A Textbook of Thermal Engineering

A Textbook of Thermal Engineering
اسم المؤلف
R.s. Khurmi , J.k. Guptacontents
التاريخ
9 نوفمبر 2022
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719
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A Textbook of Thermal Engineering
R.s. Khurmi , J.k. Guptacontents
I. Introduction

  1. Properties of Perfect Gases
  2. Thermodynamic Processes of Perfect Gases
  3. Entropy of Perfect Gases
  4. Kinetic Theory of Gases
  5. Thermodynamic Air Cycles
  6. Formation and Properties of Steam
  7. Entropy of Steam
  8. Thermodynamic Processes of Vapour
  9. Thermodynamic Vapour Cycles
    II. Fuels
  10. Combustion of Fuels
  11. Steam Boilers
  12. Boiler Mountings and Accessories
    1-5. Performance of Steam Boilers
  13. Boiler Draught
  14. Simple Steam Engines
  15. Compound Steam Engines
  16. Performance of Steam Engines
  17. Steam Condensers
  18. Steam Nozzles /
  19. Impulse Turbines
  20. Reaction Turbines
  21. Performance of Steam Turbines
  22. Modem Steam Turbines
  23. Internal Combustion Engines
  24. Testing of Internal Combustion Engines
  25. Reciprocating Air Compressors
  26. Rotary Air Compressors
  27. Performance of Air Compressors
  28. Air Motors
  29. Gas Turbines
  30. Performance of Gas Turbines
  31. Introduction to Heat Transfer
  32. Air Refrigeration Cycles
  33. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
  34. Psychrometry
  35. Air Conditioning Systems
  36. General Thermodynamic Relations
  37. Variable Specific Heat
    Index
    887Index
    A
    Absolute humidity. 799, 800, 801
  • pressure. 12
  • temperature,II
  • units of force. 7
    Actual gas turbine, 725
  • indicator diagram, 381, 588, 590, 593,
    595
  • vapour compression cycle, 789
    Adiabatic compressibility.842
  • process, 63
  • mixingof twi> air streams. 819
  • saturation temperature, 806
    Advantages of compounding of steam engines,
    395
  • condensers in a steam power plant, 446
  • mechanical draught, 361
  • multistage compression, 647
  • reheating of steam, 561
  • steam turbines over reciprocating steam
    engines, 501
  • superheating of steam. 206
  • two stroke cycle over four stroke cycle
    engines, 586
  • vapour absorption refrigeration system
    over vapour con>rcs$ior refrigeration
    system, 792
  • vapour compression refrigeration sys
    tern over air refrigeration system, 771
    Air conditioning system, 825
  • consumption, 626
  • cooling system, 602
  • injection method, 600
  • preheater, 340
  • pump, 464
  • refrigeration cycle.751
  • refrigerator working on Bell Coleman
    \ cycle,761
  • on reversed Carnot cycle,755
  • standard efficiency, 617
    Ammonia hydrogen refrigerator, 793
    Anthracite coal, 290
    Applicationof first law of thermodynamics to a
    nonfiow process,51
  • to a steady flow process, 86
  • of kinetic energy tolaws ofperfect
    .* gases, 146
  • of steady flow energy equation to
    engineering system,92
    Approximate method for heal absorbed, 135
    Artificial draught, 360
    Arrangement of cylinders in compound steam
    engines, 394 ‘
    Assumptions for overall(thermal) efficiencyof
    an ideal gas turbinecycle,721
  • in thermodynamic cycle, 153
  • in kinetic theory of gases, 140
  • in two stage compressor with inter
    cooler,648
    Atomic mass, 301
    Atomiser. 608
    Atmospheric air, 861
    Atoms and molecules, 301
    Axial flow compressors,677
    Available heat energy, 105
    Average piston speed, 377
    Avagadro’s law, 35
    B
    Babcock and Wilcox boiler, 329
    Back flow in positive displacement air com¬
    pressors, 668
    Back pressure turbine, 577
    Balanced draught, 362
    Barometric jet condensers, 449
    Barrel calorimeter, 211
    Bensonboiler, 331
    Binary vapour cycle, 577
  • plant, 567
    Bituminouscoal,290
    Bladingefficiency, 535
    Blast furnace gas, 292
    Bleeding, 570
    Blow off cock, 338
    Boiler accessories, 323, 340
  • efficiency, 346
  • mountings, 323, 334
  • shell, 323
  • trial, 351
    Bomb calorimeter, 295
    Boyle’s law, 30
    Boy’s gas calorimeter,296
    Brake power, 389,615
  • thermal efficiency, 423, 616
    Braytoncycle,761
    Briquetted coal, 290
    Browncoal. 290
    By-pass factor, 813,815
    887R88
    C
    Caking bituminous coal, 290
    Calorific value of fuels, 293
    Carburettor, 606
    Carnot cycle, 157, 264
    Celsius or centigrade scale, 10
  • flow surface condenser, 451
    Centrifugal compressor, 670
    Cetane number, 598
    C.G.S. units, 2
    Change of entropy of a perfect gas, 110
  • during reversible adiabatic process, 124
  • constant pressure process, 115
  • constant temperature process, 120
  • constant volume process, 110
  • in thermodynamic properties with vari¬
    able specific heat, 864
  • isentropic process, 124
  • polytropic process, 126
    Characteristic equation of a gas, 33
    ‘Charles’ law, 31
    Chimney draught. 360
    Classification of air compressors, 637
  • air conditioning systems, 825
  • compound steam engines, 395
  • of draughts, 360
  • fuels. 289
  • gas turbines, 708
  • l.C. engines, 583
  • properties of a system, 8
  • steam boilers, 324
  • steam condensers, 447
  • steam engines, 374
  • steam turbines, 502
  • thermodynamic cycles, 158
  • thermodynamic process. 51
  • thermodynamic systems, 7
    Clausius statement, 22
  • inequality, 106
    Clearance volume, 156, 377
    Closed air refrigeration cycle, 755
  • cycle gas turbines, 708
  • system of thermodynamics. 7
    Coal gas. 291
    Cochran boiler, 326
    Coefficient of performance, 752
  • volume expansion, 84 1
    Coil ignition system, 599
    Coke, 290
  • oven gas. 292
    Combined air compressor and air motor, 701
  • indicator diagram for a compound steam
    engine, 397
    A Ten book of Thermal Engineering
  • separating and throttling calorimeter,
    214
  • velocity triangle for movingblades of an
    impulse turbine. 505
  • of a reaction turbine. 524
    Combustion chamber. 323
  • equations of gaseous fuels, 303
  • of solid fuels, 302
    Comfort air conditioning system. 825
    Comparison between air cooling and water
    cooling-system, 603
  • centrifugal and axial flow air compres
    sors, 677
  • closed and open cycle gas turbines, 718
  • forced draught and induceddraught, 361
  • gas turbines and l.C engines. 708
  • impulse turbines and reaction turbines,
    522
  • jet and surface condensers. 452
  • petrol and diesel engines. 592
  • reciprocating and centrifugal air com
    pressor, 665
  • steam engines and l.C engines. 582
  • turbine and centrifugal compressor
    blades. 697
  • water lube and fire tube boilers, 332
    Components of l.C engine, 584
    Compounds, 301
    Compound steam engine, 394
    Compounding of impulse steam turbines, 552
    Compressed air system, 701
    Compressibility factor, 856
    Compression ratio, 156, 538
    Compressor capacity, 638
  • efficiency. 682
    Condenser efficiency. 458
    Condition for maximum discharge through the
    nozzle, 476
  • efficiency of an impulse turbine. 545
  • efficiency of a reaction turbine, 548
  • maximum discharge through the chim
    ney, 366
    connecting rod, 376, 585
    Constant enthalpy process, 84, 92
  • entropy process, 63, 247
  • internal energy process, 84
  • pressure gas turbines, 719
  • pressure lines, 225
  • pressure process. 57. 238
  • temperature process, 61, 242
  • total heat process, 91. 257
  • volume gas turbines, 719
  • volume lines, 225
  • volume process, 54, 23 1Index 889
    Convergent nozzle, 469
  • divergent nozzle, 469
    Conversion of volumetric analysis into mass
    analysis, 307
  • mass analysis into volumetric analysis,
    307
    Cooling and duhumidification, 817
  • ofl.C. engines. 601
  • systems ofl.C. engines, 602
  • lowers, 465
    Cornish boiler, 328
    Counterflow jet condensers, 448
    Crank case, 585
  • shaft, 376,585
    Critical pressure ratio, 476
  • Physical significance of, 479
  • Values of, 479
    Cross head. 376
    Cyclic process, 9
    Cylinder bore, 156, 377
  • dimensions for compound steam engine,
    398
  • head ofl.C engines. 584
  • of steam engines, 375
    Cushion steam, 429
    Cut off governing of compound steam engines.
    440
  • of simple steam engines, 439
  • volume, 377
    D
    Dalton’s law of partial pressure, 452, 800
    Dead centres, 377
  • weight safely valve, 336
    Degree of reaction, 525, 678
  • saturation, 799, 800
    Degrees of freedom, 148
    Dehumidification, 816, 817
    De-Laval impulse turbine. 502
    Demerits of gaseous fuels, 292
  • liquid fuels, 291
    Dense air regrigeration cycle, 755
    Derived units, 2
    Detonation inIC. engines, 597
    Dew point temperature, 799
  • depression, 799
  • lines. 810
    Deagram efficiency. 535
  • factor. 382
    Diameters of throat and exit of a nozzle for
    maximum discharge, 481
    Diesel cycle. 178
    Difference between a heat engine, refrigerator
    and heat pump, 753
    Disadvantages of mechanical draught, 361
  • two stroke over four stroke cycle en
    gine, 586
    -vapour compression refrigeration system
    over air refrigeration system, 771
    Discharge pressure, 638
    Divergent nozzle, 469
    Down flow surface condenser, 450
    D’slide valve, 375
    Dry air, 798
  • bulb temperature, 799
  • bulb temperature lines, 809
  • saturated steam, 200
    Dryness fraction lines, 224
  • of steam, 201
    Dual combustion cycle, 188
    E
    Eccentric, 376
  • rod, 376
    Economiser, 340
    Edward’s air pump, 464
    Effect of variable specific heat inI.C engines,
    872
  • on Olio cycle. 872
  • on Diesel cycle. 879
    Effects of air leakage, 464
  • friction on the velocity diagram of an
    impulse turbine, 507
  • piston rod in a double acting steam en
    gine, 387
  • supersaturation, 491
    Efficiencies of a compressor, 682, 693
  • multistage turbine, 564
  • steam engine. 422
  • steam turbine. 564
    Efficiency of compressed air system, 702
  • chimney. 370
  • cycle. 157
  • heat exchanger, 730
  • modified Rankine cycle, 277
  • ratio, 267, 565
    Ejector condensers, 449
    Electrolux refrigerator, 793
    Elements, 301
  • Symbols for. 302
    Equations of slate, 854
    Energy. 13
  • Law of conservation of, 15
    Enthalpy of gas. 39
  • entropy (h-s) diagram for water and
    steam, 223
  • lines, 810890
  • moist air, 803
  • steam, 202
    Entropy, 103
  • importance of, 104
  • increase during evaporation, 220
  • of superheated steam, 220
  • of waler,219
  • of wet and dry steam, 220
  • Principle of increase of, 107
  • Units of, 106
    Equipment usedin airconditioningsystem, 825
    Equaility of temperature, II
    Equivalence of Kelvin-Plank and Clausius
    statements, 23
    Equivalent evaporation, 345
    Ericssoncycle, 166
    Essentials of a good steam boiler, 324
    Evaporative condenser, 45 1
    Excess air, 310
  • Mass of, 310
    Exhaust ports, 375
  • turbine, 578
    Experimental determination of higher calorific
    value, 294
    Extensive properties of thermodynamics, 9
    External work done during evaporation, 207
    Extraction turbine, 578
    F
    Factors affectingcomfort air conditioning, 824
    Fahrenheit scale, 11
    Fan draught, 360
    Feed check valve, 339
  • pump, 340
    First law of thermodynamics, 19
  • limitations of, 20
    Flow of steam through nozzles, 470
  • process, 86
    Rue gas analysisby Orsat apparatus, 319
    Flywheel. 376, 585
    Force,6
    Forced draught, 361
  • lubrication, 604
    Formation of steam, 199
    Fourier’s law of heat conduction, 737
    Four stroke cyclediesel engine, 589
  • gas engine, 591
    -petrol engine, 587
    F.P.S. units, 2
    Free air delivery,638
  • expansion process, 83
    Frame of steam engine, 375
    Friction in a nozzle,470
    Fuel pump. 607
    A Text book of Thermal Engineering
    Fundamental units. I
    Furance, 323
    Fusible plug, 339
    Future power plants, 579
    G
    Gas turbine with intercooling. 711
  • with reheating, 713
  • uses of, 733
    Gauge pressure, 12
    Gaseous fuels, 291
    Gasoline. 291
    Gay-Lussac law, 31
    General equations ofchange in internal energy.
    843
    General expression for the changeof entropy of
    a perfect gas, 108
  • gas equation, 31
  • law for expansion and compression of
    perfect gas, 85
    Gibbs function. 837
    Governor, 376
    Governingof I.C. engines, 605
  • steam engines, 437
  • steam turbines. 55
  • simple steam engines, 438
    Grate, 323
    Gravimetric analysis, 307
    Gravitational units of force. 7
    Gross calorific value, 293
  • efficiency, 536
    Guide mechanism, 521
    H
    Heat, 15, 17
  • absorbed or rejected during polytropic
    process, 61
  • balance sheet, 352,433, 628 •
  • capacity, 16
  • exchanger, 729
  • losses in a boiler, 351
  • rejected in a reciprocating air compres
    sor,656
  • transfer by conduction through a slab,
    737
  • transfer during a process with variable
    specific heat. 862
  • during polytropic expansion or com
    pression process, 863
  • through a composite wall, 739
  • through thick cylinders, 741
  • through thick sphere, 744
    Heating andhumidification. 818
    Heavy fedofc. 291Index 891
    Height of blades for reaction turbine,527
  • chimney, 362
    Helmholtz function,835
    Higher calorific value, 293
  • Experimental determination of 294
    High leveljet condensers, 449
  • steam law water safety valve, 336
    Humidification, 816, 818
    Humidity,799, 800
  • lines, 883
  • ratio,800
    Hyperbolic pro* ess,60, 244
    Hypothetical indicator diagram, 378
  • mean effective pressure, 379
    I
    Ignition system of petrol engines,598
    Indicated mean effective pressure, 611
  • power, 383,612
  • thermal efficiency, 423, 616
    Indicator diagram of a simple steam engine,
    378
    Induced draught, 361
    Industrial air conditioning system, 826
    Injector,608
    Inlet ports, 375
  • pressure, 637
    Inner dead centre, 377
    Intensiveproperties of thermodynamics,9
    Intercooling, 760
  • of air in a two-stage reciprocating air
    compressor, 648
    Internal energy, 14
  • Qf steam, 208
  • efficiency, 564
  • losses in turbine, 555
    International systemof units,2
    Importance of entropy, 104
    Important terms usedin steam, 200
  • thermodynamic cycles, 156
  • for steam boilers, 323
    Impulse turbine, 502
    Irreversible cycle, 154
  • process, 50
    Isentropic process, 63, 247
  • efficiency, 683 ‘
  • expansion with variable specific heal,
    869
  • lines. 223. 226
    Isobaric process, 57, 238
    Isochoric process, 54, 231
    Isothermal compressibility, 842
  • lines 223, 226
  • efficiency, 682
  • process. 61, 242
    57-
    J
    Jet condensers, 447
    Joule’s cycle, 168
  • law, 32
    Joule Thomson coefficient,92, 852
    K
    Kelvin, 3
    Kerosene, 291
    Kilogram, 3
    Kinetic energy, 14
  • per kg molecule of a gas, 143
    L
    La-Mont boiler, 330
    Lancashire boiler, 327
    Intent heat of vaporisation, 202
    Law of conservation of energy, 14
  • equipartition of energy, 14
  • perfect gases, 30
  • thermodyamics, 19
    Lever safety valve,335
    Lignite, 290
    Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, 20
    Liquid fuels. 290
    Locomotive boiler, 328
    Loeffler boiler, 331
    Lower calorific value. 293
    Low level jet condenser,448
    -pressure turbine,578
    Lubrication ofI.C.engines, 604
    M
    Magneto ignition system, 600
    Main components of I.C. engines, 584
    Mass, 6
  • Atomic, 301
  • of carbon in fiue gases, 308
  • of cooling water required for condensa
    tion of steam, 460
  • of excess air supplied, 310
  • fuel gases per kg of fuel burnt, 308
  • of steam discharged through anozzle,
    474
  • of steam in the engine cylinder, 420
  • Molecular, 302
    Mathematical Fundamentals, 839
    Maximum discharge through nozzle,477
  • through chimney, 366
    Maxwell’sequation, 840
    Mean effective pressure, 156, 378,638
    Measurement of brake power, 389
  • dryness fraction of steam, 211
  • vacuum in a condenser, 453892 A Text book o, i htrmal Dtgineering
    Mechanical draught, 360
  • efficiency, 422, 616
  • equivalent of heat, 16
    Mechanism of simple vapour compression re¬
    frigeration system, 772
    Merits of gaseous fuels,’292
  • liquid fuels, 291
    MrUs(able flow through nozzles, 490
    Mtihxls of governing I.C. engines. 605
  • heat transfer, 736
  • reducing missing quantity or cylinder
    condensation, 431
  • reducing rotor speeds, 552
    Metre, 3
    Minimum mass of air required for complete
    combustion, 304, 306
  • work required for a two stage compres¬
    sor, 652
    Missing quantity, 430
    Mixture of air and steam in condensers, 452
    M.K.S. units, 2
    Modified Rankine cycle, 277
  • Efficiency of, 278
    Moist air, 799
    Moisture content, 800
  • lines, 809
    Molar constant, 36
  • specific heat of a gas, 39, 859
    Molecular mass. 302
    Molecules and atoms. 301
    Mollier chart, 223
    Mand gas. 292
    Morse text. 613
    Mountings, 323, 334
    Multistage compression. 647
  • turbine, 563
    N
    Natural draught, 360
    Net calorific value. 293
    Newton’s taw of cooling. 736
  • motion. 5
    Non-caking bituminous coal, 290
    Non- flow process. 51
  • Application of first law of thermody
    namics to, 5 1
    Normal temperature and pressure (N T.P), 13
    Nozzle efficiency, 470, 536
    O
    Octane number. 598
    Open air refrigeration cycle, 754
  • cyclegas turbines, 7 17
  • system of thermodynamics, 8
    Orsat apparatus, 3 19
    Otto cycle, 171
    Outer dead centre, 377
    Oven gas, 292
    Overall coefficient of heat transfer, 746
  • efficiency. 422, 565. 616, 721
  • isothermal efficiency, 683
    P
    Paraffin oil, 291
    Parallel flow jet condensers. 448
    Parson’s reaction turbine, 521
    Pass-out turbine, 578
    Path of change of state, 9
    Peal. 289
    Percentage humidity, 800
    Performancecriteria for thermodynamic vapour
    cycles. 267
    Perpetual motion machine of the first kind
    (PMM-I), 20
  • second kind PMM-II),2I
    Physical significance of critical pressure ratio*,
    479
    Piston. 375, 585
  • displacement volume, 377
  • rings. 585
  • rod. 375
    Pblytropic index, determination of, 82
  • process, 72, 253
    Potential energy 14
    Power, 18
  • produced by compound steam engine
    398
  • impulse turbine, 505
  • reaction turbine. 524
  • required todrive acompressor, 642, 651
  • required to drive a fan, 369
  • simple steam engine. 383
    Preheating of compressed air, 704
    Presentation of units and their values, 3
    Pressure, 12
  • and velocity of steam in turbine, 503,
    522
  • compounding of an impulse turbine,
    553
  • enthalpy cha»t, 773
  • exerted by an ideal gas. 142
  • gauge, 335
  • of water vapour. 801
  • velocity compounding of an impulse
    turbine. 554
    Prcwhirl, 676
    Principle of increase of entropy. 107
    Producer gas. 292/HdfX 893
    Prony brake dynamometer, 389
    Properties of a refrigerant. 793
  • system. 8
    Psychrometer. 799
    Psychrometric chart, 809
  • processes. 8 1 2
  • relations. 800
  • terms. 798
    Pulverised coal. 290
    Quality of wet steam. 201
    Quasi-equilibrium or Quasi-static process, 9
    R
    Rankine cycle, 268
  • with incomplete evaporation. 272
  • with superheated steam, 274
  • efficiency, 565
    Rate of heat absorpotion or rejection per unit
    volume during a polytropic process. 81
    Rating of C 1. engine fuels, 598
  • &L engine fuels, 598
    Ratio of coelticicni ot volume expansion and
    isothermal compressibility. 843
  • cylinder diameters. 658
  • specific heats, 43. 149
    Receiver type compound steam engine , 397
    Recent trends in gas turbines, 734
    Refrigerants commonly used in practice, 794
    Regenerative cycle, 569
  • with single feed water heater. 570
  • with Iwo feed water heaters, 573
  • surface condenser, 451
    Regnauh’s law, 42
    Reheat cycle. 56 1
  • factor. 563
    Reheating of steam. 560
  • advantages of, 561
    Relation between cycle and engine. 155
  • heat and entropy. 103
  • specific heats. 42
    Relative efficiency. 423, 617
  • humidity, 799, 800
  • humidity lines, 31 1
    Requirements of a steam condensing plant, 446
  • good fuel, 292
    Reversed Carnot cycle, 755
  • Joule cycle, 761
    Reversible adiabatic process, 247
  • cycle. 154
  • process, 50
    Reversibility and irreversibility of thermody¬
    namic processes, 1 55
    Roots blower compressor. 666
    Rope brake dynamometer. 390
    Rules for S. I. units. 4
    S
    Safely valves, 335
    Saturated air. 799
    Scavenging of l.C. engines, 596
    Scotch marine boiler. 326
    Second. 3
  • law of thermodynamics, 20
    Selection of a steam boiler. 324
    Semicloscd cycle gas turbine, 719
    Sensible cooling. 812
  • heat factor, 8 16
  • heating. 814
  • heat of water. 201
    Separating calorimeter. 213
    Sequence of operations in a cycle. 585
    Simple vertical boiler, 325
    S.I. Units. 2
    Single stage reciprocating air compressor, 638
    Slip factor. 697
    Solid fucld, 289
  • injection method, 600
    Spark plug. 607
    splash lubrication, 604
    Sources of air in the condenser, 464
    Specific heat, 15. 37. 850
  • at constant pressure, 37
  • at constant volume, 38
  • humidity, 800
  • humidity lines, 809
  • ratio of, 43
  • relations. 851
  • relation between. 42
  • steam consumption, 267
  • volume lines, 810
  • volume of steam, 202
    Spring loaded safety valve, 337
    State of a system, 9
    Standard temperature and pressure (S.T.P.), 13
    Static and total head quantities, 695
    Steady flow process, 86
  • Workdone in a. 89
    Steam consumption, 440
  • chest. 375
  • injector. 493, 494
  • jet draught, 361
  • stop valve, 338
  • tables, 203
    Stirling cycle. 164
    Stored energy, 13
  • Types of, 14894
    Stroke length, 156
  • volume, 377
    Summary of formulaeofheatingandexpansion
    of perfect gases, 85
    Summer air conditioning system, 829
    Supercharging of I.C. engines, 603
    Superheated steam. 201,206
    Supersaturated flow through nozzles. 490
    Surface condenser, 449
    Swept volume, 156.377,638
    Symbols of elements and compounds, 302
    System of units, 2
    T
    Tandem type compound steam engine, 395
    T ds equations, 847
    Temperature, 10
  • entropy diagram for water and steam,
    222
  • gradient, 738
  • limitations for reversedCarnot cycle.
    756
  • vs total heat graph during steam forma¬
    tion, 200
    Theroretical indicator diagramofsimple steam
    engine, 378
  • mass of air required for complete com
    bustion, 304, 306
  • mean effective pressure, 379
  • vapour compressioncycle withdry
    saturated vapour after compression.
    774
  • with superheated vapour after compres
    sion, 783
  • with undercooling or subcoolingof re
    frigerant,785
  • with wet vapour after compression, 778
    Thermal capacity, 16
  • conductivity. 737
  • equilibrium. 11
    Thermodynamic cycle,9
  • assumptions in, 153
  • equilibrium, 11
  • for rotary air compressor, 693
  • Important terms used in, 156
  • systems. 7
  • text of I.C. engines, 611
  • wet bulb temperature, 806
    Thermosyphon system of cooling, 602
    Three cylinder compound steam engine, 414
    Throttle governingof compound steamengine.
    414
    Throttle governing of compound steam en¬
    gines, 439
    .4 Text bot’k of Thermal Engineering
  • simple steam engines, 438
  • steam turbines. 555
    Throttlingcalorimeter, 213
  • lines, 226
  • process, 91, 257
    Total heat lines. 810
  • of moist air. 803
  • of steam, 202
    Transit energy. 13
    Two cylinder compound steam engine, 399,
    401,407
  • stage reciprocating air compressor, 647
  • stroke cycle diesel engine, 594
  • stroke cycle petrol engine, 592
    Typesof cooling towers. 465
  • draughts, 360
  • jet condensers, 448
  • rotary air compressors, 665
  • scavenging. 597
  • steam nozzles, 469
  • stored energy. 14
  • surface condensers. 450
  • thermodynamic cycles, 157.
  • vapour compression cycles, 773
    U
    Unavailable heat energy, 105
    Unitary air conditioning system, 830
    Units of entropy, 106
  • refrigeration. 752
    Universal gas constant, 36
    Unresisted expansion process. 83
    Uses of gas turbines, 733
  • steam tables, 203
    V
    Vacuum efficiency of steam condenser, 453
    Values for maximum discharge through a noz¬
    zle, 477
  • of critical pressure ratio, 479
    Valve timingdiagrams, 587. 589,591, 594, 596
    Vane blower compressor, 667
    Vander Waals’ equation of a real gas, 150
    Vapour absorption refrigeration system,791
  • compression cycles, 773
  • pressure lines. 811
    Variationofspecific heat with temperature,860
    Velocity compounding of an impulse turbine,
    552
  • diagram.or axial flow air compressor,
    678
  • diagram for moving blade of an im
    pulse turbine, 503Imlrx 895
  • diagram for Iwo stage impulse turbine,
    514
  • of a molecule. 141
  • of steam flowing thrqugh a nozzle, 47 1
  • triangle for centrifugal compressor, 673
  • triangle for moving blades of a reaction
    turbine, 522, 524
    Vertical multi tubular boiler, 326
    Volumetric efficiency, 617, 683, 684
    W
    Water cooling system of I.C. engines, 602
  • equivalent, 16
  • gas, 292
  • level indicator. 334
    Weight, 6
    Wet bulb depression, 799
  • temperature, 799
  • temperature lines, 810
    ,Wet steam, 200
    Width of impeller blades, 675
    Willian’s law, 440
    Winter air conditioning system, 828
    Wood, 289
  • charcoal, z90
    Woolf type compound steam engine. 396
    Work, 16. 17
  • ratio, 267
    Wbrkdone by air in air motor, 700
  • compound steam engine, 398
  • centrifugal air compressor, 670
  • during a non flow precess. 5 1
  • for various steady flow processes, 9G
  • single stage reciprocating air compres
    sor, 639, 645
  • steady flow process, 89
  • two stage reciprocating air compressor
    with intercooler. 649
    Working of an idea) engine, 155
  • single cylinder double acting horizontal
    reciprocating steam engine, 376
  • single stage reciprocating air compres
    sor. 638
    Y
    Year round air conditioning, 830
    Z
    Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 19

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