Additive Manufacturing Design, Methods, and Processes

Additive Manufacturing Design, Methods, and Processes
اسم المؤلف
Steinar Killi
التاريخ
10 أبريل 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Additive Manufacturing Design, Methods, and Processes
Edited by Steinar Killi
Contents
Preface xi
1. Scope of the Book 1
Steinar Killi
1.1 The Magic of 3D Printing 1
1.2 Legal Issues 4
1.3 The Power of Rhetoric 6
1.4 Maturing of Technology 7
1.5 “We Are All Designers” 8
1.6 From Rapid Prototyping to 3D Printing 13
1.7 The Chapters of the Book 18
2. A Design Sociotechnical Making of 3D Printing 21
William Lavatelli Kempton
2.1 Introduction 21
2.1.1 Disciplinary Boundaries and Claims
to 3D Printing 21
2.1.2 Introducing a Sociotechnical
Perspective to 3D Printing 22
2.1.2.1 Sociotechnical development
from a design perspective 23
2.1.3 Outline 24
2.2 Socially Constructed Technologies and 3D
Printing 25
2.2.1 The Relevance of Social Groups 25
2.2.2 From Video Production to Material
Production 26
2.2.3 Technologies for Additive Making 26
2.2.4 Critical Theories and Studies of
Technology 27
2.2.5 Unpacking the Views of 3D Printing 28
2.2.6 Socially Constructed Perspectives of
Additive Making 29vi Contents
2.2.7 Relevant Social Groups as Part of a
Technological Frame 30
2.3 The 3D Printer Inventors 31
2.3.1 The First Wave of 3D Printer Inventors 32
2.3.2 The Second Wave of 3D Printer Inventors 34
2.4 Business Perspective of 3D Printing 36
2.4.1 Yet Another Industrial Revolution 36
2.4.2 Toward Economies-of-One 37
2.5 Designers’ Perspectives of 3D Printing Futures 40
2.5.1 Design and Additive Manufacturing 41
2.5.2 Designing with Technology 42
2.5.3 An Undetermined View of Design 43
2.6 A Layperson’s Perspective of 3D Printing Futures 44
2.6.1 A Layperson as a Maker 45
2.6.2 Making in a Learning Environment 46
2.7 Discussions and Conclusions 48
2.7.1 Summarizing the Perspectives 48
2.7.2 3D Printing Futures 48
2.7.3 Constructing a View of Sociotechnical
Development 49
Appendix: Technologies for 3D Printing 50
3. AICE: An Approach to Designing for Additive
Manufacturing 75
Steinar Killi
3.1 AICE: An Operational Model 81
3.1.1 Adapt 81
3.1.1.1 Design thinking 81
3.1.1.2 Multitypes 84
3.1.1.3 Models describing a typical
design process 85
3.1.1.4 Methods used during a design
process 89
3.1.2 Integrate 98
3.1.3 Compensate 100
3.1.3.1 Spare parts 102
3.1.3.2 Production aids 103
3.1.3.3 Enhancing the design 103
3.1.4 Elongate 106
3.2 Using the AICE Model and How the Drinking
Container Came Out 109Contents vii
4. The Impact of Making: Investigating the Role of the
3D Printer in Design Prototyping 111
William Lavatelli Kempton
4.1 Introduction 111
4.1.1 Prototyping as Design Development 111
4.1.2 Making as a Critical Practice 112
4.1.3 Outline 113
4.1.4 Methods 114
4.2 Background 115
4.2.1 From Rapid Prototyping to Additive
Manufacturing 115
4.2.2 Ubiquity and Stratification of 3D
Printing 117
4.2.3 Contexts for Additive Making 118
4.2.4 Hybrid Artifacts 120
4.2.5 Making Representations as a Way
of Designing 121
4.3 Prototypes and Design Representations 121
4.4 The Changing Character of Design 123
4.4.1 New Product Development 123
4.5 Situating AM Prototypes within Design
Practice 125
4.5.1 Developmental Prototypes 125
4.5.2 Initial Concept and Maturation of
the SunBell Lamp 126
4.6 Design Representations and Multitypes
in Product Design 129
4.6.1 Multitypes in Rapid Prototyping 131
4.7 Multityping in Additive Manufacturing 134
4.7.1 Popular yet Professional? 134
4.7.2 Integrating AM in Product Design 135
4.7.3 Toward the Releasetype 136
4.8 Conclusions 137
5. Visual 3D Form in the Context of Additive Manufacturing 143
Nina Bjørnstad and Andrew Morrison
5.1 Introduction 143
5.2 Aesthetics 144
5.3 Design, Action, and Profession 147viii Contents
5.4 Ideals and Origin 148
5.5 Relevance of the Historic Model for
Tomorrow’s Form Givers 149
5.6 The Evolution of Form Model 150
5.6.1 Why Clay? 151
5.6.2 A Close-Up on Form 153
5.6.3 Distorted Forms 155
5.6.4 Intersectional Forms 157
5.7 Familiarity 160
6. Potential of Additive-Manufactured Products in
Building Brands 165
Monika Hestad and Viktor Hiort af Ornäs
6.1 Product Role in Brand Building 168
6.1.1 Role of Design Elements in Building
a Brand 168
6.1.2 Brand Story and Product Story 169
6.2 Additive Manufacturing as One of Many Other
Drivers That Affect a Product’s Role in
Building Brands 171
6.2.1 Actual and Intended User Experience 171
6.2.2 Internal Drivers 173
6.2.3 External Drivers 174
6.3 How Additive Manufacturing Is Used in
Building a Brand 175
6.3.1 Mykita 177
6.3.1.1 How AM is used in the
products 179
6.3.1.2 Design elements 179
6.3.1.3 User experience 179
6.3.1.4 Drivers 180
6.3.1.5 The Mykita brand story 182
6.3.2 pq Eyewear by Ron Arad 184
6.3.2.1 How AM is used in the
products and in branding 186
6.3.2.2 Design elements 186
6.3.2.3 User experience 188
6.3.2.4 Drivers 189
6.3.2.5 The pq eyewear brand story 190Contents ix
6.4 Potential of Additive-Manufactured Products
in Building a Brand 191
6.4.1 How They Used AM in Building a Brand 191
6.4.2 Opportunities in New Production
Techniques 193
6.4.3 Form Freedom and Brand Development 194
6.4.4 Potential of Disruptive Stories 195
7. A Tale of an Axe, a Spade, and a Walnut:
Investigating Additive Manufacturing and Design
Futures 199
Andrew Morrison
7.1 Prelude 199
7.2 Queries 201
7.2.1 On Discursive Design 203
7.3 “Problems” 205
7.3.1 Design, Narrative, Futures 205
7.4 Essayistic 206
7.4.1 Narrative 208
7.5 Promotion 210
7.5.1 Intersections 213
7.6 Foresight 214
7.6.1 Scenarios and Futures 216
7.6.2 The Fictive and Nondeterminist
Futures 217
7.7 Reflections 218
7.7.1 Toward the Additive in Discursive
Design 220
7.7.2 Design Baroque Futures 220
7.8 Generative Visions 222
Index 23
3D printer designer, 13
3D printer developers, 35
3D printer inventors, 25, 30–32,
35, 45, 48–49
3D printers, 3, 5–6, 9–10, 13–14,
22, 26–27, 30–35, 39–42,
44–53, 57–58, 65–66, 102,
115, 117, 126–28
3D printing, 1–4, 6–7, 13–15,
17–18, 21–22, 24–36, 39–41,
44–55, 57–58, 79–87, 97–99,
102–6, 113–19, 134–35,
137–38
3D printing technologies, 16, 26,
40, 43–44, 57–58, 116, 134,
144, 211
3D printing tools, 44–45, 48, 124
ABS, see acrylonitrile-butadiene
styrene
abstraction, 91, 146, 148, 169–70
acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene
(ABS), 34, 61, 63, 67
action
bend-and-weld, 150
negotiating, 95–96
adapt, integrate, compensate, and
elongate (AICE), 43, 80, 93,
100
adaptation, 39, 209
additive character, 144
additive digital fabrication
technologies, 28
additive fabrication, 22
additive-manufactured products,
191
additive-manufactured prototypes,
166
Index
additive manufacturing (AM),
15, 18, 22, 55, 60, 78–79, 81,
101–2, 113, 116, 137, 143,
165, 167, 177
additive manufacturing
technologies, 18, 55, 162
additive material production, 22
additive processes, 52, 54–55
additive product development, 137
additive shaping, 155
aesthetical approach, 145
aesthetical attributes, 122
aesthetical diversity, 147
aesthetical models, 33, 126
aesthetical qualities, 121
aesthetic development, 146
aesthetic reasoning, 145
aesthetics, 42, 132, 144–46, 201
baroque, 208
emergent, 161
negotiated, 149
affordances, 26, 144, 151, 222
technological, 27, 29
A-frame, 184–87
AICE, see adapt, integrate,
compensate, and elongate
AICE model, 98, 100, 104, 106, 109
AM, see additive manufacturing
anteversionheads, 76–77
articulations, 111, 203, 206, 212,
214, 220
complex, 120
creative, 220
essayistic, 204
artifacts, 29–30, 47, 50–51, 54,
58, 65, 67–68, 112–14, 116,
119–21, 135–37, 200, 206–7,
210–11, 213–14232 Index
3D-printed, 146
colored, 57
end-use, 41
epistemic, 215
hybrid, 120, 136
laser-sintered, 39
assemblages, 27, 120, 204
backcasting, 87
baroque, 201, 209, 221–22
Bene’s experiment, 176
B-frame, 184, 186–87
binder, 57–58
boundaries, elastic, 81
brand building, 93, 165, 167, 169,
173, 195
branding, 18, 39, 108, 165, 195–96
CAD, see computer-aided design
Capjon’s model, 130
CATIA, 32, 104
Christmas tree model, 86
clay, 26, 105, 121, 149, 151–52,
155, 157, 166
clay-based liquid deposition
modeling, 91
clay models, 146, 153–54
clay printer, 92, 105
CLIP, see continuous layer interface
production
CNC, see computer numerical
control
CNC mills, 69–70, 132
codesign, 92–94, 107, 147
codesigning, 93, 193
coecologies, 205
color-dyeing, 119
complexity, 76, 84, 106, 121–22,
148, 156, 166–67, 171, 202,
212, 219, 221
composition, structural, 154
computer-aided design (CAD), 10,
13, 32, 53, 93–95, 116, 151
computer algorithms, 99, 159
computer numerical control (CNC),
40, 54, 104, 119
conceptualization, 18, 29, 40–41,
125, 215
conceptualizing, 23, 31, 40–41, 48,
86, 124, 147
continuous layer interface
production (CLIP), 63
creativity, 120, 193, 217
critical making, 113
curing, 33, 52, 60, 63
customizations, 108–9, 167, 193,
195, 202
customizing, 109
cybernetics, 217
DAFC, see diversity abstraction
forced choosing
deconstructing, 90–91
deconstruction, 146, 152, 154, 163
deformations, 56, 155–56
deposition, rapid plasma, 65, 69
design
computational, 42
computer-aided, 10, 32, 93, 116,
151
consumer-oriented, 24
custom, 42, 135
digital, 144
discursive, 207, 220–21
engineering, 135
engineering-driven, 123
human-centered, 42
parametric, 177
user-centered, 89, 123, 138
design artifacts, 146
design-based analytical models,
144
design-based research, 201
design development, 116, 124,
136–38
design elements, 100, 108, 168,
171–72, 175, 177, 186, 188,
194–95Index 233
Design elements, User experience,
and key Drivers (DUD), 175,
177–78, 186
design futures, 201, 204, 216
design methods, 82–83, 87, 93
design perspective, 18, 40, 219
design practice, 40, 44, 90, 114,
121, 123–24, 200–201, 214
consumer-oriented, 48
contemporary, 121
developmental, 44
professional, 145
transdisciplinary, 200
design process, 13, 77–78, 80–81,
83–86, 89–90, 92–93, 97–98,
101, 107, 109, 122–25, 130–
31, 153, 156, 173–74
design projects, 38, 84, 89, 130–31,
135, 149, 156, 213
design prototyping, 114–15
design representations, 41, 44, 48,
114, 122, 130–31, 134, 136
physical, 125
visual, 35, 122
design space, 22, 112, 114, 118,
189, 195
digital, 137
design work, 17, 41, 146–47, 202
desktop 3D printers, 26–27, 34, 40,
45, 51, 53, 65
desktop 3D printing, 45, 134, 211
desktop fabrication, 45, 204, 228
desktop fabricators, 26, 135
desktop factory printer, 134
desktop inkjet printer, 68
desktop printers, 41, 47, 67, 211
desktop publishing, 50
desktop SLA printer, 64
developmental design tool, 31, 48
developmental methodologies, 22
developmental process, 41–42,
114, 124
developmental prototyping tools,
41
development cost, 16–17, 106
D-frame, 184, 186–87, 189
digital blueprint, 32, 47, 53, 113,
137
digital curve tool, 151
digital design tools, 9, 144
digital fabrication, 21–24, 27,
29, 44, 46, 49, 53, 113, 115,
117–18, 123–24, 137, 143,
200–201, 221
consumption-oriented, 22
digital fabrication technologies, 43,
116, 119, 144
digital information, 21, 23, 44, 118,
120
digitalization, 42, 145, 212
digital light processing (DLP), 63
digital models, 1–2, 116, 156
digital tools, 93, 147, 151–52, 202
direct metal laser sintering
(DMLS), 59
discursive design approach, 218
discursive design framing, 207
diversity abstraction forced
choosing (DAFC), 91–93, 95
DIY kit, 34–35
DLP, see digital light processing
DLP light source, single, 64
DLP projectors, 63–64
DMLS, see direct metal laser
sintering
double-diamond model, 85
dual-nozzle setup, 67
DUD, see Design elements, User
experience, and key Drivers
DUD analysis, 178, 186
DUD framework, 175, 177, 186
economies-of-one, 30, 37–39, 48
economies-of-scale, 36–37
elasticity, 108, 161, 176
elastomers, 62–63
end-user parts, 55, 58234 Index
EoF, see evolution of form
EoF model, 149–50, 153–56, 158,
160
ergonomics, 22, 132, 134, 170, 175
evolution of form (EoF), 147,
150–51, 161
exploration, 86, 113, 145, 147, 161,
175, 181, 183, 193, 220
design-oriented, 147
systematic abstract, 154
extruder head, 65–66
fabrication process, 22, 30, 49,
55–56, 58, 60, 63–64, 67
digital, 51, 53, 120
fabrication tools, 41, 49
digital, 45–48, 50, 54, 114, 116,
157
FDM, see fused deposition
modeling
FDM/FFF, 66–67
FFF, see fused filament fabrication
filament deposition modeling,
51–52, 63
fit, ergonomic, 133–34
fixtures, 44, 48, 103, 105
force
direct, 155
internal structural, 155
market-driven persuasive, 218
force output, 132
forecasts, 204
economic, 36
foresight, 201, 215–19
strategic, 216
form
abstract, 149, 151
archetypal, 127
digital, 136
edgy, 157
free, 161
geometrical, 157
organic, 150
physical, 15, 145, 147
virtual, 151–52
visual, 144–46, 153, 161
formalistic language, 145
formats, 50, 83, 87, 98, 102, 156,
207
digital, 14, 94
physical, 91
format wars, 25
form blowing, 156
form creation, 151
form development, 98
radical, 161
visual, 144
form elasticity, 156
form experiments, 149
form exploration, 149
form expressions, 153
form families, 160–61
form finding, 146, 161
visual, 133, 161
form freedom, 165–67, 173, 189,
194
forming methods, 65
forming principles, 69
forming process, 52
formlessness, 162
fragility, 58, 153
functionality, 90, 98–99, 104,
125–29, 132
improved, 117
marketable, 8
functionality fit, 127
fused deposition modeling (FDM),
5–6, 14, 32, 34, 51–52, 63, 65,
77, 126
fused filament fabrication (FFF),
65–66
Gartner’s hype cycle, 4, 7, 17
generic models, 83
gigamapping, 114
hardware, 5–6, 35, 132, 151
off-the-shelf, 35Index 235
HCD, see human-centered design
HCD development, 43
HCI, see human–computer
interaction
holistic business models, 183
human-centered design (HCD),
42–43
human–computer interaction
(HCI), 23, 42, 44, 72
hype cycle, 3
generic, 3
ideo-pleasure, 172–73
industrial designers, 121–23, 126,
147, 161
industrial processes, 26–27
Industrial Revolution, 14, 36–37,
211
in-house FDM, 127
injection molding, 12, 16–17, 22,
55, 76–78, 101, 105, 117,
132–33, 150
inkjet printer, 50, 57, 62
inkjet printing, traditional, 49
innovation, 26, 43, 50, 123, 158,
170, 181, 201, 212, 217, 219,
221
networks of, 217
open-source, 21
radical, 43, 72
technological, 43
interfaces, 120, 136
digital, 120, 221
haptic, 151
visual, 151
Internet of Things (IoT), 120, 202,
217
intervention, social, 23, 25
IoT, see Internet of Things
IoT product hybrids, 120
jigs, 13, 78, 103, 105
joints, 76–77, 80
3D-printed, 15, 75, 80, 189
laminated object manufacturing
(LOM)
laser sintering, 179
direct metal, 59
selective, 1, 29, 51, 76–77, 133,
179
layered methodology, generalized,
216
layers, 15, 22, 25–26, 33, 52, 55,
57, 59–62, 64–69, 81, 98, 100,
104, 106, 109
oxygen-permeable, 63
thin, 51, 60
weak, 80
layer thicknesses, common, 67
layerwise fashion, 52, 57, 59, 63,
65, 67–69
LDM, see liquid deposition
modeling
LED, see light-emitting diode
light-emitting diode (LED), 189
liquid
photopolymer, 63
photopolymeric, 51, 61–62
liquid-based processes, 52, 62
liquid deposition modeling (LDM),
91
liquid photopolymer, 60, 63
LOM (laminated object
manufacturing), 65, 68–69
low-cost FDM printers, 51
low-cost FFF printers, 67
low-cost manufacturing facilities, 9
low-priced printers, 14
machines, 1–2, 4–5, 32, 58, 60, 69,
102, 117, 184
low-cost FDM, 7
powder-based, 52
rapid-prototyping, 117
sewing, 50
vacuum-forming, 40
machine tools, new, 36
Makerbot, 5, 34–35, 45, 49236 Index
MakerBot printer, 34
maker festivals, 46
maker movement, 45, 47, 71
makers, 9, 21, 25, 27, 31, 35,
44–46, 48–49, 85, 149, 211
maker spaces, 35, 45, 49, 143, 211
local, 29, 46
making processes, 23, 47, 53–54,
115–16
natural, 54
technological, 54
making tools, 48, 116
malleability, 144, 202
mass customization, 37, 107, 116
mass-produced artifacts, 116,
131–32, 135
mass production, 37, 105, 125,
129, 132, 202, 211
material artifacts, 26, 136
materialities, 52, 128, 136, 220
analog, 120, 201
technological, 44
materials, 31, 51–52, 54–58, 60,
62–63, 66–67, 69–70, 104,
118, 120, 173–74, 180–81,
200–203, 207, 213–14
base, 61
binder, 57
blended, 67
common, 56
digital, 98
elastic, 155
elastomeric, 56
liquid-based, 61
medical, 101
organic, 54, 133
photopolymeric, 62, 64
physical, 23, 119–20, 138, 153
plaster, 58
plaster-based, 57
powder-based, 61
proprietary, 65
prototyping, 63
raw, 103
sturdy, 192
material stiffness, increased, 56
MAYA principle, 158–59
metal powders, 52, 59
metals
powdered, 59
specialist, 69
methods
analytical, 89
codesign, 95
developmental, 148
double-diamond, 96
user-centered, 92
mock-ups, 57, 84, 113, 122, 126,
130–31
models, 1–3, 18, 57–59, 68, 79,
81–88, 92–93, 106–7, 111–14,
121–23, 125–31, 133–37, 144,
149–50, 161
adapted, 96
appearance, 122
conceptual, 132
core, 146
foundational, 147
multitype, 88
model TR-55, 7
molds, 32–33, 40–41, 44, 48, 54,
79, 120
3D-printed, 40
internal, 54
silicon, 76
silicone, 118, 128
multimaterial artifacts, 22
multitypes, 84, 130–32, 136–37
multityping, 132, 135
rapid, 129
Mykita, 38–40, 167, 177, 180–84,
190, 192–94, 196
Mykita brand, 179, 182–83, 191
Mykita Haus, 182–83, 191
Mykita Mylon, 177–82, 192
near-net shape, 69–70
negotiotypes, 84–88, 95, 132Index 237
incremental, 130
negotiotyping, 130, 136
new product development (NPD),
17, 123–25, 138, 141, 203, 217
nozzle, 51, 66–67
NPD, see new product development
onion model, 81
overhangs, 59–61, 64, 105
angled, 61, 64
complex, 13
rocky, 210
PA, see polyamide
PA-6, 56
PA-11, 56, 133
PA-12, 56
painting, 10, 103, 148
abstract, 148
spray, 56
paradigm, 2, 18, 28, 30, 36, 48,
132, 135
3D-printed, 82
consumptive, 28
long-tail production, 14
mass-manufacturing, 22
paradox, 99, 106, 158
parametric modeling, 182
PCB, see printed circuit board, 119
PD, see product design
PET, see polyethylene terephthalate
physical artifacts, 23, 50, 93, 113,
137, 144, 203
physical computing, 204, 228
physical model, 1, 122
physical products, developing, 93
physio-pleasure, 172
PLA, see polylactic acid
plasma arc heating, 69
plastic artifacts, 27, 37
plastic injection, 32, 125
plastic powder, 5, 101
plastic printers, 92, 105
polyamide (PA), 56, 61, 76
polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
40, 56, 67
PolyJet, 51, 62–63
PolyJet printer, 62–63
polylactic acid (PLA), 34, 41, 61, 67
polyurethane (PUR), 125, 128–29,
131
polyvocality, 208
postprocessing, 56, 59, 61, 64, 69,
78–79, 98, 101
postprocessing chamber, 63
powder
abrasive glass, 56
fine-grained metal, 59
fine-grained plaster, 57
fine-powdered polyamide, 39
gypsum, 57
melted metal, 59
nonsintered, 56
powder-based processes, 52, 56,
59
pq, 167, 184–91, 193–94, 196
precision, 165, 202
precision craftsmanship, 183
printed circuit board (PCB), 119
printers
clay, 92, 105
industrial-grade, 67
private, 107
product conceptualization,
113–14, 137
product design (PD), 41–43,
112–13, 116, 118, 120,
136–37, 144–46, 158, 161,
200–203, 205–7, 209, 215,
217, 220–21
product development paradigm,
17, 81
production
artifact, 202
freeform, 156
small-scale, 149, 167, 193
production cost, 8, 16, 76, 103, 106238 Index
production methods, 78, 104,
106–7, 134, 150, 152, 156,
173, 192, 214
classic, 105
real-life, 152
production technology, 18, 158
contemporary, 150
modern, 38
products
3D-printed, 105, 107–8
beta, 128–29
custom-made, 156
digital, 14
digital/physical, 136
fast-changing, 159
functional, 132
heritage, 102
intuitive, 8
limited-edition, 38
niche, 109
popular artisan, 109
prototypes, 3–4, 13–14, 22–23,
55, 82, 84–85, 92, 94, 111–13,
119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 130
functional, 33, 84, 86, 128
mechanical, 58
prototyping, 34, 53, 78, 112–13,
119, 123, 130, 132–33,
135–36, 143–46
psycho-pleasure, 172
PUR, see polyurethane
QFD, see quality function
deployment
quality function deployment
(QFD), 92
qualitative manifestation, 112
quality
near-injection-molded, 61, 64
visual, 153
quality assurance, 27
quality control, 119
rapid manufacturing, 77
rapid multityping models, 130
rapid plasma deposition (RPD), 65,
69–70
rapid prototyping (RP), 3–4, 6–7,
13–15, 22, 33, 35, 40–41, 60,
62, 76, 113, 116, 131–34, 137,
143, 145–46
rapid tooling, 12, 129
reflection-in-action, 115
reflection-on-action, 115
releasetype, 85, 90, 95, 120, 136,
138
3D-printed, 104
RepRap convention, 35
RepRap movement, 117
RepRap project, 34, 66
robots, 29, 36, 212, 224
RP, see rapid prototyping
RPD, see rapid plasma deposition
Schrödinger’s cat, 1–2
science, technology, and society
(STS), 23, 50, 203, 207, 209,
217
selective laser melting (SLM),
58–60
selective laser sintering (SLS), 1,
5–6, 29, 39–40, 51, 55–56, 60,
76–77, 101, 119, 133, 179, 187
self-copying, 117
seriotypes, 84–85, 130, 132, 136
seriotyping, 130, 135–36
SLA, see stereolithography
SLA-DLP, see stereolithography
digital light processing
SLM, see selective laser melting
SLS, see selective laser sintering
smart cities, 213
smarter homes, 213
smartphones, 8, 53
smart watches, 120
socio-pleasure, 172
software, 35–36, 44, 119, 134, 146,
151–52, 158, 161, 205, 211Index 239
solid-based processes, 65, 67
stages
conceptual, 134
creative, 78
engineering, 104
fuzzy, 124
implementation, 173
value-making, 29
visiotype, 84
stereolithography (SLA), 4–6, 29,
33, 51–52, 60–64, 76–77, 116,
140, 156
stereolithography digital light
processing (SLA-DLP), 63–64
STS, see science, technology, and
society
subtractive material production,
22
subtractive shaping, 155
SunBell, 114, 124–29, 131, 134–35,
137
support scaffolds, 105
support structures, 59–61, 64, 70,
105
soluble, 63
sustainability, 115
taxonomy, 122, 130
technodeterminist logic, 205
technodeterminists, 203, 214–15
technological artifacts, 23, 25,
30–31, 36
technological development, 22–23,
26, 49–50, 202
nonlinear, 24
technologies, 2–8, 12–15, 25–29,
43–44, 52–55, 68–70, 76–77,
87–88, 100–101, 143–44,
165–66, 179–81, 190–93,
200–201, 203–4
advanced, 196
digital, 177, 212
emergent, 211
input, 151–52
low-cost, 53
model-making, 4
multijetting, 62
transformative, 113
tessellations, 106, 109
thermoplastic, 65
common, 67
organic, 67
titanium, 59–60, 65, 69–70
aerospace-grade, 69
tools
computational, 211
democratized, 49
developmental, 21, 40
engineering-oriented, 35, 48
ergonomic, 170
molding, 128
preassembled, 45
predefined, 54
prototyping, 33, 68, 113, 137
simulation, 98, 104
surface-based, 166
track
hermeneutical, 28
technological, 15, 28
transdisciplinary analysis, 202
user-centered approach, 124
user customization, 38
user experience, 123, 172, 175,
177, 186, 188, 196
actual, 172
intended, 171, 194–95
new, 196
user function, 153
user functionality, 132
user interface, 136, 162
UV laser, 60
UV laser cures, 60
UV light, 63
intensive, 61
value creation, 29, 35, 44240 Index
VCR, see video cassette recorder
VDR, see visual design
representation
vehicles, moving 3D-printing, 102
VHS, see Video Home System
video cassette recorder (VCR),
25–26, 30
Video Home System (VHS), 5, 25
video technology, 25–26
virtual reality (VR), 42
visiotypes, 84, 86–87, 92, 130, 132
visiotyping, 130, 136
visual cues, 171
visual design cues, 197
visual design representation
(VDR), 35, 48, 122, 130, 140
visualizations, 78, 82, 85–86, 88,
92, 108, 151
VR, see virtual reality
web-based self-services, 120, 139
woodblock printing, 50
zerotypes, 84, 86–88, 92
zerotypes/visiotypes, 92
ZPrinters, 57
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