .
variable-flow, S .
water hammer, S .
economics, S .
geothermal heating systems, A .
heating conversion to, S .
heat pumps, S .
heat transfer analysis, S .
ground to air, S .
pipes, S .
single buried pipe, S .
soil temperature calculation, S .
two pipes buried, S .
master planning, S .
metering, S .
pressure losses, S .
thermal storage; S . ; S . ,
water systems, S .
d-limonene, F .
DNS. See Direct numerical simulation
(DNS)
Doors
air exchange, F .
U-factors, F .
Dormitories
air conditioning, A .
design criteria, A .
energy systems, A .
load characteristics, A .
service water heating, A . , ,
Draft
burners, S . ,
chimney, S .
comfort affected by, F .
cooling towers, S . ,
Drag, in fluid flow, F .
Driers, R . . (See also Dryers)
Drip station, steam systems, S .
Dryers. (See also Driers)
commercial and industrial
adsorption, S .
agitated-bed, A .
calculations, A .
conduction, A .
constant-moisture solvent, A .
convection, A .
dielectric, A .
drying time determination, A .
flash, A .
fluidized-bed, A .
freeze drying, A .
mechanism, A .
microwave, A .
psychrometrics, A .
radiant infrared, A .
selection, A .
superheated vapor, A .
tunnel, A .
ultraviolet (UV), A .
vacuum drying, A .
desiccant, high-pressure, S . ,
farm crops, A .
Drying
air, S .
desiccant, high-pressure, S . ,
dew-point control, S .
farm crops, A .
gases, S .
DTW. See Dual-temperature water (DTW)
system
Dual-duct systems
all-air systems, S .
control, A .
terminal boxes, A .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
Dual-temperature water (DTW) system, S .
DuBois equation, F .
Duct connections, A .
Duct design
air leakage, F .
all-air systems, S .
balancing dampers, F .
Bernoulli equation, F .
commercial, small applications, S .
computer analysis, A .
Darcy equation, F .
Darcy-Weisbach equation, F .
duct fitting database, F .
dynamic losses
duct fitting database, F .
local loss coefficients, F .
fan-system interface, F .
fitting loss coefficients, flexible ducts, F .
friction losses, F .
industrial exhaust systems, S .
methods, F .
noise, F .
pressure, F .
procedures, F .
residential, S .
roughness factors, F .
stack effect, F .
testing, adjusting, and balancing, F .
Ducts
acoustical lining, A .
in hospitals, A .
acoustical treatment, S .
airflow measurement in, A .
antimicrobial, S .
classifications (pressure), S .
cleaning, S .
construction
codes, S .
commercial, S .
industrial, S .
kitchen exhaust, S .
master specifications, S .
outdoor ducts, S .
residential, S .
seismic qualification, S .
sheet metal welding, S .
standards, S . ,
thermal insulation, S .
underground, S .
desiccant dehumidifiers, S .
efficiency testing, S .
fibrous glass, S .
flat oval, F .
flexible, F .
flexible air connectors and, S .
fluid flow, F .
forced-air systems, small, S . ,
friction chart, F .
grease systems, S .
industrial, S . . (See also Industrial
applications)
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
industrial exhaust systems, A .
insulation, F .
insulation, thermal, S .
leakage, system, S . . (See also Leakage,
HVAC air systems)
moisture-laden vapor systems, S .
noise in, A .
noncircular, F .
outdoor, S .
phenolic, S .
plastic‚ rigid, S .
rectangular, F . ; S .
road tunnels, A .
roughness factors, F .
round, S .
sealants, S .
security concerns, A .
seismic, S .
ships, A .
sound
attenuation, A .
control, F .
underground, S .
velocity measurement in, F .
vibration control, A .
welding sheet metal, S .
Duct sealing, A .
Dust mites, F .
Dusts, S .
synthetic, S .
Dynamometers, A .
Earth, stabilization, R . ,
Earthquakes, seismic-resistant design, A .
Economic analysis, A
computer analysis, A .
inflation, A .
internal rate of return, A .
life-cycle cost analyses, A .
payback, A .
improved, A .
simple, A .
present value (worth), A .
savings-to-investment ratio (SIR), A .
Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP),
S .
Economic performance degradation index
(EPDI), A .
Economics. (See also Costs)
district heating and cooling, S .
energy management planning, A .
evaporative cooling, A . ,
indoor gaseous contaminant removal, A .
insulation thickness, pipe, S .
laboratory systems, A .
owning and operating costs, A .
Economizers
air-side, F .
compressors, single-screw, S .
control, A .
humidification load calculation, S .
kitchen ventilation, A .
water-side, S .
ECOP. See Economic coefficient of
performance (ECOP)
ECS. See Environmental control system (ECS)
Eddy diffusivity, F .
Educational facilities, A
air conditioning, A .
service water heating, A .
EER. See Energy efficiency ratio (EER)
Effectiveness, heat transfer, F .
Effective radiant flux (ERF), A .
Efficiency
air conditioners
room, S .
unitary, S .
boilers, S .
combustion, F .
compressors
centrifugal, S .
positive-displacement, S .
reciprocating, S . ,
rotary, S .
single-screw, S .
fins, F .
furnaces, S .
heat pumps, unitary, S .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
infrared heaters, S .
motors, S .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
refrigerating, F .
Eggs, R
composition, R .
dehydration, R .
processing plant sanitation, R .
products, R .
shell eggs
packaging, R .
processing, R .
refrigeration, R .
spoilage prevention, R .
storage, R .
structure, R .
transportation, R .
storage, R .
thermal properties, R .
Electricity
billing rates, A .
building electrical systems, A .
codes, A .
costs, A . ,
emergency and standby power systems, A .
generation, on-site, A .
grid, A .
imbalance, S .
measurement, F .
motors, A .
motor starting, A . ; S .
performance, A .
power quality variations, A .
principles, A .
safety, A .
smart grid, A .
utility strategies, A .
voltage, A .
wiring, A .
Electric thermal storage (ETS), S .
Electrostatic precipitators, S . ; S .
Elevators
smoke control, A . ,
in tall buildings, A .
Emissions, pollution, F .
Emissivity, F .
Emittance, thermal, F .
Enclosed vehicular facilities, A
Energy
audit, A .
balance
comfort, F . ,
refrigeration systems, R .
conservation
air conditioners, room, S .
building envelopes, A .
building supervisory control, A .
clean spaces, A .
educational facilities, A .
farm crop drying, A .
greenhouses, A .
hospitals, A .
industrial environments, A .
infrared heaters, S .
kitchen ventilation, A .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
refrigerators‚ commercial, R .
temperature and ventilation control, A .
textile processing, A .
thermal insulation, F .
consumption
benchmarking, A .
building HVAC, control effect on, A .
emergency reduction, A .
gaseous contaminant removal, A .
humidifiers, S .
United States, F .
world, F .
costs, A .
efficiency
in commercial and food service refrigerators,
R .
energy efficiency ratio (EER), S .
and humidity, F .
emergency use reduction, A .
estimating, F
analysis, F .
balance point temperature, F .
correlation, F .
degree-day methods, F .
forecasting, A .
general considerations, F .
integration of systems, F .
models, F .
seasonal efficiency of furnaces, F .
simulating, F .
software selection, F .
field survey audit, A .
forecasting building needs, A .
management, A
cost control, A . ,
emergency energy use reduction, A .
energy audits, A .
energy-efficiency measures (EEM),
comparing, A .
implementation, A .
improving discretionary operations, A .
resource evaluation, A .
modeling, F
calculating, F .
classical approach, F .
data-driven approach, F .
data-driven models, F . ,
forward models, F .
general considerations, F .
in integrated building design, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
primary system components, F .
secondary system components, F .
system controls, F .
monitoring, A
applications, A . –
data, A . –
design and implementation methodology,
A .
documentation, A . ,
planning, A . ,
quality assurance, A . ,
production, world, F .
recovery (See also Heat recovery)
in air-handling units, S .
air-to-air, S ; S .
in chemical industry, R .
industrial environments, A .
renewable, F .
resources, F ; F .
demand-side management (DSM), F .
electricity, F .
fossil fuel, F .
integrated resource planning (IRP), F .
nonrenewable, F .
renewable, F .
United States, F .
world, F .
savings verification, A .
self-imposed budgets, F .
storage, S
wheels, S .
Energy efficiency ratio (EER)
evaporative cooling, A .
geothermal systems, A .
room air conditioners, S .
unitary equipment, S .
Energy savings performance contracting
(ESPC), A .
Energy transfer station, S .
Engines, S
air systems, compressed, S .
applications, S .
continuous-duty standby, S .
controls and instruments, S .
exhaust systems, S .
expansion engines, S .
fuels, F . , S .
cetane number, F .
heat recovery, S .
heat release, A .
jacket water system, S .
lubrication, S .
noise control, S .
performance, S .
reciprocating, S . , S .
vibration control, S .
water-cooled, S .
Engine test facilities, A
air conditioning, A .
dynamometers, A .
exhaust, A .
noise levels, A .
ventilation, A . ,
Enhanced tubes. See Finned-tube heat transfer
coils
Enthalpy
calculation, F .
definition, F .
foods, R .
water vapor, F .
wheels, S .
Entropy, F .
calculation, F .
Environmental control
animals. See Animal environments
humans. See Comfort
plants. See Plant environments
retail food stores, store ambient effect, R .
Environmental control system (ECS), A
Environmental health, F
biostatistics, F .
epidemiology, F .
exposure, F .
industrial hygiene, F .
microbiology/mycology, F .
physical hazards
electrical hazards, F .
electromagnetic radiation, F .
noise, F .
thermal comfort, F .
vibrations, F .
standards, F .
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
contaminants, A .
secondhand smoke, F .
sidestream smoke, F .
superheated vapors, F .
EPDI. See Economic performance degradation
index (EPDI)
Equipment vibration, A . ; F .
ERF. See Effective radiant flux (ERF)
ESPC. See Energy savings performance
contracting (ESPC)
Ethylene glycol, in hydronic systems, S .
ETS. See Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS);
Electric thermal storage (ETS)
Evaluation. See Testing
Evaporation, in tubes
forced convection, F . ,
natural convection, F .
Evaporative coolers. (See also Refrigerators)
liquid (See also Evaporators)
in chillers, A . ; S . ; S . , ,
Evaporative cooling, A
applications
air cleaning, A . ; S .
animal environments, A . ; A .
commercial, A .
dehumidification, A . ; S .
gas turbines, A .
greenhouses, A . ; A .
humidification, A . ; S .
industrial
air conditioning, A .
area cooling, A .
process cooling, A .
spot cooling, A .
laundries, A .
makeup air pretreatment, S .
motors, A .
power generation facilities, A .
precooling, S .
produce storage, A .
residential, A .
wood and paper products facilities, A .
cooling towers, S .
direct, A . , ; S .
economics, A .
entering air condition, A .
equipment
indirect, S .
maintenance, S .
two-stage, S .
exhaust requirement, A .
heat recovery and, A . ; S .
humidification, S .
indirect, A . , ; S .
psychrometrics, A . , , ,
staged
booster refrigeration, A . ,
two-stage (indirect/direct), A . , ;
S .
water treatment, A . ; S .
Legionella pneumophila, S .
Evaporators. (See also Coolers, liquid)
air conditioners, room, S .
ammonia refrigeration system equipment, R .
automobile air conditioning, A . ,
chemical industry refrigeration, R .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, piping, R .
liquid overfeed systems, R .
Exfiltration, F .
Exhaust
animal buildings, A .
clean spaces, A . ,
engines
heat recovery, S .
installation recommendations, S .
engine test facilities, A .
industrial environments, A . ; A .
kitchens, A .
laboratories, A . ,
stack height, A .
photographic processing areas, A .
stacks
buildings, A .
design strategies, A .
exhaust dilution prediction equations,
A .
exhaust velocity, A .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
location relative to air intake, A .
wake downwash, A .
vehicular facilities, enclosed, A .
Exhibit buildings, temporary, A .
Exhibit cases, A . ,
Exhibition centers, A .
smoke control, A .
Expansion joints and devices, S .
bends, S .
joints
district heating and cooling, S .
packed, S .
packless, S .
loops, S .
Expansion tanks, S .
hydronic systems, S .
closed, S .
diaphragm, S .
expansion chamber, S .
functions of, S . ,
open, S .
sizing equations, S .
secondary coolant systems, R .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
solar energy systems, A .
Explosions. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Fairs, A .
Family courts, A . . (See also Juvenile
facilities)
Fan-coil units, S .
capacity control, S .
maintenance, S .
performance under varying load, S .
systems, S .
types, S .
ventilation, S .
wiring, S .
Fans, S
air conditioners, room, S .
all-air systems, S . , ,
altitude effects, S .
animal environments, A .
arrangement, S .
control, A . ; S .
cooling tower capacity control, A . ; S .
draft, S .
fan efficiency grade (FEG), S .
fan motor efficiency grade (FMEG), S .
fixed- vs. variable-speed, A .
flow control, S . ; S .
furnaces, S .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
installation, S .
isolation, S .
kitchen exhaust, A .
laws, S .
noise, S .
operating principles, S .
parallel operation, S .
performance, S .
plenum, S .
plug, S .
pressure relationships, S .
effect of duct system on, S .
rating, S .
selection, A . ; S .
series operation, S .
ships, naval surface, A .
smoke exhaust, A .
sound level, A . ; S .
stall, S .
surge, S .
system effects, S .
temperature rise across, S .
testing, S .
types, S .
unstable operation, A .
variable- vs. fixed-speed, A .
vehicular facilities, enclosed, A .
vibration, S .
Farm crops, drying and storing, A
aeration, A . ,
dryeration, A .
drying
combination, A .
corn, A .
cotton, A .
deep-bed, A .
energy conservation, A .
equipment, A .
full-bin, A .
hay, A .
layer, A .
peanuts, A .
rice, A .
shallow-layer, A .
soybeans, A .
specific, A .
microbial growth, A .
recirculation, A .
storing
grain aeration, A .
moisture migration, A .
Faults, system, reasons for detecting,
A .
f-Chart method, sizing heating and cooling
systems, A .
Fenestration. (See also Windows)
air leakage, F .
area, A .
attachments, F .
building envelopes, A . ; F .
codes, F .
components, F .
condensation resistance, F .
control of rain entry, A .
cooling load, F .
draperies, F .
durability, F .
energy flow, F .
energy performance, annual, F .
exterior shading, F .
glazing (glass), F .
occupant comfort, F .
opaque elements, F .
shading devices, F .
solar gain, A .
solar heat gain, F . ,
standards, F .
thermal radiation, F .
U-factors, F . ,
Fick’s law, F .
and moisture flow, F .
Filters, air, S . (See also Air cleaners)
air conditioners, room, S .
aircraft, A . ,
in air-handling units, S .
clean spaces, A . , ,
demisters, A .
desiccant dehumidifiers, S .
dry, extended surface, S .
electronic, S . ,
furnaces, S .
high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters,
A . ; A . ; S . , ; S .
hospitals, A .
industrial air-conditioning, A .
industrial exhaust gas
fabric, S .
granular bed, S .
installation, S .
kitchens, A . ,
laboratories, A .
maintenance, S .
nuclear facilities, A . ,
panel, S .
places of assembly, A .
printing plants, A .
renewable media, moving-curtain, S .
residential, A .
safety requirements, S .
selection, S .
ships, A .
standards, S . ,
test methods, S .
types, S .
ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters,
A . , ; S . , ; S .
viscous impingement, S . ,
Finned-tube heat-distributing units, S . ,
design, S .
nonstandard condition corrections, S .
rating, S .
Finned-tube heat transfer coils, F .
energy recovery loops, S .
two-phase flow in, F .
Fins, F .
Fire/smoke control. See Smoke control
Firearm laboratories, A .
Fire management, A .
Fireplaces, S .
chimney design, S .
altitude effects, S . ,
Fire safety
clean space exhaust systems, A .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
insulation fire resistance ratings, F .
justice facilities, A . ,
kitchens, A .
laboratories, A .
nuclear facilities, A .
penetration fire stopping, A .
smoke control, A .
thermal insulation, F .
Fish, R ; R
fresh, R . ; R .
frozen, R . ; R .
thermal properties, R .
Fitness facilities. (See also Gymnasiums)
in justice facilities, A .
Fittings
duct fitting database, F .
effective length, F .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
loss coefficients, F .
local, F .
pipe
sizing, F . ,
standards, S .
tees, F .
Fixed-guideway vehicles, A . . (See also
Mass-transit systems)
Fixture units, A . ,
pipe sizing, F .
Flammability limits, gaseous fuels,
F .
Flash tank, steam systems, S .
Floors
coverings
panel systems, S .
temperature comfort, F .
slabs, heat loss, F . ; F .
Flowers, cut
air transport, R . ,
cooling, R .
refrigerators, R .
storage, temperatures, R .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Flowmeters, A . ; F .
bypass spring impact meters, A .
in conduits, F .
devices, A .
district heating and cooling systems, S .
flow nozzles, F .
hoods, F .
orifice plates, A . ; F .
positive-displacement meters, F .
rotameters, F .
turbine meters, A . ; F .
ultrasonic, A .
velocity impact meters, A .
venturi meters, A . ; F .
Fluid dynamics computations, F .
Fluid flow, F
analysis, F .
Bernoulli equation, F .
kinetic energy factor, F .
pressure variation, F .
boundary layer, F .
cavitation, F .
choking, F .
compressible, F .
expansion factor, F .
pressure, F .
continuity, F .
Darcy-Weisbach equation, F .
devices, F .
discharge coefficients, F .
drag, F .
friction factors, F .
incompressible, F .
laminar, F .
measurement, A . ; F . ; F .
noise, F .
nonisothermal effects, F .
parabolic velocity profile, Poiseuille, F .
patterns, F .
pipe friction, F . ,
Poiseuille, F .
properties, F .
Reynolds number, Re, F .
section change losses, F .
sensors, F .
separation, F .
turbulent, F .
two-phase
boiling, F .
condensation, F .
evaporation, F . ,
pressure drop, F .
unsteady, F .
valve losses, F . ,
vena contracta, F .
wall friction, F .
Food. (See also specific foods)
codes, R .
cooling times, R .
freezing times, R .
industrial freezing methods, R .
long-term storage, R .
microbial growth
control, R .
generalized, R .
requirements, R .
plants, R .
poultry products
freezing, R .
refrigeration, R .
processing facilities
contamination prevention, R .
dairy, R .
fruits, R .
main dishes, R .
meat, R .
organism destruction, R .
potato products, R .
poultry, R .
precooked foods, R .
refrigeration systems, R . , ,
regulations and standards, R .
sanitation, R .
vegetables, R .
refrigeration
dairy products, R
eggs and egg products, R .
fishery products, R
fruits, fresh, R ; R
meat products, R
vegetables, R
refrigerators
commercial, R
retail food store, R .
storage requirements
canned foods, R .
citrus fruit, R .
commodities, R .
dried foods, R .
fruit, R
thermal properties, R
enthalpy, R .
heat of respiration, R . , ,
ice fraction, R .
surface heat transfer coefficient, R .
thermal conductivity, R . , ,
thermal diffusivity, R .
transpiration coefficient, R . ,
water content, initial freezing point, R .
Food service
refrigerators for, R .
service water heating, A . ,
vending machines, R .
Forced-air systems, residential, A .
multifamily, A .
Forensic labs, A .
autopsy rooms, A . ,
critical spaces, A . ,
firearm labs, A . ,
intake air quality, A .
Fouling factor
condensers, water-cooled, S .
coolers, liquid, S .
Foundations, moisture control, A .
Fountains, Legionella pneumophila control,
A .
Fourier’s law, and heat transfer, F .
Four-pipe systems, S .
load, S .
room control, S .
zoning, S .
Framing
materials, F .
solar gain, F .
Freeze drying, A .
biological materials, R .
Freeze prevention. (See also Freeze protection
systems)
condensers, evaporative, S .
coolers, liquid, S .
cooling tower
basin water, S .
piping, S .
energy recovery equipment, S .
hydronic systems, S .
insulation for, F .
solar energy systems, A . ; S . ,
Freeze protection systems, A . ,
Freezers
blast, R . , R . ; R . ; R .
household, R .
cabinet construction, R .
cabinets, R .
defrosting, R .
durability, R .
efficiency, R .
performance evaluation, R .
refrigerating systems, R .
safety, R .
testing, R .
industrial, R .
walk-in, R .
Freezing
beverages, R .
biomedical applications, R .
foods
bakery products, R .
egg products, R .
fish, R .
freezing time calculations, R .
ice cream, R .
meat products, R .
poultry products, R .
processed and prepared food, R .
industrial, R .
soil, R . ,
Friction, in fluid flow
conduit, F .
wall, F .
Fruit juice, R
Fruits
dried
storage, R .
thermal properties, R .
fresh
air transport, R .
apples, storage, A . ; R .
apricots, R .
avocados, R .
bananas, R .
berries, R .
cherries, sweet, R .
citrus, A . ; R .
cooling, R .
deciduous tree, R
desiccation, R .
deterioration rate, R .
display refrigerators, R .
figs, R .
grapes, R .
mangoes, R .
nectarines, R .
peaches, R .
pears, R .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
pineapples, R .
plums, R .
storage diseases, R .
strawberries, R .
thermal properties, R .
vine fruits, R .
frozen, R .
Fuel cells, combined heat and power (CHP),
S .
Fuels, F
classification, F .
combustion, F
altitude effects, F . ; S . , , ; S .
engines, S .
flammability limits, F .
gaseous, F .
heating value, F . ; S .
ignition temperature, F .
liquid, F .
oil. See Oil, fuel
systems, S .
solid, F .
turbines, S .
Fume hoods, laboratory exhaust, A .
Fungi
and moisture, A .
pathogens, F .
spores, F .
Furnaces, S
air cleaners and filters, S .
airflow configurations, S .
air supply, S .
burners, S . ; S .
casings, S .
codes, S .
commercial, S .
efficiency, S .
components, S .
controls, S . ,
derating, S .
duct, S .
duct furnaces, S .
electric, S . ,
fans and motors, S .
floor furnaces, S .
gas-fired, S . ,
codes, S .
commercial, S .
installation, S .
residential, S .
standards, S .
upflow, S .
humidifiers, S .
installation, S .
location, S .
natural gas, S . ; S . , ,
residential, S . ,
venting, S . ; S .
oil, S . ,
venting, S .
performance criteria, S .
propane, S . ,
regulating agencies, S .
residential, A . ; S .
floor furnaces, S .
indoor or outdoor, S .
performance criteria, S .
selection, S .
selection, S .
standards, S .
stokers, S .
thermal storage, S .
unducted, S .
upflow, S .
venting, S . ,
wall furnaces, S .
Galleries. See Museums, galleries, archives,
and libraries
Garages
automotive repair, A .
bus, A .
contaminant criteria, A .
parking, A . ; A .
ventilation
airflow rate, A .
control, A .
equipment, A .
residential, F .
system configuration, A .
Gases
compressed, storage, A .
drying, S .
liquefaction, R .
purification, R . ,
separation
gaseous oxygen, R .
Gibbs phase rule, R .
Gas-fired equipment, S . (See also Natural
gas)
noise, F .
Gas vents, S .
GCHP. See Ground-coupled heat pumps
(GCHP)
Generators
absorption units, R . ,
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
Geothermal energy, A
corrosion control, A .
direct-use systems, A .
cooling, A .
equipment, A .
heating, A .
service water heating, A .
district heating, A .
geothermal fluids, A .
disposal, A .
temperature, A . ,
ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems,
A . , ; S .
heat exchangers, A . ,
materials performance, A .
resources, A .
valves, A .
water wells
flow rate, A .
pumps, A . ,
terminology, A .
water quality testing, A .
Geothermal heat pumps (GHP),
A .
Glaser method, F .
Glazing
angular averaging, F .
glass, F .
plastic, F .
solar-optical properties, F .
spectral averaging, F .
spectral range, F .
systems, F .
Global warming potential (GWP), F .
Glossary, of refrigeration terms, R
Glycols, desiccant solution, S .
Graphical symbols, F
Green design, and sustainability, F .
Greenhouses. (See also Plant environments)
evaporative cooling, A .
plant environments, A .
Grids, for computational fluid dynamics, F .
Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP)
closed-loop ground-source, A .
heat exchanger, S .
Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP), A . ,
Groundwater heat pumps (GWHP), A .
GSHP. See Ground-source heat pumps
(GSHP)
Guard stations, in justice facilities, A .
GWHP. See Groundwater heat pumps
(GWHP)
GWP. See Global warming potential
(GWP)
Gymnasiums, A . ; A .
HACCP. See Hazard analysis critical control
point (HACCP)
Halocarbon
coolants, secondary, F .
refrigerant systems, R .
Hartford loop, S .
Hay, drying, A .
Hazard analysis and control, F .
Hazard analysis critical control point
(HACCP), R .
in meat processing facilities, R .
Hazen-Williams equation, F .
HB. See Heat balance (HB)
Health
airborne pathogens, F .
asbestosis, F .
carbon monoxide, F .
coalworker’s pneumoconiosis, F .
in justice facilities, A .
Legionella pneumophila, F .
and moisture problems, F .
silicosis, F .
synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F .
Health care facilities, A . (See also specific
types)
air quality, A .
design criteria, A .
disease prevention, A .
regulatory requirements, A .
sustainability, A .
Health effects, mold, A .
Heat
flow rates, F .
latent
respiratory loss, F .
skin loss, F . ,
sensible
respiratory, F .
skin, F .
space extraction rate, F .
timers, S .
transfer, F ; F ; F ; F
Heat and moisture control, F .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Heat balance (HB), S .
air, F .
conduction transfer function, F .
cooling load calculation methods, F . ,
equations, F .
input procedure, F .
model, F .
studies, S .
surface, F .
Heat capacity, F .
Heat control, F
Heaters, S
automobiles, A .
catalytic, S .
control, S . ,
direct-contact, S .
electric, S . ; S .
fireplaces, S .
gas, S . ; S . ; S . ; S .
control valves, S .
efficiency requirements, S .
infrared, S .
room, S .
thermostats, S .
wall furnaces, S .
hot-water, S .
hydronic snow melting, A .
infrared, S . ; S .
indirect, S .
oil-fired, S .
radiant, A . , ,
in-space, S .
kerosene, S .
oil, S . ; S .
radiant, S ; S
electric, S .
gas-fired, S . ; S . ; S .
infrared, S .
oil-fired infrared, S .
panels, S .
quartz, S .
residential, S .
room, S .
solid fuel, S .
standards, S . ,
steam, S .
stoves, S .
testing, S .
unit, S . ; S .
control, S .
location, S .
maintenance, S .
piping, S .
ratings, S .
selection, S .
sound level, S .
types, S .
ventilators, S .
water, A
Heat exchangers, S
air-to-air energy recovery, S .
heat pipes, S .
liquid-desiccant cooling systems, S .
rotary enthalpy wheels, S .
thermosiphon, S .
twin-tower enthalpy recovery loops, S .
animal environments, A .
antifreeze effect on, S .
chimneys, S .
counterflow, F . ; S .
district heating and cooling, S .
double-wall construction, S .
effectiveness, capacity rate ratio, F .
enhanced surfaces, F .
fouling, S .
furnaces, S .
geothermal energy systems, A . ,
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
heat transfer, S .
installation, S .
liquid suction, R .
number of transfer units (NTU), F .
parallel flow, F .
plate, F . ; R . ; S .
brazed, S . ; S .
components, S .
gasketed, S . ; S .
plate-and-frame, S .
pressure drop in, F .
welded, S . ; S .
selection, S .
shell-and-coil, R . ; S . ; S .
shell-and-tube, R . ; S . ; S .
components, S .
converters, S .
straight-tube, S .
tube-in-tube, R . ; S .
U-tube, S .
solar energy, S .
systems
solar energy, A .
steam, S .
water, medium- and high-temperature, S .
wraparound, S .
Heat flow, F . (See also Heat transfer)
and airflow, F .
through flat building component, F .
hygrothermal modeling, F .
and moisture, F .
paths, series and parallel, F .
Heat flux, F .
radiant panels, S .
Heat gain. (See also Load calculations)
appliances, F .
calculation
solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), F .
standard air values, F .
control, F ; F ; F
electric motors, F .
engine test facilities, dynamometers, A .
fenestration, F .
floors, F .
hospital and laboratory equipment, F .
humans, F .
laboratories, A .
latent, permeable building materials, F .
lighting, F .
office equipment, F .
radiant panels, S .
space, F .
Heating
absorption equipment, R .
animal environments, A .
control, A .
equipment, S . ; S –S ; S
baseboard units, S .
boilers, S .
convectors, S .
finned-tube units, S .
furnaces, S .
radiators, S .
geothermal energy systems, A .
greenhouses, A .
industrial environments, A .
infrared, S .
radiant, A . ,
nonresidential, S .
places of assembly, A .
plant growth chambers, A .
power plants, A .
residential, A .
solar energy, S .
systems
all-air, S . ,
selection, S . ,
small forced-air, S .
solar energy, A . ,
steam, S .
thermal storage, S .
Heating load
calculations, F .
central plant, S .
residential calculations, crawlspace heat loss,
F .
Heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF),
S .
Heating values of fuels, F . , ,
Heat loss. (See also Load calculations)
basement, F .
crawlspaces, F .
floor slabs, F .
latent heat loss, F . ; F .
radiant panels, S .
Heat pipes, air-to-air energy recovery,
S .
Heat pumps
absorption, R .
air-source, S . ,
add-on, S .
air-to-air, S . ,
air-to-water, S . ,
balance point, S .
compressor selection, S .
control, S .
defrost cycle, S .
installation, S .
refrigerant circuits, S .
selection, S .
boosters, S .
cascade systems, S .
components, S .
compression cycles, S .
control, S . ,
efficiency, S .
engine-driven, S .
ground-source
ground-coupled, A . , ; S .
groundwater, A . , ; S .
surface water, A . , ; S .
terminology, A .
heat recovery heat pumps, S .
design principles, S .
waste heat recovery, S .
heat sources and sinks, S . ,
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
ice-source, R .
industrial process, S .
closed-cycle systems, S .
design, S .
heat recovery, S . ,
open-cycle systems, S .
semi-open-cycle systems, S .
multisplit system, S .
packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), S .
testing, S .
room, S .
split systems, A . ; S .
supplemental heating, S .
through-the-wall, S .
types, S .
unitary, S .
application, A . ; S .
certification, S .
codes, S .
desuperheaters, S .
installation, S .
service, S .
space conditioning/water heating, S .
standards, S .
types, S .
water heaters, A .
water-source
certification, S .
design, S .
entering water temperature, S .
groundwater, A . , ; S .
indirect systems, A .
surface water, A . , ; S .
testing, S .
water loop, S .
water-to-air, S .
water-to-water, S .
window-mounted, S .
Heat recovery. (See also Energy, recovery)
balanced heat recovery, S .
coils, S .
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
combustion turbines, S .
evaporative cooling, A . ; S .
heat-activated chillers, S .
heat balance, S .
heat pumps, S .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
kitchen ventilation, A .
laboratories, A .
liquid chillers, , S .
multiple buildings, S .
reciprocating engines, S .
service water heating, A .
steam
systems, S . ,
turbines, S .
supermarkets, A .
terminology, S .
waste heat, S .
Heat storage. See Thermal storage
Heat stress
index (HSI), A . ; F .
industrial environments, A .
thermal standards, A .
Heat transfer, F ; F ; F ; F . (See also Heat
flow)
across air space, F .
antifreeze effect on water, S .
apparent transfer coefficient, F .
augmentation
active, F .
passive, F .
coefficients, F .
condensation, F .
convective, F .
convective evaporation, F .
evaporative, F .
foods, R .
Lewis relation, F .
low-temperature, R .
overall, F .
coils
air-cooling and dehumidifying, S .
air-heating, S .
condensers, S .
water-cooled, S .
conductance, F .
conduction, F . ,
shape factors, F .
control, F ; F ; F
convection
buffer layer, F .
coefficient, F .
external, F .
flow, fully developed laminar, F .
forced, boundary layer, F .
free, F . ,
internal, F .
laminar sublayer, F .
natural, F . ,
turbulent region, F .
definition, F .
diffuse radiators, F .
district heating and cooling pipes, S .
effectiveness, F .
extended surfaces, F .
factor, friction, F .
film
coefficient, F .
resistance, F .
fins, F . ,
forced convection, air coolers, F .
Fourier’s law, F .
ground, F .
heat exchangers, S .
insulation, F .
lakes, A .
mass transfer
convection, F .
molecular diffusion, F .
simultaneous with, F .
cooling coils, F .
number of transfer units (NTU), F .
radiant balance, F .
radiation
actual, gray, F . ,
angle factor, F .
Beer’s law, F .
blackbody, F .
black surface, F .
energy transfer, F .
exchange between surfaces, F .
in gases, F .
gray surface, F .
hemispherical emissivity, F .
Kirchoff’s law, F .
monochromatic emissive power, F .
spectral emissive power, F .
Stefan-Boltzmann law, F . ,
thermal, F .
Wien’s displacement law, F .
simultaneous with mass transfer, F .
snow-melting systems, A .
fluids, A .
solar energy systems, A .
steady-state, F .
surface, F .
terminology, F .
thermal bridging, F .
transient
cooling time estimation, F .
cylinder, F .
radiation, F .
slab, F .
sphere, F .
transmission data, F
water, S .
Heat transmission
doors, F .
floor slabs, F .
windows, F .
Heat traps, A .
Helium
in air, F .
recovery, R .
and thermal radiation, F .
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters,
A . ; S . ; S .
High-rise buildings. See Tall buildings
High-temperature short-time (HTST)
pasteurization, R .
High-temperature water (HTW) system, S .
Homeland security. See Chemical, biological,
radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Hoods
draft, S .
gaseous contaminant removal, A .
industrial exhaust systems
canopy hoods, A . ,
capture velocities, A .
compound hoods, A .
design principles, A .
entry loss, A .
overhead hoods, A .
sidedraft hoods, A .
volumetric flow rate, A .
kitchen exhaust, A .
ductless, A .
recirculating systems, A . ,
residential, A .
type I, A .
type II, A . ,
laboratory fume, A .
sound control, A .
unidirectional, A .
Hospitals, A .
air conditioning, A .
air movement, A .
air quality, A .
control measures, A .
cooling, A .
design criteria
administration, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
airborne infection isolation, A .
ancillary spaces, A .
autopsy rooms, A .
diagnostic and treatment, A .
intensive care units, A .
laboratories, A .
nursery suites, A .
nursing areas, A .
operating rooms, A .
patient rooms, A .
pharmacies, A .
protective isolation, A .
recovery rooms, A .
service areas, A .
sterilizing and supply, A .
surgery and critical care, A .
disease prevention, A .
energy conservation, A .
heating and hot-water standby, A .
indoor air quality (IAQ), A .
infection sources, A .
insulation, A .
Legionella pneumophila, A .
smoke control, A .
sustainability, A .
ventilation, A .
zoning, A .
Hot-box method, of thermal modeling, F .
Hotels and motels, A
accommodations, A .
back-of-the-house (BOTH) areas, A .
central plant, A .
design criteria, A .
guest rooms, A .
indoor air quality (IAQ), A .
load characteristics, A .
makeup air units, A .
public areas, A .
service water heating, showers, A . ,
sound control, A .
systems, A .
Hot-gas bypass, R .
Houses of worship, A .
HSI. See Heat stress, index (HSI)
HSPF. See Heating seasonal performance
factor (HSPF)
HTST. See High-temperature short-time
(HTST) pasteurization
Humidification, S
air washers, S .
all-air systems, S . ,
control, A . , ; S .
design, S .
direct evaporative cooling, A .
evaporative coolers, S .
in health care facilities, A .
load calculations, S .
Humidifiers, S
all-air systems, S .
bacterial growth, S .
central air systems
industrial and commercial, S .
residential, S .
commercial, S .
controls, S .
energy considerations, S .
equipment, S .
evaporative cooling, S .
furnaces, S .
industrial, S .
Legionella pneumophila control, A .
load calculations, S .
nonducted, S .
portable, S .
residential, A . ; S . ; S .
scaling, S .
supply water, S .
terminal, S .
types, S .
Humidity (See also Moisture)
building envelope affected by, S .
control, A . ; A ; F . ; S . ; S .
disease prevention and treatment, S .
human comfort conditions, S .
measurement, F .
odors affected by, F .
sound transmission affected by, S .
sources of, S .
static electricity affected by, S .
HVAC security, A
commissioning, A .
owner’s project requirements (OPR), A .
risk evaluation, A .
system design, A .
design measures, A .
maintenance management, A .
modes of operation, A .
Hydrogen, liquid, R .
Hydronic systems, S . (See also Water
systems)
central multifamily, A .
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
heating and cooling design, S .
altitude effects, S .
heat transfer vs. flow, A . ,
pipe sizing, F .
residential, A .
snow melting, A .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A . ,
units
baseboard, S . , ,
convectors, S . , ,
finned-tube, S . , ,
heaters, S .
makeup air, S .
pipe coils, S .
radiant panels, S .
radiators, S . , ,
ventilators, S .
water treatment, A .
Hygrometers, F . ; F . ,
Hygrothermal loads, F .
Hygrothermal modeling, F . ; F .
criteria, F .
dew-point method, F .
transient analysis, F . ; F .
IAQ. See Indoor air quality (IAQ)
IBD. See Integrated building design (IBD)
Ice
commercial, R .
delivery systems, R .
manufacture, R .
storage, R .
thermal storage, R . ; S .
Ice makers
commercial, R .
heat pumps, R .
household refrigerator, R .
large commercial, R .
storage, R .
thermal storage, R .
types, R .
Ice rinks, A . ; R
conditions, R . ,
dehumidifiers, S .
energy conservation, R .
floor design, R .
heat loads, R .
pebbling, R .
surface building and maintenance, R .
water quality, R .
ID ‚ mean infectious dose, A .
Ignition temperatures of fuels, F .
IGUs. See Insulating glazing units (IGUs)
Illuminance, F .
Indoor air quality (IAQ). (See also Air quality)
bioaerosols
health effects, F .
particles, F .
sources, F .
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F .
gaseous contaminant removal, A .
hospitals, A .
hotels and motels, A .
humidity, F .
microbial volatile organic chemicals
(MVOCs), F .
modeling, F .
particulate matter, F .
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), F .
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
F .
radon action levels, F .
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs),
F . ,
sensors, F .
standards, F .
synthetic vitreous fibers, F .
volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
F . ; F .
Indoor environmental modeling, F
computational fluid dynamic (CFD), F .
contaminant transport, F .
multizone network, F .
verification and validation, F .
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ), kitchens,
A . . (See also Air quality)
Induction
air-and-water systems, A .
systems, S .
units under varying load, S .
Industrial applications
burners
gas, S .
oil, S .
ducts, S .
gas drying, S .
heat pumps, S .
humidifiers, S .
process drying, S .
process refrigeration, R .
thermal storage, S .
service water heating, A .
steam generators, A .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Industrial environments, A ; A ; A
air conditioning, A
cooling load, A .
design, A .
evaporative systems, A .
maintenance, A .
refrigerant systems, A .
spot cooling, A . ; A .
ventilation, A .
air distribution, A .
air filtration systems, A . ; S . ; S .
commissioning, A .
contaminant control, A . ,
control systems, A .
energy
conservation, A .
recovery, A .
sustainability, A .
evaporative cooling, A .
heat control, A .
heat exposure control, A .
heating systems, A .
heat stress, A .
local exhaust systems, A . ; A .
air cleaners, A .
airflow near hood, A .
air-moving devices, A .
ducts, A . ; S .
energy recovery, A .
exhaust stacks, A .
fans, A .
hoods, A .
hot processes, A .
operation and maintenance, A .
system testing, A .
pressurization, A .
process and product requirements, A .
safety, A .
spot cooling, A . ,
thermal control, A .
ventilation systems, A .
Industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S . (See also
Air cleaners)
auxiliary equipment, S .
equipment selection, S .
gaseous contaminant control, S .
absorption, S .
adsorption, S . ,
incineration, S . ,
spray dry scrubbing, S .
wet-packed scrubbers, S . ,
gas stream, S .
monitoring, S .
operation and maintenance, S .
particulate contaminant control, S
collector performance, S .
electrostatic precipitators, S .
fabric filters, S .
inertial collectors, S .
scrubbers (wet collectors), S .
settling chambers, S .
regulations, S .
safety, S .
scrubbers (wet collectors), S .
Industrial hygiene, F .
Infiltration. (See also Air leakage)
air exchange, R .
rate, F . ,
air leakage
air-vapor retarder, F .
building data, F .
controlling, F .
calculation, residential, F .
climatic zones, F .
commercial buildings, F .
direct flow through doorways, R .
driving mechanisms, F .
examples, F .
fenestration, F .
indoor air quality (IAQ), F .
infiltration degree-days, F .
latent heat load, F . ; F .
leakage function, F .
measurement, F .
refrigerated facilities, R .
residential buildings, F .
sensible heat load, F . ; F .
terminology, F .
thermal loads, F .
ventilation, R .
Infrared applications
comfort, F . ,
drying, A .
energy generators, S .
greenhouse heating, A .
heaters, A . , , ; S .
electric, S .
gas-fired, S . ; S .
industrial environments, A .
oil-fired, S .
system efficiency, S .
snow-melting systems, A .
In-room terminal systems
changeover temperature, S .
performance under varying load, S .
primary air, S .
Instruments, F . (See also specific instruments
or applications)
Insulating glazing units (IGUs), F .
Insulation, thermal
airflow retarders, F .
animal environments, A .
below-ambient system, R . ,
clothing, F .
compressive resistance, F .
condensation control, F .
corrosion under, F .
cryogenic, R . ; R .
ducts, F . ; S .
flexible, F .
process, F .
economic thickness, in mechanical systems,
F .
electrical, motor, breakdown of, S .
energy conservation, F .
fire resistance ratings, F .
fire safety, F .
flame spread index, F .
foundations, A .
freeze protection, F .
green buildings, F .
heat gain, F .
heat loss, F .
heat transfer, F .
hospitals, A .
insertion loss, F .
limited combustible, F .
materials, F . ; F .
cellular, F .
fibrous, F .
foil, scrim, and kraft paper (FSK), F .
foil-reinforced kraft (FRK), F .
granular, F .
reflective, F .
moisture control, F .
noise control, F .
noncombustible, F .
operating temperature, F .
performance, F .
personnel protection, F .
pipes, F .
economic thickness, S .
hangers, F .
underground, F . ; S .
properties, F .
refrigerant piping, R .
design, R .
installation, R .
jacketing, R .
joint sealant, R .
maintenance, R .
thickness tables, R .
vapor retarders, R .
refrigerated facilities, R . ; R .
smoke developed index, F .
solar energy systems, S . ,
tanks, vessels, and equipment, F .
thermal conductivity, F .
thermal storage systems, water, S .
water absorption, F .
water vapor permeability, F .
water vapor permeance, F .
water vapor retarders, F .
weather barriers, F .
weather protection, F .
Integrated building design (IBD), A . ,
budgeting, A .
commissioning, A .
communication, A .
construction
contract administration, A .
document phase, A .
post-construction activities, A .
design
basis, A .
criteria, A .
development, A .
intent, A .
team, A . ,
design-phase contract, A .
documentation, A .
drawings
preliminary, A .
working, A .
energy modeling, A .
building optimization, A .
equipment selection, A .
system optimization, A .
objectives, A .
organization, A .
programming, A .
project
closeout, A .
delivery, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
design, A .
manual, A .
predesign, A .
quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC),
A .
schematic design, A .
specifications
outline, A .
project manual, A .
training, A .
Intercoolers, ammonia refrigeration systems,
R .
Jacketing, insulation, R .
Jails, A .
Joule-Thomson cycle, R .
Judges’ chambers, A .
Juice, R .
Jury facilities, A .
Justice facilities, A
control rooms, A . ,
courthouses, A .
courtrooms, A . ,
dining halls, A .
energy considerations, A .
fire/smoke management, A .
firearm laboratories, A .
fitness facilities, A .
forensic labs, A . ,
guard stations, A . ,
health issues, A .
heating and cooling plants, A .
jail cells, A .
jails, A .
judges’ chambers, A . ,
jury rooms, A .
juvenile, A .
kitchens, A .
laundries, A .
libraries, A . ,
police stations, A .
prisons, A .
shooting ranges, indoor, A .
system controls A .
system requirements, A .
tear gas and pepper spray, A .
terminology, A .
types of, A .
U.S. Marshals, A .
Juvenile facilities, A . . (See also Family
courts)
K- schools, A .
Kelvin’s equation, F .
Kirchoff’s law, F .
Kitchens, A
air balancing, A .
multiple-hood systems, A .
air filtration, A . ,
cooking effluent
control of, A .
generation of, A .
thermal plume behavior, A .
dishwashers, piping, A .
energy conservation
economizers, A .
reduced airflow, A .
residential hoods, A .
restaurants, A .
exhaust hoods, A
ductless, A .
recirculating systems, A . ,
replacement air, A .
residential, A .
systems, A .
type I, A .
type II, A . ,
exhaust systems, A . ,
downdraft, A .
ducts, A . ; S .
effluent control, A .
fans, A .
hoods, A .
maintenance, A .
multiple-hood systems, A . ,
residential, A .
terminations, A .
fire safety, A . ,
fire suppression, A .
multiple-hood systems, A .
prevention of fire spread, A .
residential, A .
grease removal, A . ,
heat recovery, A .
high-performance green design, A .
indoor environmental quality (IEQ), A .
in justice facilities, A .
integration and design, A .
maintenance, A .
makeup air systems
air distribution, A .
maintenance, A .
replacement, A .
residential, A .
operation, A .
replacement air, A .
residential, A .
service water heating, A .
ventilation, A
Kleemenko cycle, R .
Krypton, recovery, R .
Laboratories, A
air distribution, A .
air filtration, A .
air intakes, A .
animal labs, A .
cage environment, A .
ventilation performance, A .
biological safety cabinets, A .
biosafety levels, A .
clean benches, A .
cleanrooms, A .
clinical labs, A .
commissioning, A .
compressed gas storage, A .
containment labs, A .
controls, A .
design parameters, A .
duct leakage rates, A .
economics, A .
exhaust devices, A .
exhaust systems, A .
fire safety, A .
fume hoods, A .
controls, A .
performance, A .
hazard assessment, A .
heat recovery, A .
hospitals, A .
loads, A .
nuclear facilities, A .
paper testing labs, A .
radiochemistry labs, A .
safety, A . ,
scale-up labs, A .
stack heights, A .
supply air systems, A .
system maintenance, A .
system operation, A .
teaching labs, A .
types, A .
ventilation, A .
Laboratory information management systems
(LIMS), A .
Lakes, heat transfer, A .
Laminar flow
air, A .
fluids, F .
Large eddy simulation (LES), turbulence
modeling, F . ; F .
Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA), F .
Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV), F .
Latent energy change materials, S .
Laundries
evaporative cooling, A .
in justice facilities, A . ; F .
service water heating, A .
LCR. See Load collector ratio (LCR)
LD ‚ mean lethal dose, A .
LDA. See Laser Doppler anemometers
(LDA)
LDV. See Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV)
LE. See Life expectancy (LE) rating
Leakage
air-handling unit, S .
ducts, F .
HVAC air systems, S .
acceptance criteria, S .
responsibilities, S .
sealants, S .
testing, S .
Leakage function, relationship, F .
Leak detection of refrigerants, F .
methods, R .
Legionella pneumophila, A . ; F .
air washers, S .
control, A .
cooling towers, S . ,
evaporative coolers, S .
hospitals, A .
Legionnaires’ disease, A .
service water systems, A .
Legionnaires’ disease. See Legionella
pneumophila
LES. See Large eddy simulation (LES)
Lewis relation, F . ; F .
Libraries. See Museums, galleries, archives,
and libraries
Life expectancy (LE) rating, film, A .
Lighting
cooling load, F .
greenhouses, A .
heat gain, F .
plant environments, A .
sensors, F .
Light measurement, F .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
LIMS. See Laboratory information
management systems (LIMS)
Linde cycle, R .
Liquefied natural gas (LNG), S .
vaporization systems, S .
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), F .
Liquid overfeed (recirculation) systems, R
ammonia refrigeration systems, R .
circulating rate, R .
evaporators, R .
line sizing, R .
liquid separators, R .
overfeed rate, R .
pump selection, R .
receiver sizing, R .
recirculation, R .
refrigerant distribution, R .
terminology, R .
Lithium bromide/water, F .
Lithium chloride, S .
LNG. See Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Load calculations
altitude effects, F . ; F .
cargo containers, R .
coils, air-cooling and dehumidifying, S .
computer calculation, A .
humidification, S .
hydronic systems, S .
internal heat load, R .
nonresidential, F . ,
precooling fruits and vegetables, R .
refrigerated facilities
air exchange, R .
direct flow through doorways, R .
equipment, R .
infiltration, R .
internal, R .
product, R .
transmission, R .
residential cooling
residential heat balance (RHB) method,
F .
residential load factor (RLF) method, F .
residential heating, F .
snow-melting systems, A .
Load collector ratio (LCR), A .
Local exhaust. See Exhaust
Loss coefficients
control valves, F .
duct fitting database, F .
fittings, F .
flexible ducts, F .
Louvers, F .
Low-temperature water (LTW) system, S .
LPG. See Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
LTW. See Low-temperature water (LTW)
system
Lubricants, R . ; R . (See also Lubrication;
Oil)
additives, R .
ammonia refrigeration, R .
component characteristics, R .
evaporator return, R .
halocarbon refrigeration
compressor floodback protection, R .
liquid indicators, R .
lubricant management, R .
moisture indicators, R .
purge units, R .
receivers, R .
refrigerant driers, R .
separators, R .
strainers, R .
surge drums or accumulators, R .
mineral oil
aromatics, R .
naphthenes (cycloparaffins), R .
nonhydrocarbons, R .
paraffins, R .
miscibility, R .
moisture content, R .
properties, R .
floc point, R .
viscosity, R .
refrigerant
contamination, R .
sampling, R .
solutions, R .
requirements, R .
retrofitting, R .
separators, R .
solubility
air, R .
hydrocarbon gases, R .
refrigerant solutions, R . , ,
water, R .
testing, R .
wax separation, R .
Lubrication, R
combustion turbines, S .
compressors
centrifugal, S .
reciprocating, S .
rotary, S .
single-screw, S .
twin-screw, S .
engines, S .
Mach number, S .
Maintenance. (See also Operation and
maintenance)
absorption units, R .
air cleaners, S .
air conditioners, retail store, A .
air washers, S .
automated fault detection and diagnostics
(AFDD), A .
chillers, S . ,
coils
air-cooling and dehumidifying, S .
air-heating, S .
combined heat and power (CHP) systems,
S .
commissioning, A .
condensers, S
air-cooled, S .
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
cooking equipment, A .
coolers, liquid, S .
cooling towers, S .
costs, A .
documentation, A .
energy recovery equipment, S . ,
evaporative coolers, S .
filters, air, S .
gaseous air cleaners, A .
industrial air-conditioning systems, A .
infrared heaters, S .
kitchen ventilation systems, A . ,
laboratory HVAC equipment, A .
liquid chillers, S .
makeup air units, S .
manual, A .
renovations and retrofits, A .
solar energy systems, A .
staffing, A .
training, A .
turbines
combustion, S .
steam, S .
unit heaters, S .
Makeup air units, S .
applications, S .
codes, S .
commissioning, S .
controls, A . ; S .
design, S .
maintenance, S .
selection, S .
standards, S .
types, S .
Malls, A .
Manometers, differential pressure readout,
A .
Manufactured homes, A .
airflow modeling example, F .
Masonry, insulation, F . . (See also Building
envelopes)
Mass transfer, F
convection, F .
eddy diffusion, F .
Lewis relation, F . ; F .
energy recovery, air-to-air, S .
heat transfer simultaneous with, F .
air washers, F .
cooling coils, F .
cooling towers, F .
dehumidifying coils, F .
direct-contact equipment, F .
enthalpy potential, F .
molecular diffusion, F .
in liquids and solids, F .
two-film theory, S .
Mass-transit systems
buses, A . ,
bus garages, A .
bus terminals, A .
diesel locomotive facilities, A .
enclosed vehicular facilities, A .
environmental control, A .
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
rail cars, A . ,
rapid transit, A . ; A .
stations, A .
thermal comfort, A . ; A .
thermal load analysis, A . ; A .
tunnels
railroad, A .
rapid transit, A .
subway, A .
ventilation, A . ; A .
McLeod gages, F .
Mean infectious dose (ID ), A .
Mean lethal dose (LD ), A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Mean radiant temperature (MRT), A .
Mean temperature difference, F .
Measurement, F . (See also Instruments)
air exchange rates, F .
airflow, A .
air infiltration, F .
air leakage, F .
airtightness, F .
carbon dioxide, F .
combustion analysis, F .
contaminants, F .
data acquisition, F .
electricity, F .
fluid flow, A . ; F . ; F .
gaseous contaminants, A .
heat transfer in insulation, F .
humidity, F .
light levels, F .
moisture content, F . ; R .
in refrigeration systems, R .
moisture transfer, F .
odors, F .
pressure, F .
rotative speed, F .
sound, F .
temperature, F .
thermal comfort, F .
uncertainty analysis, A . ; F .
velocity, F .
vibration, F .
Meat, R
display refrigerators, R .
food processing, R .
frozen, R .
packaged fresh cuts, R .
processing facilities
boxed beef, R .
carcass coolers, R .
energy conservation, R .
pork trimmings, R .
processed meats, R .
sanitation, R .
shipping docks, R .
variety meats, R .
retail storage, R .
thermal properties, R .
Mechanical equipment room, central
central fan room, A .
floor-by-floor fan rooms, A .
floor-by-floor units, A .
multiple floors, A .
Mechanical traps, steam systems, S .
Medium-temperature water (MTW) system,
S .
Megatall buildings, A .
Meshes, for computational fluid dynamics, F .
refining, F .
Metabolic rate, F .
Metals and alloys, low-temperature, R .
Microbial growth, R .
Microbial volatile organic chemicals
(MVOCs), F .
Microbiology of foods, R .
Microphones, F .
Mines, A
heat sources, A .
mechanical refrigeration plants, A .
spot coolers, A .
ventilation, A .
wall rock heat flow, A .
Modeling. (See also Data-driven modeling;
Energy, modeling)
airflow, A .
around buildings, F .
in buildings, F .
contaminant transport, F . ,
multizone, F . ,
turbulence, F .
wind tunnels, F .
boilers, F .
compressor, F .
condenser and evaporator, F .
controls, F .
cooling tower, F .
moisture in buildings, F .
systems, F .
thermal (hot-box method), F .
validation, F .
Moist air
psychrometrics, F .
thermodynamic properties
standard pressure, F .
temperature scale, F .
transport properties, F .
viscosity, F .
Moisture (See also Humidity)
in animal facilities, A .
barriers, R .
in building materials, F .
capacity, F .
combustion, F .
condensation, S .
content, A . ; F .
control, F ; F ; F
terminology, F .
diffusivity, F .
farm crops content, A .
flow
and air- and heat flow, F .
isothermal, F .
mechanisms, F .
modeling, F .
flux, F .
hygrothermal modeling, F .
in insulation, F .
for refrigeration piping, R
measurement, F .
meters, A .
paint, effects on, F .
permeability, F .
permeance, F .
problems, in buildings, F .
ratio, F .
in refrigerant systems
control, R .
desiccants, R .
driers, R .
drying methods, R .
effects, R .
hydrocarbon gases’ solubility, R .
indicators, R .
lubricant solubility, R .
measurement, R . ; R .
solubility, R .
sources, R . ; R .
solar vapor drive, F .
sorption isotherms, F .
storage in building materials, F .
transfer, F .
examples, F .
transient, F .
transmission data, F .
water vapor retarders, F . ; F .
Mold, A . ; F .
Mold-resistant gypsum board, A .
Molecular sieves, R . ; R . ; R . ; S . .
(See also Zeolites)
Montreal Protocol, F .
Morgues, A .
Motors, S
air volume control, S .
codes, S .
compressors, S .
controls, S .
current imbalance, S .
efficiency, S .
evaporative cooling, A .
field assembly and refrigerant contamination,
R .
furnaces, residential, S .
general purpose, S .
harmonics, S .
hermetic, S .
burnout, R . ,
impedance, S .
integral thermal protection, S .
inverter duty, S .
noise, S .
operation above base speed, S .
power factor correction capacitors, S .
power supply (AC), S .
protection, S .
pumps, centrifugal, S . ,
service factor, S .
standards, S .
starting, and electricity, S .
switching times, S .
torque, S .
in variable-frequency drives, S .
voltage imbalance, S .
Movie theaters, A .
MRT. See Mean radiant temperature (MRT)
Multifamily residences, A .
Multiple-use complexes
air conditioning, A .
design criteria, A .
load characteristics, A .
systems, A . ,
energy inefficient, A .
total energy, A .
Multisplit unitary equipment, S .
Multizone airflow modeling, F .
applications example, F .
approaches, F .
verification and validation, F .
Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries
air distribution, A .
air filtration, A .
artifact deterioration, A .
building construction, A .
dehumidification, A . ,
exhibit cases, A .
humidification, A .
mold growth, A .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
outdoor air, A .
relative humidity, effect on artifacts, A .
system selection, A .
temperature, effect on artifacts, A .
MVOCs. See Microbial volatile organic
compounds (MVOCs)
Natatoriums. (See also Swimming pools)
air conditioning, A .
dehumidifiers, S .
duct design, A .
envelope design, A .
load estimation, A .
pool water chemistry, A .
ventilation requirements, A .
Natural gas, F .
liquefaction, R .
liquefied, R .
pipe sizing, F .
processing, R .
separation, R .
Navier-Stokes equations, F .
Reynolds-averaged, F .
NC curves. See Noise criterion (NC) curves
Net positive suction head (NPSH), A . ;
R . ; S .
Night setback, recovery, A .
Nitrogen
liquid, R .
recovery, R .
Noise, F . . (See also Sound)
air conditioners, room, S .
combustion, F .
compressors
centrifugal, S . ,
single-screw, S .
condensing units, R .
control, with insulation, F .
controls, A .
engine test facilities, A .
fans, S .
fluid flow, F .
health effects, F .
water pipes, F .
Noise criterion (NC) curves, F .
Noncondensable gases
condensers, water-cooled, S .
refrigerant contamination, R .
NPSH. See Net positive suction head
(NPSH)
NTU. See Number of transfer units (NTU)
Nuclear facilities, A
air filtration, A . ,
codes, A .
criticality, A .
decommissioning, A .
Department of Energy facilities requirements
confinement systems, A .
ventilation, A .
fire protection, A .
HVAC design considerations, A .
Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements
boiling water reactors, A .
laboratories, A .
medical and research reactors, A .
other buildings and rooms, A .
power plants, A .
pressurized water reactors, A .
radioactive waste facilities, A .
safety design, A .
standards, A .
terminology, A .
tornado and wind protection, A .
Number of transfer units (NTU)
cooling towers, S .
heat transfer, F .
Nursing facilities, A .
service water heating, A .
Nuts, storage, R .
Odors, F
analytical measurement, F .
control of, in industrial exhaust gas cleaning,
S . ,
factors affecting, F . ,
odor units, F .
olf unit, F .
sense of smell, F .
sensory measurement, F .
acceptability, F .
sources, F .
suprathreshold intensity, F .
threshold, F .
ODP. See Ozone depletion potential (ODP)
Office buildings
air conditioning, A . ,
space requirements, A .
service water heating, A . ,
Oil, fuel, F .
characteristics, F .
distillate oils, F .
handling, S .
heating value, F .
pipe sizing, F .
preparation, S .
residual oils, F .
storage buildings, A .
storage tanks, S .
sulfur content, F .
viscosity, F .
Oil. (See also Lubricants)
in refrigerant systems, R .
in two-phase flow, F .
Olf unit, F .
One-pipe systems
chilled-water, S .
steam convection heating, S . ;
Fundamentals, Chapter , pp. – (See
explanation on first page of index.)
Operating costs, A .
Operation and maintenance, A . (See also
Maintenance)
automated fault detection and diagnostics
(AFDD), A .
commissioning, A .
compressors, S .
desiccant dehumidifiers, S .
documentation, A .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
exhaust gas cleaning equipment,
S .
laboratory HVAC equipment, A .
manuals, A .
new technology, A .
renovations and retrofits, A .
responsibilities, A .
staffing, A .
training, A .
Optimization, A .
applications
dynamic, A .
static, A .
dynamic, A . ,
static, A . ,
Outdoor air, free cooling
cooling towers, S .
liquid chillers, S .
Outpatient health care facilities, A .
Owning costs, A .
Oxygen
in aircraft cabins, A .
liquid, R .
recovery, R .
Ozone
activated carbon air cleaner, A .
in aircraft cabins
catalytic converters, A .
limits, A .
electronic air filters, S .
health effects, F .
Ozone depletion potential (ODP),
F .
Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs),
S .
residential, A .
Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), S .
residential, A .
PAH. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs)
Paint, and moisture problems, F .
Panel heating and cooling, S . (See also
Radiant heating and cooling)
advantages, S .
capillary tube mats, S .
cooling, S .
design, S .
calculations, S .
disadvantages, S .
electric heating systems, S .
ceiling, S .
floor, S .
wall, S .
heat flux
combined, S .
natural convection, S .
thermal radiation, S .
heating, S .
hybrid HVAC, S .
hydronic systems,
floor, S .
wall, S .
Paper
moisture content, A .
photographic, A .
storage, A .
Paper products facilities, A
air conditioning, A .
conduction drying, A .
control rooms, A .
evaporative cooling, A .
finishing area, A .
machine area, A .
system selection, A .
testing laboratories, A .
Paraffins, R .
Parallel compressor systems, R .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Particulate matter, indoor air quality (IAQ),
F . ,
Pasteurization, R .
beverages, R .
dairy products, R .
eggs, R . ,
juices, R . ,
Peak dew point, A .
Peanuts, drying, A .
PEC systems. See Personal environmental
control (PEC) systems
PEL. See Permissible exposure limits (PEL)
Performance contracting, A .
Performance monitoring, A .
Permafrost stabilization, R .
Permeability
clothing, F .
vapor, F .
water vapor, F .
Permeance
air, F .
thickness, F .
water vapor, F .
Permissible exposure limits (PELs), F .
Personal environmental control (PEC)
systems, F .
Pharmaceutical manufacturing cleanrooms,
A .
Pharmacies, A .
Phase-change materials, thermal storage in,
S . ,
Photographic materials, A
processing and printing requirements, A .
storage, A . ,
unprocessed materials, A .
Photovoltaic (PV) systems, S . . (See also
Solar energy)
Physical properties of materials, F
boiling points, F . ,
density
liquids, F .
solids, F .
vapors, F .
emissivity of solids, F .
freezing points, F .
heat of fusion, F .
heat of vaporization, F .
solids, F .
specific heat
liquids, F .
solids, F .
vapors, F . ,
thermal conductivity
solids, F .
vapors, F .
viscosity
liquids, F .
vapors, F .
Physiological principles, humans. (See also
Comfort)
adaptation, F .
age, F .
body surface area (DuBois), F .
clothing, F .
cooling load, F .
DuBois equation, F .
energy balance, F .
heat stress, F . ,
heat transfer coefficients
convective, F .
evaporative, F .
Lewis relation, F .
radiative, F .
hypothalamus, F .
hypothermia, F .
latent heat loss, F . ,
mechanical efficiency, F .
metabolic rate, F .
models, F .
respiratory heat loss, F .
seasonal rhythms, F .
sensible heat loss, F .
sex, F .
skin heat loss, F . ,
skin wettedness, F .
thermal exchanges, F .
thermoregulation, F .
vasodilation, F .
Pigs. See Swine
Pipes, S . (See also Piping)
buried, heat transfer analysis, S .
codes, S .
cold springing, S . ; S .
computer analysis, A .
copper tube, S .
expansion, S .
expansion bends, S .
expansion joints, S .
expansion loops, S . ,
fittings, S .
fluid flow, F .
heat transfer analysis, S .
insulation, F .
hangers, F .
installation, F .
underground, F .
iron, S .
joining methods, S .
plastic, F . ; S . ,
selection, S .
sizing, F
ammonia systems capacity tables, R . ,
fittings, F . ,
fuel oil, F .
gas, F .
hydronic systems, F . ; S .
insulation and vapor retarders, R .
isolated line sections, R .
pressure drop equations, F .
refrigerant, retail food store refrigeration,
R .
service water, F .
steam, F .
valves, F . , ; R .
water, F .
standards, fittings, S .
steel, S .
stress calculations, S .
supporting elements, S . ; S .
Piping. (See also Pipes)
boilers, S .
capacity tables, R . –
codes, S .
cooling towers, S . ; S .
district heating and cooling
distribution system, S .
heat transfer, S .
hydraulics, S .
insulation thickness, S .
leak detection, S .
relative costs, S .
types, S .
valve vaults, S .
geothermal energy systems, A .
heat carrying capacity, S .
hydronic snow melting, A .
insulation, R .
refrigerant
ammonia systems, R . ; R .
below-ambient, R .
halocarbon systems, R .
heat gain limits, R .
insulation, R . ,
jacketing, R .
pipe preparation, R .
supports and hangers, R .
vapor retarders, R .
service hot water, A .
solar energy, A . ; S .
sound
control, A .
transmission, A .
standards, S . ; S .
system identification, F .
systems
ammonia refrigeration, R .
halocarbon refrigeration
capacity tables, R . – , –
compressor, R .
defrost gas supply lines, R .
discharge lines, R .
double hot-gas risers, R .
draining prevention, R .
evaporator, R .
gas velocity, R .
hot-gas
(discharge) mufflers, R .
bypass, R .
insulation, R .
liquid cooler, flooded, R . ,
location and arrangement, R .
minimum gas velocities, R .
oil transport up risers, R .
refrigerant feed devices, R .
single riser and oil separator, R .
vibration and noise, R .
solar energy, A . ; S . ,
steam, S . ,
water, S . ; S .
unit heaters, S .
vibration control, A .
vibration transmission, A .
Pitot tubes, A . ; F .
Places of assembly, A
air conditioning, A .
air distribution, A .
air filtration, A .
air stratification, A .
arenas, A .
atriums, A .
auditoriums, A .
concert halls, A .
convention centers, A .
exhibition centers, A .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
fairs, A .
gymnasiums, A .
houses of worship, A .
lighting loads, A .
mechanical equipment rooms, A .
movie theaters, A .
natatoriums, A .
playhouses, A .
precooling, A .
sound control, A .
space conditions, A .
stadiums, A .
temporary exhibit buildings, A .
vibration control, A .
Planes. See Aircraft
Plank’s equation, R .
Plant environments, A .
controlled-environment rooms,
A .
design, A .
greenhouses, A .
carbon dioxide enrichment, A .
cooling, A .
energy conservation, A .
evaporative cooling, A .
heating, A .
heat loss calculation, A .
humidity control, A .
photoperiod control, A .
shading, A .
site selection, A .
supplemental irradiance, A .
ventilation, A .
other facilities, A .
photoperiod control, A .
phytotrons, A .
plant growth chambers, A .
supplemental irradiance, A .
Plenums
mixing, S .
sound attenuation, A .
stratification in, A .
PMV. See Predicted mean vote (PMV)
Police stations, A .
Pollutant transport modeling. See Contaminants, indoor, concentration prediction
Pollution, air, and combustion, F . ,
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
F .
Polydimethylsiloxane, F .
Ponds, spray, S .
Pope cell, F .
Positive building pressure, A .
Positive positioners, F .
Potatoes
processed, R .
storage, A .
Poultry. (See also Animal environments)
chilling, R .
decontamination, R .
freezing, R .
packaging, R .
processing, R . ,
processing plant sanitation, R .
recommended environment, A .
refrigeration, retail, R .
storage, R .
tenderness control, R .
thawing, R .
Power grid, A .
Power-law airflow model, F .
Power plants, A
buildings
oil pump, A .
oil storage, A .
steam generator, A .
turbine generator, A .
coal-handling facilities, A . ,
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
combustion turbine areas, A .
control center, A .
cooling, A .
design criteria, A .
dust collectors, A .
evaporative cooling, A .
fuel cells, S .
heating, A .
safety, A .
substations, A .
switchyard control structures, A .
turbines
combustion, S .
steam, S .
ventilation, A .
rates, A .
PPD. See Predicted percent dissatisfied
(PPD)
Prandtl number, F .
Precooling
buildings, A .
flowers, cut, R .
fruits and vegetables, load calculation,
R .
indirect evaporative, A .
places of assembly, A .
Predicted mean vote (PMV), F .
comfort, F .
Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD),
F .
Preschools, A .
Pressure
absolute, F .
aircraft cabins, A . , , ,
clean spaces, A .
differential, F .
conversion to head, A .
hospitals, A .
readout, A .
dynamic, F .
gage, F .
measurement, A . ; F .
sensors, F .
smoke control, A . ,
stairwells, A . ,
static control, A . ; F .
steam systems, S .
units, F .
vacuum, F .
Pressure drop. (See also Darcy-Weisbach
equation)
correlations, F .
district heating and cooling, S .
pipe sizing, F .
in plate heat exchangers, F .
two-phase fluid flow, F .
Primary-air systems, S .
Printing plants, A
air conditioning, A .
air filtration, A .
binding areas, A .
collotype printing rooms, A .
letterpress areas, A .
lithographic pressrooms, A .
paper moisture content control, A .
platemaking rooms, A .
relief printing areas, A .
rotogravure pressrooms, A .
salvage systems, A .
shipping areas, A .
ink drying, A .
Prisons, A .
Produce
desiccation, R .
deterioration rate, R .
display refrigerators, R .
Product load, R .
Propane
commercial, F .
furnaces, residential, S .
Propylene glycol, hydronic systems, S .
Psychrometers, F .
Psychrometrics, F
air handlers, S .
altitude effects, F . ,
chart, F .
adiabatic mixing, F .
heat absorption and moisture gain, F .
moist air, cooling and heating, F .
thermodynamic properties, F .
evaporative cooling systems, A . , , ,
humidity parameters, F .
industrial drying, A .
moist air
standard atmosphere, U.S., F .
thermal conductivity, F .
thermodynamic properties, F . ,
transport properties, F .
viscosity, F .
perfect gas equations, F .
water at saturation, thermodynamic properties,
F .
PTACs. See Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs)
PTHPs. See Packaged terminal heat pumps
(PTHPs)
Public buildings. See Commercial and public
buildings; Places of assembly
Pumps
cavitation, S .
centrifugal, S
affinity laws, S .
antifreeze effect on, S .
arrangement, S . ; S .
pumping; S .
standby pump, S .
casing, S .
cavitation, S .
commissioning, S .
construction, S .
efficiency, best efficiency point (BEP),
S .
energy conservation, S .
impellers, trimming, S . , ,
installation, S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
mixing, S .
motors, S .
operation, S .
performance, S . ; S .
power, S .
radial thrust, S .
selection, S .
types, S .
variable-speed, S .
chilled-water, A . , ,
sequencing, A . ,
condenser water, A .
as fluid flow indicators, A .
geothermal wells, A .
lineshaft, A .
submersible, A .
horsepower, S .
hydronic snow melting, A .
liquid overfeed systems, R .
net positive suction head, S . ,
solar energy systems, A .
systems, water, S . ; S .
variable-speed, A . ,
Purge units, centrifugal chillers, S .
Radiant heating and cooling, A ; S . ; S ;
S . . (See also Panel heating and cooling)
applications, A .
asymmetry, A .
beam heating design, A . ; S .
control, A .
design, A . ,
direct infrared, A . , ,
equations, A .
floor reradiation, A .
infrared, A . , , ; S
beam heater design, S .
control, S .
efficiency, S .
electric, S .
energy conservation, S .
gas-fired, S .
indirect, S .
maintenance, S .
oil-fired, S .
precautions, S .
reflectors, S .
installation, A .
intensity, S .
panels, A . , ; S . ; S .
applications, A .
control, A .
heating, S .
hydronic systems, S .
radiation patterns, A .
snow-melting systems, A .
terminology
adjusted dry-bulb temperature, A .
ambient temperature, A .
angle factor, S .
effective radiant flux (ERF), A . ; S .
fixture efficiency, S .
mean radiant temperature (MRT),
A . ; S .
operative temperature, A .
pattern efficiency, S .
radiant flux distribution, S .
radiation-generating ratio, S .
test instruments, A .
total space heating, A .
PV systems. See Photovoltaic (PV) systems;
Solar energy
Radiant time series (RTS) method, F . ,
factors, F .
load calculations, nonresidential, F .
Radiation
atmospheric, A .
diffuse, F . ,
electromagnetic, F .
ground-reflected, F .
optical waves, F .
radiant balance, F .
radio waves, F .
solar, A .
thermal, F . , ; S .
angle factors, F .
blackbody, F .
black surface, F .
display cases, R .
energy transfer, F .
exchange between surfaces, F .
in gases, F .
gray, F . ,
heat transfer, F .
infrared, F .
Kirchoff’s law, F .
monochromatic emissive power, F .
nonblack, F .
spectral emissive power, F .
transient, F .
Radiators, S . ,
design, S .
nonstandard condition corrections, S .
types, S .
Radioactive gases, contaminants, F .
Radiometers, A .
Radon, F . , ,
control, F .
indoor concentrations, F .
removal, A .
Rail cars, R . (See also Cargo containers)
air conditioning, A .
air distribution, A .
heaters, A .
vehicle types, A .
Railroad tunnels, ventilation
design, A .
diesel locomotive facilities, A .
equipment, A .
locomotive cooling requirements, A .
tunnel aerodynamics, A .
tunnel purge, A .
Rain, and building envelopes, F .
RANS. See Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes
(RANS) equation
Rapid-transit systems. See Mass-transit
systems
Rayleigh number, F .
RC curves. See Room criterion (RC)
curves
Receivers
ammonia refrigeration systems, high-pressure,
R .
halocarbon refrigerant, R .
liquid overfeed systems, R .
Recycling refrigerants, R .
Refrigerant/absorbent pairs, F .
Refrigerant control devices, R
air conditioners, S . ; S .
automobile air conditioning, A .
capillary tubes, R .
coolers, liquid, S .
heat pumps
system, S .
unitary, S .
lubricant separators, R .
pressure transducers, R .
sensors, R .
short-tube restrictors, R .
switches
differential control, R .
float, R .
pressure control, R .
valves, control
check, R .
condenser pressure regulators, R .
condensing water regulators, R .
expansion
electric, R .
expansion, R . ,
float, R .
pressure relief devices, R .
solenoid, R .
suction pressure regulators, R .
Refrigerants, F .
absorption solutions, F .
ammonia, F . –
chemical reactions, R .
refrigeration system practices, R .
refrigeration systems, R .
ammonia/water, F .
analysis, R .
automobile air conditioning, A .
azeotropic, F .
bakeries, R .
carbon dioxide, F . –
refrigeration systems, R .
cascade refrigeration systems, R .
charge minimization, R .
chemical evaluation techniques, R .
compatibility with materials, R .
computer analysis, A .
contaminants in, R
cryogenic fluids, F . –
effect on materials, F .
emissions, R .
environmental acceptability, R .
flammability, R .
halocarbons
azeotropic blends, F .
charge minimization, R .
ethane series, F . –
flow rate, R .
hydrolysis, R .
methane series, F . –
propane series, F .
propylene series, F . –
refrigeration system practices, R .
thermal stability, R .
zeotropic blends, F . –
hydrocarbons
ethane, F . –
ethylene, F . –
isobutane, F . –
methane, F . –
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
n-butane, F . –
propane, F . –
propylene, F . –
insulation for piping, R .
leak detection, F . ; R . ; R .
lines, oil management, R .
lithium bromide/water, F .
lubricant solutions, R .
moisture in, R .
performance, F .
phaseout, costs, A .
piping, R .
pressure drop
discharge lines, R .
suction lines, R .
properties, F .
electrical, F .
global environmental, F .
physical, F .
rail car air conditioning, A .
reclamation, R .
removing contaminants, R .
recovery, R .
recycling, R .
safety, F .
classifications, F .
sampling, R .
sound velocity, F .
sustainability, R .
system chemistry, R .
system reactions, R .
systems, lubricants, R .
thermodynamic properties, F .
thermophysical properties, R .
transport properties, F
water/steam, F . –
zeotropic, F . ,
Refrigerant transfer units (RTU), liquid
chillers, S .
Refrigerated facilities, R
air handling and purification, R .
automated, R . ,
construction, R .
controlled-atmosphere storage, R .
controls, R .
design
building configuration, R .
initial building considerations, R .
location, R .
shipping and receiving docks, R .
single-story structures, R .
specialized storage facilities, R .
stacking arrangement, R .
utility space, R .
freezers, R .
insulation, R .
load calculations, R .
refrigerated rooms, R .
refrigeration systems
condensate drains, R .
defrosting, R .
fan-coil units, R .
multiple installations, R .
unitary, R .
valves, R .
sanitation, R .
temperature pulldown, R .
vapor retarders, R . ,
Refrigeration, F . . (See also Absorption;
Adsorption)
absorption cycle, F .
adsorption cycle, F .
air coolers, forced-circulation, R .
air transport, R . ,
ammonia systems, R
compressors, R .
controls, R .
converting systems, R .
equipment, R .
liquid recirculation (overfeed), R . ,
lubricant management, R .
multistage systems, R .
piping, R .
safety, R .
system selection, R .
two-stage screw compressor, R .
valves, R .
vessels, R .
autocascade systems, R .
azeotropic mixture, F .
beverage plants, R .
biomedical applications, R .
breweries, R .
carbon dioxide systems, R .
cascade systems, R .
chemical industry, R . , ,
coefficient of performance (COP), F . ,
compression cycles
Carnot cycle, F . ,
Lorenz cycle, F .
multistage, F .
zeotropic mixture, F .
concrete, R .
condensers, cascade, R .
food
eggs and egg products, R .
fish, R .
vegetables, R .
food processing facilities, R .
banana ripening rooms, R .
control of microorganisms, R .
meat plants, R .
food service equipment, R
fruits, fresh, R . ; R
halocarbon systems, R
accessories, R .
charge minimization, R .
heat exchangers, R .
lubricant management, R .
refrigerant receivers, R .
subcoolers, R .
valves, R .
heat reclaim, service water heating, A .
ice rinks, R .
insulation, R .
liquid overfeed systems, R .
loads, R . ; R .
low-temperature
autocascade systems, R .
cascade systems, R .
heat transfer, R .
material selection, R .
secondary coolants, R .
single-refrigerant systems, R .
lubricant coolers, R .
marine, R
fishing vessels, R .
ships’ stores, R .
refrigerant systems chemistry, R .
refrigerated-facility design, R .
retail food store systems, R .
secondary coolant systems, R .
applications, R .
coolant selection, R .
design, R .
soils, subsurface, R . ,
systems
charging, factory, R .
component balancing, R .
contaminant control, R .
sampling, R .
dehydration, factory, R .
design balance points, R .
energy and mass balance, R .
moisture in, R .
performance, R .
testing, factory, R .
ultralow-temperature, R .
wineries, R .
Refrigeration oils, R . (See also Lubricants)
Refrigerators
commercial
blast, R .
energy efficiency, R .
freezers, R .
temperatures, R .
types, R .
cryocoolers, R .
food service, R .
household, R .
absorption cycle, R .
cabinets, R .
defrosting, R .
durability, R .
ice makers, R .
performance evaluation, R .
refrigerating systems, R .
safety, R .
mortuary, R .
retail food store
display, A . ; R .
storage, R .
walk-in, R .
Regulators. (See also Valves)
condenser pressure, R .
condensing water, R .
draft, S .
pressure, steam, S .
suction pressure, R .
Residential health care facilities, A .
Residential systems, A
air cleaners, S .
air leakage, F .
calculation, F .
climatic infiltration zones, F .
codes, S .
dehumidifiers, A .
equipment sizing, A .
forced-air systems
design, S . ,
distribution design, S .
ducts, S .
efficiency testing, S .
furnaces, S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
zone control, S .
furnaces, S .
gas burners, S .
heating and cooling systems, A .
humidifiers, S . ; S .
kitchen ventilation, A .
oil burners, S .
ventilation, F .
water heating, A .
Resistance, thermal, F ; F ; F . (See also
R-values)
calculation, F .
contact, F .
of flat assembly, F .
of flat building components, F .
overall, F .
radiant panels, S .
surface film, F .
Resistance temperature devices (RTDs),
F . ; F .
Resistivity, thermal, F .
Resource utilization factor (RUF), F .
Respiration of fruits and vegetables, R .
Restaurants
energy conservation, A .
kitchen ventilation, A .
service water heating, A . , ,
Retail facilities, A
air conditioning, A .
convenience centers, A .
department stores, A .
design considerations, A .
discount and big-box stores, A .
load determination, A .
malls, A .
multiple-use complexes, A .
refrigeration, R . ; R
shopping centers, A .
small stores, A .
supermarkets, A .
refrigerators, R .
service water heating, A .
Retrofit performance monitoring, A .
Retrofitting refrigerant systems, contaminant
control, R .
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)
equation, F . ; F .
airflow around buildings simulation, F .
Reynolds number, F .
Rice, drying, A .
RMS. See Root mean square (RMS)
Road tunnels, A .
carbon monoxide
allowable concentrations, A .
analyzers and recorders, A . ,
computer analysis, A .
vehicle emissions, A .
ventilation
air quantities, A . ,
computer analysis, A .
controls, A .
ducts, A .
emergency, A .
air quantities, A .
enclosed facility, A .
enhancements, A .
equipment, A .
hybrid, A .
mechanical, A .
natural, A .
normal air quantities, A .
normal conditions, A .
pressure evaluation, A .
temporary, A .
Roof overhang, A .
Roofs, U-factors, F .
Room air distribution, A ; S .
air terminals, A .
chilled beams, A . ; S .
classification, A . ; S .
fully stratified, A . ; S .
mixed, A . ; S .
occupant comfort, A . ; S .
occupied zone, A .
partially mixed, A . ; S .
Room criterion (RC) curves, F .
Root mean square (RMS), F .
Roughness factors, ducts, F .
RTDs. See Resistance temperature devices
(RTDs)
RTS. See Radiant time series (RTS)
RTU. See Refrigerant transfer units (RTU)
RUF. See Resource utilization factor (RUF)
Rusting, of building components, F .
R-values, F ; F ; F . (See also Resistance,
thermal)
zone method of calculation, F . ,
Safety
air cleaners, A . ; S .
automatic controls, A .
burners, S . , ,
chemical plants, R .
cryogenic equipment, R .
electrical, A .
filters, air, S .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
nuclear facilities, A .
refrigerants, F . ,
service water heating, A .
solar energy systems, A .
thermal insulation and fires, F .
thermal insulation for, F .
UVGI systems, A . ; S .
water systems, S .
wood stoves, S .
Sanitation
food production facilities, R
control of microorganisms, R .
egg processing, R .
HACCP, R .
meat processing, R .
poultry processing, R .
regulations and standards, R .
refrigerated storage facilities, R .
Savings-to-investment-ratio (SIR), A .
Scale
control, A .
humidifiers, S .
service water systems, A .
water treatment, A .
scaling indices, A .
Schneider system, R .
Schools
air conditioning, A .
service water heating, A .
elementary, A .
high schools, A . ,
Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER)
unitary equipment, S .
Security. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Seeds, storage, A .
SEER. See Seasonal energy efficiency ratio
(SEER)
Seismic restraint, A . ; A .
anchor bolts, A .
design, A .
design calculations
examples, A . –
static analysis, A . ,
duct construction, S .
dynamic analysis, A .
installation problems, A .
snubbers, A .
terminology, A .
weld capacities, A .
Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs),
F . , ; F .
Sensors
automatic controls, F . ,
location, A .
Separators, lubricant, R .
Service water heating, A
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
commercial and institutional, A .
corrosion, A .
design considerations, A .
distribution system
for commercial kitchens, A .
manifolding, A .
piping, A .
pressure differential, A .
return pump sizing, A .
two-temperature service, A .
geothermal energy, A .
indirect, A . ,
industrial, A .
Legionella pneumophila, A .
pipe sizing, F .
requirements, A .
residential, A .
safety, A .
scale, A .
sizing water heaters
instantaneous and semi-instantaneous,
A .
storage heaters, A . ,
solar energy, A . , , ; A .
steam, S .
system planning, A .
thermal storage, S .
water heating equipment
placement, A .
sizing, A . ,
types, A .
water quality, A .
SES. See Subway environment simulation
(SES) program
Shading
devices, indoor, F .
fenestration, F .
Ships, A
air conditioning
air distribution, A . ,
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
controls, A . ,
design criteria, A . ,
equipment selection, A . ,
systems, A . ,
cargo holds, R .
cargo refrigeration, R .
coils, A .
ducts, A .
fish freezing, R .
fish refrigeration
icing, R . ; R .
refrigerated seawater, R . ; R .
merchant, A .
naval surface, A .
refrigerated stores, R .
refrigeration systems, R .
regulatory agencies, A .
Shooting ranges, indoor, A .
Short-tube restrictors, R .
Silica gel, S . , , ,
Single-duct systems, all-air, S .
SIR. See Savings-to-investment ratio (SIR)
Skating rinks, R .
Skylights, and solar heat gain, F .
Slab heating, A
Slab-on-grade foundations, A .
SLR. See Solar-load ratio (SLR)
Smart building systems, A .
actuators, A .
diagnostics, A .
levels of intelligence, A .
Smart grid, A . ,
basics, A .
interconnections, A .
sensors A .
strategy, A .
Smoke control, A
acceptance testing, A .
atriums, A .
commissioning, A .
compartmentation, A . ,
computer analysis, A . ,
design fires, A .
dilution, A .
elevators, A .
extraordinary incidents, A .
fire and smoke dampers, A .
fire management, A .
hospitals, A .
pressurization, A . ,
rapid-transit systems, A .
road tunnels, A .
smoke movement, A .
buoyancy, A . ,
elevator piston effect, A .
expansion, A .
forced ventilation, A .
stack effect, A .
wind, A .
stairwells
analysis, A .
compartmentation, A .
open doors, A .
pressurized, A .
tenability systems, A .
testing, A .
weather data, A .
zones, A .
Snow-melting systems, A
back and edge heat losses, A . ,
control, A .
electric system design
constant wattage systems, A .
electrical equipment, A .
gutters and downspouts, A .
heat flux, A .
idling, A .
heating elements, A .
infrared systems, A .
installation, A .
mineral insulated cable, A .
free area ratio, A .
freeze protection systems, A . ,
heat balance, A .
heating requirement
annual operating data, A .
heat flux equations, A .
hydronic and electric, A .
load frequencies, A .
surface size, A .
transient heat flux, A .
weather data, A .
wind speed, A .
hydronic system design
components, A .
controls, A .
fluid heater, A .
heat transfer fluid, A .
piping, A .
pump selection, A .
thermal stress, A .
operating costs, A .
slab design, hydronic and electric, A .
snow detectors, A .
Snubbers, seismic, A .
Sodium chloride brines, F .
Soft drinks, R .
Software
AFDD, A .
antispyware, A .
custom programming, A .
development tools, A .
energy analysis, F .
firewall, A .
graphics, A .
HVAC, A .
readymade, A .
road tunnel, A .
terminology, A .
utilities, A . ,
Soils. (See also Earth)
stabilization, R . ,
temperature calculation, S .
thermal conductivity, F . ; S .
Solar energy, A ; S . (See also Solar heat
gain; Solar radiation)
active systems, A . , ,
airflow, A .
collectors, A . , , , ; S .
array design, S .
concentrating, A .
construction, S .
design and installation, A .
efficiency, A .
flat plate, A .
module design S .
mounting, A .
performance, A . ; S .
selection, S .
testing, S .
types, S .
combi systems, A . ,
constant, A .
control, A . , ; S .
automatic temperature, S .
differential temperature, S .
hot-water dump, S .
overtemperature protection, S .
cooling systems, A . , ,
absorption refrigeration, A . ; S . ,
sizing, A .
types, A .
design, installation, operation checklist,
A .
design values, solar irradiation, A .
domestic hot water, A . ,
equipment, S .
f-Chart method, A .
freeze protection, A . ; S . ,
heat exchangers, A . ; S .
external, S .
freeze protection, S .
internal, S .
performance, S .
requirements, S .
heating systems, A . ; S .
active, A . ,
air, S . , ,
components, A .
control, A .
design, S .
direct circulation, A . ; S .
hybrid, A .
indirect, A . ; S .
integral collector storage systems, A . ;
S .
liquid, S . , ,
passive, A .
pool heating, A .
recirculation, A .
residential, A .
sizing, A .
thermosiphon, A .
heat pump systems, S .
hybrid systems, A .
hydraulics, A .
installation, A .
irradiation, A . ; F .
maintenance, A .
overheat protection, A .
passive systems, A . , ,
photovoltaic (PV) systems, A . ; S .
quality and quantity, A .
radiation at earth’s surface, A . ,
radiative cooling, A .
safety, A .
service water heating systems, A . , , ;
A . ; S .
sizing heating and cooling systems, A .
solar angles, A .
solar-combi systems, S .
solar time, A .
spectrum, A .
start-up procedure, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
thermal storage systems, A . ,
short circuiting, S .
sizing, S .
time, A . ,
types, S .
uses, A .
Solar heat gain, F . ; F .
calculation, F . ,
coefficient, F .
residential load calculations, F .
roof overhangs, F .
skylights, F .
Solar-load ratio (SLR), A .
Solar-optical glazing, F .
Solar radiation, F . ; F .
daylighting, F .
flux, F .
optical properties, F .
Solid fuel
burners, S .
coal, F .
coke, F .
Solvent drying, constant-moisture, A .
Soot, F .
Sorbents, F .
Sorption isotherm, F . ; F .
Sound, F . (See also Noise)
air outlets, S .
attenuators, A .
bandwidths, F .
combustion, F .
compressors, A .
computerized analysis, A .
control, A ; F
acoustical design of HVAC systems,
A .
A-weighted sound level (dBA), F .
barriers, A . ; F .
ceiling sound transmission, A .
chillers, A .
clean spaces, A .
cooling towers, S .
data reliability, A .
design, A . , ; F .
ducts, A .
sound attenuation, A . ; F .
enclosures, F .
engine test facilities, A .
equipment sound levels, A .
fans, A .
fume hood duct design, A .
hotels and motels, A .
insertion loss, A .
justice facilities, A . ,
mechanical equipment rooms, A .
noise criterion (NC) curves, F .
outdoor equipment, A .
piping, A . ,
places of assembly, A .
return air system sound transmission,
A .
rooftop air handlers, A .
room criterion (RC) curves, F .
room sound correction, A .
standards, A .
terminology, F .
troubleshooting, A .
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A .
cooling towers, S .
ducts, A .
loudness, F .
measurement, F .
basics, F .
instrumentation, A . ; F .
level meter, F .
power, F .
pressure, F .
speed, F .
terminology
bandwidths, F .
controlling, F .
decibel, F .
frequency, F .
frequency spectrum, F .
intensity, F .
level, F .
loudness, F .
pressure, F .
quality, F .
wavelength, F .
testing, A .
time averaging, F .
transmission, A .
humidity affecting, S .
paths, F .
troubleshooting, A .
typical sources, F .
unit heaters, S .
Sound control, A ; F . (See also Noise)
air handlers, S .
combustion turbines, S .
engines, S .
Soybeans, drying, A .
Specific heat
equation, F .
foods, R .
liquids, F .
materials, F .
Spot cooling
evaporative, A .
industrial environments, A . , ; A .
makeup air units, S .
mines, A .
Spot heating, A .
Stack effect
duct design, F .
multizone airflow modeling, F .
smoke movement, A .
Stadiums, A .
Stairwells, smoke control, A .
Standard atmosphere, U.S., F .
Standards, S . (See also Codes)
air cleaners, S . ,
air conditioners, S
packaged terminal, S .
room, S .
unitary, S . ,
air distribution, A .
boilers, S .
chilled-beam system, A .
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S . ,
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
coolers, liquid, S .
dehumidifiers, room, S .
duct construction, S .
electrical, A .
filters, air, S . ,
furnaces, S .
heaters, S . ,
heat pumps, S
packaged terminal, S .
unitary, S . ,
water-source, S .
indoor air quality (IAQ), F .
liquid chillers, S .
makeup air units, S .
motors, S . ,
nuclear facilities, A .
pipe fittings, S .
piping, S . ; S .
sound control, A .
tall buildings, A .
ventilation, F .
vibration control, A .
Static air mixers, S .
Static electricity and humidity, S .
Steam
humidifiers, S .
quality, S .
sources, S .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
thermophysical properties, F . –
Steam systems, S
air, effects of, S .
boilers, S . ; S .
classification, S .
coils, air-heating, S .
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution,
S .
combined steam and water, S .
commissioning, S .
condensate removal, S .
drainage and return, S .
drip stations, S .
return pipes, S .
convection heating, S .
design, S . ; S .
piping, S .
pressure, S .
distribution, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
valve vaults, S .
district heating and cooling, S . , ,
flash steam, S .
percentage, S .
flash tank, S .
gas, effects of, S .
generator buildings, A .
heat exchangers, S .
heating, A .
heat recovery
direct recovery, S .
flash steam, S .
waste heat boilers, S .
makeup air units, S .
one-pipe systems, S . ; Fundamentals,
Chapter , pp. – (See explanation on
first page of index.)
piping
distribution, S .
Hartford loop, S .
inlet orifices, S .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
return, S . ,
sizing, F .
supply, S . , ,
terminal equipment, S .
temperature control, S .
terminal equipment
forced-convection, S .
natural convection, S . ; S .
piping design, S .
radiant panel, S .
traps, S .
turbines, S .
two-pipe systems, S .
unit
heaters, S .
ventilators, S .
vacuum return for, S .
valves
pressure-reducing, S .
safety, S .
temperature control, S .
water, effects of, S .
Steam traps, S .
Stefan-Boltzmann equation, F . ,
Stevens’ law, F .
Stirling cycle, R .
Stokers, S .
Storage
apples, A . ; R . ,
controlled-atmosphere, R . ,
bakery ingredients, R .
candy, R .
carbon dioxide, R .
citrus, A . ; R .
cold, facility design, R .
compressed gases, A .
controlled-atmosphere (CA), R .
cryogenic fluids, R .
desiccant dehumidification, S .
high-pressure, S .
design, refrigerated-facility, R .
eggs, R .
farm crops, A .
fish
fresh, R .
frozen, R .
flowers, cut, R .
food, canned or dried, R .
fruit
dried, R .
fresh, R .
furs and fabrics, R .
ice, R .
meat products, frozen, R .
milk, R .
nursery stock, R .
nuts, R .
photographic materials, A . ,
unprocessed, A .
potatoes, A .
poultry products, R .
refrigerated-facility design, R .
seeds, A . ; R .
tanks, secondary coolant systems, R .
vegetables, R .
dried, R .
wine, R .
wood products, A .
Stoves, heating, S .
Stratification
of air
in places of assembly, A .
in plenums, A .
of water, in thermal storage tanks, S .
Stroboscopes, F .
Subcoolers
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
two-stage, R .
Subway environment simulation (SES)
program, A .
Subway systems. (See also Mass-transit
systems)
car air conditioning, A .
station air conditioning, A .
ventilation, A .
Suction risers, R .
Sulfur content, fuel oils, F .
Superconductivity, diamagnetism, R .
Supertall buildings, A .
Supervisory control, A
air-handling systems
air distribution, A .
sequencing, A .
set point reset, A .
boilers, A .
building temperature set point
night setback recovery, A .
precooling, A .
chilled-water pumps, A . , ,
chillers
load distribution, A .
sequencing, A . ,
computerized, A .
cooling tower fans, A . ,
cool thermal storage systems, A .
ice storage control optimization, A .
forecasting energy requirements, A .
optimization methods, A .
Supply air outlets, S . . (See also Air outlets)
Surface effect. See Coanda effect
Surface transportation
automobiles, A .
buses, A .
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
rail cars, A .
Surface water heat pump (SWHP), A .
heat exchanger, S .
Sustainability, F . ; F . ; S .
and air, noise, and water pollution, F .
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) production, F .
climate, F .
design process, F .
energy resources, F . ,
factors impacting, F .
global warming, F .
and green design, F .
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, F .
infiltration, F .
in integrated building design, A .
material resources, F .
ozone, F .
and refrigerant systems, R .
renewable energy, F .
and solid and liquid waste disposal, F .
standards of care, F .
unitary systems, S .
ventilation, F .
water use, F .
chimney, S .
SVFs. See Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs)
SVOCs. See Semivolatile organic compounds
(SVOCs)
SWHP. See Surface water heat pump (SWHP)
Swimming pools. (See also Natatoriums)
dehumidifiers, S .
solar heating, A .
water chemistry, A .
water heating for, A .
Swine, recommended environment, A .
Symbols, F
Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F .
TABS. See Thermally activated building
systems (TABS)
Tachometers, F .
Tall buildings, A
codes, A .
HVAC design process, A .
hydrostatic considerations, A .
life safety, A .
low-temperature air VAV systems, A .
megatall buildings, A .
refrigeration machine location, A .
reverse stack effect, A .
stack effect, A .
elevator doors, A .
heating problems, A .
manual doors, A .
minimizing, A .
smoke and odor propagation, A .
standards, A .
supertall buildings, A .
system selection, A .
underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems,
A .
vertical transportation, A .
water distribution systems, A .
Tanks, secondary coolant systems, R .
Telecomunication facilities, air-conditioning
systems, A .
Temperature
ambient, A .
changeover, S . ,
dew-point, F . ,
dry-bulb, adjusted, A .
effective, A . ; F .
humid operative, F .
mean radiant, A . ; F . ; F . ; S .
measurement, F .
odors affected by, F .
operative, A .
plane radiant, F . ; F .
radiant asymmetry, F .
sensors, F .
sol-air, F .
and task performance, F .
vertical differences, F .
wet-bulb, F . , ; F .
wet-globe, F .
wind chill index, F .
Temperature-controlled transport,
R .
Temperature index, S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Terminal units, A . ; S .
boxes
reheat, A .
variable-air-volume (VAV), A .
ceiling, S .
chilled beams, S .
dual-duct, S .
fan-coil, S .
fan-powered, A . ; S .
induction, A .
induction units, S .
radiant floor heat, S .
radiant panels, S .
reheat, S .
steam systems, S .
unit ventilators, S .
Terminal units. See Air terminal units (ATUs)
Terminology, of refrigeration, R
Terrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
TES. See Thermal energy storage (TES)
Testing
air cleaners, A . ; S .
air conditioners, packaged terminal, S .
air leakage, fan pressurization, F .
clean spaces, A .
compressors
centrifugal, S .
positive-displacement, S .
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
cooling towers, A . ; S .
desiccant dehumidification for, S . ,
duct efficiency, S .
fans, S .
filters, air, S .
heaters, S .
heat pumps
packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs),
S .
water-source, S .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
radiant heating system, A .
refrigeration systems
compressor, R .
leak detection, R .
performance testing, R .
refrigerators, household, R .
smoke control systems, A .
solar collectors, S .
sound
instrumentation, A .
procedure, A .
transmission problems, A . ,
vibration
equipment, A .
instrumentation, A .
isolators, A . ; A .
piping transmission, A .
procedure, A .
Testing, adjusting, and balancing. (See also
Balancing)
air diffusers, A .
air distribution systems, A .
reporting results, A .
airflow measurement, A .
balancing procedure, A .
central plant chilled-water systems, A .
cooling towers, A .
design considerations, A .
dual-duct systems, A .
duct design, F .
energy audit field survey, A .
fluid flow measurement, A .
HVAC systems, A .
hydronic systems, A .
heat transfer vs. flow, A . ,
water-side balancing
instrumentation, A .
proportional method, A .
rated differential method, A .
sizing balancing valves, A .
temperature difference method, A .
total heat transfer method, A .
induction systems, A .
instruments, A .
sound transmission problems, A . ,
steam distribution systems, A .
temperature controls, A .
terminology, A .
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A .
TETD/TA. See Total equivalent temperature
differential method with time averaging
(TETD/TA)
TEWI. See Total equivalent warning impact
(TEWI)
Textile processing plants, A
air conditioning design
air cleaning, A . ,
air distribution, A .
collector systems, A .
health considerations, A .
energy conservation, A .
fabric making, A .
fiber making, A .
yarn making, A .
TFM. See Transfer function method (TFM)
Theaters, A .
Thermal bridges, F .
Thermal comfort. See Comfort
Thermal emittance, F .
Thermal energy storage (TES), S . ; S
Thermally activated building systems (TABS),
A . ,
Thermal properties, F .
air spaces, F .
of food, R
insulation materials, F .
safety, F .
Thermal resistivity, F .
Thermal storage, S
applications, S .
benefits, S .
building mass, S .
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
commissioning, S .
controls, S .
sequence, S .
strategies, A .
cool storage, A . ; S . ,
district cooling, S .
district heating, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
electric thermal storage (ETS), S .
brick storage heaters, S .
central furnace, S .
grid interactive, S . ,
heat pump boosters, S .
room units, S .
underfloor heat, S .
water heaters, S . ,
emergency cooling, S . , ,
equipment
cooling, S .
heating, S .
grid-interactive electric thermal storage
(GETS), S . , ,
heat storage, S . ,
ice, R .
ice storage, S . ,
charging and discharging, A .
control optimization, A .
encapsulated ice, S . , ,
harvesting system, S . , ,
ice on coil, S . , ,
piping, S .
slurries, S .
industrial refrigeration, S .
insulation, S .
latent energy change, S .
media, S . ,
mission-critical operations, S .
off-peak, heating, S .
operation, S .
phase-change materials, S . , ,
piping, ice storage, S .
process cooling, S .
renewable energy integration, S . ,
retrofits, S .
solar energy systems, A . , , ; S . ,
; S .
system sizing, S .
terminology, S .
water storage, S . ,
aquifers, S .
performance, S .
tank insulation, S . ; S .
temperature range, S .
thermal stratification, S . ,
water heaters, S . ,
water systems, medium- and high-temperature,
S .
water treatment, S .
Thermal transmission data, F
Thermistors, R .
Thermodynamics, F .
absorption refrigeration cycles, F .
bubble point, F .
compressed liquid, F .
compression refrigeration cycles, F .
cooling and freezing of foods, R .
cycle, F .
dew point, F .
dry saturated vapor, F .
enthalpy, F .
entropy, F .
equations of state, F .
laws, F .
liquid, F .
multicomponent systems, F .
principles, F .
process, F .
properties, F .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
calculation, F .
zeotropic mixture, F .
pure substance, F .
of refrigerants, F
refrigeration cycle analysis, F .
saturated liquid or vapor, F .
subcooled liquid, F .
superheated vapor, F .
terminology, F .
vapor, F .
Thermometers, F .
black globe, A .
error sources, F .
infrared
radiometers, A . ; F .
thermography, F .
liquid-in-glass, F .
resistance
semiconductors, F .
temperature devices (RTDs), F .
thermistors, F .
thermocouples, F .
Thermopile, F . ; F . ; R .
Thermosiphons
heat exchangers, S .
solar energy systems, A .
Thermostats
heater control, S . ,
heating/cooling, F .
location, A .
types, F .
Three-pipe distribution, S .
Tobacco smoke
contaminants, A . , , ; F . ,
environmental (ETS), F .
Tollbooths
air quality criteria, A .
ventilation, A . ,
Total equivalent temperature differential
method with time averaging (TETD/TA),
F .
Total equivalent warming impact (TEWI),
F .
Trailers and trucks, refrigerated, R . (See also
Cargo containers)
Transducers, pneumatic pressure, F .
Transfer function method (TFM), A . ;
F .
Transmittance, thermal, F .
of flat building component, F .
thermal bridging, F .
Transmitters, pneumatic pressure, F .
Transpiration, R .
Transportation centers
commercial and public buildings, A .
ventilation, A . ,
Transport properties of refrigerants,
F
Traps
ammonia refrigeration systems
liquid level indicators, R .
purge units, R .
suction accumulator, R .
vertical suction, R .
steam systems, S .
thermostatic, S .
Trucks, refrigerated, R . (See also Cargo
containers)
Tuning automatic control systems, F .
Tunnels, vehicular, A .
fires, A .
railroad, A .
rapid transit, A .
road, A .
Turbines, S
benefits, S .
chiller systems, S .
absorption, S .
mechanical, S .
thermal energy storage (TES), S .
combustion, S . , ; S .
Brayton cycle, S .
components, S .
controls, S .
dual-shaft, S .
emissions, S .
evaporative cooling applications, S .
exhaust gas systems, S .
fuels, S .
heat recovery, S .
inlet cooling, S
instruments, S .
lubrication, S .
maintenance, S .
noise control, S .
performance, S .
single-shaft, S .
split-shaft, S .
starting systems, S .
thermal output, S .
engine test facilities, gas, A .
expansion, S . ; S .
fogging, S .
gas, S .
evaporative cooling, A .
hybrid, S .
microturbines, S .
steam
applications, S .
axial flow, S .
heat recovery, S .
maintenance, S .
wet compression, S .
wetted media, S .
Turbochargers, heat recovery, S .
Turbulence modeling, F .
identification, F .
Turbulent flow, fluids, F .
Turndown ratio, design capacity, S .
Two-node model, for thermal comfort,
F .
Two-pipe systems, S . ; S .
air-to-transmission ratio, S .
central ventilation, S .
changeover temperature, S .
chilled-water, S .
electric heat, S .
nonchangeover design, S .
steam convection heating, S .
zoning, S .
U.S. Marshal spaces, A .
U-factor
center-of-glass, F .
doors, F . ; F .
edge-of-glass, F .
fenestration products, F .
of flat building assembly, F .
frame, F .
thermal transmittance, F .
windows, F .
Ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters, S . ;
S .
Ultraviolet (UV) lamp systems, S
in-duct, A . , ,
lamps, A . ; S . ,
germicidal, A . ; S .
maintenance, A . ; S .
photodegradation, S .
safety, S .
surface disinfection, A .
terminology, S .
upper-air, A .
Ultraviolet air and surface treatment, A
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI),
A . ; S . . [See also Ultraviolet (UV) lamp
systems]
in health care facilities, A .
terminology, A .
Uncertainty analysis
measurement, A . , ; F .
statistical regression, A .
Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems,
A . ; A .
Unitary systems, S
floor-by-floor systems, S .
heat pumps, S . ; S . , ,
outdoor equipment, S .
self-contained, S .
split systems, S . ; S .
through-the-wall, S .
window-mounted, S .
Unit heaters. See Heaters
Units and conversions, F
Unit ventilators, S .
Utility interface, electric, S .
Utility rates, A .
demand response, A .
UV. See Ultraviolet (UV) lamp systems
UVGI. See Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation
(UVGI)
Vacuum cooling, of fruits and vegetables,
R .
Validation, of airflow modeling, F . , ,
Valves, S . (See also Regulators)
actuators, S .
ammonia refrigeration systems
control, R .
relief, R .
solenoid, R .
stop, R .
authority, S .
automatic, S .
actuators, S .
control, F . ; S .
expansion, S .
flow characteristics, S .
sizing, S .
types, S .
backflow-prevention devices, S .
balancing, S .
sizing, A .
body styles, S .
cavitation, S .
check, R . ; S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
compressors, reciprocating, S .
condensing-pressure-regulating, R .
constant-pressure expansion, R .
control valves, F .
coefficient, F .
discharge bypass, R .
expansion
constant-pressure, R . ,
electric, R .
thermostatic, R .
float control, R .
flow coefficient, S .
flow-limiting, S .
friction losses, F . ,
geothermal energy, A .
halocarbon refrigeration systems
equivalent lengths, R .
float control, R .
hydronic systems
control, S .
safety relief, S .
manual, S .
materials, S .
multiple-purpose, S .
pressure drop, F . ,
pressure-independent, S .
pressure-reducing makeup water, S .
pressure relief, S .
safety, R .
ratings, S .
refrigerant control, R .
regulating and throttling, R .
safety, S .
solar energy systems, A .
solenoid, R . ; S .
steam system, S . ,
stop-check, S .
suction pressure regulating, R .
thermostatic, S . ; S .
water hammer, S .
zone control, S .
Vaporization systems, S .
liquefied natural gas (LNG), S .
Vapor pressure, F . ; F .
Vapor retarders, jackets, F .
Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
all-air
dual-duct, S .
single-duct, S .
versus constant air volume (CAV), A .
control, A . , ,
diversity, A .
dual-duct systems, S .
duct static pressure control, A .
fan
selection, A .
sequencing, A .
unstable operation, A .
humidity control, S .
museums, galleries, archives, and libraries,
A .
pressure-dependent systems, A .
pressure-independent systems, A .
single-duct, S .
sound control, A .
static pressure control, A .
static pressure reset, A .
system types, A .
terminal boxes, A . ; A .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
variable-speed drives, S .
Variable-frequency drives, S .
and bearing currents, S .
carrier frequencies, S .
conductor impedance, S .
control,
generator-powered,
generators, S .
harmonic disturbances, S .
motors, S .
impedance, S .
pulse width modulation, S .
transistors, S .
voltage waveform distortion, S .
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF),
S . ; S . ,
applications, S .
commissioning, S .
design, S .
life-cycle analysis tools, S .
life-cycle operating costs, S .
modeling, S .
multisplit system, S .
operation, S .
standards, S .
VAV. See Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems
Vegetables, R
air transport, R .
cooling, R .
deterioration rate, R .
display refrigerators, R .
dried, storage, R .
frozen, R .
refrigeration, R .
storage, R .
thermal properties, R .
transport, R .
Vehicles
AC- or DC-powered, transit, A .
design, R .
equipment attachment provisions, R .
sanitation, R .
temperature-controlled, R .
use, R .
Vena contracta, F .
Vending machines, R .
Ventilation, F
age of air, F .
air change effectiveness, F .
aircraft, A . ,
air exchange rate, F . ,
airflow, F .
animal environments, A .
bus garages, A .
bus terminals, A .
cargo containers, R .
climatic infiltration zones, F .
dilution, A . ; A .
displacement, S .
driving mechanisms, F .
effectiveness, F .
engine test facilities, A .
forced, F .
garages, residential, F .
gaseous contaminant removal, A .
greenhouses, A .
health care facilities, A .
hospitals, A .
nursing facilities, A .
outpatient, A .
hybrid, F .
indoor air quality (IAQ), F .
industrial environments, A
exhaust systems, A .
kitchens, A
laboratories, A .
latent heat load, F . ; F .
leakage function, F .
mechanical, F . ; F .
mines, A
multiple spaces, F .
natatoriums, A .
natural
airflow, F . ,
guidelines, F .
stack effect, F .
wind, F . ; F .
nuclear facilities, A .
odor dilution, F .
power plants, A .
railroad tunnels, A .
rapid-transit systems, A .
residential, F .
road tunnels, A . ,
roof ventilators, A .
security concerns, A .
sensible heat load, F . ; F .
ships, A .
shooting ranges, indoor, A .
standards, F .
tear gas and pepper spray, A .
terminology, F .
thermal loads, F .
tollbooths, A .
wind effect on, F .
Ventilators
roof, A .
unit
capacity, S .
control, A . ; S .
location, S .
selection, S .
types, S .
Venting
altitude effects, S . ,
furnaces, S .
gas appliances, S .
oil-fired appliances, S .
Verification, of airflow modeling, F . , ,
Vessels, ammonia refrigeration systems,
R .
Vibration, F .
compressors
centrifugal, S .
positive-displacement, S .
single-screw, S .
control, A
clean spaces, A .
criteria, A .
data reliability, A .
ducts, A .
equipment vibration, A .
analysis, A .
fans, S .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
floor flexibility, A .
isolators
noise, A .
resonance, A .
specifications, A .
testing, A .
piping
connectors, A .
noise, A .
resilient hangers and supports,
A .
places of assembly, A .
resonance, A .
seismic restraint, A . ; A .
standards, A .
troubleshooting, A . ; A .
critical speeds, S .
health effects, F .
measurement, F .
instrumentation, A .
testing, A .
Vibration control,
air handlers, S .
engines, S .
Viral pathogens, F .
Virgin rock temperature (VRT), and heat
release rate, A .
Viscosity, F .
fuel oils, F .
lubricants, R .
modeling, F .
moist air, F .
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), F .
contaminants, A .
Voltage, A .
imbalance, S .
utilization, S .
Volume ratio, compressors
rotary vane, S .
single-screw, S .
twin-screw, S .
VRF. See Variable refrigerant flow (VRF)
VRT. See Virgin rock temperature (VRT)
Walls
glass block, F .
masonry construction, F .
steel frame construction, F .
wood-frame construction, F .
Warehouses, A .
Water
activity, A .
alkalinity, A . ,
anion, A .
anode, A .
biological growth, A .
boiler thermal models, F .
cathode, A .
cation, A .
coils, S .
air-heating, S .
coolers, R .
corrosion, A .
corrosivity, A .
distribution, S . ; S . ; S .
central plants, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
electrolyte, A .
filtration, A .
fungi, A .
galvanic corrosion, A .
hammer, F .
pipe stress, S .
hardness, A .
heating
geothermal energy systems, A .
solar energy systems, A .
water treatment for, A .
humidifier supply, S .
inhibitor, A .
ion, A .
Legionnaires’ disease, A .
passivity, A .
properties, A . ; S .
refrigerant, F . –
in refrigerant systems. See Moisture, in
refrigerant systems
sludge, A .
systems, pipe sizing, F .
thermal storage systems, S . , ,
treatment, A .
tuberculation, A .
use and sustainability, F .
vapor (See also Moisture)
control, F .
flow, F .
resistance, F .
retarders, F . ; R . ; R . , ; S .
terminology, F .
transmission, F .
Water heaters
blending injection, A .
boilers (indirect), A .
circulating tank, A .
combination, A .
electric, A .
gas-fired, A .
heat pump, S .
indirect, A . ,
instantaneous, A . ,
oil-fired, A .
placement, A .
refrigeration heat reclaim, A .
semi-instantaneous, A . ,
sizing, A . ,
solar energy, A .
storage, A . , ,
terminology, A .
usable hot-water storage, A .
waste heat recovery, A .
Water horsepower, pump, S .
Water/lithium bromide absorption
components, R .
control, R .
double-effect chillers, R .
maintenance, R .
operation, R .
single-effect chillers, R .
single-effect heat transformers, R .
terminology, R .
Water-source heat pump (WSHP), S . ;
S .
Water systems, S
air elimination, S .
antifreeze, S .
precautions, S .
capacity control, S .
chilled-water, S . ,
combined heat and power (CHP)
distribution, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
closed, S . , ; S .
components, S .
condenser water, S .
closed, S .
once-through, S .
open cooling tower, S .
overpressure precautions, S .
systems, S .
water economizer, S .
control valve sizing, S .
Darcy-Weisbach equation, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
dual-temperature (DTW), S . ,
equipment layout, S .
expansion tanks
functions of, S . ,
sizing equations, S .
fill water, S .
four-pipe, S .
freeze prevention, S .
hot-water
boilers, S .
combined heat and power (CHP)
distribution, S .
low-temperature (LTW),
design, S .
terminal equipment, S .
medium- and high-temperature, S
air-heating coils, S .
boilers, S .
cascade systems, S .
circulating pumps, S .
control, S .
design, S .
direct-contact heaters, S .
direct-fired generators, S .
distribution, S .
expansion tanks, S .
heat exchangers, S .
piping design, S .
pressurization, S .
safety, S .
space heating, S .
thermal storage, S .
water treatment, S .
hot-water, S .
loads, S .
makeup, S .
open, S . ; S .
pipe sizing, S .
piping, S .
water distribution, S .
pressure drop determination, S . ; S .
pumps, S .
pump curves, S . ; S .
pumping, S . ; S .
standby pump, S . ; S .
safety relief valves, S .
steam and, combined, S .
in tall buildings, A .
temperature classifications, S .
turndown ratio, S .
two-pipe, S .
water horsepower, S .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Water treatment, A
air washers, A . ; S .
biological control, A .
Legionella pneumophila, A .
boilers, A .
brine systems, A .
closed recirculating systems, A .
condensers, evaporative, S .
condenser water, S .
cooling towers, A . , ; S .
corrosion control, A . ,
evaporative coolers, S .
fundamentals, A .
medium- and high-temperature systems, S .
nonchemical (physical), A . ,
once-through systems, A .
open recirculating systems, A .
scale control, A .
sprayed-coil units, A .
steam and condensate systems, A .
terminology, A .
thermal storage, S .
Water vapor control, A .
Water vapor permeance/permeability,
F . ,
Water vapor retarders, F .
Water wells, A .
Weather data, F
residential infiltration zones, F .
Welding sheet metal, S .
Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), heat
stress, A .
Wheels, rotary enthalpy, S .
Whirlpools and spas
Legionella pneumophila control,
A .
service water heating, A .
Wien’s displacement law, F .
Wind. (See also Climatic design information;
Weather data)
data sources, F .
effect on
chimneys, S . ,
smoke movement, A .
system operation, F .
pressure, F .
Wind chill index, F .
Windows. (See also Fenestration)
air leakage, F .
solar gain, F . ,
U-factors, F . , ; F .
Wind restraint design, A .
minimum design wind load, A .
Wineries
refrigeration, R .
temperature control
fermentation, R .
storage, R .
wine production, R .
Wireless sensors, A .
Wood construction, and moisture,
F .
Wood products facilities, A .
evaporative cooling, A .
process area, A .
storage, A .
Wood pulp, A .
Wood stoves, S .
World Wide Web (WWW), A .
WSHP. See Water-source heat pump
(WSHP)
WWW. See World Wide Web (WWW)
Xenon, R .
Zeolites, R . ; R . ; R . ; S . . (See also
Molecular sieves)
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