An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering

An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering
اسم المؤلف
Charles E. Ebeling
التاريخ
6 نوفمبر 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering
Charles E. Ebeling
University of Dayton
Content
Preface
Course Software
1 Introduction 1
The Study of Reliability and Maintainability
1.1.1 Reliability Improvement / 1.1.2 Random
versus Deterministic Failure Phenomena
Concepts, Terms, and Definitions
Applications
A Brief History
Scope of the Text
Appendix 1A A Probability Primer
1A.1 Random Events / 1A.2 Bayes’ Formula /
1A.3 Random Variables / 1A.4 Discrete Distributions / 1A.5 Binomial Distribution / 1A.6
Poisson Distribution / 1A.7 Continuous Distributions
Part 1 Basic Reliability Models
2 The Failure Distribution
2.1 The Reliability Function
2.2 Mean Time to Failure
2.3 Hazard Rate Function
2.4 Bathtub Curve
2.5 Conditional Reliability
2.6 Summary
Appendix 2A Derivation of Equation (2.8)
Appendix 2B Derivation of Equation (2.12)
Appendix 2C Conditional Reliability and
Failure Rates
Appendix 2D Intermediate Calculations for
the Linear Bathtub Curve
Appendix 2E Table of Integrals
2E.1 Indefinite Integrals / 2E.2 Definite Integrals
Exercises
3 Constant Failure Rate Model
The Exponential Reliability Function
3.2 Failure Modes
3.2.1 Failure Modes with CFR Model / 3.2.2
Failures on Demand
3.3 Applications
3.3.1 Renewal Process / 3.3.2 Repetitive
Loading / 3.3.3 Reliability Bounds
The Two-Parameter Exponential
Distribution
3.5 Poisson Process
3.6 Redundancy and the CFR Model
Exercises
41 Three-State Devices
5.6.1 Series Structure / 5.6.2 Parallel
Structure I 5.6.3 Low-Level Redundancy / 5.6.4
High-Level Redundancy
Exercises
1 6 State-Dependent-Systems
6.1 Markov Analysis
6.2 Load-Sharing System
6.3 Standby Systems
6.3.1 Identical Standby Units / 6.3.2 Standby
System with Switching FailuresJ 6.3.3 ThreeComponent Standby System
6.4 Degraded Systems
6.5 Three-State Devices
Appendix 6A Solution to Two-Component
Redundant System
Appendix 6B Solution to Load-Sharing
System
Appendix 6C Solution to Standby System
Model
Exercises
4 Time-Dependent Failure Models
4.1 The Weibull Distribution
4.1.1 Design Life, Median, and Mode / 4.1.2
Burn-In Screening for Weibull / 4.1.3 Failure
Modes / 4.1.4 Identical Weibull Components /
4.1.5 The Three-Parameter Weibull / 4.1.6
Redundancy with Weibull Failures
4.2 The Normal Distribution
4.3 The Lognormal Distribution
Appendix 4A Derivation of the MTTF for
the Weibull Distribution
Appendix 4B Derivation of the Mode for
the Weibull Distribution
Appendix 4C Minimum Extreme-Value
Distribution
Appendix 4D Elazard Rate for the TwoComponent Weibull Redundant System
Exercises
7 Physical Reliability Models
7.1 Covariate Models
7.1.1 Proportional Hazards Models / 7.1.2
Location-Scale Models
7.2 Static Models
7.2.1 Random Stress and Constant Strength I
7.2.2 Constant Stress and Random Strength /
7.2.3 Random Stress and Random Strength
7.3 Dynamic Models
7.3.1 Periodic Loads / 7.3.2 Random Loads /
7.3.3 Random Fixed Stress and Strength
1 A Physics-of-Failure Models
Exercises
5 Reliability of Systems
Serial Configuration
Parallel Configuration
Combined Series-Parallel Systems
5.3.1 High-Level versus Low-Level Redundancy
/ 5.3.2 k-out-of-n Redundancy / 5.3.3
Complex Configurations
System Structure Function, Minimal Cuts,
and Minimal Paths (Optional)
5.4.1 Coherent Systems / 5.4.2 Minimal Path
and Cut Sets / 5.4.3 System Bounds
Common-Mode Failures
8 Design for Reliability
8.1 Reliability Specification and System Measurements
8.1.1 System Effectiveness / 8.1.2 Economic
Analysis and Life-Cycle Costs
8.2 Reliability Allocation
8.2.1 Exponential Case / 8.2.2 Optimal
Allocations / 8.2.3 ARINCMethod / 8.2.4 AGREE
Method / 8.2.5 Redundancies
x Contents
ability / 10.2.3 Modularization and Accessibility / 10.2.4 Repair versus Replacement / 10.2.5
Proactive Maintenance
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Maintenance and Spares Provisioning
10.4.1 Finite Population Queuing Model with
Spares / 10.4.2 Component Sparing
Maintainability Prediction and Demonstration
10.5.1 Maintainability Prediction / 10.5.2 MaintainabiIity Demonstration
Appendix 10A Birth-Death Queuing Model
Exercises
8.3 Design Methods
8.3.1 Parts and Material Selection / 8.3.2
Derating / 8.3.3 Stress-Strength Analysis / 8.3.4
Complexity and Technology / 8.3.5 Redundancy
Failure Analysis
8.4.1 System Definition / 8.4.2 Identification of
Failure Modes / 8.4.3 Determination of Cause
/ 8.4.4 Assessment of Effect / 8.4.5 Classification of Severity / 8.4.6 Estimation of Probability
of Occurrence / 8.4.7 Computation of
Criticality Index / 8.4.8 Determination of Corrective Action
System Safety and Fault Tree Analysis
8.5.1 Fault Tree Analysis / 8.5.2 Minimal Cut
Sets / 8.5.3 Quantitative Analysis
Exercises
11 Availability 254
Concepts and Definitions
11.1. 1 Inherent Availability / 11.1.2 Achieved
Availability / 11.1.3 Operational Availability /
11.1.4 Generalized Operational Availability
Exponential Availability Model
System Availability
11.3.1 Availability with Standby Systems / 11.3.2
Steady-State Availability / 11.3.3 Matrix
Approach
Inspection and Repair Availability Model
Design Trade-Off Analysis
11.5.1 Maintainability Allocation / 11.5.2 Economic Analysis / 11.5.3 Concave Costs / 11.5.4
Convex Cost Functions / 11.5.5 Profit and LifeCycle Cost Trade-Offs
Appendix 11A Solution to Single Unit with
Repair Model
Exercises
9 Maintainability
Analysis of Downtime
The Repair-Time Distribution
9.2.1 Exponential Repair Times / 9.2.2
Lognormal Repair Times
Stochastic Point Processes
9.3.1 -Renewal Process / 9.3.2 Minimal Repair
Process / 9.3.3 Overhaul and Cycle Time
System Repair Time
Reliability under Preventive Maintenance
State-Dependent Systems with Repair
Appendix 9A i; The MTTF for the Preventive
Maintenance Model
Appendix 9B Solution to the Active Redundant
System with Repair
Appendix 9C , Solution to Standby System
with Repair
Exercises
Part 2 The Analysis of Failure Data
12 Data Collection and Empirical Methods
12.1 Data Collection
12.2 Empirical Methods
12.2.1 Ungrouped Complete Data / 12.2.2 Grouped
Complete Data / 12.2.3 Ungrouped Censored
Data / 12.2.4 Grouped Censored Data
12.3 Static Life Estimation
Exercises
10 Design for Maintainability 283
10.1 Maintenance Requirements
10.1.1 Measurements and Specifications / 10.1.2
Maintenance Concepts and Procedures / 10.1.3
Component Reliability and Maintainability
14L2 Design Methods
10.2.1 Fault Isolation and Self-Diagnostics /
10.2.2 Parts Standardization and Interchange’ s
15.4 Confidence Intervals
15.4.1 Confidence Intervals for the Constant Failure Rate Model / 15.4.2 Confidence Intervals
for Other Distributions
15.5 Parameter Estimation for Covariate Models
Appendix 15A Weibull Maximum Likelihood
Estimator
Appendix 15B Weibull MLE with Multiply
Censored Data
Appendix 15C MLE for Normal and Lognormal
Distributions with Censored Data
Exercises
Reliability Testing
13.1 Product Testing
13.2 Reliability Life Testing
13.3 Test Time Calculations
13.3.1 Length of Test
13.4 Burn-In Testing
13.5 Acceptance Testing
13.5.1 Binomial Acceptance Testing / 13.5.2
Sequential Tests
13.6 Accelerated Life Testing
13.6.1 Number of Units on Test / 13.6.2 Accelcrated Cycling / 13.6.3 Constant-Stress Models
/ 13.6.4 Other Acceleration Models
13.7 Experimental Design
13.8 Competing Failure Modes
Appendix 13A Derivation of Expected Test Time
Appendix 13B Expected Test Time (Type II Testing)
Exercises
16 Goodness-of-Fit Tests
16.1 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
16.2 Bartlett’s Test for the Exponential Distribution
16.3 Mann’s Test for the Weibull Distribution
16.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Normal and
Lognormal Distributions
16.5 Tests for the Power-Law Process Model
16.6 On Fitting Distributions
Exercises
14 Reliability Growth Testing
14.1 Reliability Growth Process
14.2 Idealized Growth Curve
14.3 Duane Growth Model
14.4 AMSAA Model
14.4.1 Parameter Estimation for the Power Law
Intensity Function
14.5 Other Growth Models
Exercises
343 Part 3 Application
17 Reliability Estimation and Application
17.1 Case 1: Redundancy
17.2 Case 2: Burn-In Testing
17.3 Case 3: Preventive Maintenance Analysis
17.4 Case 4: Reliability Allocation
17.5 Case 5: Reliability Growth Testing
17.6 Case 6: Repairable System Analysis
17.7 Case 7: Multiply Censored Data
15 Identifying Failure and Repair Distributions I 423
15.1 Identifying Candidate Distributions
15.2 Probability Plots and Least-Squares CurveFitting
15.2.1 Exponential Plots / 15.2.2 Weibull Plots
/ 15.2.3 Normal Plots / 15.2.4 Lognormal Plots
/ 15.2.5 Multiply Censored Time Plots
15.3 Parameter Estimation
15.3.1 Maximum Likelihood Estimator / 15.3.2
Exponential MLE / 15.3.3 Weibull MLE / 15.3.4
Normal and Lognormal MLEs / 15.3.5 Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Multiply Censored Data
15.3.6 Location Parameter
Estimation
18 Implementation
18.1 Objectives, Functions, and Processes
18.2 The Economics of Reliability and Maintainability
and System Design
18.2.1 Life-Cycle Cost Model / 18.2.2 Minimal
Repair
18.3 Organizational Considerations
18.4 Data Sources and Data Collection Methods
18.4.1 Field Data / 18.4.2 Process Reliability
cmd Operational Failures / 18.4.3 External Data
Sources
18.5 Product Liability, Warranties, and Related
Matters
18.6 Software Reliability
445
447
References 449
Appendix 455
Index
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