An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering SI Edition – Enhanced Fourth Edition

An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering SI Edition – Enhanced Fourth Edition
اسم المؤلف
Jonathan Wickert , Kemper Lewis
التاريخ
10 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
184
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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering SI Edition – Enhanced Fourth Edition
Jonathan Wickert
Iowa State University
Kemper Lewis
University at Buffalo—SUNY
CHAPTER 1 The Mechanical Engineering Profession 1
Preface to the SI Edition xi
Student’s Preface xii
Instructor’s Preface xiv
Digital Resources xx
About the Authors xxiv
Contents
1.1 Overview 1
The Elements of Mechanical Engineering 2
1.2 What Is Engineering? 4
1.3 Who Are Mechanical Engineers? 10
Mechanical Engineering’s Top Ten Achievements 11
The Future of Mechanical Engineering 18
1.4 Career Paths 20
1.5 Typical Program of Study 22
Summary 26
Self-Study and Review 26
Problems 27
References 30
CHAPTER 2 Mechanical Design 31
2.1 Overview 31
2.2 The Design Process 35
Requirements Development 39
Conceptual Design 40
Detailed Design 41
Production 46
2.3 Manufacturing Processes 49
Summary 56
Self-Study and Review 57
Problems 57
References 62viii Contents
3.1 Overview 63
3.2 General Technical Problem-Solving Approach 68
3.3 Unit Systems and Conversions 69
Base and Derived Units 70
International System of Units 70
United States Customary System of Units 73
Converting Between the SI and USCS 77
3.4 Significant Digits 82
3.5 Dimensional Consistency 83
3.6 Estimation in Engineering 91
3.7 Communication Skills in Engineering 95
Written Communication 96
Graphical Communication 98
Technical Presentations 99
Summary 104
Self-Study and Review 104
Problems 104
References 111
CHAPTER 3 Technical Problem-Solving
and Communication Skills 63
CHAPTER 4 Forces in Structures and Machines 112
4.1 Overview 112
4.2 Forces in Rectangular and Polar Forms 114
Rectangular Components 115
Polar Components 115
4.3 Resultant of Several Forces 116
Vector Algebra Method 117
Vector Polygon Method 118
4.4 Moment of a Force 123
Perpendicular Lever Arm Method 123
Moment Components Method 124
4.5 Equilibrium of Forces and Moments 130
Particles and Rigid Bodies 130
Free Body Diagrams 132
4.6 Design Application: Rolling-Element Bearings 140
Summary 148
Self-Study and Review 149
Problems 150
References 165Contents ix
CHAPTER 5 Materials and Stresses 166
CHAPTER 7 Thermal and Energy Systems 274
5.1 Overview 166
5.2 Tension and Compression 168
5.3 Material Response 176
5.4 Shear 187
5.5 Engineering Materials 192
Metals and Their Alloys 193
Ceramics 194
Polymers 195
Composite Materials 196
5.6 Factor of Safety 200
Summary 204
Self-Study and Review 206
Problems 207
References 219
CHAPTER 6 Fluids Engineering 220
6.1 Overview 220
6.2 Properties of Fluids 223
6.3 Pressure and Buoyancy Force 230
6.4 Laminar and Turbulent Fluid Flows 237
6.5 Fluid Flow in Pipes 240
6.6 Drag Force 247
6.7 Lift Force 257
Summary 263
Self-Study and Review 265
Problems 265
References 273
7.1 Overview 274
7.2 Mechanical Energy, Work, and Power 276
Gravitational Potential Energy 276
Elastic Potential Energy 277
Kinetic Energy 277
Work of a Force 278
Power 278
7.3 Heat as Energy in Transit 282
Heating Value 283x Contents
Specific Heat 284
Transfer of Heat 286
7.4 Energy Conservation and Conversion 294
7.5 Heat Engines and Efficiency 298
7.6 Internal-Combustion Engines 303
Four-Stroke Engine Cycle 304
Two-Stroke Engine Cycle 307
7.7 Electrical Power Generation 309
Summary 319
Self-Study and Review 320
Problems 321
References 328
CHAPTER 8 Motion and Power Transmission 329
8.1 Overview 329
8.2 Rotational Motion 331
Angular Velocity 331
Rotational Work and Power 333
8.3 Design Application: Gears 338
Spur Gears 338
Rack and Pinion 341
Bevel Gears 343
Helical Gears 344
Worm Gearsets 345
8.4 Speed, Torque, and Power in Gearsets 347
Speed 347
Torque 349
Power 350
8.5 Simple and Compound Geartrains 350
Simple Geartrain 350
Compound Geartrain 352
8.6 Design Application: Belt and Chain Drives 358
8.7 Planetary Geartrains 364
Summary 372
Self-Study and Review 373
Problems 374
References 385
APPEnDIx A 386
APPEnDIx B 387
InDEx 390390
Index
A
ABET. See U.S. Department of Labor engineering
description, 4–5, 9
Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology (ABET), 24
Adjustable wrench moment of a force example,
127–130
Aerial refueling dimensional consistency example,
84
Aerodynamics, 257, 262
Agricultural mechanization, engineering
achievement of, 14
Air Canada Flight 143, 66–67, 70
Air conditioning and refrigeration, engineering
achievement of, 15–16
Aircraft cabin door estimation example, 96–97
Aircraft fuel capacity pressure of fluids example,
232–233
Airfoil, 259
Airplane, engineering achievement of, 14–15
Air resistance, bicycle rider’s drag force example,
252–254
Alloying, 193
Amazon, 9
Angle of attack, 259–260
Angular velocity, 331–333
Angular velocity conversions example, 334
Apollo program, engineering achievement of, 13
Apple, Inc., 9
Approximation, 64
Assumptions, 68–69
Automobile, engineering achievement of, 12
Automobile wheel bearings rolling-element
bearings design application example,
146–147
Automotive disk brakes conservation and
conversion of energy example, 297–298
Automotive engine power example, 337–338
Automotive fuel line fluid flow example, 245–247
B
Back-of-an-envelope estimates, 93
Balanced geartrain, 366
Ball bearings, 141
Band saw, 53
Base units, USCS, 74
Belt and chain drives, design application,
358–364
chain drives, 359
computer scanner example, 360–362
sheave, 358
synchronous rotation, 359
timing belt, 359
treadmill belt drive example, 362–364
V-belt, 358
Bernoulli’s equation, 260
Bevel gears, 343
Bioengineering, engineering achievement of,
17–18
Blood flow and pressure, 245
Blowdown, 306
Bolt clamp tension and compression example,
172–174
Bottom dead center, 306
Buoyancy force of fluids, 230–243
deep submergence rescue vehicle example,
233–234
great white shark attack example, 234–236
C
Cable tie-down resultant example, 119–121
Cage, 141
Cam, 304–305
Carnot efficiency, ideal, 302
Carrier, 364
Casting, 50
Ceramics, 194–195
Chain drives, 359
Clerk engine cycle, 308Index 391
Clevis joint shear example, 191–192
Codes and standards, engineering achievement
of, 18
Coefficient of drag, 247
Coefficient of lift, 261
Communication skills in engineering, 95–103
effective communication, 104
graphical communication, 98–99
ineffective communication, 99–101
technical presentations, 99
written communication, 96–98, 101–103
Composite materials, 196
Compound geartrains, 352–354, 356–357
money changer geartrain example, 356–357
vehicle design advancements, 354
Compression ratio, 306
Computer-aided engineering technology,
engineering achievement of, 16–17
Computer scanner belt and chain drive example,
360–362
Conceptual design, 40
Condenser, 311
Conduction, 285
Conservation and conversion of energy, 294–298
automotive disk brakes example, 297–298
first law of thermodynamics, 294–295
hydroelectric power plant example, 295–296
system, 294
Control lever resultant example, 122–123
Convection, 288
Convergent thinking, 40
Conversion between SI and USCS units, 77–79
engine power rating example, 79
fire sprinkler example, 79–80
helium-neon lasers example, 80–81
Conversion of energy. See Conservation and
conversion of energy
Cooling fan for electronics example, 335–336
Crossed helical gears, 344
Crowdsourcing innovative energy solutions, 318
Customized production, 55
D
Deep submergence rescue vehicle buoyancy force
of fluids example, 233–234
Derived units, USCS, 76
Design, 31–62
detailed design, 41–47
innovation, 36–38
manufacturing processes, 50–55
National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Grand
Challenges, 31–33
overview, 31–33
process, 35–49
product archeology, 34–35
production, 47
Design notebook, 97
Design patents, 42–43
Design process, 35–49
conceptual design, 40
detailed design, 41–47
global design teams, 48–49
requirements development, 39–40
Detailed design, 41–47
design patents, 42–43
documentation, 42
iteration, 41
patents, 42–45
rapid prototyping, 45–47
simplicity, 41
usability, 41
Differential, 367–368
Dimensional consistency, 83–90
aerial refueling example, 84
drill bit bending example, 87–89
elevator acceleration example, 89–91
orbital debris collision example, 84–86
Dimensionless numbers, 240
Direction, 115
Divergent thinking, 40
Documentation, 42
Double shear, 188
Drag force, 247–257
air resistance, bicycle rider’s example, 252–254
coefficient of drag, 247
engine oil viscosity example, 254–257
frontal area of fluid flow, 247
golf ball in flight example, 250–252
relative velocity, 249
Drill bit bending dimensional consistency
example, 87–89
Drill press, 52392 Index
Drill rod quenching energy in transit example,
291–292
Ductility, 193
E
Efficiency and heat engines, 298–303
Elastic behavior, 169
Elastic limit, 179
Elastic modulus, 177
Elastic potential energy, 277
Elastic regions, 177
Elastomers, 195
Electrical power generation, 309–318
condenser, 311
crowdsourcing innovative energy solutions, 318
power plant emission example, 316–317
primary loop, 310
pump, 311
Rankine cycle, 311
secondary loop, 310
solar-power generator design example,
313–315
steam generator, 311
thermal pollution, 310
turbine, 311
Elevator acceleration dimensional consistency
example, 89–91
Elevator power requirement example, 281–282
Elongation, 171
Energy systems, 274–328
conservation and conversion of energy,
294–298
electrical power generation, 309–318
heat as energy in transit, 282–293
heat engines and efficiency, 298–303
internal-combustion engines, 303–309
mechanical energy, work, and power, 276–282
overview, 274–275
Engineering achievements, 11–18
agricultural mechanization, 14
air conditioning and refrigeration, 15–16
airplane, 14–15
Apollo program, 13
automobile, 12
bioengineering, 17–18
codes and standards, 18
computer-aided engineering technology, 16–17
integrated-circuit mass production, 15
power generation, 13
Engineering failure analysis, 133
Engineering materials, 192–200
ceramics, 194–195
composite materials, 196
metals and alloys, 193–194
new material design, 197–198
polymers, 195–196
minimization of weight, selecting materials
example, 198–200
Engineering reports, 97–98
Engine fuel consumption example, 290–291
Engine oil viscosity drag force example, 254–257
Engine power rating conversion example, 79
Engine value, 304
Equilibrium of forces and moments, 130–140
engineering failure analysis, 133
force balance, 131
forklift load capacity example, 138–140
free body diagrams, 132
independent equations, 132
moment balance, 131
particle, 130
rigid body, 130–131
seat belt buckle example, 134–136
wire cutters example, 136–138
Estimation, 91–95
aircraft’s cabin door example, 93–94
back-of-an-envelope estimates, 93
human power generation example, 94–95
importance of, 92
order-of-magnitude estimates, 91
External gear, 339
Extreme environments, tension and compression
in, 175–176
Extrusion, 51
F
Factor of safety, 200–203
gear-to-shaft connection design example,
208–210
Fire sprinkler conversion example, 79–80
First law of thermodynamics, 294–295
Flow, fluids, 224Index 393
Fluids engineering, 220–273
buoyancy force of fluids, 230–243
design of micro and macro systems, 226–227
dimensionless numbers, 240
drag force, 247–257
flow, fluids, 224
laminar fluid flow, 237–240
lift force, 257–262
machine tool guideways example, 228–230
microfluidics, 221
Newtonian fluid, 226
no-slip condition, 225
overview, 220–223
pipes, fluid flow in, 240–247
poise, 226
pressure of fluids, 230–243
properties, 223–230
Reynolds number, 238–240
turbulent fluid flow, 237–240
viscosity, 225–226
Foot-pound, 75
Foot-pound-second system, 73
Force, 188
Force balance, 131
Forced convection, 288
Forces, 112–165
equilibrium of forces and moments, 130–140
moment of a force, 123–130
overview, 112–114
polar components, 114–116
rectangular components, 114
resultant of several forces, 116–123
rolling-element bearings design application,
140–147
Force, shear, 188
Force system, 116
Forging, 51
Forklift load capacity equilibrium of forces and
moments example, 138–140
Form factor, 367
Fourier’s law, 286
Four-stroke engine cycle, 304–307
blowdown, 306
bottom dead center, 306
cam, 304–305
compression ratio, 306
engine value, 304
Otto cycle, 306
top dead center, 306
Free body diagrams, 132
Frontal area of fluid flow, 247
Fuel cells, 301
Fundamental property of gearsets, 341
G
Gears, design application, 338–347
bevel gears, 343
helical gears, 344–345
nanomachines, 346–347
rack and pinion, 341–342
self-locking gearsets, 346
spur gears, 338–342
worm gearsets, 345–346
Gearset, 339
Gear-to-shaft connection factor of safety design
example, 208–210
Geothermal energy, 301
Global design teams, 48–49
Global energy consumption, 287–288
Golf ball in flight drag force example, 250–252
Google/Skybox imaging, 8
Grand Challenges, NAE, 31–33
Graphical communication, 98–99
Gravitational acceleration, 276
Gravitational potential energy, 276
Great white shark attack buoyancy example, 234–236
H
Hanger rod tension and compression example,
171–172
Head-to-tail rule, 118
Heat as energy in transit, 282–293
drill rod quenching energy in transit example,
290–291
engine fuel consumption example, 290–291
heating value, 283–284
heat loss through a window example, 293
household energy consumption example, 289
latent heat, 285
quenching, 284
specific heat, 284–285
tempering, 284
transfer of heat, 286–287394 Index
Heat engines and efficiency, 298–303
heat engine, 298
heat reservoir, 299
ideal Carnot efficiency, 302
Kelvin (K), 302
Rankine (°R), 302
real efficiency, 299
renewable energy, 300–301
second law of thermodynamics, 302
Heating value, 283–284
Heat loss through a window example, 293
Heat reservoir, 299
Helical gears, 344–345
crossed helical gears, 344
helix angle, 344
Helium-neon lasers conversion example, 80–81
Helix angle, 344
Hooke’s law, 176
Horsepower, 75
Household energy consumption example, 289
Human power generation estimation example, 97–98
Hydroelectric power plant conservation and
conversion of energy example, 295–296
Hydropower, 301
I
Ideal Carnot efficiency, 302
Idler gear, 352
Independent equations, 132
Inner races, 141
Instantaneous power, 333
Integrated-circuit mass production, engineering
achievement of, 15
Internal-combustion engines, 303–309
four-stroke engine cycle, 304–307
power curve, 304
two-stroke engine cycle, 307–309
Internal force, 169
International system of units (SI), 70–72
prefix, 72
prototype meter, 71
second law of motion, 71
SI conventions, 72–73
standard kilogram, 71
Involute profile, 341
Iteration, 41
J
Jet aircraft kinetic energy example, 280–281
Journal bearing, 140–141
K
K. See Kelvin (K)
Kelvin (K), 302
Kilowatt-hour (kW·h), 277, 310
Kinetic energy, 277–278
kW·h. See Kilowatt-hour (kW·h)
L
Laminar fluid flow, 237–240
Latent heat, 285
Lathe, 53–54
Lift force, 257–262
aerodynamics, 257, 262
airfoil, 259
angle of attack, 259–260
Bernoulli’s equation, 260
coefficient of lift, 261
shock wave, 258
wind tunnel, 258
Line of action, 124
M
Machine tool guideways fluids example, 228–230
Machining, 52
Magnitude, 114
Manufacturing processes, 50–55
band saw, 53
casting, 50
customized production, 55
drill press, 52
extrusion, 51
forging, 51
lathe, 53–54
machining, 52
milling machine, 53
numerical control, 55
rolling, 50–51
Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO), 64–66, 70, 98–99
Mass and weight, 76
Mass production, 47
Material response to stress, 176–187
elastic limit, 179
elastic modulus, 177Index 395
elastic regions, 177
Hooke’s law, 177
materials testing machine, 180
offset (0.2%) method, 180
plastic regions, 177
Poisson’s ratio, 179
proportional limit, 177
rod stretching example, 185–187
stiffness, 176
stress-strain curve, 177
U-bolt dimensional changes example,
183–185
ultimate strength, 179
yielding, 179
yield strength, 179
Young’s modulus, 177
Materials, 166–168, 176–187, 192–206
engineering materials, 192–200
factor of safety, 200–203
overview, 166–168
response to stress, 176–187
Materials testing machine, 180
MCO. See Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO)
Mechanical energy, work, and power, 276–282
elastic potential energy, 277
elevator power requirement example,
281–282
gravitational acceleration, 276
gravitational potential energy, 276–282
jet aircraft kinetic energy example, 280–281
kinetic energy, 277–278
power, 278
U-bolt, potential energy stored in, example,
279
work of a force, 278
Mechanical engineering, 1–30
career opportunities, 21
career paths, 20–22
communication skills, role of, 21–22
elements, 2–3
employment, 5–7, 9–10
engineering achievements, 11–18
future, 18–19
jobs, 8–9
overview, 1–3
profession, 4–11, 20–23
program of study, 22–23
skills required, 23–25
specialties, 7
U.S. Department of Labor description, 4–5, 9
Metals and alloys, 193–194
alloying, 193
ductility, 193
Micro and macro systems design, 226–227
Microfluidics, 221
Milling machine, 53
Minimization of weight, selecting engineering
materials example, 198–200
Module, 341
Moment balance, 131
Moment components method, 124–126
moment sign convention, 125
Moment of a force, 123–130
adjustable wrench example, 127–130
moment components method, 124–126
moment sign convention, 125
open-ended wrench example, 126–127
perpendicular lever arm method, 123–124
Moment sign convention, 125
Money changer geartrain example, 356–357
Motion and power transmission. See Power
transmission
N
NAE. See National Academy of Engineering (NAE)
Nanomachines, 346–347
National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 31–33
Natural convection, 288
New material design, 197–198
Newtonian fluid, 226
No-slip condition, 225
Numerical control, 55
O
Offset (0.2%) method, 180
Open-ended wrench moment of a force example,
126–127
Orbital debris collision dimensional consistency
example, 84–86
Order-of-magnitude approximation, 64
Order-of-magnitude estimates, 93
Otto cycle, 306
Outer races, 141396 Index
P
Particle, 130
Pascal unit of pressure, 230
Patents, 42–45
claims, 43
design patents, 42–43
drawings, 43
specification, 43
utility patents, 43
Perpendicular lever arm method, 123–124
line of action, 124
torque, 123
Pinion, 339
Pipes, fluid flow in, 240–247
automotive fuel line example, 245–247
blood flow, 245
Poiseuille’s law, 244
pressure drop, 241
volumetric flow rate, 243
Pitch circle, 340
Pitch radius, 340
Plane, shear, 188
Planetary geartrains, 364–371
balanced geartrain, 366
carrier, 364
differential, 367–368
form factor, 367
planetary geartrain speeds example,
368–370
planet gear, 364
ring gear, 365
sign convention, 367
spider, 366
sun gear, 364
torque in planetary geartrain example,
370–371
Planetary geartrain speeds example,
368–370
Planet gear, 364
Plastic behavior, 169
Plastic regions, 177
Plastics, 195
Poise, 226
Poiseuille’s law, 244
Poisson’s contraction, 169
Poisson’s ratio, 179
Polar components, 114–116
direction, 114
magnitude, 114
principal value, 114
Polymers, 195–196
elastomers, 195
plastics, 195
Pound-mass, 74
Power
consumption, 3
generation, engineering achievement of, 13
in thermal and energy systems, 278
Power conversion factor example, 287
Power curve, 304
Power in gearsets, 350
idler gear, 352
speed, torque, and power in simple geartrain
example, 355–356
Power plant emission example, 316–317
Power transmission, 329–377
belt and chai drives, design application,
358–364
compound geartrains, 352–354,
356–357
gears, design application, 338–347
overview, 329–331
planetary geartrains, 364–371
power in gearsets, 350
rotational motion, 331–338
simple geartrains, 350–352, 355–356
speed in gearsets, 347–349
torque in gearsets, 349–350
Precision, 82
Prefix, meaning of, 72
Pressure drop, 241
Pressure of fluids, 230–236
aircraft fuel capacity example, 232–233
Pascal unit of pressure, 230
Primary loop, 310
Principal value, 114
Problem-solving skills, 63–95
approach, 68–69
assumptions, 68–69
dimensional consistency, 83–90
estimation, 91–95
overview, 63–67Index 397
process, 68
significant digits, 82–83
unit systems and conversions, 69–81
Product archeology, 34–35
Production, 47
Professional engineering, 4–11, 20–23
career paths, 20–22
career opportunities, 21
communication skills, role of, 21–22
employment, 5–7, 9–10
specialties, 7
jobs, 8–9
future, 18–19
program of study, 22–23
skills required, 23–25
Professional practice, 64
Proportional limit, 177
Prototype meter, 71
Pump, 311
Q
Quenching, 284
R
°R. See Rankine (°R)
Rack and pinion, 341–342
Radial force, 141
Radian, 332
Radiation, 288
Rankine (°R), 302
Rankine cycle, 311
Rapid prototyping, 45–47
Real efficiency, 299
Rectangular components, 114
unit vectors, 114
vector notation, 114
Relative velocity, 249
Renewable energy, 300–301
fuel cells, 301
geothermal energy, 301
hydropower, 301
wind energy, 301
Requirements development, 39–40
Resultant of several forces, 116–123
cable tie-down example, 119–121
control lever example, 122–123
force system, 116
vector algebra system, 117–118
vector polygon method, 118–119
Retainer, 141
Reynolds number, 238–240
Rigid body, 130–131
Ring gear, 365
Rod stretching material response to stress
example, 185–187
Rolling, 50–51
Rolling-element bearings design application,
140–147
automobile wheel bearings example, 146–147
ball bearings, 141
cage, 141
inner races, 141
journal bearing, 140–141
outer races, 141
radial force, 141
retainer, 141
seals, 141
separator, 141
straight roller bearings, 142
tapered roller bearings, 142
thrust force, 141
thrust roller bearings, 142
treadmill belt drive example, 143–145
Rotational motion, 331–338
angular velocity, 331–333
radian, 332
rotational work and power, 333–338
Rotational work and power, 333–338
angular velocity conversions example, 334
automotive engine power example, 337–338
cooling fan for electronics example, 335–336
instantaneous power, 333
work of a torque, 333
S
Scale drawings, 119
Seals, 141
Seat belt buckle equilibrium of forces and
moments example, 134–136
Secondary loop, 310
Second law of motion, 71
Second law of thermodynamics, 302
Self-locking gearsets, 346398 Index
Separator, 141
Shear, 187–192
clevis joint example, 191–192
double shear, 188
force, 188
plane, 188
single shear, 188
wire cutter example, 189–190
Sheave, 358
Shock wave, 258
SI. See International System of Units (SI)
SI conventions, 72–73
Sign convention, 367
Significant digits, 82–83
precision, 82
Simple geartrains, 350–352, 355–356
idler gear, 352
speed, torque, and power in simple geartrain
example, 355–356
Simplicity, 41
Single shear, 188
Slug, 74
Solar-power generator design example,
313–315
Specific heat, 284–285
Speed in gearsets, 347–349
velocity ratio, 348
Speed, torque, and power in simple geartrain
example, 355–356
Spider, 366
Spur gears, 338–342
external gear, 339
fundamental property of gearsets,
341
gearset, 339
involute profile, 341
module, 341
pinion, 339
pitch circle, 340
pitch radius, 340
Standard kilogram, 71
Steam generator, 311
Stiffness, 176
Straight roller bearings, 142
Strain, 171
Stress, 170
Stresses, 166–198, 211–213
overview, 166–168
material response to stress, 176–187
shear, 188–192
strength of stress, 167
tension and compression, 168–181
Stress-strain curve, 177
Sun gear, 364
Synchronous rotation, 359
System, 294
T
Tapered roller bearings, 142
Technical presentations, 99
Tempering, 284
Tension and compression, 168–176
bolt clamp example, 172–174
elastic behavior, 169
elongation, 171
in extreme environments, 175–176
hanger rod example, 171–172
internal force, 169
plastic behavior, 169
Poisson’s contraction, 169
strain, 171
stress, 170
tension compression, 170
Tension compression, 170
Thermal conductivity, 286
Thermal pollution, 310
Thermal systems. See Energy systems
Thrust force, 141
Thrust roller bearings, 142
Timing belt, 359
Top dead center, 306
Torque, 123
Torque in gearsets, 349–350
Torque in planetary geartrain example, 370–371
Torque ratio, 350
Transfer of heat, 286–287
conduction, 286
convection, 288
forced convection, 288
Fourier’s law, 286
global energy consumption, 296–297
natural convection, 288Index 399
radiation, 289
thermal conductivity, 286
Transfer port, 307
Treadmill belt drive example, 362–364
Treadmill belt drive rolling-element bearings
design application example, 143–145
Turbine, 311
Turbulent fluid flow, 237–240
Two-stroke engine cycle, 307–309
Clerk engine cycle, 308
transfer port, 307
U
U-bolt dimensional changes material response to
stress example, 183–185
U-bolt, potential energy stored in, example, 279
Ultimate strength, 179
United States Customary System (USCS), 69,
73–76
derived units, 76
foot-pound-second system, 73
pound-mass, 74
slug, 74
Unit systems and conversions, 69–81
base units, SI, 70
base units, USCS, 74
conversion between SI and USCS units, 77–79
derived units, SI, 70
derived units, USCS, 76
foot-pound, 75
foot-pound-second system, 73
horsepower, 75
International System of Units (SI), 69, 70–72
mass and weight, 76
pound-mass, 74
prefix, meaning of, 72
second law of motion, 71
SI conventions, 72–73
slug, 74
standard kilogram, 71
United States Customary System (USCS), 69,
73–76
Unit vectors, 114
Usability, 41
USCS. See United States Customary System
(USCS)
U.S. Department of Labor engineering
description, 4–5, 9
Utility patents, 43
V
V-belt, 358
Vector algebra system, 117–118
Vector notation, 114
Vector polygon method, 118
head-to-tail rule, 118
scale drawings, 119
Vehicle design advancements, 354
Velocity ratio, 348
Viscosity, 225–226
Volumetric flow rate, 243
W
Wind energy, 301
Wind tunnel, 258
WIPO. See World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO)
Wire cutters equilibrium of forces and moments
example, 136–138
Wire cutter shear example, 189–190
Work of a force, 278
Work of a torque, 333
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO),
45
Worm gearsets, 345–346
Written communication, 96–98
Y
Yielding, 179
Yield strength, 179
Young’s modulus, 177
Z
0.2% offset method, 180

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