Additives for Polyolefins – Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO

Additives for Polyolefins – Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
اسم المؤلف
Michael Tolinski
التاريخ
21 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
274
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Additives for Polyolefins – Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
Michael Tolinski
Table of Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Section I: Overview of Polyolefins and Additives

  1. Introduction
    1.1 Importance of Polyolefins
    1.2 Importance of Polyolefin Additives
    1.3 Recent Issues in Using Additives
  2. Trends in Polyolefin and Additives Use
    2.1 Polyolefin Market Trends
    2.2 Overall Trends in Additives Production and Use
    2.3 Trends in Resin Compounding
    2.4 Trends in Specific Polyolefin Applications
    Section II: Environmental Resistance
  3. Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization
    3.1 Importance of AOs and Stabilizers for Polyolefins
    3.2 Primary and Secondary AOs
    3.3 Factors Determining AO Selection
  4. Ultraviolet Light Protection and Stabilization
    4.1 UV Degradation of Polyolefins
    4.2 UV Blockers, Screeners, and Absorbers
    4.3 Quenchers and Peroxide Decomposers
    4.4 HALS: Free-Radical Scavengers
    4.5 Factors Determining Stabilizer Selection
  5. Flame-Retarding Additives
    5.1 Overview: The Need for FR Formulations
    5.2 Halogen-Based FRs
    5.3 Mineral-Based FRs
    5.4 Intumescent and Phosphorous-Based FRs
    5.5 Factors Determining the Selection of FR Additives
  6. Additives for Modifying Electrical Properties
    6.1 Antistatic and ESD Additives
    6.2 EMI Shielding
    6.3 Choosing Antistat/ESD/EMI Additives
    Section III: Mechanical Property Enhancement
  7. Overview of Fillers and Fibers
    7.1 Importance of Fillers and Fibers for Polyolefins
    7.2 Common Inorganic Fillers
    7.3 Nanofillers
    7.4 Impact Modifiers and TPOs
    7.5 Fiber Reinforcement
  8. Factors Determining the Selection of Fillers and Fibers
    8.1 Cutting Costs and Improving Properties with Fillers
    8.2 Impact Modification: Balancing Stiffness with Toughness
    8.3 Mechanical Reinforcement: Properties Create Opportunities
    8.4 Processing Pitfalls and Hidden Costs
    8.5 Questions When Choosing Fillers and Fibers
    Section IV: Appearance Enhancement
  9. Colorants
    9.1 Coloring Strategies
    9.2 Colorant Delivery and Processing
    9.3 Factors That Affect the Choice of Colorant
  10. Nucleation and Clarity
    10.1 Nucleating Agents: Overview
    10.2 Factors in Choosing Nucleating/Clarifying Agents
    Section V: Processing Aids
  11. Processing Aids for Molding
    11.1 Melt Flow Modification and Mold Release
    11.2 Special Cases for Processing Aids in Molding
  12. Processing Aids for Extrusion
    12.1 Requirements of Extrusion-Based Processes
    12.2 Slip Agents
    12.3 Antiblocking Agents
    12.4 Additives for Reducing Melt Fracture and Die Buildup
    12.5 Processing Aids for Specific Extrusion Situations
    Section VI: Other Modifications of Form and Function
  13. Reducing Density: Polyolefin Foams
    13.1 Blowing Foams: Chemical Agents Versus Physical Agents
    13.2 Product Sectors Requiring CFAs
    13.3 Factors in Blowing Better Foams
  14. Coupling and Compatibilizing
    14.1 Coupling Fillers and Fibers with the Polyolefin Matrix
    14.2 Compatibilizers for Integrating Regrind and Recycled Materials
  15. Cross-Linking
    15.1 Cross-Linked PE: Advantages and Applications
    15.2 Cross-Linking Agents
    15.3 Factors in Choosing Cross-Linking Agents
  16. Sterilization and Radiation Resistance
    16.1 Sterilization Effects on Polyolefin Products
    16.2 Additive Solutions for Sterilization-Resistant Polyolefins
  17. Aesthetics Enhancement and Surface Modification
    17.1 Antiscratch Additives
    17.2 Antifogging Agents
    17.3 Antimicrobials and Biocides
    17.4 Odor-Modifying Additives
  18. Gas Barrier Properties Enhancement
    18.1 Polyolefin Additives as Barriers to Water Vapor Transmission
    18.2 Oxygen Transmission and the Scavenging Effects of Additives
    18.3 Additives for Controlling Other Gases
    Section VII: Conclusion: Incorporating Additives
  19. Adding Additives to Resin
    19.1 Handling Additives
    19.2 Mixing and Dispersing Additives into Resin
    19.3 Blending and Feeding Additives
    19.4 Choosing the Best Form of an Additive
  20. Choosing Additives for Sustainability
    20.1 Factors That Make Polyolefins Sustainable
    20.2 Characteristics of Sustainable Polyolefin Additives
    20.3 Examples of “Green” Uses of Additives in Polyolefin Materials
    20.4 Additives for Promoting Polyolefin Biodegradability: Questions and Concerns
    20.5 Lessons to Learn for Choosing Sustainable Additives for Polyolefins
    References
    Index
    PREFACE . xiii.
    Sectio.n I: Overview of Polyoleftns and Additives
    CHAPTER 1 Introduction . 3
    1.J Importance,or .POs . 3
    1.2 ImpoltElllce ,I;)[1’0 additives , “, .4
    1.3 Rocant lssuQS In uslng ad.ditl’i’es .” 5
    1.3.’1 Matching property requirements with acldjtive
    tvpc and amount .6
    I . 2. DQinll mQre with le!>5 mateIial “, . (;>
    1.3.3 New properties for new mlllket.s .” 7
    1.3.4, Unintended add i.tive inte actions 7
    1.3.6 Faster procQssmg . B
    CHAPTER 2 Trends in Polyolefin and Additiv US!!l 9
    2.1 PO market trend5 ” .n 9
    2.1.1 Growth \IS. volatility 10
    ;!.1.2 Futllre reain [JrQwttJ aue! price- ” 10
    2.2 OVfirall trends in additi.’lils production and use. 11
    2.3 Trends in re [11 QOllllJQunding ” J2
    2.4 Tr nds in s]:)ec:\llc PO applleations . 13
    2.4.1 P<lck<lging tram;! 14
    2.4.2 AIltQmotiv9 trends tor POs .” .16
    2.4.3 ConattucttQI1 end nrraatTUctu re appLicatio)1
    ronds ” . 18
    vTab)e of Cooteots
    Section n: Environmental Resistance
    CHAPTER 3 Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization 25
    3.1 Impartan08 of AO” and “l.abiliz”IE rOt POs 26
    3.2 Prunary and secondary AOs . 29
    3.2.1 Primary AOs (radical scavengers) _ _ . 29
    3.2.2 Socondary AOs (p()roKide d oomposllrs) 31
    3.3 FaCI.OIB determining AO selection __ 33
    3.3.1 TIlerrnaland color requjrements in melt
    J)roce.ss’ng and In “eNlc.L . 36
    3.3.2 AO selection by PO type and finlshed p roduct
    form . 37
    3.3.3 AO physical forms and handling . 38
    3.3.4 S)’tlergies and antagonLatic interactions .38
  21. 3.5 Cost 40
    3.3.1) EIIV’irolimen cal, !ood·oontac1, and heaml and
    safet:y QO/JIjide[EltioTIs ” 4 1
    CHAPTER 4 Ultraviolet Light PIOtectiOIl and Stabili<:atiQIl . 45 4.1 UV degradation ot POs . ” .__ __ 47 4.::;l UV b lockera, !jiCreeners, and ab80rbers __ “‘” ., __ 48 4.2.1 UV·blockinq and ·absorbing- fillers and pigments 48 4.2.2 O anic UV ab:oorben> . 50
    4.3 Quellcbors and IJ(}roKide·deoomposers ._ _ ._ . 51 4.4 HALS: Free-radical scavengers _ ._ _ ._ . 51 4.4.1 Ovm:vlcw ot HALS 51 Vl.2 IllteracttonE or HALS and other additive!! _ __ .53
    4.5 Factors determining stabilizer setection .55
  22. 6.1 Clenef l fal;ltors _ 56 4.5.2 Light stabiliZers for sp cifie PO applications . 56 CHAPTER 5 Flame-Retarding Additives .m _ . 61
    5.1 Overview: ‘The need tor name·r tardant (oDllulations 61
  23. t .1 Trends in liIame’retalding additives 61
    5.1.2 Mechanisms 01humlng ._ ._ ._ ._ ._ . 62 5.2 Halogen-based flame retartiIIDPl 63 5.2.1 Composition 01 ll·PIls ._ ._ ._ ._ _ ._ 6 S.2.:iI CQnC”m abOllt h — .66-
    5.3 MlnGral·baSBd tlame riwrrdants _ . 68 5.3.1 ATH and MDH . 6S 5.3.2 OthElf mineraI nllars’ F’Rett9Cls . _ 69’fable of Contents
    5.4 Intumcscont and pbosphorolls·bas!)d !lam!) rct8IdllIl.l:S .70
    5.4 1 Mechanisms of phosphorous FRs ., 70
    5.4.2 Issues in imlJ[Q11ing- phosphoroll!J FRs 71
    5.5 Factors daLermlnlng lila seLection or FR ad.d1tlvBs 72
  24. 5.1 COS” risk, and verfClrmance .74
  25. 5.2 Property effects BnDoo-addjtive n! era’Cttons .75
    5.5.3 FR density and tOIm . ‘ 76
    5.5.4 HBlog8″n·r.llla benefits (and cOsts) 77
    CHAPTER 6 Ad ditilffls for Mollifying Kl ctJ:ical Properties . 79
    6.1 Antwtatic and ESD addiuvcs ” ‘”.'” 79
    6.l .1 Mig!rating chemica! anLista,is .’ . , . 81
    6.1 2 Nonmigrating- polymers as permanellt
    ELnt istatLClESD addttives , ._ _ 85 6.1.3 CClnductive fillers as,anlistatidESD additives 86 6.2 EMI slLleldlng . 88 6.2. 1 Conductive fillers for EM! sruolding 68 6.2.2 Conductive,ftbers for EM’! shJeJdiIlQ . 89 6.3 Choosin(J antistatlESDIEMl additives .89 6.3.1 Amlstat electIon factors .89 6.3.2 Desi!pl oOTIsicleratioll5 (or EMlshielding 90 SenUo,1Ii m: Mechanical Property Enhancemen CHAPTER 7 Overview of Fllffirs and Fibers , 95 ‘7.] bnpottance 01 Illl.ars and Ilh,,-rs for POs . , . 96 7.2 Common inorganIc fillers 96 7.:2.1 Calalum carbonate . 97
    7.2.2 Talc ., , 9a
    7.2.3 Wollasl.Onite _ 99
    7.2.4 Mica 100
    7.2.5 Slllea ., 101
    7.2.6 Glass flour !Illd sphe[e’S . lQ1
    7.2.7 Other micrQruJ9l’S 102
    7.3 Nafi1;lflJlers ., . 103
    7.3.1 Potomtlai ofnanoIlli9IS 103
    7.3.2 Platy mmoc!ays . 104,
    7.3.3 N’anotuhes _ . ‘lOS
    7.3-4 POSS’ mmi)mlru;tic “QIIlp;I i’eilllbili;oots for inlegla.ling regrInd a):I<i recycled
    materials, , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,’ , ,, ,’ , ,, ,m., , ” , , , ,, 209
    14.3 Addjti1/es tbat promote PO biodegradability 2 12
    CRAP’TER 15 Crosslinl!ing . , 215
    10.1 Crosslinked PR: advantages and applications” .,, .,, 2l 5
    15.2 Gf<xssl!hk:ing agents .217
    15.2.1 Pe.roxlde·JJased agents ., ., , ,. 2t7
    l 5.2.2 Sila!1e·base<:l agents , .21S
    15,2.3 Radiauon·inducederosslinking “. ” 219
    15.3 Fac lors ih cho[)Sing crosalinklng agents .2 t 9
    CHAPTER 16 Stertli2a.ti-on and RadIation Resistance “”'” . 221
    HLt S:tQIjJjzallon effects on PO products .” 221
    16.1.1 Effects of wadia tiOtl sterilization :n
    16.1.2 Effocts of EtO sl eril128tion .,, ,, , .” ., ., 223
    1Il.1.3 Effects of ltigh·remperatme stenllZatlon 223
    16.2 Additive solutiolls for sterilization-resistant POs ” ,. ,’,. 223.
    CRAFTBR 17 AesthetiCS Enhancement anet Surface
    Modillcation ., . 225
    17.1 Anti-!lCIatcb additives ,’ .,,. ,, . ‘ , , . ‘ ., ,” . , 226
    17.1.1 Conventional ani:i-)!;CtB.lcil approaehes 225
    t 7.1.2 Evaluating- anti-scratch adcbtlvGs, .” 227
    17,1.J Alt<lw”tive illlti·sqat:ch aaqjtiv(,!s 227
    17.2 Antitogging agents .,, ., ., ,'” , . , .” . 229
    17.3 AT\timictoblaJs ahd bioCidea , 229
    17.4 Odor-fl)odifying additives” ., , .” .,’,. , 231Table ·of Contents
    Section VB:Conclusion: Incorporating Additives
    CHAPTER 18 Adding Additives to Resin 235
    18.1 HalldUng a,d!:litiyeB , ., ., .2:35
    18,1.’1 Practical handling: issues .” , 236
  26. 1.2 l:Iealtll and sa[ety issues . 236
    18 ,2 Mlxmg and dispersmg additives into resin .” 237
    11l.2.1 Screw-proceBsing developments , , ., . 2·37
    18,2.2 “.Lean” compounding, ., , .,. ,., ., 238
    18.3 lliending and reeding’ additives . 238
    18,4, Choosing the best form of an additive , , , , 239
    REJ’ERENCES . , , , ,” , .,’ ” . 2(13
    INDEX . ‘-‘ ” .”‘” . u . I I n “‘-‘ ‘nn . n -. ” n , ‘ .,.,- . 275
    275
    A
    Acid scavengers and neutralizers, 30,
    38, 167, 191
    hydrotalcite antacids, 30, 40, 167
    Additive interactions, 7, 38–40,
    53–5, 75–6, 90, 132,
    134–5, 167
    Additives for plastics:
    growth of, 11–12
    handling of, 235–6
    health and safety issues see Health,
    safety, and the environment
    mixing and feeding of see Tooling
    and equipment, process
    physical forms of, 235–6, 239–42
    prices of, 12
    Antiblocking additives, 99
    blocking force, measuring, 184
    clarity/slip antiblocks, 188
    organic antiblocks, 186
    silica, 185
    diatomaceous earth, 185
    (see also Silica)
    talc, 99, 185
    (see also Talc)
    Antifogging agents, 228–9
    evaluating effectiveness of, 229
    Antimicrobial agents, 229–31
    growth and use of, 230
    Antioxidants (AOs), 25–43
    factors determining selection of,
    33–43
    primary (radical scavengers),
    29–31
    hindered phenols, 29–31
    hydroxylamines, 31
    lactones (benzofuranones), 31
    phenol-free AOs, 30–31
    vitamin E (-tocopherol), 30,
    43
    secondary (hydroxide
    decomposers), 29, 31–2
    phosphite-based, 31–2
    thioester-based (thiosynergists),
    32
    tris nonylphenyl phosphite
    (TNPP), 32
    Antistatic additives, 79–90
    external agents, 81
    factors for selecting, 89–91
    food-use restrictions for, 90
    migrating, 81–6, 89–90
    amides (lauric diethanolamide;
    LDA), 83–4
    amines, ethoxylated (EA), 83–4,
    90
    glycerol esters, 83–4
    glycerol monostearate (GMS),
    83–4
    polyglycerol esters (PGE), 83–4,
    90
    nonmigrating (permanent), 85–8
    conductive fillers, 86–8
    inherently conductive polymers
    (ICPs), 86
    inherently dissipating polymers
    (IDPs), 85–6
    Autoxidation, 26–32
    B
    Barium sulfate (barytes, blanc fixe),
    103, 140
    Biocides see Antimicrobial agents
    Biodegradability additives, 212–13
    C
    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 12,
    69–70, 97–9
    coatings on, 97
    combined with other fillers,
    69–70, 99
    as nucleating agent, 161–2
    Carbon black, 28, 39, 48, 58, 86–7
    Chain scission, 26–7
    Clarifiers see Nucleating agents and
    clarifiers
    Colorants, 139–156
    black pigments, 141
    carbon black, 141
    (see also Carbon black)
    delivery and form of, 148–9
    dyes, 142, 144–5
    factors in selecting, 151–6
    external vs. internal colorants,
    156
    gloss, 153–4
    metamerism, 152
    interactions, 155
    pigment attributes, 152–3
    regulatory issues, 154–5
    weatherability, 153–4
    inorganic pigments, 142, 145
    metallic colorants, 145–7
    organic pigments, 142–5
    pearlescent colorants, 147
    mica flakes, 147
    (see also Mica)
    processing of, 150–1
    special-effects colorants, 147–8
    testing of color, 151–2
    white pigments, 140–1
    barium sulfate, 140
    Index276 Index
    Colorants (continued)
    (see also Barium sulfate)
    titanium dioxide, 140–1
    (see also Titanium dioxide)
    zinc sulfide, 140–1
    Compatibilizers, 209–12
    copolymers as, 211
    coupling agents as, 211–12
    see also Coupling agents
    Compounding, 5–7, 33, 69, 96,
    108–10, 115, 125–31, 133,
    150, 193
    “Lean” compounding, 238
    trends, 12–13
    see also Direct extrusion and
    compounding
    Coupling agents, 132, 205–9
    acrylic acid, 111
    for glass fibers, 111, 207
    maleic anhydride-grafted
    copolymer agents, 97, 111,
    116–17, 206–8, 211
    for nanocomposites, 208–9
    for plant-based fibers, 116–17, 208
    silane-based agents, 69, 98, 100,
    111, 206–7
    titanates and zirconates, 69,
    88–9, 111, 178, 203, 207–9,
    211–12
    Crosslinking, 26–7, 39, 215–20
    factors in processing, 219–20
    mechanism for, 217
    peroxide-based, 217–18
    properties of XLPE, 216
    radiation-induced, 219
    silane-based, 218–19
    D
    Design of experiments (DoE), 6, 132,
    189
    Diatomaceous earth (see Silica)
    Direct extrusion and compounding:
    of long glass fibers, 115, 131
    of wood fiber and flour, 117
    E
    Electromagnetic interference (EMI),
    79–81, 88–91
    additives for, 88–9
    carbon black, 88
    conductive fibers, 89
    coupling agents, 88–9
    metal fillers, 88
    factors for selecting, 89–91
    Electrostatic discharge (ESD), 79–91
    additives for see Antistatic additives
    Environmental issues (see Health,
    safety, and the environment)
    see also Recycling issues
    F
    Fiber reinforcement:
    carbon, 89, 118–19
    coupling agents for, 111, 116–17,
    207
    factors for selecting, 126–134
    glass fiber, 12, 17, 110–15
    direct extrusion (inline
    compounding) of see Direct
    extrusion
    glass-mat thermoplastic (GMT),
    114
    long fiber, 112–15
    molding of, 111, 114–15
    orientation of fibers, 111–12, 114
    short fiber, 111–12
    plant-based, 6, 115–18
    see also Wood-plastic
    composites
    polymer-based, 118–19
    stainless steel, 89, 118
    Fillers:
    barium sulfate (see Barium sulfate)
    calcium carbonate (see Calcium
    carbonate)
    carbon black (see Carbon black)
    conductive, 86–8
    see also Antistatic additives
    factors for selecting, 121–134
    flame-retarding, 12, 68–70, 75–6
    glass flour and spheres (see Glass)
    metal oxides, 103
    see also Titanium dioxide
    metallic, 102
    see also Colorants
    mica see Mica
    nanofillers, 12, 15, 55, 76–7,
    103–7, 127–8
    graphenes, 87
    health and safety questions, 104,
    130, 237
    nanoclays, 103–5
    handling and forms of, 105
    use with titanium dioxide,
    133
    effects on foaming, 204
    exfoliation and dispersion of,
    104–5, 127
    stabilization for, 133
    nanotubes, 87, 105–6
    POSS, 106–7
    silica see Silica
    talc see Talc
    wollastonite see Wollastonite
    Flame retardants, 61–78
    antimony oxide, 66, 77
    ATH (aluminum trihydrate), 12,
    68–70, 75–6
    chlorinated paraffin, 66
    concerns about, 62, 66–8
    deca-BDE (decabromodiphenyl
    ether), 65–7
    EDAP (ethyl diamine phosphate),
    71
    factors determining selection of,
    72–8
    halogen alternatives, 66–8, 71–4,
    77–8
    halogen-based, 63–8
    interactions with, 54, 75–6
    intumescent, 70–2
    markets and growth of, 62
    MDH (magnesium (di-)
    hydroxide), 68–70, 75–6
    mechanisms of, 62–4, 68, 70
    mineral-based, 68–70, 75–6
    phosphorous-based, 70–2
    smoke suppression, 74–5
    testing for, 63
    Foams and foaming agents, 197–204
    azodicarbonamide (ADCA), 199,
    203–4
    blowing agents, 197–203
    chemical (internal) blowing
    agents, 199–203
    inorganic endothermic agents,
    199–200
    microcapsule foams, 200
    organic exothermic agents,
    199
    physical blowing agents, 198–9
    expanded polypropylene, 202
    factors in foaming, 203–4Index 277
    nanoclay effects, 204
    sodium bicarbonate, 199–200
    structural foam, 201
    G
    Gas fading, 29, 37
    Glass additives:
    fiber see Fiber reinforcement
    flour, 101
    spheres, 101–2
    H
    HALS (hindered amine light
    stabilizers), 30, 51–9
    see also Ultraviolet light
    stabilization
    Health, safety, and the environment,
    7–8, 236–7, 241
    antimicrobial issues, 230
    antioxidant issues, 41, 43
    antistat issues, 90
    colorant issues, 142, 154–6
    flame retardant issues, 66–8,
    72–4
    nanofiller issues, 104, 130, 237
    UV light stabilizer issues, 56, 60
    Hydrotalcite antacids see Acid
    scavengers
    I
    Impact modifiers, 107–10, 124–6
    EPDM rubber, 108–9
    ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR),
    108–9
    for film and sheet, 109–10, 125
    plastomers, metallocene
    (polyolefin elastomers),
    108–9
    styrenic copolymers, 110, 125
    for TPO, 107–9, 125–6
    TPVs (thermoplastic vulcanizates),
    109
    Inline compounding see Direct
    extrusion
    Insect and rodent repelling agents,
    231
    L
    Lambert-Beer equation see Ultraviolet
    light stabilization
    “Lightweighting”, 6, 197, 201–3
    Long-term heat aging (LTHA), 27–8,
    68
    Lubricants, 69
    M
    Masterbatches, use of, 5–6, 12–13,
    129, 193, 236, 239–41
    Mica, 100, 147
    N
    Nanocomposites see Fillers
    Nano-scale additives see Fillers
    “No dust blends” (NDBs), 38, 60,
    236
    Nucleating agents and clarifiers,
    157–68
    -phase nucleators, 161
    clarifying nucleating agents
    non-sorbitol, 162–4
    sorbitol-based, 162
    effects of, 158–64
    on clarity, 162–4
    on crystallization, 158, 161–2
    on organoleptics, 162, 167
    on physical properties, 158–62
    factors in selecting, 164–8
    evaluation of, 165
    fillers as nucleators, 161–2
    interactions with, 167–8
    mechanism of, 157–8
    melt sensitive vs. melt insensitive,
    158
    phosphate esters, 161–2
    sodium benzoate, 158
    trisamide, 161
    O
    Odor-modifying agents, 231–2
    P
    Plant-based additives, 6
    see also Fiber reinforcement
    Polyolefins (polyethylene,
    polypropylene, TPO):
    applications for, 13–21
    agricultural films, 19, 60
    automotive, 16–18, 57–8,
    107–10, 112, 126, 131,
    201–2, 226
    blow molding, 14, 151, 165,
    178–9
    blown film, 90, 151–2, 166–7,
    181, 189–92
    construction, 18–19, 116, 202
    extrusion, general, 14, 165–6,
    191–2
    fibers and tapes, 14, 37, 56–7,
    192–3
    film and sheet, 13, 59–60, 133,
    151, 166
    injection molding, 13, 151, 160,
    165, 174–8, 200
    packaging, 14–16, 123, 200
    pipe, 18, 58, 77, 123, 216, 219
    rotational moldings, 13, 60, 151,
    179, 202, 219
    wire & cable, 18–19, 39, 216
    feedstocks for, 6, 10–11
    growth of, 4, 10–11, 108
    prices of, 10–12
    volumes used, 3–4
    Processing aids, 171–194
    antiblocks see Antiblocking agents
    die buildup, reducing, 191
    for extrusion processes, 181–94
    for filled compounds, 174, 177–8
    for injection molding, 174, 175–8
    for injection-stretch blow molding,
    178–9
    for masterbatch production, 193
    for rotational molding, 179
    for wood-plastic composites,
    193–4
    fluoropolymer-based aids, 190–1
    interactions with, 54
    lubricants, internal, 172–78
    melt fracture, preventing, 189–91
    mold release, 174, 175–7
    nucleators, 179–80
    see also Nucleating agents and
    clarifiers
    peroxide, 175
    rheology, controlled, 175
    silicone-based, 174–5, 178
    slip agents see Slip agents
    R
    Radiation resistance in sterilization
    treatments see Sterilization
    resistance
    Recycling issues, 6–7, 16, 17, 110,
    119, 134, 168, 209–12278 Index
    Resistivity, 80, 84
    Rubber modifiers see Impact
    modifiers
    S
    Safety issues see Health, safety, and
    the environment
    Scratch resistance additives, 226–8
    effect of talc, 226–8
    scratch tests, 227
    silicone lubricants, 226–7
    slip agents, 226–8
    see also Slip agents
    Screws see Tooling and equipment,
    process
    Silica, 101
    diatomaceous earth, 101
    see also Antiblocking agents
    Slip agents:
    as anti-scratch additives, 226–7
    as film processing aids, 182–4
    migrating, 182–4
    nonmigrating, 184
    Static decay time, 80, 84, 85
    Stearates, metal (calcium and zinc),
    167, 211, 236
    as acid scavenger, 30, 38
    as coating for calcium carbonate,
    97–8
    as processing lubricant, 173–4,
    177–8, 191, 194
    see also Acid scavengers
    see also Processing aids
    Sterilization treatment resistance,
    221–4
    additive formulations for, 223
    effects on polyolefins, 221–3
    retortable packaging, 223–4
    role of stabilizers, 223–4
    T
    Talc, 12, 69–70, 98–9, 100, 122–4
    combined with other fillers,
    69–70, 99
    as nucleating agent, 161–2
    “ultrafine”, 99, 123
    Thiosynergists (thioesters) see
    Antioxidants, secondary
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 12, 134,
    177, 193, 207
    interactions with antioxidants, 40
    interactions with nanofillers, 133
    as a pigment, 140–1, 147, 153,
    155
    in UV stabilization, 48–50, 53–4
    TNPP (tris nonylphenyl phosphite)
    see Antioxidants, secondary
    Tooling and equipment, process,
    241–2
    abrasive wear of, 100, 111, 129
    blending and feeding, 238–9
    extruders, compounding, 237–8
    lubrication of surfaces, 190–1
    screw:
    design, 237–8
    torque reduction, 172–5, 191–2
    U
    Ultraviolet (UV) light stabilization,
    45–60
    chromophores, 47–8
    degradation cycle, 47–8
    factors determining selection of
    stabilizer, 55–60
    HALS (hindered amine light
    stabilizers), 51–60
    interactions of, 53–5
    mechanism of, 52
    NOR-based, 52, 58
    varieties of, 52–60
    Lambert-Beer equation, 51
    UV absorbers (UVAs), 48–51
    benzoates, 51
    benzophenones (UVA-1), 50
    benzotriazoles (UVA-2 and -3),
    51
    triazines (UVA-4), 51
    UV blockers and screeners, 48–50
    carbon black, 48
    inorganic oxides, 48, 50, 53–4
    UV quenchers, 51, 60
    Vitamin E see Antioxidants
    W
    Weatherability, testing of, 56
    Wollastonite, 99–100
    combined with glass fiber, 100
    Wood-plastic composites, 18–19, 59,
    115–17, 193–4, 202, 240
    direct extrusion (inline
    compounding) of see Direct
    extrusion

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